Rﾄ》u te 3 O Pipiri 2014 Vol. 77 Issue. 12
This year’s publication of Te Ao Mārama has been brought to you by Ngāi Tauira, Māori Students’ Association, in an annual collaboration with Salient. The theme of this issue is ‘Tōku mata, tōku manawa’, meaning ‘My face, my identity’.
Ko te moko o Ngāi Tauira e tohu ana i a ‘Ngake’, tētahi o ngā taniwha i noho ki te Whanganui-ā-Tara, he roto motuhake i taua wā i wehea mai i te moana. He pakari ake a Ngake i a Whātaitai, ko tana ihi, tana taikaha, me tana tino kaha ngā tohu tino pai i whakaata mai i te nuinga o ngā pātaka kōrero. I mutu te paki i te tino putanga atu a Ngake i te roto, me te kaha rawa i whakairotia ai te Awakairangi, i paheke rā ki te moana. Mai i ēnei whakaaro i whakaritea ai a Ngake ki ngā tauira māori e kohungahunga nei i te ara kimikimi, i te ara mātauranga. Ahakoa e kore a Ngake i kitea anatia, e tāpono ana te tangata kei te ora tonu a ia ki ngā wai karekare o Te Moana o Raukawa, otirā e marino ana te moana, kei te haereere a Ngake ki te Moana-nui-ā-Kiwa. ‘Whāia Te Karamatamata Ki Tōna Tiketiketanga’
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
“Pinepine te kura ,hau te kura Whanake te kura I raro I Awarua Ko te kura nui, ko te kura roa, Ko te kura o tawhiti nā Tu-hae-po Tenei te tira hou, tenei haramai nei; Ko Te Umu-rangi, na Te Whatu-i-apiti Nau mai, e tama, ki te taiao nei Ki whakangungu a koe ki te kahikatoa, Ki te tumatakuru, ki te taongaonga; Nga tairo e nahau, e Kupe I waiho I te ao nei.”
e moteatea tēnei kua whakatinana i tōku nei titiro ki te ao, mai i te titiro a tōku nei iwi o Ngāti Kahungunu. Ka tū whakahihi ana au i runga i te tihi, i te pito o tōku maunga a Otatara, ka titiro whakamua ki Te Whanganui-A-Orotu. Ka puta te whakaaro ko wai au i te iwi Māori, ko wai au i te iwi Pākehā? I te ao e noho nei au, ka rere ōku toto i ngā wai mārino o tōku awa a Tūtaekurī, ka teretere tōku tuakiri i ngā piko o Otatara rā. I te ao Pākehā ka tahuri ōku whakaaro ki ngā pukapuka a te whare wananga, ka rongo ōku taringa ki ngā tini reo mātauranga e karawhiua mai ana e ōku kaiako. Kei tēnā tangata tōna kanohi, kei tēnā tangata tōna kōrero tāhūhū Ko te kanohi o te tangata he ōrite ki te whakaahuatanga o tētahi whakairo. Ko te kanohi tonute whakairo. He moko kāore i āta tākia e te kaitā, he moko tākia e te ngākau. He tātai whakapapa ki te whenua, he tātai whakapapa ki ngā tīpuna o nehe rā He hītori e whātoro atu ana ki Hawaiki nui, ki Hawaiki roa, ki Hawaiki pamamao Ko te hinengaro te kaipupuri i tō mōhio ki te ao: kete tuauri, kete tuatea, kete āronui. Kei te mata tōna reo e whakakupu ana i taua mōhio ki te ao. Ka tū whererei ngā poupou i roto i te wharenui o Te Tumu Herenga Waka. He kanohi ēnei tipua whakairo hei whakatauira atu ki te marea kei hea te taumata hei whai, mai i te wā e kuhu atu ana ki tōna poho, tae atu anō ki te wā ka wehe atu ka whakapōtaehia ana. Inā rā te kōrero, “E tū, e hine, e tama mā whakaarahia ake ngā poupou o tō whare o Te Herenga Waka.” Me whakarangatira ēnei pou, ngā kanohi nei o aua matua tīpuna ko mātou hei pokohiwi mā rātou.Ka pā te waewae ki te papa o tēnei whare tapu, kua tangata whenua koe. Kua herea tō waka ki tōna tauranga, kua pae ki uta. E mihi kau ana ki a koutou, otirā ki a tātou katoa i tēnei putanga o Te Ao Mārama 2014, NĀ TE PO MARIE HAWAIKIRANGI ETITĀ TE AO MĀRAMA 2014
1974 Te Ao Mārama Ao Mārama
publications of Te
issue, one of the first
n the beginning, in the period of darkness called Te Po, when there was no sun, no moon, no stars, Papatuanuku the earth mother lay naked on her back, facing upwards. Ranginui the great sky saw her, desired her, came down and joined with her. To cover her and warm her he set plants and trees about her body, and in the vegetation he put animal life. Then Papatuanuku and Ranginui shaped their own offspring who did not grow because they were cramped and confined by the continual embrace of their parents. Eventually they could stand the confinement no more, and set about gaining some freedom. After all the brothers had tried, it was Tane who finally separated his parents, by standing on his head and pushing them apart with his feet. Even now the falling rain and mist signify the grief which Ranginui, the sky, has for Papatuanuku, the earth, because of their separation. The world (Te Ao), which the children of Rangi and Papa lived in was still dark, so the sun was placed in the sky to give light by day, and the moon (Marama) by night. So the world passed from the darkness of Te Po into the world of life and light, Te Ao- Marama. This prestigious name has been bestowed on Salient for National māori Language Week. Salient has long been an advocate of the learning of māori language and all the positive aspects and values of māoritanga. māori is not a difficult language to learn, and few of those who get into it would disagree that it is one of the most beautiful, rich, and expressive of all languages. Perhaps the keenest reason for learning māori is that it is very much a living language, used right here in New Zealand in addition to and often in place of English. For too long ‘integration’ has been a one way business, and the neglect of the māori side has resulted in its near extinction. Learning the language is one way for Pakehas to reverse this tendency. Those who have heard its power on the marae or in hui and meetings anywhere, or those who have sat around a fireside hearing song and conversation in māori, need no further encouragement to learn. Tihei Mauriora! It is alive, deeply, musically expressive, and warm. The recent tangihanga for a Labour Prime Minister, who was greatly respected by māoris, showed the language, its imagery, its versatility as a medium of emotions, at its best. But New Zealanders should not sit back and let māori do the mourning, and for that matter their welcoming, for them. Because everybody can learn at least something of māoritanga and in particular māori language, and everybody should. Akona te reo māori! NĀ ROGER W. STEELE
TORU TEKAU MA WHĀ
TORU TEKAU MA ONO
TEKAU MA IWA
TORU TEKAU MA RIMA
Te Mata Whānui o Te Moananui
TORU TEKAU MA ONO
Ngāi Tauira Kōmiti Whakahaere
Ko Wai Au?
RUA TEKAU MA RUA
Styli Māori Interview with a Graduate
Te Herenga Waka Marae
Tōku Ao Is it special treatment?
TORU TEKAU MA WHITU
RUA TEKAU MA TORU
7 Reasons why Beyoncé could be Māori Sharks on All Sides
IWA Te Pūtahi Atawhai
Te Mana Ākonga (National Māori Tertiary Students’ Association)
RUA TEKAU MA ONO
TEKAU MA RUA
RUA TEKAU MA WHITU
Ki Te Whai Ao…ki Te Ao Maarama…
Māoridom and Marxism He toto tangata, he oranga whakapapa!
TEKAU MA TORU Ngā Rangahautira
TEKAU MA WHĀ Te Reo Guide
TEKAU MA RIMA Ōku ao e rua
TEKAU MA ONO He Toto, He Kanohi
TEKAU MA WARU Blood Quantum
Āe Rānei, He Iwi Pōraruraru?
RUA TEKAU MA WARU Politics
TORU TEKAU Whaikōrero: A Woman’s Place Too?
TORU TEKAU MA RUA A New Challenge I Have Faced
TORU TEKAU MA TORU Entertainment
TORU TEKAU MA WHĀ Working with Shane Jones
TORU TEKAU MA WARU Where the bloody hell are you?
TORU TEKAU MA IWA Te Reo Rangikura a Moehau – Kuini Moehau
WHĀ TEKAU Biennale 2014
WHĀ TEKAU MA TAHI Contributors
WHĀ TEKAU MA RUA Editorial by Duncan and Cam
WHĀ TEKAU MA RIMA VUWSA
WHĀ TEKAU MA ONO Books
WHĀ TEKAU MA WHITU Notices
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
e muka tuitui i te korowai whakamarumaru i te hunga e whanake ana” E eke ana tātou ngā tauira Māori i ngā poutama mātauranga, kotahi anake te whainga paetae arā kia eke panuku, eke Tangaroa! E kore au e ngaro he kākano i ruia mai Rangiātea. He herenga tangata, he herenga whakapapa, he herenga wairua ki tō Māoritanga! Ko tātou o Ngāi Tauira, e whai ana i ngā tapuwae a peperekōu mā. Me te mea hoki, he kanohi kitea mātou mo Ngāi Māori whānui. Ka tū ki te kōrero ko ngā tipuna, ko ngā iwi, ko ngā hapū kei o mātau taha. He kōmiti whakahaere a Ngāi Tauira, ā, ka tū hei māngai mō te hunga tauira Māori i roto i ngā tini āhuatanga o te whare wānanga. Mā te whakamōhio atu ki a rātou i ngā whakaaro o ngā tauira Māori, ā, kia rongo, kia kite a kanohi nei te aroaro Māori. Waihoki, ko ētahi o a mātau whainga he poipoi, he akiaki, he whakatenatena i te hunga tauira Māori o Te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o Te Ika a Māui kia tīkarohia te marama. Mā te whakawhanaungatanga me te whakapiri atu ki a rātou, ka noho a Ngāi Tauira hei whānau rua mā rātou i te whare wānanga. I runga i te whakaaro tahi, kia kōkiri ngātahi i runga i reo pōhiri o angitu. Ko wheako te matua o te whakaaro nui, nā konā rukuhia ngā puna katoa o te ao. Mā te mōhio ka tuohu koe ki ngā maunga teitei, kei te kapu o ōu ringa te ao, nō reira KAPOHIA! Mai rānō, we have always supported and fostered the educational enrolment, retention, achievement and completion of tauira Māori at Victoria University of Wellington. Now that we are in a post–Voluntary Student Membership (VSM) environment, we have experienced considerable change in the way we operate as a group, and therefore are seen in a different wavelength. This being said, we plan to focus on five key events throughout this year, tailored to Māori students at Vic. Te Ao Mārama was our first item of business. Te Ao Mārama has been the annual Māori edition of Salient, although no one knows when it first started – some say the ‘70s. It was established through negotiations between Ngāi Tauira, VUWSA and the then Salient, and is now entrenched in Salient’s rules. Yeah, some will criticise, but you’re always gonna get haters. #hatersgonh8. #donthateappreciate. Te Wiki o Te Reo Māori (Māori Language Week) is next on our agenda, from 21–27 July 2014. Previously, we have held events like quiz night, movie night, kapa haka hour and sports day. Another time for us all to come together as a whānau on campus and celebrate the taonga that is Te Reo Māori. Keep your eyes peeled for this year’s Schedule. #kiamaukitereokiatangatawhenuaai #arohatiatereo As we are keen to foster long-lasting passionate relationships with our members, at the end of each semester we are putting on a shindig somewhere kool down town; usually we give you a free sausage roll or a ginger beer. Come on down – it’ll be fun. Anthony Wanakore (AKA Mountain Man) will be the one heading these events, so hit that brother up! Part of our mahi on campus is to represent Māori students at Vic on
various boards, committees and other forums within the University. There’s heaps, so I won’t name them all, but the main ones are the Academic Board and the Student Leaders Group (unofficial). We’re keen to hear from you guys with any issues (or not) that you might be experiencing at Vic. Drop us a line if you need a helping hand. Our overarching strategy this year is Membership Engagement, with a particular focus on communications and getting students to our events. We all live busy lives (and we all got problemz), so it’s hard to check Facebook and emails all the time, and we understand that. So we’ve set up our common room in 42KP103: that’s 42 Kelburn Parade, that big annoying street smack-bang in the middle of campus that we’ve all crossed without pushing the button on the traffic light and have been tooted at by many cars and big-yellow-train-looking vehicles. Go to the ground floor, turn right and you’ll see the humungous sign sticking out like a sore thumb – watch out, it might bite you. Come and have a sit down and a kōrero – there’s computers that you don’t have to line up for, and couches and blankets that you can use for when you need a power nap after a stimulating lecture on quantum physics. Sometimes, we’re there when the Library shuts at 10.30 pm, so it’s a warm place to hang when you can’t get a room over in the Hub or something. But what we’re really keen for this year is to get YOU, MĀORI STUDENTS, involved in everything that we do. That could mean coming to kapa practise every Tuesday at 5 pm in the Student Union Building. It could be hanging out in our common room. It could be coming to our shindigs. Whatever it is, we want to see you. We want to know you. We want passionate long-lasting relationships with you. (#notcreepy #soznotsoz). We’re having our SGM this Friday at the Marae, starting at 5.30 pm. We’re doing boring constitutional stuff to begin with, but at the end of it we’re sending around a survey on what YOU think we should do at NT. After which you get two free ginger beers at The Hunter Lounge. And you can join in our quiz team. Keep an eye on our Facebook for further deetz. We love you. #aroha #tbh #likeforalike #notinacreepyway. l NĀ ELIJAH PUE AND MIKAIA LEACH
1. Elijah Pue
2. Te Ātihaunui-a-Pāpārangi; Te Ātiawa; Ngāti Tūwharetoa 3. Tumuaki Takirua 4. Ko ngā tauira kua potae i tērā tau. I te mea i kite au i a rātou e hikoi ana i runga i te atāmira ki te tiki i ōna tohu, koira tōku tino moemoeā tōku. Ko tētahi atu tangata ko Beyoncé. 5. Mai te tīmatatanga tōku; ka haere au ia wā, ia wā ki ngā hui pākehā, ngā hui Māori hoki, ki te kōrero, ki te wānanga, heoi anō rā, ki te ako.Ka tuku tēnei mātauranga ki ngā tamariki, ki ngā mokopuna o tōku whānau. Katahi ka hoatu ki ngā tupurangi e whai ake nei.
Ngā Patai: 1. Ingoa 2. Iwi 3. Tō tūranga i Ngāi Tauira? (Position on NT) 4. Ko wai tō kaiwhakaohooho? (Who inspires you?) 5. Ka tipu ake koe hei kanohi mō wai? (Who do you aspire to be?)
1. Hine Te Ariki Parata-Walker 1. Taylor Wanakore 2. Ngāti Porou/Kai Tahu 3. Tumuaki Tuarua (Mātauranga) 4. Ko tētahi o ōku tino kaupapa i tēnei wā ko te kōrero i te reo, ā te reo ake o tōku ake iwi. Nō reira mo te taha o te reo, ko ōku kaumatua o te wā kainga ka noho hei kaiwhakaohooho mōku, mei kore ake au e whai i o rātau tapuwai. 5. E aua! I te nuinga o te wā i te whare wānanga ka rangirua i te nui o ngā whiringa. Heoi, kaore e kore mā te pukumahi me te wairua whakaiti, tera pea ka puta he hua hei tauira mō te hunga e whanake tōnu ana.
2. Ngāti Tuwharetoa, Ngāti Maniapoto, Ngāti Haua 3. Ko au te kaitiaki puutea o Ngaai Tauira. (Apiha Putea) 4. Ko tōku whanau,ōku kaiako mai I te kura tuarua, a ōku hoa. He pēnei ai notemea kua akiaki a rātou I ahau kia eke ki ngā taumata teitei. Nā tēnei mahi kua puawai au I tōku matauranga, a, kua tae au ki te whare wanaga. 5. Ka mihia koutou e ōku tukemata. Mā ōku whatu koutou e whakapoapoa, kia rongo ai i te reka o tōku reo waitīe rere ana. Kei ōku ngutu pūwherowhero te kupu o rangimārie. ‘E te iwi, aroha atu, aroha mai. Kia hohou te rongo’
1. Geneveine Wilson 1. Mikaia Leach
2. Ngāti Konohi, Ngāti Ira, Ngāti Porou 3. Tumuaki Takirua 4. Ko tāku whānau aku kaiwhakakipakipa i tēnei ao hurihuri. Me kii ake ko tōku whānau tōku oranga! Nā rātou ahau i whakahauhau, i whakatenatena kia tikarohia te marama. Ko tā rātou he akiaki i a au kia kaua e mahue i ngā whiringa katoa o tēnei ao, ā, kia rukua hoki te ruku o matauaua. 5. He māngai ahau mō taku whānau, kia tu au ki te korero, ko taku iwi kei muri. Mā te mōhio ko wai ahau, i ahu mai au i hea e whakaarahia ki te ao i taku manawareka ki taku māoritanga. Mā te kohara me te whakaute e whakaratarata ai i te ao ki au na wawata! Kei te kite a kanohi nei i ngā mea e titi ake nei ki taku manawa heoi kei te ao kē te tikanga ina hiahia rātou te whai mai! The Te Ao Mārama Issue
2. Ngāti Porou, Te Aitanga ā Māhaki 3. Tumuaki Tuarua (Hauora) 4. Ko Michael King. Ahakoa he pakehā tenei tangata ka whakamana ia I ngā kōrero o ō tātou mātua tipuna I roto I ōna pukapuka. Ko Apirana Ngata tētahirangatira tino whakahirahira, nā tōna whakatauki “E tipu e rea mo ngā ra o tōu ao” 5. I tēnei wa kaore au I te mohio, ēngari ka tū kaha ana au ki te ara matauranga. I tōna wa ka pirangi au ki te whakapakari I tōku nei tuakiri hei whakaatu ki te hūngawhakatipuranga he iwi kaha te iwi Māori.
1. Anthony Wanakore
2. Ngāti Tuwharetoa, Ngāti Maniapoto, Ngāti Haua 3. Social Events Coordinator 4. My family. I mean, even though we’re pretty ugly, I reckon that the sacrifices my grandparents and parents make day to day are mean. Excluding my sister though: she’s a bit of a hunk TBH. 5. I would like to think that one day I could go home to all my friends and encourage them to travel and live lives that are filled with the things they wish they could do BUT truth be told, I would probably be too shy to even say hello after not seeing most of them for years. DAMMIT that’s way too deep. Chur whanau have a good one.
1. Hinemihiata Lardelli
2. Ngāti Konohi, Rongowhakaata 3. Āpiha Hakinakina 4. Tōku Koro, Trevor Gould. Ko tā te ruanuku nei he kaha raupi tangata. Ahakoa te tae o to kiri, ahakoa no hea koe, ahakoa tou pakeke, ko Trev tera e taunaki ana i te hunga e hia awhina ana. He tautohito te koroua nei i nga ahuatanga maha o tenei ao, he koi tonu rawa te pinati, kare i arikarika tana tuku i ona mohiotanga. Koia te poutokomanawa o tōku nei ao. 5. Mā te matua mau ki ngā kōrero, ki ngā tikanga o a mātou matua tipuna au e taea ai te whangai atu ki nga puanani o apopo ngāahuatanga Māori, kia kore rawa tō mātou ahurea e mimiti.
