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A regular digest of information and research related to human trafficking into and within the UK. Produced by the Research and Development Unit, on behalf of The Salvation Army’s Anti-Trafficking Co-ordinator.

Contents 1. Research, reports and journal articles 1.1 ‘Exploitation and trafficking of women: critiquing narratives during the London Olympics 2012’ 1.2 ‘Still at risk: a review of support for trafficked children’ 1.3 ‘UKHTC: A Strategic Assessment on the Nature and Scale of Human Trafficking in 2012’ 1.4 ‘Support needs of male victims of human trafficking 1.5 ‘Precarious lives: experiences of forced labour among refugees and asylum seekers in England’ 1.6 ‘In the Dock: Examining the UK’s Criminal Justice Response to Trafficking’ 1.7 CEOP: Threat assessment of child sexual exploitation and abuse 1.8 ‘Capital Exploits: a study of prostitution and trafficking in London’ 2. Political and legislative 2.1 New chair elected for All Party Parliamentary Group on Human Trafficking 2.2 Scottish consultation on proposed trafficking bill 2.3 Government proposes ‘modern-day slavery’ bill 2.4 Parliamentary questions

4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20

3. Campaigns 3.1 Stop the Traffik: Big Auction

4.21 4.22 4.23

4. In the news 4.1 Trafficking of children 4.2 ‘Police search for body on Welsh farm as part of anti-slavery operation’ 4.3 ‘Slavery farm inquiry “shocking”, says Home Office’ 4.4 ‘Legal aid residence test “will just shift cost to council taxpayers”’

4.24

1. Research, reports and journal articles 1.1 ‘Exploitation and trafficking of women: critiquing narratives during the London Olympics 2012’, September 2013 Report by CAWN which looks into the role of civil society and the media in shaping public understanding of exploitation experienced by women in the context of major sporting events. http://www.cawn.org/assets/Exploitation%20and%20 Trafficking%20of%20Women.pdf 1.2 ‘Still at risk: a review of support for trafficked children’, September 2013 Review by The Children’s Society and the Refugee Council, funded by the Home Office, of the practical care and safeguarding arrangements for trafficked children, and those

4.25 4.26 4.27

‘Human trafficking bill: Lord Morrow criticises police comments’ ‘Suspected traffickers have “Eastbourne and Margate links”’ ‘Sexual abuse allegations corroborated at Yarl’s Wood immigration centre’ ‘Bristol human trafficking charity secures £18,000 grant’ ‘Trafficked victim kept naked and beaten regularly’ ‘MSP seeks views on trafficking bill proposal’ ‘Trafficking is an evil trade exploiting a weak system. We must act’ ‘Domestic workers celebrate rights breakthrough’ ‘Students’ sex trafficking video used by police forces’ ‘There’ll be no end to forced labour and slavery without data’ ‘Tougher sex offender restrictions sought by campaigners’ ‘“Modern slavery” bill to tighten laws on human trafficking’ ‘Nail bars: modern-day slavery in plain sight?’ ‘Scots police seek “human trafficking” aid’ ‘Six charged with human trafficking offences’ ‘Slavery is a 32 billion dollar industry so why aren’t we following the money trail?’ ‘MP Peter Bone’s bill targets human sex trafficking’ ‘Conference in Oxford tackles human trafficking’ ‘How to make human trafficking a priority for law enforcement agencies’ ‘Conference in Bristol tackles “modern slavery” in the city’ ‘Five “slaves” rescued in Walsall house raid’ ‘Vietnamese trafficking victims win appeal against convictions’ ‘Too many human traffickers escape justice in the UK, says solicitor general’

who may have been trafficked, who are in the local authority care system. http://www.refugeecouncil.org.uk/assets/0002/9408/Still_at_ Risk-Report-final.pdf 1.3 ‘UKHTC: A Strategic Assessment on the Nature and Scale of Human Trafficking in 2012’, August 2013 http://www.soca.gov.uk/about-soca/library/.../400-socaukhtc-baseline-assessment 1.4 ‘Support needs of male victims of human trafficking’, August 2013 Research by The Salvation Army into the support needs of clients accommodated and supported under the victim care contract with the Ministry of Justice and the Home Office. http://www.salvationarmy.org.uk/uki/Male-Victims-HumanTrafficking

This bulletin covers material produced during the period 10 June – 24 Septembere 2013 although it should be noted that, due to space limitations, not all relevant material may have been included. The bulletin includes links to material and sources and is provided by way of information. The information included is not necessarily endorsed or supported by The Salvation Army.