1. Jules Forde
2. Ngāti Kahungunu ki Te Wairoa 3. Āpiha Mātauranga (Undergrad Officer) 4. Ki tōku whanau. Tōku pāpā, nana i whakato ai I te wero ki ahau nei kia puawai ōku pukenga maha. Ko tōku tūngane nana hoki i tae atu ki tēnei kura kia piki ake i tōna maturanga. Ko tōku māmā tuarua, kua pouako ia mō nga tau 40, tumuaki hoki ia mō ngā tau 20. 5. Ko ōku maharahara kia whakato ai te kakano o te matauranga ki roto i aku tauira, kia puawai i ngā taonga I tuku iho o mātou matua tipuna. He pēnei kia whakaatu ai te hiranga o te matauranga mō ngā rā o tēnei ao, kia kaua e taka i ngā moemoeā o enei tamariki.
1. Kimiorangi Thompson
2. Te Arawa, Ngāi Tāmanuhiri 3. Āpiha Reo & Tikanga 4. Ngā mātanga o te reo Māori, i te mea ka whakaawe rātau i ahau ki te ako tonu i tō tātou reo rangatira 5. Nā te tū whakahīhī i ngā momo āhuatanga katoa o tōku tuakiri.
1. Rueben Radford
2. Ngāi Tahu 3. Āpiha Pūtea. 4. I have always admired the work of Lee Alexander McQueen. His approach to fashion and design is one of a critical mind. It was always in-depth, analytical, and always subtle with true intentions that often questioned issues more than giving specific answers to culture and society at a given time. He came from what some call ‘nothing’ to become a well established and respected name within his industry and field, and I find that admirable. He also never let his sexuality define him, but rather the calibre of his work and aesthetic. 5. I don’t know if I could inspire the world, as such, but I think in terms of those whom I have a meaningful relationship with it would be through constant recognition of ‘myself’, that being Māori and proud. Being aware of who I am relative to where I come from and where I aspire to take my life, and with what intent I view the world and the responsibility I have towards the world we live in. I think always staying true to what I believe, having a cultural and world perspective upon things, and never dismissing the opinions of others, will be how I hopefully ‘inspire’ those around me.
1. Te Po Marie Hawaikirangi
2. Ngāti Kahungunu, Kai Tahu 3. Āpiha Pāpāho 4. Ko tōku māma rāua ko tōku pāpā notemea kāore e kore he ringa raupa te tokorua rā. Ko tōku tūahine notemea ka nanaiore ia i roto I ōna mahi katoa; i ōna mahi hei kaiako, a, i tōna turanga hei māmā 5. Ko tōku tūngane notemea ka tino mate nui i ōna mahi hei manaaki, hei mohimohi i te taiao. Ko tōku tuahine notemea ka hōra ia i te aroha, i te rangimarie i waenga i te whānau. Ko tōku tino kaiwhakaohooho ko tāku iramutu, Kaea. Ahakoa he rua anake ōna tau, kua eke ia ki ngā taumata teitei i ōna mahi katoa. Aua hoki! Hei whakakipakipa i ngā rangatahi Māori e pirangi ana ki te kuhu i roto i te ao Pāpāho.
1. Te Aonui McKenzie
2. Raukawa 3. Kaituhi 4. Ko taku Matua i te mea ko ia te kaiārahi i ngā rā katoa o taku ao 5. Ko tāku mata ka kitea e te ao katoa, ko tāku Māoritanga ko te whakaahuatanga o taku iwi o taku whānau o ta ā ku hapū ahakoa te aha ka okea ururoatia au i roto i aku mahi katoa.l
Te Herenga Waka Marae Ko Te Herenga Waka tō tātou marae i te whare wānanga nei. He whare wānanga i ngā kaupapa katoa o te ao e noho nei tātou, he tāhūhū kōrero anō mō ngā kōrero o nehe. E kīia ana ma ngā tauira e kuhu atu ana ki tōna poho e whakaara ake ōna pou, kei reira anō te hunga e kōrerotia nei hei toko ake i tōna tāhūhū tau ake nei, tau ake nei. Anei e whai ake nei ngā kōrero mō tēnei hunga e mōhiotia ai ko wai a wai. Whaea Te Ripowai Higgins (Tūhoe) Kātahi anō ka whakanuia te tau rua tekau mā rima o Whaea Te Ripowai i tēnei whare wānanga. Ko ia te taurima o tō tātou marae, kua iwa tau e noho ana i tēnei o ngā tūranga. I mua atu i tēnei, ko ia te tumuaki o Te Kawa a Māui. Arā atu anō ōna pūkenga: he J.P. ia, he pūkenga reo, he pūkenga tikanga, he wānanga reo, ko ia tētahi i te whakaaratanga ake o te kaupapa o Te Ataarangi, i te taha o Ngoi mā, o Te Heikōkō mā. Ināianei, ko tāna mahi he tiaki i tō tātou marae e mau ai ngā tikanga Māori, e Māori anō ai te noho a ngā ākonga Māori e noho ana i te whare wānanga. Nā reira, kia kaha te kōrero Māori ki a ia! Me he pātai kei a koe mō te reo Māori, mō ngā tikanga Māori, mō te marae rānei, ko ia tonu te tohunga rawa o aua kaupapa katoa me patapatai e koe. Ā, mēnā e pīrangi ana koe ki te whakatū hui ki te marae, hoake ki a ia! Kathy (Gran) Samuel (Raukawa) Ko Kathy te Kaiārahi Matua o te marae, ā, ko tana tino mahi he tiaki manuhiri, he tiaki tauira, he whakahaere i ngā mahi a te marae. Ko Grandma, ko Gran rānei ōna ingoa kārangaranga, he mea tapa ki ēnei ingoa e tētahi tauira o mua (kāore au e whāki atu ko wai te tauira nāna te ingoa, mā koutou anō e rapu, e kimi!). I te nuinga o te wā kei te whare kai o Ngā Mokopuna a Gran e tiaki ana i ngā mahi a Tahu, he tohunga tēnei ki te taka kai. He pou tikanga anō tēnei, kua matomato te tipu mai i te ao Māori. I tua atu, ko ia te kaiwhakahaere i ngā Whare Whānau o te whare wānanga nei. Me he pātai āu mō te whakahaere hui, mō te whakatū pōhiri, mō ngā tikanga Māori, mō ngā Whare Whānau rānei, hoatu ki a ia!
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Monoa Taepa (Te Arawa, Te Āti Awa, Ngāti Whātua, Te Rarawa) Ko Moana te Mata Ahupae o te marae. Ko ia tētahi e āwhina ana i te taurima ki te whakahaere i ngā hui o te marae kia pūtahi te haere – e kore te paku aha e mahue atu i ngā whatu hōmiromiro nei! I ētahi wā kua tutū te puehu i te tini o ngā tāngata, kua ture kore, kei wīwī, kei wāwā ngā whakaaro o te hunga i tae atu - ko te reo o Monoa te reo whakatau i te katoa e tau ai te mauri o te hui. He kōrero Māori anō a Monoa, kōrero Māori atu ki a ia! He pononga tēnei o te kaupapa o Te Ataarangi – he ngākau māhaki te āhua. Nā reira, kaua e mataku ki te kōrero Māori ki tēnei wahine marae! Pei Tamiana (Tūhoe) Ko Pei tētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te marae. Ko ia tērā e whakapau kaha ana kia hāneanea te noho a te tangata e kuhu atu ana ki te marae – tauira mai, manuhiri mai rānei. Kia kuhu atu ana koe me te kite i te whare kua mā katoa, kua mahana, kua whakaritea te rorohiko mō te karaehe, nā ngā kaiārahi tērā! Ki te kai takakau koe i te marae, waimārie katoa koe ki te kai takakau nāna i tunu. Koia kei a ia mō tērā o ngā pūkenga! He ngākau hūmārie tēnei tangata, ā, he kōrero Māori anō hoki. Ki te hiahia whakaharatau koe i tō reo Māori, kāore i tua atu i a Pei! Jamee Maaka (Kahungunu ki Wairoa/ Rarotonga) Ko Jamee anō tētahi o ngā kaiārahi o te marae nei. Ko ia anō tērā e whakapau ana i ōna kaha mō ngā tauira me ngā manuhiri mā te whakapaipai i te whare, i te mahau, i te aha rānei e hāneanea ai te noho a te katoa. Ko te pai o Jamee he tangata whakakata i te tangata – ahakoa ko wai, kei a ia ngā kupu ngāwari e koa ai te ngākau. Ko Jamee anō te kaiwhakaora i ngā taputapu pakaru o te marae – e kore rawa e porowhiua te paku aha mēnā kāore anō a Jamee kia kī mai “āe, kua hemo tonu atu.” Koirā te āhua, te koi o tōna hinengaro – kia puta mai te raruraru ka tere kimihia te ara whakatika. He kōrero Māori anō a Jamee, nā reira me kōrero Māori ki a ia hei whakapakari i ō pūkenga kōrero!
Te Pūtahi Atawhai Ki a koutou te hunga taiohi Māori, nei rā te mihi ki a koutou!!! To all of our Māori students, salutations!!! Ko mātou ngā Kaiakiaki Māori o Te Pūtahi Atawhai, hei hāpai, hei manaaki, hei āwhina i a koutou ngā tauira Māori o Te Whare Wānanga o Te Upoko o te Ika a Māui. We are the Māori support team here at Te Pūtahi, here to support, elevate and nurture all Māori students here at Vic Uni. I tēnei tau kua neke mātou ki tētehi wharehou, i te whare o te Student Union, kei te papa tuarua. He wāhi ātaahua mō ngā tauira ki te āta arotahi ki ā koutou mahi. He maha hoki ngā rorohiko mō ngā tauira hei āwhina i ā koutou mahi. This year, we moved into the Student Union Building on the second floor. It is a lovely space for students to focus on their mahi. There are lots of computers to help with students’ mahi. Heoi anō, ko te manako o tō mātou wāhi, ka mau te rongo pai. Koirā te tino pūtake o Tē Pūtahi Atawhai, he wāhi pai mō ngā tauira ki te ako, ki te rangahau, ki te kōrero kia pai ai ā koutou mahi i te wānanga nei. However, the aspiration for our space is to feel comfortable. This is the underlying philosophy of TPA, a place for students to learn, to research and to talk to other students about their studies here at Vic. Tua atu i te wharehou, kua wehe te tokorua nei a PetaMaria Harris rāua ko Māria Williams. He wāhine humārie rāua tahi. Kua haere a Peta-Maria ki te whai i ngā tohu i Te Wānanga o Raukawa, ka rawe tēnā e Peta! Kua wehe hoki a Maria ki te whare pērehi o Huia. E
rata ana a Maria ki te whai atu ki tēnei mahi, tōna kaha ki te pānui pukapuka, tōna kaha ki te whakarite i ngā pukapuka, ki te manaaki anō i ngā kaituhi Māori. He tino wawata tēnei nō Maria. Heoi anō, kia mihia e Te Pūtahi Atawhai ēnei wāhine ātaahua, wāhine humārie. He wāhine ngākau māhaki rāua ki te tiaki, te manaaki i ngā tauira i te wānanga. Nā reira tauira mā, kei te wharenui o Student Union mātou e noho ana. Naumai, haere mai, whakatau mai ra. Aside from the new space, two illustrious women, wonderful women have left us: Peta-Maria Harris and Maria Williams. Peta-Maria has gone to Te Wānanga o Raukawa to pursue her academic studies. Maria has gone to take up a position at Huia Publishers. Maria has long desired to pursue this mahi; her love of reading, her passion for writing and her support for Māori writers are clearly dreams of Maria’s. So we/Te Pūtahi Atawhai acknowledge these women, and shed a tear for these esteemed ladies, who have given so selflessly to support our students here at Vic. So, students of Vic Uni: we are in the Student Union Building. Come down: you are most welcome. Ānei he kōrero whakakapi, “Mā te tuakana ka tōtika te teina, mā te teina ka tōtika te tuakana” “From the older sibling the younger one learns the right way to do things, and from the younger sibling the older one learns to be tolerant” Nā mātou, Te Whānau o Te Pūtahi Atawhai Marie Cocker Garth Weiser Anton O’Carroll Jenny Taotua Sarah Tokakece Emmanuel Tesese
Te Mana Ākonga (National Māori Tertiary Students’ Association)
ia tukua atu te kupu whakamihi ki ngā maunga whakahī o te rohe nei e whakaruruhau nei i a tātou.
Ko Te Ahumairangi mā, ko Motukairangi mā, ko Tangi te Keo mā – tūtū tonu! Kei ngā wai māori, kei ngā wai moana e papaki mai rā. Ko Awakairangi mā, ko Te Moana o Raukawa mā, ko Wainui, ko Wairoa – e rere tonu rā! E Ngake, kōrua ko Whātaitai e haruru mai rā – tēnei ka mihi! Kei ngā tapuwae tūpuna, arā, Ngāi Tara, Ngāti Ira, Te Ati Awa – koutou katoa rā. Ko te whakatau noa ake – ko ngā tini aituā ki a rātou. Tātou o te ao ora – tēnā tātou katoa.
Nāhau te Mātauranga – Nāhau te Ao Ko tēnei te tau tuatoru i whakamana e te kawanatanga te ture (Freedom of Association Amendment Act 2011, VSM). I whānau mai tēnei ture nō te rōpū Act, arā I whakamana tēnei ture e te pāti Neihana me te pāti United Future arā ko te pāti Progressive hōki. I whiwhi tautoko mātou mai i ngā Pāti i koa koa mai ki ngā whainga ō mātou. Wepua ake ki ngā Pāti Māori, Mana, Kākāriki, Reipa mō ngā tautoko. Kāore e mutu ai ngā mihi mō ngā tautoko ki a mātou
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
ngā tauira Māori i ngā tau o te pire o VSM! Tau kē! E kaha ana rātou ki te tuku wero ki te whare katoa hei reo māngai mō ngā tauira māori. Nā te Pāti Māori i tautoko mātou mai rā anō. Ko Te Ururoa Flavell, ko Papa Pita Sharples, ko Whaea Tariana Turia te korowai tautoko ki a mātou o TMA, i whakahikia e rātou te reo ā ngā rōpū tauira Māori hei kōkiri ki a mātou nei mahi mō ngā tauira. Pēnei ngā reo reka o rātou i tono atu he mōtini kei mua i te aroaro o te Whare Paremata ki te neke atu te Pire (VSM) ki te rōpū whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi. He mihi maioha tēnei ki a koutou o te Pati Māori! E rere anō hoki te mita o ngā rōpū tauira Māori ki roto i ngā whakapono o te Tiriti o Waitangi me te Whakaputanga o ngā Rangatira o Niu Tireni. Ngā mihi ki ēnei kaiwero ki te karauna! Me haere tonu ngā mahi, ka mau te wehi! Ko ngā take whakahirahira ki a mātou ngā rōpū tauira katoa ngā take hoki o te whare paremata. Me tukuna atu ngā take ki ngā rōpū pāremata katoa. Mā rātou ēnei wāwata e kawe kei tua o te kōwhiritanga (2014). He mīharo ana mātou ki ngā pāti Māori, Kākariki, Mana mō o rātou kaha ki te whaia atu e ngā tapuwae o tātou tupuna pērā ki a rātou mā i hainatia i tohu mana ki te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ko te tūmanako, mā ngā Pāti katoa o te Whare Paremata
i whakamana ngā wawata, ngā tikanga me ngā kawa o Te Tiriti o Waitangi mō ake ake ake. Ko te whanaungatanga te mea nui ki a mātou – kāore te whanaungatanga orite ai ki te whare pāremata. Me awhi atu koutou katoa hei mahitahi te taha a ngā māngai Māori kia kore e ngaro!! Kei a koutou te mana, me mahia!!
He aha ngā mahi ā ngā Rōpū Tauira Māori? Kei konei ngā rōpū Tauira Māori ki te whakamana mātou ki roto i ngā Whare Wānanga me ngā kura tini puta noa o te motu me te Whare Paremata me ōna mihingāre. Ka whakamana i te Tiriti o Waitangi ki roto i ngā kaupapa me ngā tātai o te kawanatanga.
He aha tenei ture e whakahoha ai ki a tātou a ngāi Māori? Kei te tono mātou o Te Mana Ākonga i mua i te aroaro ō te Rōpū Whakamana o te Tiriti o Waitangi e pā ana ki ngā whakahē o te Karauna. He nui ake ngā whakahē!
He aha tēnei mea te Mana.Com? Ko te whakaaro ngā turu Māori mō ngā wāwata me ngā uri Māori anake. Te whakakotahi pēnei te turu Māori (turu tipuna) o te Taitokerau ki tētahi nō tāwahi kāore he mea whakamana i a tātou
te iwi māori. Te take, ko ngā turu katoa mai i ngā piki me ngā heke o ngā tipuna kua wehe ki te pō. Huri noa ki te rā nei ko rātou mā ngā māngai ngā kaitiaki noa iho – e hara te māngai te timatanga me te otinga. Kāti rā, kaua e whakararu ēra turu ahakoa ko wai. Mā ngā mokopuna ēnei turu e whakamana mēnā kei kōnei tonu ēra turu. Ināianei, kua whakararu ngā turu Māori katoa. Kia mataara koutou katoa!!
Te Huinga Tauira Ki Manawatahi 2014 – Māori Students’ Conference “Hihi whakahītamo ngahae i te rangi” – “Let your influence stretch across the masses” Te Huinga Tauira is the annual National Māori Students’ Conference where tertiary students gather to discuss and debate topical issues, participate in cultural and sporting activities, and raise awareness about some of the issues that impact on Māori students at tertiary institutions, and within the wider community. Te Huinga Tauira is also an opportunity for Māori students to nurture and maintain their cultural identity, access social and support networks outside of their institutions, and participate in activities that enhance, and add value to, their experiences within the context of their learning.l
Ki Te Whai Ao…ki Te Ao Maarama… Nā Te Ahu Rei Māori Liaison Officer
ngā mana, e ngā reo, e ngā kārangarangatanga maha, tēnā koutou katoa.
Kua kite atu a au i te tini tauira e kōtiti haere ana i runga i tōna hīkoi me te māharahara, he aha taua hunga e pērātia ai?
Tuatahi, me tuku i te rau aroha ki te hunga nā rātou tātou i morimori. Ko rātou kua ngaro atu i te tirohanga kanohi, ka tangi. Ko rātou ki rātou, ko tātou ngā mahuetanga iho, tēnā anō tātou katoa.
I’ve unfortunately seen too many students to the contrary, who seem to lose their way, and I wonder why that’s so?
I tupu ake ai a au i ngā rekereke o te maunga tītōhea i roto i ngā iwi hapū o Ngā Ruahinerangi, i te takiwā o Aotea waka me te mōhio anō hoki ki aku pāranga ki roto o Waikato. Kua roa nei a au e mahi ana i roto i te ao mātauranga me te rapa i te ara tika. Ko taku whakapae, ko te tuakiritanga o te tangata te mea nui, me whai ka tika.