1.5 ‘Precarious lives: experiences of forced labour among refugees and asylum seekers in England’, July 2013Two-year study by the University of Leeds and the University of Salford into the experiences of forced labour among 30 people who had made claims for asylum in England. http://precariouslives.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/ precarious_lives_main_report_2-7-13.pdf 1.6 ‘In the Dock: Examining the UK’s Criminal Justice Response to Trafficking’, June 2013 Report by the Anti-Trafficking Monitoring Group (third report in their series), which examines the effectiveness Region of trafficking investigations and prosecutions East through the UK Criminal Justice System in terms of law, policy and practice. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/ North West documents/cm_docs/2013/i/inthedock_final_ small_file.pdf 1.7 CEOP: Threat assessment of child sexual exploitation and abuse, June 2013 Annual report issued by the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre into the threats posed to children in the UK from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. http://ceop.police.uk/Documents/ceopdocs/ CEOP_TACSEA2013_240613%20FINAL.pdf 1.8 ‘Capital Exploits: a study of prostitution and trafficking in London’, June 2013 Study by Eaves Housing for Women, commissioned by Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime. http://i2.cmsfiles.com/eaves/2013/06/ Capital-Exploits-June-2013.pdf-da8819.pdf 2. Political and legislative 2.1 New chair elected for All Party Parliamentary Group on Human Trafficking Fiona MacTaggart MP, Labour MP for Slough elected as chair of APPG on Human Trafficking: http://www.allpartygrouphumantrafficking. org/home/ 2.2 Scottish consultation on proposed trafficking Bill Proposal for a Bill to (a) require the creation of a Scottish anti-human trafficking strategy; (b) provide for the special treatment of human trafficking-related crime within the criminal justice system; and (c) provide for the support of survivors of human trafficking. Consultation closes 6 December 2013. http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ gettinginvolved/67134.aspx 2.3 Government proposes ‘modern-day slavery’ bill http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/ home-news/theresa-may-plans-new-law-totackle-modernday-slavery-in-britain-8784132. html

and (iii) age of each suspected victim of trafficking referred by the Gangmasters Licensing Authority to the Trafficking Victim Support Scheme operated by The Salvation Army since June 2010. Mrs Grant: The Salvation Army has administered the Government-funded support service for adult victims of human trafficking in England and Wales since 1 July 2011. Details on the referrals received from the Gangmasters Licensing Authority by The Salvation Army are provided as follows. Month June 2013

Male (age) Nationality Female (age) Nationality 26 Lithuanian 34 Lithuanian

January 2013

34 54

Polish Polish

29

Polish

South East      

May 2012      

21 22 22 23 34

Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish

23 40    

Polish Polish    

           

August 2012          

20 24 28 33 39 49 57

Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian Lithuanian

           

           

 

August 2013

39 55

Lithuanian Lithuanian

 

Wales  

June 2012  

21 25 38

Polish Polish Polish

38  

Polish  

39 24 26

Polish Slovakian Slovakian

   

   

West Midlands October 2012                        

February 2013 21 26   29   41   44   46   46   46   55

Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish Polish

23 34 47          

Polish Polish Polish          

   

April 2013  

Polish Polish Polish

   

   

2.4 Parliamentary questions The following section, drawn from the Hansard Commons debates, covers responses to parliamentary questions asked by MPs, in reverse chronological order. 11 September Mary Creagh: To ask the Secretary of State for Justice if he will list by (a) region and (b) month the (i) nationality, (ii) gender

43 56 60

September 2 Mr Frank Field: To ask the Secretary of State for Justice how many human trafficking convictions were recorded on a principal offence basis only in 2012. Jeremy Wright: The number of offenders found guilty at all courts of human trafficking offences, in England and Wales, in 2012, can be viewed in the table.


Offenders found guilty at all courts of human trafficking offences, England and Wales, 2012 Offence

Number

Arrange/facilitate arrival into the UK of a person for sexual exploitation (trafficking)

7

Arrange/facilitate travel within the UK of a person for sexual exploitation (trafficking)

3

Arrange/facilitate the departure from the UK of a person for sexual exploitation (trafficking)

Trafficking persons into the UK for the purpose of exploitation

2

Trafficking persons within the UK for the purpose of exploitation

Trafficking persons out of the UK for the purpose of exploitation

Knowingly holding a person in slavery or servitude

1

Knowingly require another person to perform forced/compulsory labour

Mr Frank Field: To ask the Secretary of State for Justice pursuant to the answer of 8 July 2013, Official Report, column 110W, on human trafficking, in what ways publishing the county in which a victim has been found could result in such a victim being rediscovered by their trafficker; and how many victims of trafficking have been placed in a Salvation Army shelter situated in the same county as the one in which they were first discovered. Mrs Grant: As explained in my answer of 8 July 2013, Official Report, column 110W, the identification of potential victims of trafficking, including where they have been found, is a role undertaken by the National Referral Mechanism which is operated by the UK Human Trafficking Centre. The Salvation Army collects information on the organisation or agency that discovered the victim and made a referral to The Salvation Army. Publishing information more detailed than the region could put both the rescued victim and any other victims harboured by their trafficker in danger. It would also inform the traffickers that the authorities are undertaking law enforcement activity in those areas. In the interests of victim safety and confidentiality, the Ministry of Justice cannot provide information about the work of the 12 shelters that are contracted by The Salvation Army to provide accommodation and assistance. 16 July Mr Bone: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many victims of trafficking have been returned to their countries of origin (a) within and (b) outside the EU in each of the last three years; and at what cost. Mr Harper: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012, nine confirmed victims of trafficking have been returned to countries of origin outside of the EU through voluntary or enforced arrangements. As EU nationals have freedom of movement their return is not routinely tracked by the Home Office. An analysis of the costs associated with returning a migrant to their country of origin can be found in the National Audit Office report: http://www.nao.org.uk/wp-content/ uploads/2009/01/0809124_accenture_rept.pdf