After years working in the tertiary sector, I’ve come to the conclusion that if a new student is well grounded in his or her identity, this will aid significantly in the realisation of their academic and career goals. Ki te kore te tangata e mōhio pū ana ki a ia anō, kua ngaro pea a ia? Ki te mōhio te tangata i ahu mai a ia i whea, he māmā ake pea te huarahi kei mua i tōna aroaro, arā, e ahu ana a ia ki whea? If not, however, it may lead to their demise in the tertiary context. My experience with students who are confident in themselves and know where they’re from, is that they can usually articulate with some surety where they’re headed.
He kupu whakatūpato pea tēnei ki taua hunga, kia āta whakaarotia tōna ara, kia kaua e kamakama, kaua e horo!! He nui ngā āhuatanga o te noho ki te ‘tāone nui me ngā raiti pīataata’. Wherever students decide to study in Aotearoa, they should have some basic structures put in place in times of need, which will differ from individual to individual. Students who come from small rural schools and communities are especially vulnerable to the ‘attraction of the big city and the bright lights’. 1. Ko ngā rōpū tautoko i a koe te whāinga matua. • Whānau – family • Ngā hoa – close friends • Ngā rōpū tautoko – student support services and professionals • Ngā kaiako / kaiāwhina – academic and support staff Therefore, it’s imperative that students access a range of services to help them transition into the tertiary environment. It should be a priority. Iwi also have an important role to play in this transition. Students should be encouraged to register with their iwi as an incentive to capacity-building, which is a must in the current postsettlement climate. Kāti ake māku, e rau rangatira maa, tēnā koutou katoa.
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
meant that there is a whānau on campus who supports and encourages students who are Māori to participate and be guided through an exploration and expression of their Māoritanga in the law. And to be there to provide a voice for Māori students on campus.
Ngā Rangahautira Nā Karli Rickard rāua ko Manaaki Terekia
Ko Ngā Rangahautira tētahi rōpū e tautoko ana i ngā mahi a ngā akonga Māori e whai ana i te tohu ture. Ko ngā mahi a Ngā Rangahautira, he tautoko, he akiaki i ngā akonga ki te whai i tēnei rākau ture a te Pākehā. He rōpū awhina, tautoko i ngā akonga Māori ki te whakanui i tō tātou Māoritanga i roto i te ture. Ngā Rangahautira (or NR for both time and pronunciation’s sake) is the creation of some particularly exceptional people. Beginning their journey through a predominantly Pākehā world, NR was birthed to assist and support Māori Law students with their studies at Law School by fostering a commitment to Tikanga Māori and ngā ture Pākehā. And like all great things, it survived. For many students, the journey through Law School can be filled with experiences of the occasional low of getting mediocre marks, the regular occurrence of morning sunrises, and doomed attempts to cover a trimester’s worth of reading in two days. But for Māori, being a Law student not only means experiencing those things other students experience, but also a constant conflict between your culture and Westernised academic ways. Inevitably, it is easy for any Māori student to be swept up in the hype and academia prevalent at Law School and effectively be colonised, losing sight of their culture. Therefore, it is entirely a matter of individual choice as to whether you maintain your cultural identity throughout Law School. Sometimes, it is a tough decision to make.
Though you may see yourself in many different lights, it predominantly comes down to whether you see yourself as an Māori Law student or a Law student who is Māori. Yes, there is a distinction (of course, we are Law students). To take the words of a Law student who so greatly enunciated the distinction (Mr R Kohere, in a wonderful blog he writes entitled “Courted”): “The former encapsulates the thought that racial preconceptions and misconceptions characterise me more than my endeavour to study the law. The latter, however, encapsulates the complete opposite: that I pursue the law just like every other Law student, and yet my culture – my Māoritanga – anchors me. The distinction is powerful. And it should always be emphasised. After all, Māori are learning about a legal system which is inherently colonial and inherently ‘foreign’”. 1 The choice inescapably defines who you are for the rest of your journey throughout Law School and maybe your professional life. Don’t get us wrong: Law School is a wondrous place and the position occupied by Māori is a privileged one, but the struggle is inevitably real. Thus, the creation and survival of NR has
For those that have gone before us and shown us that Law School is a place that we can thrive in and succeed, we thank you. We thank you for the creation of an Association dedicated entirely to us. We thank you for the struggles you went through that have allowed us to have that much more of an opportunity to not lose sight of our cultural identity. We thank you for the role models you have provided that go beyond racial stereotyping. And we thank you for showing us what it really means to be a Law student who is Māori. Once a member of Ngā Rangahautira, always a member of Ngā Rangahautira. But with all that said and done, here is what we consider the Top 10 Perks of Being a Law Student Who Is Māori: 1. You know where all the free food is. 2. Track pants and hoodies create a legit uniform. 3. You can talk about Māori “things” without feeling racist. 4. You genetically inherited knowledge of all things that are Treaty of Waitangi–related. 5. You are of course extremely knowledgeable about law–tikanga interactions. 6. All Māori Law students are cousins: incest is a Pakeha concept. 7. You can name every Māori student at Law School. 8. You revel in the irony of the Māori and Pacific Island Room being the safest place in Law School. 9. Yep, whānau lawyers are a thing. And perhaps the greatest perk: 10. Never being Socratically called on in a lecture because your name is “Rongomaianiwaniwa” and the lecturer does not want to murder the Māori language.
Reweti Kohere “No. 9. The Ones Who Cracked It” (3 April 2014) Courted. Law students at their best <http://courtedxlaw.blogspot.co.nz>. www.ngaitauira.org.nz
Te Reo Guide This column is for everyone, from non-speakers, to beginners, to the more proficient speakers. Something for everyone!
Nā Vincent Olsen-Reeder Non-speakers:
Want to learn a few quick phrases in Māori? Here are some quick kīwaha, or idioms, to try out on your mates! Engari mō tēnā! Never mind that! Hei aha māu! None of your goddamn business!
http://www.tki.org.nz/r/maori/wharekura/ index_m.html Got kids? Facebook: He Tamariki Kōrero Māori Make a book: http://www.ngaitahu.iwi.nz/te-reobooks/
Te hunga mōhio ki te reo:
Hoki mai ki te papa! Come back down to earth (for those in need of an ego bruise...)!
Pukamata: Normalising Te Reo Māori on Social Media Te Mana o Te Reo Māori Me pānui: Makorea, Ngā Waituhi o Rēhua (nā Te Heikōkō Mataira)
Tērā pōhēhē tērā! What a crock of....
Kei te mōhio rānei koe?
Ki hori! Coming through, step aside!
Need a pronunciation guide? http://www.korero.maori.nz/forlearners/ basics/pronunciation.html Looking for resources to help you read?
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Anei e whai ake nei ētahi tikanga o te kupu ‘kore’ kua kore te whakamahia i ēnei rā: Tēnā koe i tēnei korenga ōku... Greetings in my absence. Good for answering machines and autō replies on emails
Kua kore (tā tātou hui) For when something is cancelled Kua roa ahau e kore ana For when you’ve been away for a while E rua aku korenga he māuiui nōku I’ve been absent twice due to sickness Anei e whai ake nei ētahi kōrero e pā ana ki te tuku mihi me uaua ka rangona i ēnei rā: Tēnā koe i tēnā Thanks for doing that! Tēnā koutou i tēnei Thank you guys for this! Tēnā tātou i tēnei kaupapa e hui nei tātou i tēnei ata Thanks everyone for coming to this hui this morning Tēnā rawa atu koe e hoa, mōu e whakapau kaha nei mō tō tātou reo Thank you so much my friend, for working so hard for our language
Ōku ao e rua “Wehe atu te wūru!” “Kumea te aho!” “Hīpō!”
oinei ētahi o ngā rerenga kōrero maha i rangona e au i tāku whakatipuranga. Nō te ao kuti hipi aua rerenga kōrero, ā, koirā te ao i tipu ake ai au, koirā hoki te ao i ako au, he pēhea te whai oranga mō tōku whānau, ā, pēhea hoki te mahi ngātahi kia tutuki Tōku Pāpā, ko i tētahi momo whāinga. Nā ōku tīpuna tēnei momo ao Laddie Puna. i whakatūroatia i te whānau mai rānō. I ēnei rā tokomaha ōku whānaunga e mahi ana i te kuti hipi. Ka mahi tonu ētahi o ōku kuia rātou ko ōku koro ēngari e torutoru noa iho i ēnei rā. He kaikutikuti tōku Pāpā rāua ko tōku tungāne, ā, he pirihō tōku Māmā rāua ko tōku tuakana. Ehara te mahi kuti hipi i te mahi noa iho ki tōku tungāne rāua ko tōku tuakana. Nā te mahi kuti hipi kua whakauru rāua i ngā momo whakataetae mō te mahi kutikuti me te mahi pirihō huri noa i Aotearoa. Kua wikitoria rāua i ētahi whakataetae pērā ki te wikitoria a tōku tungāne i te whakataetae roera o Manawatu, i eke ia ki te taumata o te kutikuti teina i te tau rua mano tekau mā toru. He nui hoki ngā wikitoria o tōku tuakana engari ko ana wikitoria matua i whiwhi ia i te whakataetae kutikuti tino pai rawa atu ā-iwi o Aotearoa. I te tau rua mano tekau i eke ia ki te taumata o te pirihō teina, ā, i te tau rua mano tekau mā rua i hoki atu ki taua whakataetae eke ai ki te taumata o te pirihō mataamua. I ngā wā o mua kāore te ara mātauranga i te tino hira ki tāku whānau nōtemea he maha ngā momo mahi he ōrite ki te mahi kuti hipi, te mahi kūtētē me te mahi whawhaki kīhai tētahi i hiahia ki te whai i te ara mātauranga, engari mo te mamahi o a rātou ringa kē. Ka whakaae te nuinga o tāku whānau ki te mahi kuti hipi nōtemea he momo mea tērā mā rātou hei tūāpapa matua ki te whai, hei whai oranga hoki mō tā rātou whānau. He tikanga pai tonu tēnei ki te whai i ēnei rā, engari nōtemea kua rerekē te ara mātauranga i roto i
ngā tau kua hori, kua tipu haere te hiranga o te ara mātauranga hoki. I ēnei rā ki te whai tētahi i te ara mātauranga nōnā te ao. He tikanga tēnei kua koropupu ake i waenga i te ao hurihuri nei. Ki tāku whānau he tikanga tauhou tēnei kāore ano rātou kia whakapūmau. Ko ahau te tamaiti tuatahi o te whānau ki te whai i te ara mātauranga, ki te oti hoki i tāku kuraina i te kura tuarua, nōtemea, i kōwhiri te nuinga o tōku whānau ki te whai i te ao kuti hipi kē, kāore i te ara mātauranga. I pātai mai ōku Mātua ki au mehemea i pirangi au ki te haere ki te mahi kuti hipi rite tonu ki ōku whānaunga engari i pirangi au ki te haere ki te whare wananga whai tohu mātauranga ai, nō reira koia tōku mahi. E haere ana au ki Te Whare Tōku tuakana, ko Wānanga o te Upoko o te Ika Ataneta Puna. Photo a Māui e ako ana i te reo māori by Barbara Newton me ana tikanga me te mahi kaute. Nā tēnei momo mahi ka pirangi au ki te whakaatu ki tōku whānau he hua nunui ka puta mai i tēnei. Kei konei tonu au ki te whare wananga ināianei, koinei tāku tau tuarua. Ahakoa kāore ano au kia mutu i tāku akoranga he maha ngā momo hua kua whiwhia kētia e au. Koinei tētahi, nō tērā tau i whiwhi au i tēnei mahi autaha ki te whakamāori i ētahi momo tuhinga waihanga i raro i te marumaru o Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga, ā, nui te utu mō taua mahi hoki. Ko te mātauranga tōu taonga tino pai. Ki te whai i te ara mātauranga ka whakapai atu koe i tōu mātauranga, ā, kei taua ara ōna ake hua, ngā momo hua ka whai oranga mōu, mō tōu whānau, ā, mō tōu iwi hoki. Hei whakakapi i tēnei kōrero, ko tāku tino rongo pea ko tēnei “Me takawawe koe mō ngā mea tino pai i tōu ao, ā, kaua hoki e whakatau mō tētahi ao kōpipiri noa.” Ahakoa kāore au i whai i te ara o te ao kuti hipi pērā i tōku tungāne rāua ko tōku tuakana, i pirangi noa au ki te hanga i tāku ake tuakiri i tēnei ao, ki te whai i tāku ake ara, te ara mātauranga! l
Nā Allandria Puna
HE TOTO HE KANOHI I NA KIERAN GERA
te ao hurihuri nei, kua whakaputa ngā āhuatanga matatini o te tuakiri o te tangata. Ehara i te tika te nuinga o ngā kōrero o ināianei e pā ana ki tēnei kaupapa, ā, kua kore te kiri me te kanohi e whakaatu mai te tohu o te tangata Māori. He tuitui nō ngā whakapapa rerekē ki a rātou anō. Aue, ka aha a Police 10/7??? Heoi anō, ka aha kē te hunga Māori? E ai ki ngā whakaaro pūmau o nāianei, he pono tēnei mea te ‘tangata Māori tūturu’. Nā, he Māori tōna āhua, ka taea te kōrero Māori, ka mutu, ka mahi tika ia i ngā tikanga me ngā kawa o te ao Māori. He rerekē te kōrero mō ō tātou whakapapa. Nā, i te tuitui ngā kete kahukura ki te harakeke o ngā iwi, ngā ahurea me ngā whakapono rerekē. He tohu tēnei mō ā tātou rata ki te moe i ngā tāngata kē, kia puta ai ngā pēpi taharua. Nō reira, nā te aha kei te kaha pono tonu tātou ki ngā tuakiri parakore? Kāore anō te tuakiri ka noho i tōna kāinga tūturu, arā ki ō tātou whatumanawa, kua whakanoho kē i tētahi momo ‘āwhata’. He hawhe Māori koe, he whakatekau ahau, mea mea mea… He kōrero whakaiti tēnei ki te hunga Māori, nā, ko te waimemeha o te toto Māori (ehara ko te toto Pākehā) he taputapu e whakakahangia ngā tohe kaikiri. He mahi pēhi anō tēnei, engari ko te pūtaio kē te pū. Kua kore te toto Māori (i tūturu katoa ai) e rere i roto i te tangata...
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Ki te aro te pono o te ahurea me te tuakiri Māori ki te paihēneti o te toto, ka whakaitia hoki te tinana o te tangata e honohono ana ki te ao Māori. Ka mutu, he tohe tēnei e whakawetongia ngā mahi whakapakari mō te hunga Māori. Me te aha anō, ka piri mātou, whakangungu ai ki ō mātou tuakiri Māori, ahakoa ō mātou hononga ki ngā ahurea atu. I roto i te ao Māori, ehara i te tūturu tāku whakamahi i te tuakiri Māori, engari ki te taha Pākehā, he Māori rawa au. Nā reira, kei hea ahau e noho ana? Ko te ngako o tēnei kōrero, he māmā ake mēnā kōwhiria e koe te tuakiri kōtahi. Kāore e whakamanawa tēnei i te tangata, nā ka noho mōriroriro ētahi tāngata, he whakahē nō rātou ki ēnei whakaaro. Nā reira, kāore te matū o te tuakiri e noho ana i te toto. Kāore e taea te toto te whakamōhio ngā wheako o te tangata taharua, tahatoru, tahawhā rānei. Ka whakahāngaingia kē ngā ture, pēhi ai i te tangata kia whakamau ai te kahu kōpaki o te tuakiri. Me tīnihia tēnei whakaaro pōhehe, kia pīngore kē ai te tuakiri o te tangata. Ko te tūmanako, ka taea te kōwhiri i ngā mea o te ahurea hei whakaatu, hei whakamōhio i te tangata anō. Ahakoa ngā ahurea, te taiaroaro, tō hoa moe, ahakoa te hāhi hoki, kei a koe anake tō tuakiri. Nā, pērā i ngā hanga i whakakaha ai mō te wā e rū ana te whenua, me wānanga te hunga Māori kia nekeneke pū i tēnei whenua tītaktaka e tāwakawaka ana. l
TRUE BLOOD NA KIERAN GERA
n a society in which identities are becoming ever more complex, simplistic definitions are yet to catch up with reality. Physical cues such as brown skin and familiar facial features are seen struggling to act as signifiers of ‘Māoriness’, and multiracial identities have become the reality for most New Zealanders. My God, what is Police 10/7 going to do??? Nevertheless, we remain faithful to the concept of ‘real Māori’; someone who tends to look Māori, speak te reo, and perform their Māoriness in line with prescribed expectations. But our whakapapa are often much more progressive than we are. As vibrant kete, weaved with the harakeke of different iwi, ethnicities, religions and so on, they remind us that we have always produced diverse babies. So why, then, do we get so hung up on ‘pure identity categories’? At some point in time, cultural identity was removed from its intangible residence in our hearts and minds, and placed into a quantifiable measurement of ‘blood ratio’. This isn’t about whakapapa, or real peoples’ experiences: this is about science as colonisation. Read: I’m one-eighth Māori from my mum’s side, LOL. This works against Māori in many ways, where the ‘diluted’ state of Māori blood (and it’s always Māori, not Pākehā blood that is diluted) is constantly used to justify anti-Māori agendas: Read: There aren’t any more full-blooded Māoris left anyway… Statements like this serve to delegitimise Māori culture by claiming that full-bloodedness determines its ‘authenticity’, and
are often used as arguments against cultural policy seeking to uplift Māori people. As a result, people like myself feel the need to cling defensively to our Māori identity in order to adopt the guise of belonging to a distinct and authentic body, all the while having to deal with the conundrum that is our ‘inauthentic identity’. Read: What ARE you exactly? Well, I’m often not Māori enough to satisfactorily assume a Māori identity, and too brown to call myself Pākehā. So where on Earth do I fit in? The reality is, it’s easier if you choose one identity and just stick with it. Not mentioning the effect that this has on one’s self-esteem, those who see no pride or relevance in affiliating themselves with a strict cultural identity are alienated. This is why a blood-quantum approach to cultural identity is unproductive, as it fails to accurately reflect the experiences of multiracial Māori people. It ascribes expectations on Māori subjects to live authentic lives within a framework of expectation that ignores the reality of their multiracial identities, and pretty much guarantees performative failure. Read: Plurality only exists across cultures, not within them. Duh. Ideally, cultural identity would be seen as a fluid entity, affording agency to those who choose to adopt different aspects and levels of identities as their own. This looks to a future where ethnicity, culture, gender, sexual orientation and religion don’t have to be put in order of importance or exist in mutual exclusion from each other, and where they don’t necessarily have to affect one’s choices and “AT SOME POINT IN TIME, CULTURAL IDENTITY WAS freedoms both within an affiliated group REMOVED FROM ITS INTANGIBLE RESIDENCE IN OUR and within a wider public context. With this in mind, I believe cultural HEARTS AND MINDS, AND PLACED INTO A QUANTIFIABLE MEASUREMENT OF ‘BLOOD RATIO’. THIS ISN’T ABOUT groups should choose to imitate WHAKAPAPA, OR REAL PEOPLES’ EXPERIENCES: THIS IS earthquake-proofed buildings, skilfully ABOUT SCIENCE AS COLONISATION”. moving with the undulating and uncertain earth that is identity. l
Blood Quantum Ko Taranaki te maunga Ko Tokomaru te waka Ko Waitohi te awa Ko Waikawa te marae. He uri au nō Ngā Tini o Te Āti Awa. Te Āti Awa nō runga i te rangi.