15 July Richard Ottaway (Croydon South) (Con): How much has been received under the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 from those convicted of human trafficking in the last three years; how much has been paid out to victims of trafficking in compensation; and if she will make a statement. The Minister for Immigration (Mr Mark Harper): The Government are committed to fighting human trafficking, as my right hon. Friend the Home Secretary set out in an earlier answer. Over £2 million has been recovered from traffickers in the past three years. Victims can apply for criminal injuries compensation and the Government pay £3 million a year for support services for victims through our contract with The Salvation Army. The figures on compensation paid to trafficking victims are not collected centrally. Richard Ottaway: As victims are usually without support of any kind once they have left Government-funded shelters, and the avenues for claiming compensation are extremely limited, would it not make sense to take the funds confiscated from traffickers and put them into a fund for the benefit of victims of abuse? Mr Harper: I thank my hon. Friend for his question. I would say a couple of things. First, the Government think that the priority should be making it easier for victims to secure compensation from confiscated assets, and we are working with the Ministry of Justice and the Crown Prosecution Service to achieve that. Secondly, victims of trafficking who leave Government-funded support through our contract are helped appropriately, either to return to their home country to a safe environment where they will not be retrafficked or, if they claim asylum through the asylum system or if their immigration status allows, to remain in the United Kingdom. Mr Geoffrey Robinson (Coventry North West) (Lab): Is not the point what was put to the Minister by the hon. Member for Croydon South (Richard Ottaway)? An amount is collected, and we have no indication or record as to how much of that is paid to victims. Until we know that we do not know how efficient the system is, and the Minister needs to know. Mr Harper: The point I made is that information on awards made by judges in compensation orders and so on is not collected by the Government. However, we spend £3 million on our Salvation Army contract, which supports victims of trafficking to give them a period of reflection after they have been saved from traffickers. That is a valuable process that we continue to support. 9 July Mr Bone: To ask the Attorney-General if he will undertake a review of whether any victims of human trafficking have been prosecuted for offences that relate to their trafficking. The Attorney-General: At this stage, I have no plans to undertake a formal review of cases whereby victims of human trafficking have already been prosecuted for offences that relate to their trafficking offences. Following recent cases in the Court of Appeal in which victims of trafficking were prosecuted and convicted, having been advised to plead guilty by their legal representative, the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) is considering new guidelines for prosecutors, which are to be shared with the police and other law enforcement agencies and the Law Society to ensure a more joined-up approach in these cases. The CPS has issued comprehensive legal guidance to advise prosecutors of the steps they should take in cases where the police have arrested potential victims of trafficking who


have committed criminal offences and referred them for charge. If information suggests that they have been trafficked, prosecutors are advised to make full inquiries and consider whether the case against them should be discontinued. In addition, guidance, published in 2011 by the Child Exploitation On-line Protection Centre (CEOP), advises that police should be alert to the possibility that any person, adult or child, identified in a cannabis farm could be a victim of trafficking and the steps that they should take.

will be included in the second report of the Group, expected later this year.

8 July

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what assessment she has made of the relevance to the UK of 144 actions in the Irish Government’s National Action Plan to prevent and tackle trafficking in human beings.

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what funding she has made available to nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) for the purpose of tackling human trafficking, by amount of funding and name of recipient NGOs. Mr Harper: In 2012-13, the following organisations received funding from the Home Office to undertake activities to help combat human trafficking:

£

Eaves

43,762

Stop the Traffik

20,512

National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 10,000 Children Refugee Council / The Children’s Society

44,266

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many police officers have received detailed training on combating human trafficking. Mr Harper: Human trafficking training for all new police officers in England and Wales is mandatory. To date, 24,656 police officers have also completed an on-line training package for human trafficking. This is supplemented by locally developed and delivered training in individual police forces. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what recent assessment she has made of the adequacy of (a) accommodation, (b) medical care, (c) psychological assistance, (d) material assistance, (e) legal aid and advice, (f) access to the labour market, (g) vocational training and education, (h) police services (crime prevention, repatriation, compensation), (i) compensation and (j) translation and interpretation services for victims of human trafficking. Mr Harper: Since 1 July 2011, The Salvation Army has been contracted to oversee and co-ordinate the provision of support to adult victims of trafficking who have been referred through the National Referral Mechanism. As prime contractor, The Salvation Army delivers tailored support to victims, taking into account their individual needs. Where required, support includes access to the services set out in the question. Trafficked children who come into the care of local authorities receive the full range of support. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will place a copy of her Data Collection Strategy for the purpose of combating human trafficking in the Library. Mr Harper: A specific strategy on data collection is not available. The Government is working with a number of agencies and organisations to strengthen data collection, following the InterDepartmental Ministerial Group’s report which was published on 18 October 2012. Progress on strengthening data collection

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many dedicated state units to deal with human trafficking have been established in the last 10 years. Mr Harper: I refer the hon. Member to my answer of 3 June 2013, Official Report, columns 901-02W.

Mr Harper: The UK works closely with its international partners to combat trafficking in human beings. This includes work with authorities in Ireland to strengthen our response and to prevent people being trafficked into, out of and within the UK, including preventing abuse of the Common Travel Area. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what the maximum sentence available for human trafficking is; and how many times maximum sentences have been used in each of the last 30 years. Mr Harper: On conviction on indictment for any offence of human trafficking and for slavery, servitude and forced labour, the maximum sentence is imprisonment for a term not exceeding 14 years. The human trafficking offences came into force in 2004. Between 2004 and 2012 no individual received the maximum sentence. Prosecutors may charge any additional offences which might be disclosed in the evidence, such as rape, false imprisonment or assault, to reflect the full criminality. On conviction, these offences may attract further sentences of imprisonment to run consecutively to a sentence of imprisonment for human trafficking. When a defendant has been found guilty of two or more offences the principal offence is that for which the heaviest penalty is imposed. Where the same disposal is imposed for two or more offences, the offence selected is the offence for which the statutory maximum penalty is the most severe. The maximum sentence in such cases has been 21 years imprisonment for a defendant convicted of trafficking for sexual exploitation, false imprisonment, rape and causing a person to engage in sexual activity without consent. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many individual care plans have been developed for people who are potential victims of human trafficking in each of the last 30 years. Mr Harper: Data on the number of individual care plans developed to support potential trafficking victims is not held centrally. Adult victims, in England and Wales, who are referred to The Salvation Army for care and support, will have a care plan put in place to meet their specific needs. Responsibility for the care, protection and accommodation of all child trafficking victims rests with local authorities regardless of nationality or immigration status. A social worker must assess the needs of each child and draw up a care plan which sets out how the authority intends to respond to the full range of the child’s needs. Victim support in Scotland and Northern Ireland is devolved. I understand that similar provisions are in place there. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what representations she has received concerning


extending the period for recovery and reflection governing victims of people trafficking; and what her policy is on extending a renewable temporary residence where a person wishes to assist with investigation or prosecution of such trafficking.

Administration costs include the necessary overheads to oversee and co-ordinate the provision of support provided to adult victims of human trafficking. It includes the associated costs of running the 24 hour helpline.

Mr Harper: The UK provides for a minimum recovery and reflection period of 45 days. This is 15 days longer than the minimum 30 days suggested in the European Convention on Action against Trafficking. Where a case requires complex consideration, and victims have particularly acute needs, case by case consideration is given to extending the recovery and reflection period.

Direct delivery costs are the expenditure on services which were directly delivered to victims via The Salvation Army’s wide and diverse supply chain of sub-contractors who support victims in the most appropriate environment and tailor support according to need. This has included the provision of safe and secure accommodation, providing access to legal advice and preparing individuals for work through arranging access to training courses and mentoring.

Where a victim of trafficking is assisting the police with a criminal investigation or prosecution, a renewable 12 month leave grant will be considered at the request of the police. This period can be extended if an active investigation or trial takes longer than 12 months and the person’s ongoing presence in the UK is necessary to support proceedings. 2 July

The Salvation Army have formally contracted the services of 12 NGOs who collectively provide access to 19 safe houses. One of these is a Salvation Army shelter – the Jarrett Community. The other NGOs are: Ashiana BAWSO BCHA

Fiona Mactaggart: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what assessment she has made of the number of victims of trafficking who have been compelled to take part in criminal activities in each year since 2010.

City Hearts

Mr Harper: 74 individuals referred to the National Referral Mechanism between 2010 and 2012 have received a Positive Conclusive Grounds Decision where criminality is listed as the exploitation sub type.