tēnei ao hurihuri, kua whanake haere ngā tuakiri o ngā tāngata o Aotearoa. Nā ngā mea rerekē pērā i te hekenga mai o ngā iwi tauiwi ki konei i puta ai ēnei momo whanaketanga. Ahakoa kāore tērā i te kino ki a au, kua puta mai ētahi raru. Ko te raru matua ko te whakaaro o te ‘blood quantum’. Ko te ‘blood quantum’ tētahi tikanga o ngā kaikoroni i ngā rā o mua (ahakoa e hāngai ana te mea nei ki ēnei rangi). Ko te āhuatanga matua o te ‘blood quantum’ ko te whakatinanatanga o tōu ahurea i roto i tōu toto. Hei whakamahuki: Ina whai koe i ngā tikanga o tēnei mea te ‘blood quantum’ ko te tikanga kua Pākehā tētahi hawhe o tō toto, kua Māori kē tētahi hawhe o te toto. Ki te moe taua hāwhekāihi i te tangata Pākehā ka hauwhā kē te toto Māori o tāna tamaiti. Ki te hātepe tonu te waimeha o te toto ka mimiti haere nga wāhanga o tō toto (nō reira, he iti te ahurea). He pōhēhē te tikanga nei. Hei aha te tikanga? Ko take whakapae, ko te tikanga hei wehewehe i ngā tāngata whenua nā tō rātou ahurea, ā, hei whakamana i te Kāwanatanga ki te whakature i ngā ture hei takahi i te mana hei turaki i ngā rauemi o ngā tāngata whenua. Ko tēnei te pūtake o ‘blood quantum’. Ko ‘blood quantum’ he nuka whakapākehā, he nuka koronia. Mēnā ehara koe i te tangata whenua, he Pākehā kē. Kāore ōu mana whenua, kāore ōu tikanga motuhake. He māori noa iho koe, kāore ōu mana. E ai ki a Tākuta Tahu Kukutai, he kairangahau ia ki te Whare Wānanga o Waikato,
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
ko te ‘blood quantum’ tētahi “moemoeā koronia.” He whakaaro noa iho, ehara i te mea pono. I nāianei, arohaina te whakaaro Māori arohaina te whakapapa. Ka tautuhi te papakupu He Pātaka Kupu i te kupu ‘whakapapa’: “Ngā kāwai o te tangata, o te whānau, o te hapū. o te iwi, ka tīmata ake i tētahi atua, i tētahi tupuna rānei, ka heke iho.” Kei hea te kōrero e pā ana ki te toto? Kāore kau. Ka tū te whakapapa i tētahi tupuna. Kāore e taea te waimeha te whakapapa o te tangata - ko tōna whakapapa ko ia! I whakapūmautia te whakapapa i a tōu whaea e hapū ana. Ki te titiro koe ki a au, ka taea e koe te kite tōku mata. He kiri mā, he whatu kikorangi, te mea, te mea. Te āhua nei, he Pākehā au. Nā whai anō kāore ngā tāngata e whakapono ina kī au, “āe, he Māori au, he uri nō Te Āti Awa.” He tika tāku i kī ai? Āe rā. Ka whakapono mai aua tāngata? Ākene pea. Kei a rātou te tikanga. Ahakoa te aha, e tū ana au i ngā taonga tuku iho o ōku tūpuna. He aha ōu whakaaro? l
Nā Jamie Yeates
Te Mata Whānui o Te Moananui N
ōku te waimarie kua tonoa ahau ki te tuhi kōrero mō tōku mata. Ehara i te mea e kī ana au, he rawe ki a au te kōrero mōku ake. Heoi, kia rongo nei au i te kupu mata ka hoki aku mahara ki taku haerenga nui nōnakuanei tonu i oti ai. Nā, ko te haerenga nei i tīmata mai i Whīti, ka oti atu ki Palau, i te taha uru o Te Moananui a Kiwa, kai te rohe o Maikaranihia. Tata ki te rima tekau moutere i tae atu ai mātau, ā, nā runga i taku aroha ki ngā reo taketake ka whakarongo, ka pātai atu rānei ahau ki ngā tāngata whenua o aua moutere rā “he aha rā tā koutou kupu mō te eye/face?”I te nuinga o te wā ko te whakahokinga mai ko: “mata”. Tika tonu taku tūmeke i tēnā. Kua roa nei au e mōhio ana he tata rawa te hononga ki waenga i a tāua te Māori me ngā Poronihia, engari tonu tā tātau hono ki ngā Maikaranihia! I tērā tau ka tīmata taku mahi i runga i tētahi waka, ko Okeanos tōna ingoa. I rere atu māua ko tētahi o aku hoa ki Whīti, ko au hai kāpene. He poto iho te waka nei i ērā atu o ngā waka e mōhio whānuitia ana, pērā i a Hokule’a, te mea nāna i tīmata mai te hahutanga ake o ngā mātauranga whakatere waka hourua/waka moana. Kāti, ko te ingoa o te kaupapa e kōkirihia ana e mātau ko “Sustainable Sea Transport”. Ko tōna whāinga matua kia kitea mehemea ka whaitake rānei te whakamahi i te waka tere nei (sailing vessel) i ngā moutere nōnakuanei i ngaro atu ai ō rātau pūkenga/mātauranga tere moana. He nui rawa ngā kōrero mō te kaupapa nei, heoi me aro kē ki ‘tōku mata’ hai tuhinga kōrero māku. Ko ngā pito whenua e whā i raro iho nei hai matapaki ake. Fiji (Viti Levu/ Vanua Levu), Meranihia I te waia kē ahau ki te āhua o ngā reo o Whīti, he nui ngā kupu ōrite ki ā tātau. Hai tauira: ko ‘manumanu’ tā rātau kupu mō ‘manu’, ko beka tā ratau kupu mō ‘pekapeka’, ko ‘vanua’ mō ‘whenua’, ko ‘mimi’ he rite tonu, he rite anō te nui o ngā kupu mō ngā wāhanga o te tinana, arā ko ‘mata’ tētahi o aua kupu.
Kiribati, Maikaranihia I te rere tawhiti haere atu mātau i Poronihia ka tae ki Kiribati. Ahakoa he rerekē te tangi o te reo, tērā tonu ngā kupu āhua rite, pērā i te ‘kiri’ mō tā tātau ‘kurī’, te ‘mim’ mō tā tātau ‘mimi’, me ētahi o ngā kupu mō ngā wāhanga o te tinana, arā ko te ‘mata’ anō tērā. The Republic of the Marshall Islands, Maikaranihia Kai te raki o Kiribati ēnei moutere huhua rawa. He rerekē anō te reo i tō ngā Kiribati. Heoi ka rangona tonuhia ngā kupu āhua rite nei: ko ‘ik’ tā rātau kupu mō tā tātau ‘ika’, ko ‘mate’ he ōrite (koia tētahi kupu ka rangona whānuitia i Te Moananui), ko ‘mata’ tonu kai te rangona hoki. Palau (he tata ake ki Āhia tēnā i Poronihia) Ehara i te mea ka patapataihia te katoa o ngā tāngata whenua o ēnei moutere engari ko ngā kupu āhua rite i puta mai i ngā whakawhitinga kōrero i Palau, ko ‘mate’, ki a rātau ko ‘mat’ (he māmā ake te kōrero i te tuhi), me tērā kupu rongonui anō, ko ‘mata’! E hika mā, kai pōhēhē tātau ko te katoa o ō tātau whanaunga e noho ana i Aotearoa nei me Poronihia, e tā! Mai rā anō nā te tuarā ararau o Hinemoana i tūhono ai ngā iwi KATOA o Te Moana Pukupuku a Tangaroa! Kai whea atu tēnei āhua e kitea ana – te noho tawhiti rawa o te tini iwi e whakaputa nei i ētahi kupu ōrite? Korekau. Nō reira, me mīharo tātau ka tika ki ngā mahi a ō tātau tīpuna. I ruiruia e rātau ā rātau purapura ki ngā hau e whā kia tau noa ki ngā kokonga katoa o Te Moananui. Ka mutu, kaua e ohorere inā tae atu koe ki ngā moutere, ā, ka kitea e koe tō mata i roto i te iwi taketake o reira....he iwi kotahi tātau! l
Nā Raihania Tipoki
Life begins with a naked form. Tōku mata is blank. Fastforward 20 years, and you have a somewhat developed identity. Neither Pākehā nor Māori at its core, but an amalgamation of ancestral influences. Without tangible cultural markers, many ‘white’ or ‘fair’ Māori face serious cultural confusion, social misrepresentation and a harsh inferiority complex – all as a result of displaying the diversifying face of Māori.
Ko Wai Au? Nā Geneviene Wilson
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Down, cause I ain’t brown You may laugh, but the struggle of a fair Māori is real. I had spent the afternoon with a ‘brown’-looking Māori, puzzled as to why other Māori people in the street would acknowledge my colleague in a different manner to me as they passed by. What made me different from her? Sure, I lack the physical features of my tūpuna, but what right does that give Māori and non-Māori alike to question my whakapapa? From an early age, I had felt like an inferior Māori. A majority of these feelings came from physical insecurities, as if to say I would be respected more as a Māori if I looked like other Māori. Albeit, if I were born a few generations earlier, I would have been at an advantage compared to my ‘brown’ cousins. But in this day and age, I look like your average Kiwi, forged in a giant ethnic melting pot. I’ve spent countless hours in the sun, exercising poor sun-safety practices in an attempt to obtain ‘the Māori look’. However, to my dismay, my sun-kissed skin only emphasised my French heritage. I have had instances where I have been pulled aside and pushed away as a result of my non-Māori appearance. It truly is sad to think that I celebrated being recognised as a Māori after participating in an ‘us’ and ‘them’ racial divide; I was just glad to be included. Proud? Or just loud? Apparently, imitation is the greatest form of flattery. The Prime Minister’s daughter is well versed in the art of flattery if we use these standards. Wearing a war headdress does not make her anymore of a Native American than it would without the headdress. The same goes for tā moko, having one does not make you more or less Māori. Loud symbols of cultural identity are everywhere. We imitate other cultures on a regular basis, picking and choosing the visual symbols that suit us and disregarding everything that doesn’t. Regardless of its traditional origin and the context of its use, it seems normal to be loud about cultural ‘products’. There is a time and a place for cultural displays, and it often should not be done without the consultation of those well versed in that
“This is where a distinction between the developments of the two peoples is apparent; Europeans were willing to assimilate to survive, even if it meant neglecting aspects of their heritage... however, not all Māori were and are willing to disregard features of Māoridom that have been passed down from our tūpuna”. specific culture’s tikanga. Feathered headdresses show their magical and spiritual importance for ceremonial purposes. Tā moko maps an identity. The purpose of tā moko is ultimately to tell a story, the story of the wearer’s life. Moko is an organic process: as a life progresses with various special events, milestones and rites of passage reached, the identity of the wearer develops. Ideally, moko is to develop with the wearer. Every drop of ink is a physical embodiment of a link to whakapapa. Although the notion of interconnectedness between the past, present and future may be a nice concept, there is additional pressure to wear your identity on your sleeve when you are seen as culturally displaced. As a fair Māori, I often feel the pressure to have a tā moko, with the thought that if I had a tā moko people would stop assuming that I am Pākehā. Maybe it’s the same logic as our cuzzies on The GC: “it’s cool to have a tā moko so everyone knows that you are Māori.” These social pressures to have tā moko take away from the essence and true cultural representation of what is Māori.
their people. That being said, many Europeans were accustomed to continually changing ideals. Their territories were invaded and their core religions changed. They were essentially an adaptable people at the mercy of the dominant authority of the time. Western culture is notorious for its pressure to assimilate. Various European entities have forced assimilation on one another; it is something that they are used to. It is a core feature of social Darwinism; if you want to survive, you assimilate. Māori were never forced to face this issue prior to colonisation, relatively unchallenged in their own whenua before the arrival of Pākehā. This is where a distinction between the developments of the two peoples is apparent; Europeans were willing to assimilate to survive, even if it meant neglecting aspects of their heritage. Māori were interested in new technologies of the Europeans; however, not all Māori were and are willing to disregard features of Māoridom that have been passed down from our tūpuna.
Tūpuna vs Ancestors
Obvious symbols of cultural identity do not create any greater association with a culture itself. But life in this ethnic melting pot is producing a diverse generation that struggles to identify with a singular culture. As a consequence, many of us will have to make judgments on which parts of our respective cultures to accept, as many will have conflicting ideas. My Pākehā heritage tells me to refrain from printing marks on my skin, but this clashes with the physical representation of my Māori identity. These problems are going to become dominant in the lives of all New Zealanders. We live in the dawn of a new era where physical ethnic markers of culture will not become the core focus of culture itself. When we are stripped naked of these tangible symbols, we are left with the true essence of culture.
I have heard the criticism that many Māori outwardly express and participate in tikanga Māori, but fail to pay the same etiquette for their non-Māori heritage. My justification for this can be best explained in a waiata composed by Eru Timoko Ihaka: “Nō nga tūpuna Tuku iho, tuku iho” An emphasis is put on the practice of tūpuna passing down mātauranga Māori and the significance of preserving all things for future generations. Our tūpuna have insured that we remember them. We are educated through stories of our tūpuna embedded in mōteatea, waiata and toi whakairo, to name a few. On the other hand, my northwest-European ancestors’ essence has remained in their homeland. The ancestors left their homeland with the prospects of a new life, leaving behind luxuries and customs of
Hupane, kaupane, whiti te ra
Ko tōu reo Ko tōku reo Te tuakiri tangata Tīhei uriuri Tīhei nakonako l www.ngaitauira.org.nz
Tōku Ao N ā A l a n a Te P i k i B r o u g h t o n
o Rangi Ko Papa Ka puta Ko Rongo Ko Tāne Māhuta Ko Tangaroa Ko Tūmatauenga Ko Haumietiketike Ko Tāwhirimātea Tokona te Rangi ki runga, ko Papa ki raro Ka puta te ira tangata ki te whai āo, ki te āo mārama E Rongo whakairihia ake ki runga, kia tīna, haumi ē, hui ē, tāiki ē! Tēra te ao, te ao kerekere tonu. Ka wehe te tokorua rā, ka hua ko te ao mārama. Ka ao ātea. Ka wātea mā tātou ki te mahi i ngā mahi, ki te mahi i a tātou ake mahi. Me pēhea te tangata e whātoro i āna ringa, e whanawhana i āna waewae ki te noho pukū ki te uma o tōna whāene, ki raro hoki i te taumarutanga, i te āhurutanga o tōna whānau me ōna hoa? Ki tāku titiro, e kore! Ka pēnei, ka pēnā te haere e ai ki a rātou mā ku tū ki tōna taha. Ko te tikanga, ka noho rātou hei pou ārahi, engari mōu anō tō ara e hīkoi. Mōku ake, he mea tino whakahirahira tēnei, te kaupeka i haku parirau. Ahakoa tōku arohanui ki tōku whānau, ngā roimata ka ngahoro i te mokemoketanga, he hiahia tā tēnei ki te rere ki wīwī, ki wāwā, kia kite i te āo. He pīrangi tāku ki te ako ki ngā tuhinga auaha me te ako tonu i Te Reo Māori hoki. Ki tōku mōhio kei ngā whare wānanga ngā tino kaituruki, ngā momo māhita mō ēnei akoranga. Nō tēnei ka tatau mai au ki te Whare Wānanga o Te Ūpoko o te Ika. Mai i tāku putanga mai ki te ao mārama nei kua noho au ki raro i te taurimatanga o tōku whānau, ku tū rātou hei momo mata mōku. Ka tika kia mihia rātou e au, nā rātou te purapura nei i tāoa. Ka rere anō ngā mihi ki tōku whānau, ki ōku māhita, otirā ki ōku hoa, nā rātou te whakapūāwaitanga i te purapura iti noa nei. Engari kua tae pea te wā mōku kia tū hāngai ki haku ake waewae, kia kimi ara, kia whai mata hoki mōku anō. Nō reira, hei whakakapinga, ka hoki ki tāku tino whakaaro mō tēnei mea te whāinga ara o tētehi. Ka tika, ehara te tū o te tangata rangatira i te tū takitahi, engari ko tana tū he tū takitini. Heoi, ahakoa te tūnga takitini he ara tō tēnā, tō tēnā hoki kia whakarangatira i a ia anō.
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Is it Special Treatment? N ā Ta y l a C o o k
nowledge is the tool that empowers. Nelson Mandela stated that “education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”, yet there are so many obstacles to retrieving our education in the first place. When it comes to university, bills need to be paid, ridiculously over-priced books need to be bought, lectures that seem to be irrelevant to life need to be attended, and the idea of being a poor student becomes a reality. Money holds a huge role in getting through to obtaining your tohu and this is where scholarships help to ease that pain. But whānau, scholarships are exclusive and only accept certain people. Surely that makes sense, doesn’t it? The people paying for these scholarships need to justify why they chose a certain applicant over another. When it comes to Māori-specific scholarships, many controversial arguments arise: Why are there more Māori scholarships? If I’m 1/16th Māori, I can apply, right? The reasons behind why the scholarship is granted, or where the money comes from, is never considered. Courtesy of government funding, iwi are given the opportunity to help their own succeed in tertiary education, and in return only ask for their qualified rangatahi to come back and help in the community. This opportunity therefore becomes more than an easy way to help Māori get into university; for iwi it is regarded as an investment that they seek to benefit from. What annoys me is the great assumption that because we are Māori we are automatically handed grants on a platter. Little is known about what is needed to be proven and the lengths we go to achieve a koha from our iwi. Proving your whakapapa and the position you hold in your Māori community is highly sought upon. The stronger your ties are, the higher your chances are of gaining financial assistance. In today’s society, Māori are forever trying to fight the stereotype of being reliant on state funding, and for some, that could be their only income. When it comes to Māori-specific scholarships, many non-Māori hold a very harsh perspective and wonder what use it has, and just think that we get the typical ‘special treatment’. Is it wrong for every Māori to succeed in education for once? Is it wrong to break the cycle and make Māori a culture that is thriving, instead of just surviving? Tertiary education provides Māori students with an opportunity to determine their future. Scholarships should be seen as motivation for our rangatahi to strive for success. Money shouldn’t be seen as an issue. The true question is: what do we have to show for our presence being remembered in the future? Changing the position Māori hold in educational statistics is a start, whānau.