Migrant Helpline Ltd UK

The figures broken down by year are: 2010: five; 2011: 33; 2012: 36. 26 June Mrs Laing: To ask the Secretary of State for Justice pursuant to the answer of 12 June 2013, Official Report, column 370W, on Salvation Army, of the actual funding allocated to The Salvation Army in (a) 2011-12 and (b) 2012-13, how much was (i) spent by The Salvation Army on running the 24 hour helpline and other administration connected with the contract and (ii) paid to shelters caring for victims which are run independently of The Salvation Army; what the names are of NGO subcontractor shelters; and to whom The Salvation Army makes payments. Mrs Grant: The Government contract with The Salvation Army to deliver support services to adult victims of human trafficking ensures a vital service is provided to victims of this terrible crime. The contract commenced on 1 July 2011, this means that the financial information is accounted for and presented to the Ministry of Justice on a contract year basis (1 July – 30 June). For the first year of the contract, 1 July 2011 – 30 June 2012, 90% of the contract-spend was on direct delivery costs, with 10% being spent on administration costs, including those relating to the start up of the contract. For the second year of contract, management reports are available for the period 1 July 2012 to 30 March 2013. Over this period 95% of the contract-spend was on direct delivery costs, with 5% being spent on administration costs. These proportions will be finalised at the end of the contractual year when the reporting accounts are finalised. Total spend on the contract includes funding in addition to government funding. It includes income The Salvation Army has generated through fundraising activities.

Hestia The Medaille Trust Midland Heart Sandwell Women’s Aid Unseen UK Riverside Fiona Bruce: To ask the Secretary of State for Justice (1) how many victims of human trafficking have been assisted by his Department after they left the subcontractor shelters in which they were placed by The Salvation Army to date; (2) how much is paid per night to shelters in the UK to accommodate victims referred to them by the Salvation Army Victim Support scheme; what the average length of stay is which is funded; and what funding is available after the reflection period has ended; (3) how much funding was (a) made available and (b) paid out to the Salvation Army Victim Support scheme in (i) 2011-12 and (ii) 2012-13; how much will be made available in 2013-14; and if he will make a statement. Mrs Grant: This Government is committed to helping victims of human trafficking. Since 1 July 2011 The Salvation Army has been contracted to oversee and co-ordinate the provision of support to adult victims of trafficking who have been referred through the National Referral Mechanism. They are contracted to provide support services for a minimum of 45 days or until a victim receives a ‘Conclusive Grounds’ decision. In May 2013, the average length of stay in the Salvation Army service was 102 days. Once moved victims continue to receive support from mainstream support services, such local authority housing, and can apply for benefits. The Salvation Army provides tailored support to victims which takes into account their individual needs. This means that the cost of accommodating and supporting a victim in a shelter will vary according to their specific requirements. The following table details the funding provided to The Salvation Army.

£ million

2011-12

1.5

2012-13

3


For 2013-14, the Government has made £3 million available to The Salvation Army to run the contract. Since July 2011, there has been a significant increase in the number of referrals to The Salvation Army for support and accommodation. The Ministry of Justice and Home Office will therefore keep this funding allocation under regular review. 25 June Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what amount her Department spent on advertising to raise awareness of human trafficking in each of the last five years. Mr Harper: The table sets out the amount spent by the Home Office and the UK Human Trafficking Centre on raising awareness of human trafficking during the last five years.

£

2009

Blue Blindfold Campaign Launch

15,000

2012

Redistribution of an awareness and education toolkit for professionals on ‘internal trafficking’

5,500

Contribution to the Lord Mayor’s office evaluation on the multi-agency activities for the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics

4,000

National campaign on labour trafficking conducted by Crimestoppers

30,000

2013

Funding for NSPCC for awareness-raising activities for front-line professionals

10,000

Funding for Eaves for awareness-raising activities for frontline professionals

43,762

Funding for Stop the Traffik for awareness-raising activities for front-line professionals

20,512

Conference on human trafficking and UK industry 18,353.34 held on 18 March 2013 Redraft and reprint of the police operational 4,669.26 handbook Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what research her Department has commissioned on human trafficking in each of the last 10 years for which data is available. Mr Harper: Home Office research commissioned in the last 10 years, on human trafficking, is set out as follows: ‘An evidence assessment of the routes of human trafficking into the UK’ (2012) Kevin Marsh, Rashmi Sarmah, Phil Davies, Emma Froud, Jacque Mallender, Elizabeth Scalia, Tony Munton (Matrix Knowledge Group). With Andrew Zurawan, Laura Powlton, and Carolyne Tah (Analysis, Research and Knowledge Management, UK Border Agency) https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/an-evidenceassessment-of-the-routes-of-human-trafficking-into-the-uk Interviews with prisoners convicted of HT offences to understand market dynamics (2009)

https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/organisedimmigration-crime-a-post-conviction-study Process review of Operation Pentameter (HT for sexual exploitation) (2008) http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/ http://rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/horr07b.pdf ‘Trafficking for the purposes of labour exploitation: a literature review’ (2007) Samantha Dowling, Karen Moreton and Leila Wright http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110218135832/ rds.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs07/rdsolr1007.pdf Project Acumen: Setting the record – The trafficking of migrant women in England and Wales for off-street prostitution. August 2010) http://www.acpo.police.uk/documents/ crime/2010/201008CRITMW01.pdf Additional research has also been commissioned by the Association of Chief Police Officers, Child Exploitation and Online Protection centre and United Kingdom Human Trafficking Centre. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what steps she has taken to raise awareness of human trafficking in the (a) agriculture, (b) restaurant, (c) entertainment, (d) health and beauty and (e) construction industries. Mr Harper: The Government recognises that the private sector has an important role to play in tackling human trafficking and exploitation. The Government held a conference with industry in March 2013. This highlighted the need for businesses and their employees to be aware of the potential for human trafficking to occur and what they should do if they suspect someone is a victim of trafficking. The Gangmasters Licensing Authority continues to provide best practice guidance and briefing to the agriculture and food processing sectors, including companies in their supply chains. Work to raise the awareness of businesses in a number of sectors is ongoing. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will take steps to raise awareness of human trafficking among teachers. Mr Harper: The Government recognises the importance of raising awareness of human trafficking among a wide range of front-line professionals, including teachers. The Joint Strategic Group on Human Trafficking, comprised of Government officials and non-governmental organisation representatives, is currently considering how training and awareness-raising can be improved for front-line professionals who may come into contact with potential victims of trafficking. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will consider issuing leaflets on human trafficking when work permits are issued. Mr Harper: Work routes are generally managed under the points based system. Those applying under this system have access to detailed guidance on the Home Office website and local country sites and a telephone and email service. The Home Office will consider if the information we provide on the dangers of trafficking can be improved through the use of leaflets.


Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what seminars are held on human trafficking for staff processing work permits. Mr Harper: Work routes are generally managed under the points based system. Human trafficking training is mandatory for all UK Visas and Immigration staff who manage and process applications under this system. This helps them to identify those who might have been trafficked and understand the steps that should be taken to safeguard possible victims. In addition, seminars and conferences may be arranged with local partners in countries where there is a known threat. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what definition of the term ‘forced labour’ her Department uses for the purposes of tackling human trafficking; and whether she has any plans to change that definition. Mr Harper: The Crown Prosecution Service has issued legal guidance to prosecutors on human trafficking for forced labour arising under section 4 of the Asylum and Immigration Act 2004 and for the stand-alone offence of requiring a person to perform forced or compulsory labour, arising under section 71 of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009. For both offences, there is reference to the definitions outlined in Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights which, for forced labour, are as interpreted by the International Labour Organisation (ILO) Conventions. These define forced or compulsory labour as being: ‘all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily’. There have been successful prosecutions brought for both trafficking for forced labour and for the stand-alone offence of forced labour. There are no plans to change that definition. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many people have been trafficked for the purpose of removal of organs in each of the last 10 years. Mr Harper: Since the establishment of the National Referral Mechanism (NRM), on 1 April 2013, there have been three potential victims of trafficking referred to the NRM who reported organ harvesting as the main exploitation type. Data are not held prior to this date. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what recent discussions she has had with her Irish counterpart on the establishment of a European hotline for the purposes of tackling human trafficking. Mr Harper: The Home Office has not discussed the establishment of a European hotline for the purposes of tackling human trafficking with the Irish Government. There are no plans to introduce a human trafficking hotline. Individuals wishing to report suspicions of trafficking should contact the Crimestoppers hotline, the Metropolitan Police Service human trafficking phone line or their local police force. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many alleged victims of human trafficking have been deported in each of the last 10 years. Mr Harper: The UK Border Agency began recording information on victims of trafficking in a reportable format on 1 April 2009. From 1 April 2009 to 30 April 2013, fewer than five victims of trafficking have had an enforced removal from the UK. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what co-operation her Department has with the European Migration Network’s Common Research Template to tackle human trafficking.