WAKA HOURUA NĀ TAWHANA CHADWICK
tū ana ki runga i tōku maunga tapu a Kahuranaki. E titiro ana ki raro ki tōku awa a Ngaru-roro ki te whenua rā i te Roto Pounamu. Ko Tānenuiarangi te whare tūpuna e tū nei, he whare mō ngā uri o Ngamihi, o Ngāti Hori, tae noa ki a Toaharapaki, me Ngāti Hinemoa e. Ko Te Tahatuoterangi tēnā hei whakaruruhau mō ngā uri e! E ngā tiratū e ngā pou mārō, o tēnā tai, o tēnā tai tēnā rā kōutou katoa. Ko ngā tai a Kupe wēnei e whakaohooho, e whakaaraara
ana i Te Moananui-a-Kiwa kia anga te titiro whakamua ki ngā rā o ngā mātua tūpuna e hira mai nei, e kapokapohia ana e te hau a Tāwhirimatea. E whakaterea ana i ngā moana o Tangaroa, e maua ana ki ngā mātauranga a Tānenui-a-Rangi, kia puta tātau ki te whai ao, ki te ao mārama! Tihei mauri ora! E hika mā, kua tae te wā e nekeneke ana ngā tai, he tai hou he tai pari e haeremai nei ki muri i a tātau, tēnā kauaka e mahue i tēnei waka.
KO TE WAKA E KŌRERO NEI AU KO TE WAKA HOURUA. KOINEI RĀ TE TIMATANGA O MĀTAU NGĀ TĀNGATA O TE MOANANUIA-KIWA AHAKOA MĀORI MAI, TAHITI MAI, HAWAIKI MAI, SATAWAL MAI RĀNEI, KOIANEI TŌ TĀTAU NEI WHAKAPAPA. Ko te waka e kōrero nei au ko te waka hourua. Koinei rā te timatanga o mātau ngā tāngata o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ahakoa Māori mai, Tahiti mai, Hawaiki mai, Satawal mai rānei, koianei tō tātau nei whakapapa. Nā kua tīmata kētia te huringa mai o te tai kia whakaoho anō aua mātauranga whakatere waka i roto i a tātau te hunga Māori o Aotearoa, heoti anō he whakaterenga tawhitinui, tawhitiroa, tawhitipāmamao tonu kei te haere, kia kore ai e ngaro anō āmoa nei. Nā, ko ahau tētahi e manakotia ana, e wawatahia ana kia tae atu tātau ki Tawhitinui, ki Tawhitiroa, ki Tawhitipāmamao. Ehara mā te whai ake ko Manako-uri, Manako-tea anake, kāhore! Engari mā te nanaiore, mā te whawhai tonu atu (ake ake ake) hoki. Ko tēnei he whakanui i te mātauranga. Te mātauranga nō mua rā anō i te whakatō i te kakano i Rangiatea, ā, waimarie ana tātau kāhore i ngaro āmoa atu nei. Engari aua kākano kei te pakapaka, kei te mimiti haere. Kia whakahua anō i taua whakataukī “Ehara taku toa i te toa takitahi, engari taku toa i te toa takitini!” Hei wero i a kōutou kia hāpai i te kaupapa nei. Nā wā mātau whanaunga o Hawai’i i whakaoho anō nei i tēnei kaupapa, nō reira ka mihi ake ki a rātau, ki te waka Hōkūle’a. Heoi ano nā te ngarongaro haere o ngā tohunga kaiwhakatere o Te Moananui-a-Kiwa ka huri ake rātau ki te motu o Satawal, ki te tohunga rā a Papa Mau Piailug hei whakaako anō i a tātau o wēnei tai. Nā ko Hekenukumai Puhipi, ko Jack Thatcher, ko Hoturoa Kerr, Ko Stanley Conrad wētahi me mihi atu. Nā ki te waka Te Aurere, ki te waka Ngahiraka-mai-Tawhiti, ki te waka Haunui,a, ki te waka Aotearoa. Mei kore ake ko rātau ko mātau tērā kei raro e putu ana. Ko mātau o te waka Te Matau a Māui tēnei e mihi ake ki te tipua rā a Papa Mau, tae atu ki ngā mātāwaka e rere nei i runga i a Hinemoana. Tae noa atu ki tēnei wā, 40 tau ki muri, ko rātau tērā e nanaiore ana kia ora anō wā tātau Ao waka. Nā, ka tīmata tēnei te whakatere waka mō te 4 tau anake, nō reira ko tēnei he pia noa iho i waenga i ngā tōtara whakahae. Ko Te Matau a Māui tōku waka, ko Ngāti Kahungunu te iwi, he kaihautū hoki ahau i runga i tōku waka. Ki tā te nuinga he tino rerekē te Ao o te kau moana, o te amo tawa. Waihoki, kei te tika pea taua whakapae. Waiho māku hei whakatauira The Te Ao Mārama Issue
atu ki a koutou he pēwhea nei tēnei ao, kia manako ai koutou ki tēnei kaupapa. Kia whakataukī ngā wawata a rātau mā. Nō reira, ko tēnei e whai ake nei hei tauira i tētahi rā i runga i te waka. 0230 haora – Nā te aukaha o ngā ngaru whakapiki ka whakaara ahau, me te mārama pai te kaha hoki a Tawhirimatea ki te pupuhi, ki te tīehuehu i a Tangaroa. Nā te tata mai o te wā māku hei matapopore, hei tiaki i te waka ka tikina e au I āku kakahu mahana. Tēra he poraka wūru, he tarau wūru, he poraka wūru anō, he koti ua,a, he tarau ua anō hoki. 0300 haora – Ka tīmataria tōku wā matapopore, tokotoru o mātau e whakatere ana i te waka, katahi ko te rōpū o mua ka haere ki te moe. Mā ngā tangata tokotoru e manaaki I te haerenga o te waka. Waimarie ana mātau i o mātau koti ua. He kaha rawa ngā ngaru ki te whakamāku i a mātau, ka pēnei mō te roanga o te ata 0400 haora – Kei te kaha tonu a Tawhiri. Heoti anō kua mutu te ua, he kāpuapua kē.Kei te āwangawanga te kaiwhakatere, i te mea kua rua rā mātau kāhore anō ia kia kitea he whetū, i te Marama, i a Tamanuiterā rānei. Tōna whakapae kei te aro tonu mātau ki te moutere. He rua ngā rā tēnei kāre he paku tohu o te whenua. 0600 haora – Kua tata te aranga mai o te ata nō reira me tīmata mātau ki te tunu i te Parakuihi. Nā te kaha o te hau ka tunu Hakareti, Pāreti noa iho, te wītipiki hoki. Ka ara ake ngā karakia i te kōmarutanga mai o Tamanuitera, mō te wā kai hoki. 0700 haora – Kua mutu tā mātau wā i runga i te hoe, ka huri ki te rōpū whai ake. E toru ngā rōpū whakahaere i te waka, ao noa, pō noa, tae atu ki te moutere e whakaterea ana te waka. He whā ngā haora o te mahi, he waru ngā haora mo te whakatā,he whā ngā haora mo te mahi,a, he whā ngā haora mo te whakatā. Anikā te tūmanako, heoi i roto mai i ngā wā whēuaua kāre pea he wā whakatā, he rahi ngā mahi inā kei te riri a Tawhirimātea rāua ko Tangaroa 1000 haora – Kei te kaha ake te hau, nā reira mātau ka whakaritea i ngā rā. Ka whakahekea ngā rā kia iti iho, kia kore ai e tīhaehae, kia kore rānei te tira e whati. Ka aroha atu ki te tangata nāna te mahi here i te rā ngongohau, koirā te mahi uaua rawa, te mahi e tōpunitia
TIRATŪ, POU = Mast RĀ = sail TE MOUTERE O PAPA MAU MANAKO-URI, MANAKO-TEA = Satawal HE KOHINGA WHETŪ TATA ATU KI A MAAHUTONGA = Magellan Clouds ai te tangata. 1200 haora – Ka kai anō mātau. He reka te kai, ahakoa kaha pupuhi a waho. Te waimārie mātau i runga i te moana, kārekau tētahi Makitanara, Pūreka Kingi, Pīha Hata rānei o te moana. He kai ora anake kei runga i te waka (hāunga i te paku tiakarete, rare hoki!) 1500 haora – Kua rere te wā, ko tēnei te wā ka whakahaeretia ana I te waka e tātou. Ko au ki runga i te hoe, ko Poi hei karu ki mua, ko Rai hei whakarite kai. Nā te kaha o te hau, me tino aro ahau ki te mahi o te urungi. Me titiro ki mua, me titiro ki muri, me titiro ki ngā tahataha hoki. Kia tūpato atu ki wētahi atu waka, me mātua mōhio ko tēwhea ara tērā e whaia ana tātau. 1700 haora – Ka hoki ahau ki runga i te hoe, katahi rā ka kitea atu i tētahi ngaru whakapuke rawa e haramai nei ki te whakararu i a mātau. Ka tīwaha atu “NGARU!” me te mau atu i te hoe. Arā ko Poi tērā e mau ana i tāna aho ki te waka, ko Rai tērā e noho ana i te whare. Ka haeremai te ngaru ka tuki ki te taha o te waka, ka haruru mai ngā riu,a, ka piki te ngaru i ngā rauawa. Waihoki ka waipukehia te katoa o te kaupapa, ko mātau tērā e kaukau ana ki runga i te waka! Waimarie ana mātau i ngā aho whakaora! 1900 haora – Katahi anō ka kai mātou, ā, I tenei wā kei te tō haere a Tamanuitera. Ka tuku anō ngā karakia ki te mahana i whiwhi, kia pai hoki te pō e ara ake. Kua mimiti haere te hau. Akuni pea he pō tiahoaho? Nā te ngēngē haere ka hoki ki te moe. 2100 haora – Kei raro ahau e moemoeā ana. Nā te nekeneke haere o te waka me te rangona hoki o te tai e tuki ana i te waka he rerekē te moemoeā o te waka. He kaha ake ngā moemoeā i te maruāpō. He ngāwari ki te maumahara hoki. 0000 haora – Ka oho ake ahau me te mea nei kua kōhengihengi te hau, he mahana te pō. Ka piki ake ki waho o ngā riu, ka kite ahau i te Marama, ko Rakaunui, i ngā whetū e pīataata ana. Ka rongo i te wairua tau o te rōpū mahi, me te mōhio mai kua tau te kaiwhakatere, kua kitea e ia i ngā tohu ara hei whakamōhio atu i te ara tika hei whai. Kua koa te katoa, kua Ngākau Aotea! l
TOHUNGA WHAKATERE = Navigator KAIHAUTŪ = Captain/Skipper KAU MOANA = voyager AMO TAWA = voyager AUKAHA = currents TĪEHUEHU = stirring WĀ MATAPOPORE = watch system HAKARETI = watties spaghetti PĀRETI = porridge RĀ NGONGOHAU = head sail(s) TŌPUNI = waipuketia URUNGI = steering paddle/rudder RIU = hulls RAUAWA = upper sides of the waka KAUPAPA = deck MAHANA = kupu anō mō te rangi/rā NGAKAU AOTEA = state of content
ĀE RĀNEI, HE IWI PŌRARURARU?
Nā Tama Gray-Sharp
“He waka eke noa”
a rā, ka kōrerotia e te whenua nei ngā mahi hē a te iwi Māori. Ngā mahi kūare a rātou te tokoiti, tā mātau noho mūhore i te akomanga, te aha rānei, te aha rānei. Engari, me pēhea hoki e kitea ai ā tātou mahi pai? Ka kīia e te nuinga ‘tē taea te aha, koinei anō te tikanga o ia tangata Māori ināianei, me waiho rātou ki a rātou.’ Ko tāku urupare ki tērā, me whai rānei i tērā pono? Ka ahatia tātou te iwi Māori ina waiho tēnei whakaaro i te ao e kī nei he tāngata māngere, he taihara rānei tātou? Ka hinga te reo, ka hinga ō tātou papakāinga, ka hinga tātou katoa te hunga whāiti nei. Me pēnei anō tō mātou tīni i tā mātou titiro atu ki te ao, hei whakakore i ngā hē hei whakaara ake anō i te mana motuhake o te iwi Māori. Engari, nōhea mai tēnei whakaaro? E ai ki ētahi, nā ngā Māori e kore whai ana i te tika, e ai ki ētahi atu nā te hunga pāpāho. Kei tēnā, kei tēnā tāna ake tirohanga ki te take nei, engari he kōmitimiti kē o ngā taha e rua te hurihuri i roto i ōku ake whakaaro. Ko tā te hunga pāpāho ko te whakapāho i ngā mahi a te motu katoa. Engari, mārama rawa te kite ko tā rātou e whakapāoho atu ana ko ngā mahi hē o te iwi Māori. Ka whakaatu rātou i ngā kaupapa weriweri o te ao Māori, ko ngā aituā
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
me ngā mahi tāhae. Koinei ngā momo kōrero ka whakaputaina e ngā kaikawe pūrongo ki te iwi whānui. Engari, kei hea hoki tērā atu taha - te tika, te pai? Kei hea ngā kōrero mō rātou kua whiwhi i ā rātou tohu kairangi? Kei hea ngā kōrero mō rātou ngā tini ngaio hākinakina e whakatutuki ana i ō rātou wawata ki te tākaro mō te motu? Ko ēnei ngā momo mea e hiahia nei au ki te kite i te pouaka whakaata, i tua atu i te kino me kite anō ko te pai. Heoi anō, me mārama hoki tātou koinei te tirohanga a ētahi noiho, engari ētahi. Ko ia kaimātakitaki kei te whakapono mārika ki ngā kōrero mā runga mata, me waiho i ō rātou ake whakaaro mō te kaupapa, kei reira hoki te hē. Kei ia tangata tēnei mea i roto i tōna ake hinengaro me whakawā, kino nei, i tētahi atu. Kua tukuna mai tēnei whakaaro ki a tātou mai i ngā reanga pakeke ake i a tātou? He tikanga rānei tēnei a te ira tangata? Hei whakatau i te take nei, me whai tātou i ngā mahi a kui mā, a koro mā. Ko ngā mahi i mahia e rātou i ngā rā o nehe, he mahi i tika ai te noho a te katoa. I ēnei rā, ko te whakaaro o te nuinga, he iwi momi hikareti tātou, he iwi kai tarukino, he iwi e ora ana mō te peti moni ki te TAB. Me mārama tātou te iwi Māori, āe kua taka ētahi ki te hē. Heoi anō rā, me mārama anō a Ngāi Pākehā e ora tonu te tika i te iwi Māori! Ā, me mārama te katoa he iwi kotahi tātou, he waka eke noa.
MĀORIDOM AND MARXISM I
should warn the reader, I’m a Marxist. Unashamedly and unapologetically. I believe that groups in society are oppressed, marginalised and disenfranchised by the capitalist class in order for them to keep their profit margins high and revolutionary thoughts low. I’m also Māori, albeit not visibly: I’m a light skin from Ngāti Whātua. I grew up as Pākehā as possible, but have recently started to learn Te Reo Māori and have recently added Māori Studies as a major in my degree. Marx opens The Communist Manifesto with the line “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”, and that is most certainly true for our post-colonial history. There is the myth that the first settlers to arrive in Aotearoa wanted to escape the class system that existed in England; however, I would suggest that they moved here to set up their own class system – with them at the top and Māori at the bottom. These settlers, some of my whom are my ancestors, exploited Māori and our taonga and sent the profits back to the European continent. We saw European
powers doing this to all of their colonies: they export raw goods from their colonies on the cheap and turn it into goods to either consume themselves, or sell it back to their colonies at a premium. This is capitalism in practice, profits at, any cost. The exploitation of Māori was only possible once the Crown and private companies had alienated Māori from the land – this was done through an influx of settlers, confiscation of land, and
buying Māori land at vastly undervalued prices. Once Māori had little land ownership, it was easy for the capitalist class to further their exploitation, because Māori had lost their ability to ‘live off the land’ i.e. they had to partake in wage slavery just to get by. It is only partially useful to use Marx to look at the history of our colonisation and exploitation; we must also use his theories to look at the future for the Aotearoa we could live in. Under Marxism, we could have Iwi
silly dream: this is a very possible reality. It would require a combined Māori and Pākehā effort to rise up against the hand that feeds us (even as it robs us). For all Māori to truly live a good life, we must absolutely reject capitalism and its notion of profit before people and the planet. Capitalism can’t be tamed or restrained, only smashed by the workers of the world.
HE TOTO TANGATA, HE ORANGA WHAKAPAPA!
tonu ko te mea nui ko tōku oranga, heoi i a au e takoto rūwha nei ka toko ake te pātai nō hea te toto nei? He whakapapa tōna? Ko wai te kaituku? Me te pātai e kaikinikini nei i roto i a au anō ka noho tonu ahau hei Māori ina e rua, e toru e aha rānei ngā momo toto i roto i a au? Ki a au nei ĀE he Māori tonu ahau. I heke mai i ōku tīpuna, mai te kōpū o tōku māmā ki te ao marama nei, nā konei he Māori ahau. Nā taku huia kaimanawa arā, te reo Māori me āna tikanga i totoka tēnei āhuatanga ki roto i a au! Nā taku whānau, aku kāhui whakapapa, aku iwi, aku hapū me au anō e mōhio ai au he Māori ahau. Nōku te hōnore kua tipu ake i waenganui i ngā pā harakeke o te kāinga nā rātou ahau i poipoi, i manaaki, i whakatipu ake i roto i te ao Māori. Waihoki, i whakatenatena i ngā tini āhuatanga Māori kua tītī ake nei i taku manawa. Engari he aha rawa e pōraruraru nei tēnei mea te karukaru i aku whakaaro? Ka kaha pahupahu tātou ki a tātou anō mō te toto o te Māori me ōna whakapapa, engari kāore
anō ahau ki āta whakawhānui i te aronga o te tangata Māori kua papu i te toto, kua whiwhi whēkau rānei mai i tangata kē. Ko wheako te matua o te whakaaro nui, ā, koia tāku ki ngā kaipānui – kua huri haere tōku ao ā-wairua, ā-tinana, ā-hauora hoki nei. Ā, nā whai anō kua huri hoki taku aronga e pā ana ki tēnei mea te tuku whēkau. I mua tonu i tēnei o ngā wheako ko tāku i whakaaro ai me pēhea rā e ora ai ō whēkau ki rō tangata kē? Engari nei au e whakautu ana i tērā o ngā pātai i te mea kei tērā taha o te taiapa ahau e noho ana, ora ake nei. Nei rā taku mihi aroha me taku whakanui hoki i ngā kaituku whēkau, mei kore ake rātou e takahi tonu ana ahau i te ao marama! Me taku whakapae anō mōhio ana ahau e kore pea au e tūtaki i ngā kaituku toto mai, heoi kua rangitāmirohia ō mātau karukaru ināianei. Hei whakakapi ake i aku kōrero, e ngāi Māori mā i tēnei rautau, mā te aha e Māori ai koe?
e Māori tonu ahau? Hei kai mā te hinengaro! Ka noho au i konei ka whakaaro noa e pā ana ki tēnei mea te toto, te karukaru. He mea nui te whakapapa ki a au heoi i huri aku whakaaro ki tēnei o ngā pātai ‘mā te toto e whakapae tōu Māoritanga?’ I te 22 o Haratua i ūhia ai tēnei wheako ki runga i a au me te aha anō i te mimiti haere te rere o tōku toto. Nā konā, i whakatau te tākuta me papu te toto ki roto i tōku tinana. I taua wā
and Hapu having autonomous kaitiakitanga of our taonga and resources. We would no longer be wage slaves. There wouldn’t be any 40-hour working week, because we would only need to work as much as we needed to to get by. The degradation and degeneration of our environment would also cease – no companies would be allowed to pollute, because under Marxism, there is a recognition of taiao. This isn’t some sort of
THERE IS THE MYTH THAT THE FIRST SETTLERS TO ARRIVE IN AOTEAROA WANTED TO ESCAPE THE CLASS SYSTEM THAT EXISTED IN ENGLAND; HOWEVER, I WOULD SUGGEST THAT THEY MOVED HERE TO SET UP THEIR OWN CLASS SYSTEM
NĀ JOSHUA JAMES
NĀ MIKAIA LEACH www.ngaitauira.org.nz
Ngā Roopū Tōrangapu 1. In government, National is delivering
results for Māori. National is committed to ensuring Māori and all New Zealanders can enjoy a successful and more prosperous future. We share important values: supporting strong families and communities, encouraging personal responsibility, and promoting enterprise and wealth creation. The country is heading in the right direction, and we’re proud to part of a government which has made real, positive differences for Māori across many areas and measures. The early-childhood education participation rate for Māori in 2013 was 92.3 per cent – up 1.4 per cent from 2012; and 58.6 per cent of Māori students left school with at least NCEA Level 2. This is up from 44.4 per cent in 2008. More and more Māori are now gaining tertiary qualifications under National. Young Māori are being immunised against childhood illnesses at an unprecedented rate – 90 per cent of Māori children are now immunised by their second birthday, compared to just 59 per cent in 2007. While there are more jobs out there, and we’re seeing increasing numbers of people move off welfare and into work, the Government is continuing to support those families who need it. We are spending more on healthier homes, with $100 million to expand home insulation. Since the National government of the 1990s started the Treaty settlement process, 69 deeds of settlement have been signed, and our Government has signed 43 of these in the past five years (Labour averaged 1.6 per year). Settlements allow iwi to create an economic base for their members, allowing them to fully participate in the economic life of their communities. We repealed Labour’s Foreshore and Seabed Act which had extinguished the right to test customary land rights in Court. 2. National supports robust participation in our democracy and encourages all eligible voters to have their say on Election Day.. Our Māori Caucus will be working hard to maintain a strong presence in Māori media and communities to talk about National’s positive record for Māori. 3. This is a conversation it is important to have, which is why National instituted the Constitution Conversation – a wide-ranging The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Ngā Patai: 1. Why should tauira Māori vote for your party? 2. What will your party do to increase voter turnout come 20 September? 3. Should Te Tiriti o Waitangi be incorporated in a written constitution for Aotearoa? 4. What do you see the most important issue to be in New Zealand in the next 10 years and why?
review of constitutional arrangements – as part of its confidence-and-supply agreement in government with the Māori Party. The Constitutional Advisory Panel which facilitated the conversation canvassed the role of Te Tiriti/the Treaty, as well as the role of international human-rights instruments in our constitutional arrangements. It, unsurprisingly, found a range of opinions on these matters. Its report can read here: http://www.ourconstitution. org.nz/Latest-News. National supports the Panel’s conclusion that the nation should continue its conversation on these important issues. 4. Māori economic development through Treaty settlements and better use of Māori land. The completion of historical Treaty settlements and an increased role for iwi in their local communities, following the examples of Ngāi Tahu and Waikato -Tainui. Addressing poverty through increasing economic growth, and increasing the housing supply to bring down house prices. Diversifying our labour force, creating more highly skilled workers – this is critical for building a more competitive and productive economy.
1. Labour wants to encourage more young
people to vote. Over half of the Māori population is under 40 years of age, and the issues that most affect this generation will influence the direction that our country is heading. We believe that fairness and belonging to a caring society means that no matter what your background, everyone can reap the benefits from a good education. For Māori students, affordability of tertiary education is a huge issue, and Labour is proud of a track record that addressed those cost pressures for the setting of course fees, broadening access to the student allowance scheme, incentivising subject and professional degree courses, and supporting student voice through compulsory student unions. Importantly, we believe that Aotearoa/NZ is a better country when all our young people thrive, which is why supporting a quality public education system at all levels really matters. In addition to our current strong Māori Caucus speaking up for all students, tauira can look forward to Labour’s up-and-coming
inspiring young Māori leaders and candidates for the 2014 election: Tamati Coffey, Rawiri Waititi, Willow-Jean Prime, Arena Williams. Our upand-coming young Māori leaders will be working hard with our current Māori Caucus and MPs to continue the work paved by the many Māori leaders, to ensure the future is bright for Māori and for all New Zealanders. 2. Labour believes that this election is one where there are some very clear choices: - National believes in selling state assets for a shortterm gain, where Labour believes in holding on to them for long-term benefit; - National believes in selling off state houses, where Labour believes in building more to provide affordable housing options; - National believes that educational success for young learners is about passing tests, where Labour believes that education should also encourage creativity and innovation; - National measures our health system in dollars, where Labour wants one that cares for people and considers the cost. Labour has a very simple message for voters at this election: we need a country where everyone benefits, not just the few at the top, and most of all, we need political leadership that puts people’s needs first. 3. Labour believes that as the founding document for our country, it’s important to continue the serious conversation about our constitutional arrangements. We are proud of our track record in this space to establish the Waitangi Tribunal, ensure that claims could go back to 1840, initiate Treaty clauses in legislation, provide for the statutory recognition of Te Reo Māori. Labour is committed to honouring the obligations the Treaty imposes upon the Government, and recognises that more can be done to advance the constitutional and legislative agenda. 4. New Zealand deserves a big vision, and for Labour, the way in which we seek to transform our economy to reverse inequality and poverty is one worth putting our hand up for. To achieve that for Māori, we would highlight a number of challenges, and there are several. The status of Māori in NZ, where population growth and diversity is changing the face of New Zealand, the health and wellbeing of the Māori population, leveraging opportunity from the Māori economy to contribute to our country’s prosperity, rapidly advancing a sustainable growth agenda where our people and resources can benefit at mutually comparable rates, security in retirement for our kaumatua and ageing
POLITICS population, world-class wages in relation to the cost of living, opportunity through accelerated education, skills-training pathways so every young person can lead a productive life, quality food and water security where NZ is able to maintain its 100 per cent pure advantage. At the end of the day, our whānau want a better life here in NZ rather than in Australia. That’s something worth voting for.
1. The Green Party seeks a future where tikanga
is respected and enabled, racism is eliminated, and the negative impacts of colonisation are healed, creating a healthy society where everyone thrives. Te Reo should be available in all schools as a step towards building a genuinely bicultural nation. We are committed to reducing poverty, building warm, dry, affordable homes, and creating meaningful jobs based on a living wage. A healthy environment and a healthy people are inseparable. The Greens will clean up our waterways, so whānau can safely swim and collect food from them. By giving their party vote to the Greens, Māori will have more Green MPs in Parliament, all committed to Te Tiriti and supporting rangatiratanga. 2. Voters want to see themselves reflected in Parliament; to have strong advocates for whānau and the whenua. The Green Party puts whānau and whenua at the heart of our work, and we hope that inspires people to Party Vote Green. To that end, we’ll be doing everything to encourage people to get out and vote and to give their party vote to the Greens. We’ve got our strongest campaign organisation ever for this year’s election. Green MPs like Metiria Tūrei, David Clendon and Denise Roche will be supporting a team of knowledgeable, articulate and passionate new Green candidates, such as Marama Davidson, Jack McDonald and Dora Langsbury. 3. The Green Party affirms that Te Tiriti o Waitangi remains a living and fundamental constitutional document. We do not have a fixed position on Te Tiriti being enshrined in a written constitution, and support full dialogue between the Tiriti parties to agree how the Tiriti relationship would best be given effect in a new constitutional arrangement. We acknowledge Te Reo Māori version of Te Tiriti as the legitimate text of an agreement setting out the respective rights and responsibilities of hapu and the Crown, giving the Crown the right to kawanatanga, while affirming tino rangatiratanga of iwi and hapu. 4. The Greens consider inequality and climate change to be critical issues facing both New
Zealand and the world in the next ten years. The global ecosystem and economy are inextricably linked, and the impact of unrestrained climate change will be economically and socially devastating, increasing the gap between rich and poor. As a relatively rich country, we have an obligation to do everything we can to both improve wages and benefits, housing and educational quality and take a global leadership role in emissions reduction. The Green Party is the only party to show true leadership on these issues so that our children will not have to bear the full burden.
1. We believe that what is good for Māori is good
for the nation. We want to ensure our mokopuna grow up to lead – not to react to the system. Transformation starts in the home: we want every child to be well-nurtured, physically, culturally, spiritually, mentally. We want rangatahi to be well-educated, have access to training and achieve a decent job with a living wage. We focus on whānau wellbeing in every sense – including eliminating social hazards such as gambling harm and promoting drug and alcohol reform. We want to keep our land pure, our economy thriving and support whānau to determine their own future. 2. Māori turnout at the last election [48 per cent] was extremely low. The two-vote system (electorate and party vote) and the increased competition of the Māori vote has increased the significance of the Māori vote to carry the balance of power. We need to promote the message that every vote is worthwhile and that voting is a key marker of participation in our society. Māori should be automatically entered on to the Māori Roll at the age of 18 (with an option to transfer to the General Roll if required). How can we work together to mobilise and inspire voters to understand their voting power? 3. The Māori Party reinforces the statement in New Zealand’s constitution – a report on a conversation ‘He Kotuinga Korero mo te kaupapa Ture o Aotearoa’ that Te Tiriti is the original legal basis for the right to live in this country; and as such we believe it should be incorporated into our constitution. The Māori Party negotiated in a Relationship Accord with the National Party in 2008 and 2011 to progress the review of our constitutional arrangements. We also support a national strategy for civics and citizenship education in schools and in the community as the basis for a more enduring relationship. 4. There is no issue of greater importance than to ensure our people are heard and supported to be proud of who they are. We need a government to work with us to create employment, stop hunger and homelessness, ensure all our children
have access to a great education, and ensure all our whānau have access to quality health services. The Māori Party can guarantee that whatever party gets the majority vote, we will work with them to make your voice heard. Our emphasis is on achieving Influence With Integrity.
1. MANA advocates for free tertiary education –
and a return to student-fee-funded Māori student rōpū and Māori student voices on institutional councils to help make this a reality. We’re also advocating for living allowances and better sector funding to ensure students receive a world-class, quality education. Another priority is to remove the PBRF research-funding model and replace with one that is fair and equitable, including for Māori. In addition, MANA is calling for an overhaul of the wider education system to boost participation and quality in kōhanga reo and ensure tamariki can attend a quality kura in their local area. 2. A key priority for MANA for the upcoming election is to change the government. To do this, we need to mobilise the 800,000 voters who didn’t vote in 2011, and particularly young Māori. Māori voter turnout is the game-changer. MANA has entered into a strategic alliance with the Internet Party, and one of the key reasons for doing so is that both parties are strongly committed to the ‘Get Out the Vote Campaign’ to sign people up to vote and ensure they cast a vote. This will include technological innovations and on-the-ground efforts including ‘ka koi’ to polling booths. 3. Rather than incorporated, the position of MANA is that Te Tiriti o Waitangi should be the starting point of our constitution. This would require a transformation of our current constitutional arrangements which merely (and barely) acknowledge the Treaty of Waitangi and ignore Te Tiriti o Waitangi altogether. MANA advocates for the need for new constitutional arrangements to be developed that are of this place, for this place, and that start with and flow from Te Tiriti o Waitangi and He Whakaputanga o Ngā Rangatiratanga o Niu Tireni. Anything less is another breach. 4. It’s got to be the elimination of inequality and poverty, especially child poverty, which have increased under National over the last six years – with Māori the hardest hit. It’s a huge task and will involve a committed and properly funded programme to create widespread employment, raise the minimum wage to a living wage, address the rental-housing crisis, provide free healthcare for all, fund what works to raise school achievement including small classes, culturally relevant learning, and food in schools – and a new tax regime to pay for it, including taxing the wealth/profits of the super-rich which currently aren’t taxed at all. l
A woman’s place too?
raditionally, whaikōrero has been the domain of men. This article aims to broaden understandings about whaikōrero and the role of mana wahine within this practice, as well as reinforce the idea that Māori are a diverse people with varying opinions on gender roles. Before continuing any further, a bit of a disclaimer: I am a young Ngāti Porou, born and bred, and the views expressed in this article will no doubt differ to others’ on this topic. The idea that Māori are all one people is one of the issues that arise when Māori are lumped into one category (usually not a very positive one), and the nuances that give us our
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
own distinct tribal and/or sub-tribal identities are lost. So just to clarify, I’m writing from a tribal perspective where I know even within Māoridom there will be a lot of people who flat-out do not share my views. Let’s begin by differentiating the concept of mana wahine from that of feminism. I always feel uncomfortable when people label women/ events/viewpoints as being/possessing/lacking mana wahine, when they’re really referring to a perceived idea of feminism. Don’t get me wrong: I am in no way attacking feminist ideals. I am appreciative of and try to embody both feminist and mana wahine qualities; but I also subscribe to the view that mana wahine exceeds the boundaries of feminism.
Of course, other people will have their definitions, but I appreciate how Merata Mita explained it, as: “I am Māori, I am woman, I am family, I am tribe, and only one of the facets of who I am fits comfortably under the label of feminism”. So when women wanting to sit in the front bench of a paepae or wanting to speak in a pōhiri is explained as asserting feminism, it all becomes problematic and just feels oh so wrong. It is important to approach this topic, and others regarding tikanga Māori, seriously and respectfully with Māori concepts such as mana wahine as opposed to imposing other non-Māori ideologies, like feminism, on
“Ultimately, a person’s gender should not be the main determinant for the right to speak on the marae. Whaikōrero has the potential to be anyone’s place to exhibit the best of who we are: our humour, our colloquialisms, and our distinct views that make us different to any other people in this world”.
traditional Māori practices and worldviews. Among Māori, views about women speaking on the marae tend to vary: some iwi are very forward and possess strong views on the distinct roles of men and women during a pohiri. I understand some of these views originated in order to protect women, because of the tapu nature of women as the whare tangata. There is a sense that women need to be safeguarded within the realm of Tu, hence men sitting in the front pae as a barrier and speaker to shield women from any unwanted attacks of a physical or spiritual nature. However, not all iwi share the view that only men can speak on the marae, and for this I want to focus on specific models of this manifestation of mana wahine as female orators. No doubt there are examples of mana wahine in all iwi, but I feel comfortable focussing on my own because that is what I know, and where my heart is. Ngāti Porou are somewhat known for being liberal when it comes to the right of women to speak on the marae. In Ngāti Porou, there are examples of mana wahine with ancestors such as Materoa and Hinematioro, women who in their time would have had no contest to their right to speak anywhere. More recently there was Whaia McClutchie who, despite on occasion being disputed as a kaiwhaikōrero, was well known to attend many hui throughout the country where if necessary she would whaikōrero to ensure her message was heard. She would say: “I speak, for the benefit of the people”. These women serve as the personification of a different realm of mana wahine, and the potential of what women speaking on the marae could be. There needs to be a discussion about what the priority for whaikōrero is: the gender of the person doing the whaikōrero, or the quality of language and thought that they are expressing. I understand that women have the opportunity to express opinions through karanga, but my argument is that if a women is the most articulate orator or most proficient in te reo Māori than any other person in her ope, why shouldn’t she have the opportunity to represent her ope in the area of whaikōrero? As we are going through a time of revitalising
our language, we should use this time as a chance to celebrate and be encouraging of the most fluent, most proficient, most eloquent among us, regardless of what’s between their legs. Admittedly, sitting in the front pae and doing whaikōrero during pōhiri is nobody’s given right. This right is earned through the respect and consent of your people; it just so happens that tribes give their consent to speakers for different reasons. This consent is possibly given through your extensive knowledge and being articulate in either or both Māori and English. During my time at university, I have met women who exemplify the characteristics of mana wahine outlined in this article, who if they choose, I hope they return to whaikōrero at their marae when the time comes. One day, with the consent of my people, I also hope to whaikōrero on my marae back home. I hope to do my tīpuna, both female and male, proud in the knowledge that I am utilising and applying their taonga tuku iho, our traditions in our language that they loved. Ultimately, a person’s gender should not be the main determinant for the right to speak on the marae. Whaikōrero has the potential to be anyone’s place to exhibit the best of who we are: our humour, our colloquialisms, and our distinct views that make us different to any other people in this world. I do believe that this is a part of the ongoing wider conversation that needs to be had about pohiri and tikanga processes. Possibly even within New Zealand race relations as a whole, to foster a wider understanding of these protocols that help make up part of our national identity. Kāti, i te mutunga iho, kei te mōhio pu au ka whakahe etahi (tērā pea te nuinga, tera pea te katoa!) ki ēnei whakaaro ōku. Heoi, ka matua hiahia au ki te rongo i ngā whakaaro a ētahi atu, he pai ake tērā i te kore korero me te noho wahangū mo te taha ki ēnei kōrero. Kei raro. l
Nā Hine Parata-Walker
A NEW CHALLENGE I HAVE FACED NAA AHI MARINO-DAWSON
aa atu, raa atu he wero ka wero i teetahi. Inaaia tata ake nei he raru ka wero i a au. He rawa kore ooku, he raru ki roto i tooku whaanau. Ka nui eenei kia whakahapa i a au i roto i ooku mahi. Ko taa Te Whare Waananga o Wikitoria tikanga kia 96 te taumaha o ngā pepa hei tauira pūmau ki koo. Kei a au e 95 noa te taumaha o taku mahi. Naa runga i teeraa i whakakorengia e Hoto Akoranga taku tahua tauira. Naa taku whakamauru atu ki a Hoto Akoranga kia hoatu puutea, ka raru a au. He mahi tuuao nooku, engari he itiiti noa nei te puutea hua kia utu i ooku mauranga, kia utu i aaku kai, me te aha anoo kia utu i tooku whare noho ki Pooneke nei. Naa runga i taku koohukihuki, ka timata a au ki te aawangawanga. I mea mai teetahi “hei aha atu maau; Me aro atu ki oou whakaakoranga.” Me peehea hoki te aro atu inā noho tata kaainga kore a au. Kei te hangarau au, engari
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
tonu. E moohio ana a au aa toona ka pai ake tooku tuuaahua, i tuku iimera atu a au ki Hoto Akoranga, ki te whare wananga hoki. I whakakii a au i ngaa utu whakawhiringa. Kua tonoa keetia e au moo ngaa pepa anoo. Kua mahia ngaa mahi kia tika haere ai taku tuuaahua. He raru kei te kaainga. Me puu tonu a au ki aaku koorero, he raru kei roto i tooku whaanau. He koorero haangai ai. Iinaa tonu i wehe ngaatahi ai teetahi o ooku tuuaakana raaua ko taana hoa taane hou ki Ahitereiria. Ae e pai noa pea teeraa, engari ka peehea te mea atu i mahue i a ia taana tamaahine ki Whanganui. Ka peehea te mea atu kaaore he putanga ngaawari moo tooku tuungane i ngaa tarukino. I timata a ia i taana 14 tau, e 17 oona tau ināianei. Ka peehea te mea atu kei tooku maama ngaa tumomo mauiui e kore ai teetahi te hikoi pai ai, e rua oona mahi,
ngaa mahi aa-tinana uaua nei. Ka whakaaro a au ka taka mai ngaa raa ka taka hoki te hau o tooku maamaa. Ka peehea te mea atu, he kui weriweri kino naa taa raaua tawhito rawa atu ka niho teka a raaua, he puurari tangata hoki e tino hiahia te paa mamae, te whakakinokino atu i tooku tungaane moo te kore noa. Ka peehea te mea atu i whaangai mai, i whakatipu hoki tooku maamaa i ngaa tamaiti e ono a tooku whaea keekee. Ka noho tuuaakana, teina, tuungane hoki ki a maaua ko tooku tuungaane i taana tuunga kootahi. E pirangi ana a au te wepua kaha ai i ngaa tangata i paa hara atu ki tooku whaanau. Ehara i te mea he hanga aroha teenei maa koutou kia aro mai ki a au, e hee. He koorero noa eenei hei whakaatu atu i teetahi o ngaa uauatanga hurinoa. He ngaawari ake ooku raru ki ngaa raru o te nuinga, engari he raru tonu. Ahakoa tonu, kei te hari tonu a au.