Mr Harper: The Home Office is currently co-ordinating the response to the common research template for human trafficking. The response, which will take the form of a national report, will be published on the European Migration Network’s website in September. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will consider using social networking sites to raise awareness of indicators of human trafficking. Mr Harper: The Government recognises the importance of raising awareness of human trafficking among the public and front-line professionals through a range of media, including social networking sites. Work to raise awareness is ongoing and includes consideration of the target audience and the most appropriate media channels available. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if she will take steps to raise awareness of human trafficking in migrant communities. Mr Harper: The Government recognises the importance of raising awareness of human trafficking among the public and, in particular, migrant communities. Government officials work with a number of non-governmental organisations to support their activities in raising awareness among communities at a local and regional level. The Home Office also regularly issues messages about the danger of illegal working and trafficking. There have also been targeted information campaigns on migrants’ employment rights such as through the Home Office and TUC dissemination of leaflets to East European workers following the 2004 accession. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many (a) male and (b) female (i) adults and (ii) children were victims of human trafficking in each of the last 10 years for which data are available. Mr Harper: Data on the number of male and female adult victims of human trafficking and the number of male and female child victims of human trafficking, who have been referred into the National Referral Mechanism since April 2009, are published on the Serious Organised Crime Agency website: www.soca.gov.uk/about-soca/about-the-ukhtc/nationalreferral-mechanism/statistics Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what rules govern access to the 45-day recovery and reflection period for victims of human trafficking; and whether she has any plans to change (a) the rules on access or (b) the length of time allowed for recovery and reflection. Mr Harper: Detailed information on the rules governing access to the extendable 45-day recovery and reflection period can be found in the Home Office guidance for competent authorities: http://www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/ policyandlaw/asylumprocessguidance/specialcases/guidance/ competent-guidance?view=Binary. This guidance is currently being updated. There are no plans to change the rules on access or the length of the recovery and reflection period, which is longer than the 30 day minimum stipulated by the Council of Europe Convention and can be extended in cases where there are high levels of trauma or acute support needs. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department when she last met the Director of Public Prosecutions to discuss human trafficking. Mr Harper: The Solicitor-General, my hon. and learned Friend the Member for North East Hertfordshire (Oliver Heald), representing the Attorney-General, my right hon. and learned Friend the Member for Beaconsfield (Mr Grieve) who is


responsible for appointing the Director of Public Prosecutions, is a member of the Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group on Human Trafficking. The Group oversees the UK’s response to tackling trafficking, including prosecutions and convictions.

In 2012, the CPS obtained confiscation orders to the value of £582,478.18 against offenders whose primary offence was human trafficking. The CPS does not hold any data relating to sentences imposed by the courts.

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department pursuant to the answer of 4 June 2013, Official Report, column 1077W, on human trafficking, what amount was awarded by government grant to the (a) Refugee Council and (b) Children’s Society for the purpose of scoping the practical care arrangements for trafficked children.

11 June

Mr Harper: £44,266, in total, was paid to the Refugee Council and The Children’s Society for a joint bid to undertake the scoping review on the practical care arrangements for trafficked children. Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department who monitors the performance of the UK national rapporteur on human trafficking. Mr Harper: The Inter-Departmental Ministerial Group (IDMG) on human trafficking is the UK’s national rapporteur equivalent mechanism. The first IDMG Group report, published on 18 October 2012, was the subject of a Westminster Hall debate held on 20 December 2012. As Chair of the Group and Minister responsible for policy on human trafficking I also attended a recent Home Affairs Select Committee enquiry into human trafficking. I and my fellow Minister am accountable to Parliament for the performance of the IDMG. Michael Connarty: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many suspected victims of trafficking were found in Scotland in each of the last three years; how many traffickers were prosecuted and convicted in Scotland in that period; and what assets belonging to such traffickers were then seized from the UK and overseas. Mr Harper: The numbers of potential victims of trafficking, who were found in Scotland in each of the last three years, are set out in the following table:

Number of victims referred

2010

95

2011

94

2012

96

The Solicitor-General: The Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) has issued comprehensive legal guidance to advise prosecutors of the steps they should take in cases where the police have arrested potential victims of trafficking who have committed criminal offences and referred them for charge. If information suggests that they have been trafficked, prosecutors are advised to make full enquiries and consider whether the case against them should be discontinued. However, a prosecutor can only take these steps if they have information from the police or other sources that a suspect might be a victim of trafficking. The CPS is considering issuing new guidelines to prosecutors following recent cases in the Court of Appeal in which victims of trafficking were prosecuted and convicted, having been advised to plead guilty by their legal representative. The new guidelines will be shared in due course with law enforcement and the Law Society to ensure a joined-up approach in these cases. 3. Campaigns 3.1 Stop the Traffik: Big Auction Stop the Traffik launch awareness-raising campaign in advance of Anti-Slavery Day: http://www.stopthetraffik.org/take-action 4. In the News 4.1 A series of articles documenting the experiences of younger victims of trafficking: ‘Child labour falls by a third to 168 million, says ILO’ Guardian, 23 September http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/ sep/23/child-labour-falls-third-168-million ‘Demands grow for child guardians to end shame of modern slavery’ Guardian, 7 September http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/ sep/07/child-slavery-trafficking-theresa-may

In Scotland, criminal law is devolved to the Scottish Government and the Lord Advocate has responsibility for prosecutorial matters in Scotland. 24 June Stephen Phillips: To ask the Attorney-General how many (a) attempted prosecutions and (b) convictions there were for human trafficking offences in 2012; what length of sentence was handed down to each person convicted; and what the value was of any assets seized. The Solicitor-General: The CPS maintains a record of human trafficking prosecutions by way of a database monitoring flag. A flag is applied at the onset of a case, and remains in place even if the charges are subsequently amended or dropped. The number of finalised defendant prosecutions, flagged as human trafficking prosecutions, for 2012 are as follows: Number

Rate (%)

Convictions

103

69.6

Unsuccessful

45

30.4

All human trafficking prosecutions

148

Jim Sheridan: To ask the Attorney-General what his policy is on prosecuting people for crimes committed while being controlled by traffickers.