Nā Te Po Marie Hawaikirangi. Ka pirangi koe ki te hanga he tangata huka Kia kama, me haere ki waho tākaro ai Me puta i tōu kuaha, he pēnei na kua mahue e koe Piri pono maua, engari inaianei he aha? He honore atu, he aha ai Ka pirangi koe ki te hanga he tangata huka
oinei tetahi kiriata ka whakamahana ana i te ngakau. Ki tā te tangata ko ngā kiriata kua waihanga a Walt Disney mō ngā tamariki nohinohi anake. E hē e hoa mā, ko tēnei kiriata Frozen he momo kōrero mo te whānau katoa. Te rerekē hoki o tēnei kiriata ki etahi atu pera ki Cinderalla, enchanted rātou ko High School Musical. Auē! Te ngoikore hoki o ēnei momo kiriata, he aha te matauranaga I taua kōrero? Ka tutaki koe I tetahi tangata pūrotu,a, ka noho harikoa mō ake tōnu atu? He rūkahu rawa atu tēra momo whakaaro. Ko te tūatahi me wehewehe tēnei kiriata a Frozen I ōna momo wahanga. Me whakaraupapa au I ngā momo ahuatanga pēra I te tāhū, ngā whakaaro ka whakaiti, ngā whakaaro ka whakanui I te kiriata nei. He pakiwaitara tēnei ka whakahua I ngā tāhū matua i Frozen pēnei ki te; whakawhanaungatanga, kimi hamuti, turuki i te honotanga o tōu whanau, harikoatanga, a, te mahuetanga. Kaore e kore koinei ētahi momo ahuatanga ka whakamaru I to mātou iwi, hapu ranei. He maha rawa nga painga hei arotake i tenei kiriata. Kua tipako e au i ētahi tino ahutanga ka arataki i te mana mo te tangata. Ko te tuia o te herenga o ngā momo kararehe a Olaf (te tangata huka) raua ko Sven (moose) ki ngā tangata. Ka poipoia e rātou i ngā tanagata a Anna rāua ko Elsa, i te wā ka pā te pouri i runga i a rāua ano.He tumeke rawa atu ki te matakitaki i nga kiriata ka ruku hohonu ki nga wheako o te tangata ma runga i te pouawhakaata. Ko tētahi ahuatanga tino nui ka whakapuaki nga tangata i runga tēnei kiriata ko te puawaitanga o te aroha. Ko te aroha i waenga i a Elsa raua ko Anna he aroha mutunga kore. Ka kawe ēnei momo ahuatanga ki te hungatangata, ka taea te tangata ki te ngau kaha ki tona ake mapihi maurea mehemea he tuahine, teina, tungane rānei. Kaore he whaiaipo anake. Ko tētahi wahanga o te kiriata ka rangirua ngā kaiwhakaminenga, ko te wahanga ka manako a Elsa ki te marena I a Prince Ha. Whiu! I tutaki ia i tenei tane i te ra kotahi. Te porangi hoki o tenei kotiro. Kati! Me whakamutu au i tēnei kōrero ki te patai atu, he aha rā te kiriata tino whakahirahira. Ko te kiriata Frozen, a, tēra pea ko Lion King? Me whakaaro kōutou ngā kaipanui.
Nā Callum Rei McDougal
hono te pēne ‘Third3ye’ i te timatanga o te tau 2013. Nō Tāmaki Makaurau rātou. Nā wai, nā wai, i tukuna e rātou ngā ‘EP’ e rua, ko Earth Raps EP te tuatahi, ko Anja EP te tuarua. I te timatanga o te tau nei, i tuku a ‘Third3ye’ i tā rātou kōpae pūoru tuatahi, On3ness. Kāore i pērā rātou i tētahi pene atu i Aotearoa, i te ao anō hoki. Me uaua ka kite i te pēne Hip-Hop, e kōrero ana mō ngā kaupapa wairua, ngā kaupapa hinengaro. Ko tō rātou ingoa, he ingoa nō Hinduism. E ai ki Hinduism, nā te karu tuatoru i rongo koe i te ao wairua. “Smoking that flower power but I am not a Hippy.” He kōpae pūoru tino pai te On3ness. E hia kē ngā whakaaro akiaki, ngā kaupapa e hāpai ana te tangata. Ko tētahi waiata mātua o te kōpae ko te waiata ‘Levitate’. He ranu tēnei o te pūoru nō te tonga ki Amerika, arā, ko te pūoru ‘Trap’, me ngā kōrero-ā-wairua o Third3ye. He maha ngā kiriata pūoru o Third3ye ki te ipurangi. Titiro ki Youtube ki te kite i a rātou me tā rātou mahi pai. Ka taea te whiwhi i On3ness i te ipurangi, nō third3ye.bandcamp.com. Kāore he utu mō te kōpai pūoru nei, he koha noa iho. Third3ye.bandcamp.com Facebook.com/third3yemusic Youtube.com/third3yemusic
My Language, My Inspiration: The Struggle Continues Tōku Reo, Tōku Ohooho: Ka Whawhai Tonu Mātou Author: Chris Winitana
his book is about the fight for the survival of the Māori language. There are two independent versions, in both Māori and English. The author, Chris Winitana (Ngāti Tūwharetoa, Ngāi Tūhoe), describes all the key events, and context along with interviews. The book explores the reasons for the decline of the language, and charts its resurgence over the last four decades through initiatives such as Waitangi Tribunal claims, the petition and march for the Māori language, and the development of the Rākau method of learning. It also covers the establishment of institutions such as Kōhanga Reo, the Māori Broadcasting Authority and Māori Television. Thankfully, this isn’t written like an academic book. Good for your brain, and you learn some important history. l www.ngaitauira.org.nz
WORK ING WIT H SH ANE JO NE S NĀ BEN APPLETON
arliament can be a daunting place to start your first job. Politicians walk around with an air of importance, security is constantly scanning you, the media charge around in a scrum, and the maze of corridors in Parliament means you may have just forgotten where your office is. I first heard Shane Jones speak in my POLS 111 lecture, and was instantly captured by his floral rhetoric and unique style of politics. Fast-forward three years, and I find myself working as his Executive Assistant in Parliament, a Māori boy from Te Whānau-a-Apanui who grew up in Rotorua working for Matua Shane, the taniwha of the North! I always found Māori MPs to be incredibly inclusive, and with Shane I was free to wander in and out of any meeting, untethered from the usual niceties of an EA staying on the quiet side of the closed door.
“ SHANE AN D I WOULD S TART E AC H DAY W IT H A CUP PA AN D TALK AB O U T W HATEVE R WAS TREND IN G, AT WHI CH POIN T MAT UA WO U LD SAY : “SON, WHAT DO THE YOUNG PE O PLE T HIN K OF…?”” I still remember sitting down in an ornate boardroom across from the Governor of the Reserve Bank; Shane turned to me to say, “Boy, this is the Reserve Bank,” and proceeding to explain their function at a very basic level in front of the Governor and his senior advisors! Shane and I would start each day with a cuppa and talk about whatever was trending, at which point Matua would say: “Son, what do the young people think of…?” I found myself a spokesperson for my generation, offering sentiments that Shane would echo in Parliament that day with his unique facility for language in full flight in the debating chamber.
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Last week, Shane gave his valedictory speech, and with it ended nine years in Parliament. Shane Jones, the MP who fought for Māori to be, not only an included but also an indelible part of Aotearoa. This was the narrative entered into in the Treaty of Waitangi that promotes our status as a bicultural nation. This was the office I worked in and the ideas that I was exposed to. My time in the highest Marae of the land has come to an end, for now. I came in on the coattails of Shane and leave when the rhetoric that captured me, three years ago, ceased to resonate within the debating chamber. It was an extremely humbling experience to have operated within Parliament, to have assisted a Māori MP, and to have worked with Matua Shane Jones.
D M O N IC INT ENT NĀ HE WAHINE TINO ĀTAAHUA
he Dmonic Intent design aesthetic revolves around the “idea of finding beauty in all things dark and dangerous”. A label that can be interpreted as being without ‘boundaries’, neither influenced by mainstream retail or trend, producing edgy, high-end, one-off women’s streetwear, accessories, finely crafted jewellery and millinery. This is a unique, creative whānau collaboration, which evolved from the garage of their family home in Glen Innes, Auckland. The ‘GI’ is known for its large population of Māori and Pacific Island families, a suburb not readily associated with inspiring avant-garde fashion. Maxine Wooldridge, a graduate of Whitecliffe College of Arts and Design, and her sister Kristin Leitch design, create and sew. Samara Wooldridge, a qualified goldsmith and jeweller, and their brotherin-law Joe Walker take equal part in designing the concept of the collection, and jewellery design. Although each of the siblings have taken different learning pathways, they have brought skills and experience together as a whānau collective inspired to create from initial concept and drawings, to final production. The results have shown significant recognition, with fashion design awards from Villa Maria Cult Couture, Miromoda Avant Garde category and Hokonui Fashion Design in the wool category. This whānau are ones to watch! Excerpt from NZ Fashion Awards explaining the background of the collection: HEAVEN BLEEDS BLACK: COLLECTION FEATURED IN THE MIROMODA SHOWCASE IN 2012
metaphor for the fashion industry today. Through the use of leather, sharp angles and unique design, we have attempted to portray our concept of ‘Heaven’ as the designer and their fashion empire. The authority figures in the hierarchical system who set the trends and dictate the seasons ahead. The term ‘Bleeds Black’ represents the effects high fashion has on the global market, mass production, mass consumerism and the destruction that is caused by the trickling of greed down through the ranks. It was once common for designer wear to be handmade by men and women proficient at their craft. At present, a percentage of garments, low- and high-end, are mass-produced offshore at prices that do not reflect their worth. Mass production not only undermines the workmanship and personality evident in handmade quality goods but encourages and condones slave labour and poverty. To compete in the fast-paced world of fashion, manufacturers, often in overpopulated countries where jobs are scarce, are able to produce garments at ridiculously low prices. The designer then sells these designs with huge profit margins in comparison to the cost price per unit. ‘Hell’, in other words, as a lot of the people employed by these manufacturing companies often have no other option than to work for next to nothing, in countries that are already rife with poverty. The idea of mass production, cheap labour and underpaid workers is represented by the use of transparent fabrics, simplicity in design and the vivid symbolism of the Poutama pattern.
Heaven Bleeds Black was also initially inspired by the traditional Māori Poutama pattern. The word ‘Poutama’ can also be interpreted as one who protects and supports, and is believed to be the ultimate mark of a leader.
What we support and hope to encourage is a move towards more handmade, locally produced, quality goods at a fair price. Feeding money and employment back into our own economy while taking inspiration from the past, manipulating the traditional techniques of our ancestors and bringing them into a contemporary context – the future. l
Because of our own journey towards success in fashion design and the goal of becoming leaders in our field, Heaven Bleeds Black is our
Dmonic Intent recently opened a shop called Naked Empire, 214 Karangahape Rd, Auckland.
INTERVIEW WITH A
STYLI MĀORI NĀ HE WAHINE TINO ĀTAAHUA
e continue to watch the rising talent, Adrienne Whitewood (Rongowhakaata), a young Māori designer from Rotorua who is inspired by Māori art, history and tikanga. Adrienne studied at Auckland University of Technology (AUT) in 2009, graduating with a degree in Fashion. She continued studying Ngā Mahi Whakairo and Tikanga Māori at Waiariki in Rotorua. Her standout collection, Te Aho Tapu (‘the sacred thread’) made our heads turn when it hit the catwalk at the Miromoda Fashion Awards in 2011. Miromoda challenges established and emerging Māori tertiary designers to submit pieces, which look “beyond conforming to trends and business restraints in order to advance the ‘art’ form. Design and concept of the collection is the primary consideration in this award”. The 2014 competition closes on 30 May 2014 at 5 pm. In 2012, Adrienne’s collection was one of 120 entries submitted to the Cult Couture Supreme Awards. This event, part of Manukau’s Southside Arts Festival, showcases original cutting-edge design. Taniko, inspired by Lady Gaga and Māori design, won the streetwear section. The multi-coloured hand-woven dress, featuring geometric patterns similar to traditional taniko, went on to win the Supreme title, which also featured established high-profile designers. Late last year, Adrienne opened Ahu Boutique, featuring her own unique fashion designs, weaving and other arts. The term ‘Ahu’ means ‘to inspire, uplift and celebrate’, one used for Māori fashion. The store is located on Eruera St, in central Rotorua. Web: www.adriennewhitewood.com Image permission obtained from Adrienne Whitewood Model: Stevie Bartlett Photographer: Andrew Strickland – Shotta Photography Creative director: Ike Procter
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
INGOA: Lee Te-Aowhitiki Kershaw-Karaitiana IWI: Ngāti Ruanui, Ngāti Kahungunu, Ngāti Porou TOHU PAETAHI: Bachelor of Arts, Majoring in Māori Resource Management & Māori Studies HE AHA ĒTAHI UAUATANGA I PĀ MĀI I RUNGA I A KOE I TŌ AKONGA I TE WHARE WANANGA? I a au e rangahau ana, i a au e nanaiore ana i i tāku tohu paetahi, he nui ngā uauatanga, ā, he nui ngā paenga anō hoki, kua pā mai i runga i a au i te whare wānanga nei. Mōku ake nei, ko tētahi o ngā tino uauatanga tā te akonga, arā, ko ngā mahi whakapuakanga. He mahi hou tēnei mahi, mēnā ka uru totika mai i te kura tuarua ki te whare wānanga pēnei nei nā. He mahi tauiwi, he mahi pora tō tēnei momo mahi. Nā reira, me ū tonu, ina hoki tae noa ki tō potaetanga kia ngawari ake ai, kia tohunga ake ai tō whakamahitanga i taua momo mahi, ka tika. HE KŌRERO ĀWHINA TĀU KI NGĀ TAUIRA HEI EKE KI NGĀ TAUMATA TEITEI? Kōrero atu ki ngā akonga pēnei i a koe, kai a rātou ngā whakaaro rereke, kai a rātou hoki ngā whakaaro hou. Mai i te kōrero ka whakawhānui ake ana tō mōhiotanga, tō maramatanga anō hoki kia pūrangiaho ai te kitea. Me hohonu te ruku, kaua e patipati noa. Ahakoa he moana pukepuke i wētehi wā, ka ekengia e te waka. KA AHA KOE MŌ NGĀ RĀ KEI TE HEKE MAI NEI (A MURI I TŌ PŌTAETANGA)? I tēnei wā tonu e mahi ana ahau i āku mahi rangahau paerua. Kua hoki atu ki te kainga o Ngāti Kahungunu. I reira rangahau ai i raro i te maru o Materoa Haenga. He toki aia o roto mai i Kahungunu nei, ahakoa nō Porourangi, he mātanga reo, he puna mātauranga te kuia rā mō ngā tangata katoa o Ngāti Kahungunu, o Te Tairawhiti whānui. Nōku te whiwhi, nōku anō hoki te maringanui ki te whakarongo, ki te takinoho i te taha o tēnei kuia. Ko tāku mahi nō nāia tonu nei, ka haere tonu āku rangahau, ka haere tonu āku whaiwhai i te reo, ka haere tonu ahau ki te whakakīkī i āku kete mātauranga mōku noa nei, otira, mō tōku whānau hoki. Ka mutu.
WHY BEYONCÉ COULD BE MĀORI NĀ TE MIHINGA TUKARIRI
#NAMA TAHI With her set of lungs, HEY Mrs Carter! She could definitely pump out a bracket or two at Te Matatini. #NAMA RUA F-I-E-R-C-E Like many strong Māori figures, not only can Beyoncé walk the walk, she can talk the talk. #NAMA TORU #Dathairdoe!!! Ever stressed over your hair getting all frizzy and crazy before you hit the town…
he current situation with the ownership of water is one which has sharks on all sides. For its part, the Crown has known full well since the 1800s that there is an issue. In recent years they have begun a campaign, starting in 2007 with the ‘Sustainable Programme of Action’ to reinforce to the general public that either “no one owns water” or that “we all own it” (via the Crown). These claims are made under the guise of trying to protect water in a time of increasing scarcity and pollution. But both of these the Crown can largely be said to be responsible for. From the Māori side, we also have been saying there is an issue since the 1800s. The difficulty, however, is twofold. Firstly, in the face of the Crown’s blatant attempts to exclude any suggestion of, or actual, Māori ownership of water, Māori groups have had to use the language of ‘ownership’ in response to claim our rights. But ownership rights are not quite an exact fit when it comes to considering
#NAMA WHA Focal in her life and direction is Beyoncé’s family. Her mama, her pepi, her taane, you guessed it: her WHĀNAU.
Te Ao Māori what their mamas gave them.
#NAMA RIMA “Your self-worth is determined by you. You don’t have to depend on someone telling you who you are”
#NAMA WHITU Just like your mama, Beyoncé keeps it real and knows who she is and where she came from, and if you haven’t guessed by now that’s Aotearoa, and before we have an Iwi war she already told me she’s from Ngāpuhi so sorry y’all.
#NAMA ONO Killer looks and smouldering eyes remind me of the Matatini stage filled with wahine winking, and showing
PS – This is based on my opinion, and if you have a problem with it, then tell your mum: she’ll kiss it better. Xoxo
traditional conceptions of rangatiratanga over waterways or of manawhenua rights surrounding land with water on it (such as lakes). Trying to describe the nuances of Māori ownership regimes over water, including through the notion of an ‘undivided entity’, is lost on the Crown and are
It is a basic need – for humans and every living thing. It should not be a commodity. It should be a right. So when the sharks, on both sides, step out, we really need to reaffirm that water may rightfully be looked after by Māori in this country, but
But ownership rights are not quite an exact fit when it comes to considering traditional conceptions of rangatiratanga over waterways or of manawhenua rights surrounding land with water on it (such as lakes). not easily explained to non-Māori through the mass media. The second major issue is that some Iwi have expressed an eagerness to embrace the idea of selling water permits or profiting from selling water. And on the one hand, it’s true Māori should have the ‘right to develop’, and that means to be able to sell water like any other company or capitalist. But really! Water is not a commodity.
that ‘looking after’ should not extend to selling it. The right of ‘looking after it’ also does not and should not be traded for shares in state-owned enterprises. Those who suggest that are also after money rather than the more noble quest of looking out for the rights of all. So beware the sharks on all sides of this debate
NĀ MS MŌHIO
WHERE THE BLOODY HELL ARE YOU? NĀ JODECI MĀORI
ua huri o tātou pona ki te mahanga o te ahi. Kua kaingahia o tātou taringa e te marea mo ngā kaupapa, ara a Hone Harawira e tutu ana i te puehu me ōna kōrero whakawhiu ki runga i a John Howard.
i au tamariki? • He pai ki a koe ma te kawana e whakatau i tetahi takuta hei tiro i au tamariki mehemea kua tukino, kua koerehia ranei? • He pai ki a koe mā te kawana e ki pehea to noho ki tēnei ao?