‘Leicester child prostitution trial: six men jailed’ BBC, 30 August http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-23896937 ‘Five in court over Coventry sexual exploitation’ BBC, 2 August http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-coventrywarwickshire-23544913 ‘Leicester child prostitution trial: “Other Sikh girls” involved with men’ BBC, 30 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandleicestershire-23506795 ‘Three convicted of child sex attacks in Manchester’ BBC, 24 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-englandmanchester-23436855 ‘Oxford child exploitation inquiry: Berkshire man charged’ BBC, 11 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-berkshire-23254754 ‘Oxford grooming case: brothers jailed for life’ BBC, 27 June http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-oxfordshire-23079649


‘South Yorkshire child sexual exploitation accused in court’ BBC, 18 June h t t p : / / w w w. b b c . c o . u k / n e w s / u k - e n g l a n d - s o u t h yorkshire-22937164 ‘Why are so many of the UK’s missing teenagers Vietnamese?’ BBC, 17 June http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-22903511 ‘Grooming victims “still being failed” say MPs’ BBC, 10 June http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-politics-22836634 4.2 ‘Police search for body on Welsh farm as part of antislavery operation’ Guardian, 24 September http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/24/policebody-welsh-farm-anti-slavery 4.3 ‘Slavery farm inquiry “shocking”, says Home Office’ BBC, 24 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-south-eastwales-24215255 4.4 ‘Legal aid residence test “will just shift cost to council taxpayers”’ Guardian, 23 September http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/sep/23/legal-aidresidence-test-cost 4.5 ‘Human trafficking bill: Lord Morrow criticises police comments’ BBC, 23 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-24193952 4.6 ‘Suspected traffickers have “Eastbourne and Margate links”’ BBC, 23 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-24211364 4.7 ‘Sexual abuse allegations corroborated at Yarl’s Wood immigration centre’ Guardian, 21 September http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2013/sep/21/sexualabuse-yarls-wood-immigration 4.8 ‘Bristol human trafficking charity secures £18,000 grant’ BBC, 18 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-bristol-24150940 4.9 ‘Trafficked victim kept naked and beaten regularly’ BBC, 12 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-24060041 4.10 ‘MSP seeks views on trafficking bill proposal’ BBC, 11 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-24033310 4.11 ‘Trafficking is an evil trade exploiting a weak system. We must act’ Guardian, 7 September http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/ sep/07/trafficking-evil-trade-weak-system 4.12 ‘Domestic workers celebrate rights breakthrough’ Guardian, 5 September http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2013/ sep/05/domestic-workers-rights-labour 4.13 ‘Students’ sex trafficking video used by police forces’ BBC, 3 September http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-23945311

4.14 ‘There’ll be no end to forced labour and slavery without data’ Guardian, 29 August http://www.theguardian.com/global-developmentprofessionals-network/2013/aug/29/slavery-forced-labour-data 4.15 ‘Tougher sex offender restrictions sought by campaigners’ BBC, 27 August http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-23844385 4.16 ‘“Modern slavery” bill to tighten laws on human trafficking’ Guardian, 25 August http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/aug/25/modernslavery-bill-human-trafficking 4.17 ‘Nail bars: modern-day slavery in plain sight?’ Guardian, 20 August http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/ commentisfree+law/human-trafficking 4.18 ‘Scots police seek “human trafficking” aid’ BBC, 29 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-23489064 4.19 ‘Six charged with human trafficking offences’ BBC, 18 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-derbyshire-23354806 4.20 ‘Slavery is a 32 billion dollar industry so why aren’t we following the money trail?’ Guardian, 15 July http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/jun/11/humantraffickers-escape-justice-uk 4.21 ‘MP Peter Bone’s bill targets human sex trafficking’ BBC, 15 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-23295712 4.22 ‘Conference in Oxford tackles human trafficking’ BBC, 13 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-oxfordshire-23301879 4.23 ‘How to make human trafficking a priority for law enforcement agencies’ Guardian, 11 July http://www.theguardian.com/global-developmentprofessionals-network/2013/jul/11/human-trafficking-and-lawenforcement 4.24 ‘Conference in Bristol tackles “modern slavery” in the city’ BBC, 4 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-bristol-23177017 4.25 ‘Five “slaves” rescued in Walsall house raid’ BBC, 2 July http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-birmingham-23155634 4.26 ‘Vietnamese trafficking victims win appeal against convictions’ BBC, 21 June http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-22999230 4.27 ‘Too many human traffickers escape justice in the UK, says solicitor general’ Guardian, 11 June http://www.theguardian.com/law/2013/jun/11/humantraffickers-escape-justice-uk

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Bulletin Volume 16