Koira te nanakia nei a John Howard me ana kaupapa here e pehi ana i ngā tangata whenua o Ahitereiria. Hei tā Hone Harawira, “he poriro, he kaikiri, he kakiiwhero ia”. Ahakoa ka whakaae au ki ngā korero a Hone, tera pea he ahua weriweri ana kupu (engari he pono).
Anei ano he whakaaro mā tātou. Kotahi marama ki muri, e noho ana au ki tōku kainga. Ka haere mai tētahi o āku hoa Māori nei e noho ana ki Poihakena, me tāku kii atu ki a ia, “ka aroha hoki ngā tangata whenua o Ahiteiria.” Me tōna ki mai ki ahau, “Ea, na rātou te hē. Nā to rātou kore whaimahi, nā to rātou haurangi, nā to rātou ngoikore i pēnei ai te kawana ki a rātou.
Tena, ko te patai inaianei, he aha te tino raru o ana kōrero – ko te kaupapa i whakatakotohia e ia, ko nga kupu i korerohia ranei? Mehemea i ngawari ake ana kupu, ka rata pea te tokomaha ki ona whakaaro, ki tona take ranei? Ko te mea ke kua whanui ake te whakaaro a te iwi ki tenei kaupapa, kua timata te patapatai, “he aha ai i korero penei a Hone?” Kaore e kore i tu nga pihi a etahi ki ngā korero whakatahe a Hone. Engari i whea taua riri i te wa i whakina mai a John Howard i ana kaupapa here ki nga tangata e noho ana ki te takiwa o te Northern Territory i Ahitereiria. Kia whakaaro tahi tātou mo ngā kare a-roto o tāua kaupapa here: • He pai ki a koe te uru mai o te hunga tāua ki o whenua whakaataata ai? • He pai ki a koe te ki a te kawana pehea te tiaki i tō whanau,
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
Katahi ra tāku pukuriri ki a ia me tāku ki ano, “Ko wai hoki koe te ki atu me pehea te noho a tētahi iwi, no rātou ake te whenua, ko koe te manuhiri? Kua rite ano koe ki nga tangata i haere mai ki Aotearoa nei me te pohehe ano he koretake tatou, he haurangi noa iho te mahi, he noho ki runga i nga penihana – te mutunga mai o te pai a te Māori!” Me tōna whakamā ano kaore ia I whakaaro pena. Kia hoki ano tātou ki ngā kare a-roto o te kaupapa here a John Howard. Mehemea e rata ana koe ki era, “where the bloody hell are ya?” Mō ētahi atu kōrero, haere ki ēnei wharangi ipurangi: http://www. antar.org.au, http://www.aotearoa.wellington.net.nz Tuatahi ahuatanga: Tu Mai Magazine.
TE REO RANGIKURA A MOEHAU – KUINI MOEHAU K
PROFILE – KUINI MOEHAU REEDY Ko Hikurangi te Maunga Ko Waiapu te Awa Ko Ngāti Porou te īwi.
āu mai ki Te Reo Rangikura a Moehau. He reo i takea mai i nga Toi-aRangi, nga Toi-a-Papa.
He reo oro i takea mai i te taiao, i te ao pohewa. I huaina mai ngā kupu i nga kaupapa huhua noa hai whakapoapoa tamariki, hai whakangahau, hai whakatau kaupapa, hai whakatu mana, hiki wairua, aha atu, aha atu. Kua oti hei rauemi reo mo ngā reanga tamariki pakupaku, rangatahi, pakeke atu. Kua whaihua ki nga Kōhanga Reo, ngā Kura Kaupapa Māori me nga whare wānanga hoki I waihangatia hai taonga mo ngā pukete kōrero i Te Reo Rangatira, hai kinaki i ngā mahere whakapiki Reo, hai whakangahau hoki i ngā wananga whakapakari Reo huri noa i Aotearoa. He rua tēkau ngā waiata kai roto i te kōpae tuatahi “Waiata mā ngā tamariki mokopuna”. E waru ngā waiata kōpara kai te kopae tua rua, he waiata ngawari nga rangi, he reo roreka ngā kai waiata. Ko Adrian Stewart raua ko Percy Robinson ngā kaitito. Ko Percy te tohunga Toi Puoro Whakarangirangi. E wha ngā paikiwaitara kai te kopae tua toru. Ko nga pakiwaitara nei kua kinakitia i te waiata. Ko Kuini Moehau rāua ko tana iramutu a Percy Robinson ngā reo waiata, a, ko Percy hoki te tohunga Toi Puoro whakarangirangi.
o Kuini Moehau Reedy mai i ngā whānau o Kapohanga, Te Aowera, Te Awemapara, Rakairoa, o te hapu o Te Aitanga-a-Mate hoki. He wahine rongonui a Kuini mo te kaitito waiata, haka, pakiwaitara ,a, te whakaako hoki. He tohunga kaiwhakawā Kapahaka o te motu. He kaihautū o te ao Māori,he kai whakapūmau i te reo me ōna tikanga, he manukura maioha. He pou tikanga wānanga Māori. Ko ōna pukenga e ahei ana ki ngā taonga tuku iho, no ōna matua tipuna nō tuawhakarere o Te Aitanga-a-Mate. Kua whakahonoretia ia i te tohu o ‘Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit (MNZM) in the Queen’s Birthday Honours for services to Māori’ i te tau 2011. I ngā tau 40 ki muri, tae noa mai ki tenei wa e tautito waiata ana a Kuini Moehau, kua horapa ki te motu whānui. He maha ngā kaupapa reo i waihangatia mo te pouaka whakaata hei whakaako i ngā mokopuna o te kohanga reo. He manutaki ia mo te reo Māori me ōna tikanga, mo ngā Kohanga Reo puta noa i Aotearoa mai i te timatanga o te kaupapa. He manutaki, he pou tikanga ki ngā whenua o Canada, Tahiti, America, Russia, Australia, Japan, Greece, and England. He manutaki, he pou tikanga Whakahouhou-i-te-rongo ki Switzerland, Ireland and England. He manukura paearahi mo nga Minita o te Kawanatanga, ki Cairo, Egypt me Geneva, Switzerland. Pukahu ana ngā momo haka wahine, haka tāne, mōteatea, pātere, waiata-a-ringa, waiata poi, waiata-ma-ngā tamariki ririki, he waiata whakatarunaruna, whakarotarota tae atu ki nga pakiwaitara. Kua kopaehia toru tekau ma rima o aua taonga mo Te Rangikura a Moehau. l
MĀORI AND PACIFIC ARCHITECTURE FEATURE IN THE NEW ZEALAND EXHIBITION @ THE 14TH VENICE ARCHITECTURE BIENNALE 2014 Exhibition Creative Team. Photo by Jane Ussher.
TE WHARE HOU The Venice Architecture Biennale is the world’s architectural event, a leading forum for the exploration of architectural ideas and showcasing building design. The event is being held in Venice between 7 June and 23 November 2014, and will be the first time that New Zealand has entered an international showcase exhibition. Associate Professor Tony van Raat, head of the Department of Architecture from Unitec, is the Commissioner of the New Zealand Exhibition. Together with David Mitchell, director of Auckland-based Mitchell & Stout Architects and one of New Zealand’s most experienced and respected architects, chosen to head up a strong creative team for the New Zealand Exhibition. The team includes architects Julie Stout, Mike Austin, Ginny Pedlow, Rick Pearson, Julian Mitchell, and Rau Hoskins (Ngāti Hau, Ngāpuhi), the director of designTRIBE architects, lecturer in the Department of Architecture, Unitec, Auckland, and coauthor of the TV series Whare Māori; it also includes Architecture graduates Claire Natusch, Chia-Lin Sara Lee and Frances Cooper. David Mitchell says the New Zealand Exhibition, which he has titled Last, Loneliest, Loveliest, will respond to the theme set by the Biennale’s Director, the celebrated Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas. The title refers to Rudyard Kipling’s The Song of the Cities poem. Under Rem Koolhaas’s direction, the Biennale is departing from the usual celebration of architects and large design projects, to focus on the fundamentals of architecture using a The Te Ao Mārama Issue
historical approach, as a “vehicle for research than an exhibition”. “The Biennale will examine the relationship between modernisation and national styles of architecture,” Mitchell says. “In particular, it will consider whether national differences are still possible in an age when architecture is increasingly homogeneous”. He questions if architecture has “reached the stage where everything looks the same, everywhere? Where there is little relationship between and design and the place in which it is realised”. “In particular, it’s the Pacific tradition we are concerned with, and the interaction between that tradition and international styles in the modern period.” “In contrast to European architecture, which is architecture of mass and solidity, Pacific architecture is a lightweight architecture of posts and beams and panels and big roofs. This architecture has been persistently present in our history, it survived a century of colonisation, and it is increasingly distinctive”. New Zealand’s feature exhibition is going to show the most “unsung architecture” in the world. A 100-year history of New Zealand’s architecture will go on display, which includes Māori meeting houses and Pasifika buildings. The display will feature a purpose-built whatarangi and pūwharawhara – a one-poled pataka (storehouse) carved by Tristan Maurer – with an illuminated model of the Auckland War Memorial Museum inside it. It will also include a model tower using the post-tensioned timber-construction technique devised at the University of Canterbury and used to build the College of Creative Arts at Massey University’s
Julie Stout, concept sketch for the New Zealand Exhibition at the 14th Venice Architecture Biennale, 2014. ©Mitchell & Stout Architects
Wellington campus. The exhibition will also feature Auckland’s new art gallery, and Christchurch’s cardboard cathedral which Mitchell described as a very Pacific building – lightweight and flexible. The entire city of Venice is the venue for architecture, with New Zealand’s exhibition located in a historic villa, Palazzo Pisani Santa Marina, a few minutes’ walk from the Rialto Bridge, St Mark’s Square and the Basilica of Saints Giovanni and Paolo. There are 65 countries participating in this event, along with New Zealand and ten other first-time participants. Tauira Māori: irrespective of your study major, share your amazing experiences of Venice, international architectural designs and concepts with the rest of us through Te Ao Mārama or Ngāi Tauira. See report in te reo Māori from reporter Peata Melbourne at Te Karere.
HE KŌRERO WHAKAKAPI, HE MIHI WHAKAMUTUNGA “Ehara taku toa i te takitahi, engari he takitini” E ngā reo, e ngā mana, e ngā waka tēnā koutou katoa.Ko te tāhuhu o tēnei pukapuka ka noho i waenganui i ngā kaipukumahi, i ngā kaiwhakahaere kua whanake i tēnei perihitanga. He kupu whakamiha tēnei ki a koutou kua kaha taunaki mai i tēnei kaupapa. Me mihi ka tika ki a koutou. Ki ngā whānau hora ai i tēnei whare wānanga a Te Herenga Waka, Te Pūtahi Atawhai, Te Mana Ākonga, Ngā Rangahautira, Te Kōmiti Whakahaere o Ngāi Tauira, a ki a Te Ahu Rei mo ngā kupu whakakipakipa. He mihi whakamoemiti ki ngā kaituhi, ki ngā kaitito: Vincent Olsen-Reeder, Kieran Gera, Tanja Schutz, Jamie Yeates, Raihania Tipoki, Geneveine Wilson, Alana Te Piki Broughton, Tayla Cook, Tawhana Chadwick, Elijah Pue, Tama Gray-Sharp, Joshua James, Mikaia Leach, Hine Parata-Walker, Callum Rei-McDougall, Ahi Marino-Dawson, Allandria Puna, Te Mihinga Tukariri, Lee Kershaw-Karaitiana, Ben Appleton, Roger Steele rātou ko te kāhui ākonga onamata. He mihi matakuikui hoki ki ngā roopu tōrangapū kua whakamana i o rātou ake pāti. He mihi kau ana ki ngā kaiwhakapakari, kaiwhakatika reo kua awhi mai ki te whakapai i ngā kōrero kua tono mai. Ko Vincent Olsen-Reeder, Kristin Jerram koutou ko Joanna Morgan. He ruku hohonu tēnei momo mahi hei tiketike i Te Reo Māori. He mihi whakamanawa tēnei ki te whānau o Salient. Nā koutou matou i arahi kia tipu pai ai tēnei kaupapa o Te Ao Mārama. No reira ki a koe Duncan McLachlan kōrua ko Cameron Price e kore te puna aroha e mimiti. He mihi hoki tēnei ki a koe e te kaitoi a Imogen Temm. Kāore e kore he mihi whakamoemiti ki ōku hoa, ki tōku whanau kua akiaki, kua tautoko i ōku mahi i tēnei haerenga. Ahakoa ngā piki me ngā heke kua ea. Ngā Mihi Te Po Marie Hawaikirangi Etitā o Te Ao Mārama 2014
THERE WILL BE MANY PEOPLE AROUND THIS UNIVERSITY WHO WILL BE FEELING LEFT OUT AFTER LOOKING AT THE FRONT COVER OF THIS ISSUE. THE INTENTION IS TO HELP YOU FEEL JUST THAT. IF YOU ARE NOT INTERESTED IN MĀORI CULTURE YOU WILL READ LITTLE, IF ANYTHING, IN THIS SALIENT – AND SO PERPETUATE YOUR IGNORANCE. : From the editorial written for the first Te Ao Mārama in 1972 by Gil Peterson
n Germany, someone from the government comes to your town when you are young, assesses your abilities, and then tells you what you will do in life – some are sent to university, some to apprenticeships. As a result, the German people are some of the most wealthy in the world and very few are unemployed. The same system wouldn’t work in New Zealand – if some bureaucrat told us we couldn’t go to university, we would tell them to shove it. What does this have to do with the Te Ao Mārama issue of Salient? The point is that different cultures react differently to different policies. That should be the starting point of any discussion about ‘special treatment’. Just as German policies that work for Germans wouldn’t work for New Zealanders, some policies that work for Pākehā don’t work for Māori. We already accept this basic premise in other cases – we tax the poor less, we give extra help to children with learning disabilities. This isn’t controversial. But for some ugly reason, helping Māori is. Although we are all New Zealanders, there is certainly a distinct Māori culture. Just like every other culture, it has its strengths and weaknesses. Obviously, what follows are generalisations, but culture is by nature general. Māori are the most warm, friendly and engaging people. Māori are accommodating and go out of their way to make you feel comfortable. Respect for traditions and elders is ingrained. Love is on full display, and humour abounds. Despite all the hardship, Māori are such a happy people. It’s not controversial to say that Māori are also vulnerable to weaknesses. Educational attainment is hugely lacking – 50 per cent of Māori males leave school without passing Level 1 English. Māori are over-represented in prison and poverty, and under-represented in Parliament and workforce participation. Many are trapped in a triad of vices – smoking, alcoholism and obesity. To deny these weaknesses is to deny the systemic othering of Māori which led to these problems existing. Acknowledging weakness doesn’t lay blame. It lays bare past failings, and helps us identify how we can move forward so that the cycle does not continue. Lots of people look at us and see two privileged white guys. Only one of us is. Cam is part-Māori, and identifies as a member of Ngāti Tūwharetoa. Interestingly though, Cam’s mum was a whangae child (a Māori term describing a concept similar to adoption). By blood, Cam is descended from Ngāti Kahungunu. This heritage has taught Cam two things: firstly, that certain Pākehā change their tone massively depending on their (perceived) audience. Similarly, Māori often treat him with suspicion or disdain. Being an undercover brother has shown him the dark underbelly of casual, everyday racism. This isn’t always sinister; more often than not, it’s just a lack of understanding. When people don’t understand, their first response is often fear, followed by discrimination. The other thing he’s realised is that the obsession with the physical
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
masks the cultural. Blood quantum, skin tone, birth parents – these all warp what it means to be Māori. Physical attributes don’t make you Māori – a Pākehā adopted into a Māori family is Māori. To put physical conditions on a culture is to exclude those not fortunate enough to be born within it. Anyone can be Māori. We can should must identify with aspects of the Māori culture, if we are to identify as New Zealanders. A traditional belief of many Māori is that we walk through life backwards, our eyes to the past, not knowing what the future brings. Watching our life unfold, navigating our way forward by reference to what’s been. That’s an objectively beautiful way of thinking about life. The concept of ‘utu’ (so often bastardised as ‘revenge’, with all of that word’s aggressive connotations) actually means ‘reciprocity’. If someone does right by you, you need to return the favour. If someone wrongs you, they owe you. Ideas of balance, fairness, karma, justice and utu are universal; they just have different names. This week, we are really proud of what has been produced. There are 40 pages of content showcasing the views and ideas and feelings and concerns of Māori students at Vic. Half the content is in Te Reo, half in English. Challenge yourself to read all of it – surprise yourself with how many words you recognise. If you get stuck, ask a Māori friend to help. If you don’t have a Māori friend, ask yourself why not. If you don’t want to engage with this edition, don’t. You don’t have to. We can’t force you. But just know that being ignorant of the Māori worldview is your loss. Finally, we want to thank everyone from Ngāi Tauira for making this amazing issue a reality. Special thanks go to Te Po for being our guest editor for the week. Also to Elijah and Mikaia, co-presidents of Ngāi Tauira, for their patience and grace. And to Tanja for being Salient’s resident mum for a week. We loved having you all in the office. Our contributor of the week is Imogen, our designer. We can all agree that she’s done a fantastic job designing so many different pieces. Have a great holiday. We will see you all after the break. Aro hanu i,
Du ncan & Cam
For more information contact the International Institute of Modern Letters Phone 04-463 6854 Email firstname.lastname@example.org Website victoria.ac.nz/modernletters
Course places are limited.
Kia Tū Kia Māia!
You’ll be working with acclaimed writer Tina Makereti on your choice of fiction, poetry or creative non-fiction informed by Māori or Pasifika viewpoints.
You will be writing in a supportive and stimulating environment. You will also be reading widely and developing your skills as an editor of your own and others’ work.
Creative writing: a Māori and Pasifika perspective Te hiringa a tuhi
Explore the diverse range of non-fiction science writing possibilities with leading science writer and Listener columnist Rebecca Priestley and noted essayist and poet Ashleigh Young.
Our creative science writing course explores how we can tell the stories of science in a way that is meaningful to a general audience.
Writing for science: a creative experiment
Enrol now for a creative writing course in Trimester Two 2014.
Be bold. Be creative.
Our research is changing the world The University of Waikato is committed to research that tackles national and global challenges. Our six world-leading research institutes are offering scholarships to doctoral and masters students keen to help shape the future. Scholarships are available from: »
Environmental Research Institute
Institute of Educational and Professional Learning and Development
National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis
Te Kotahi Research Institute
Wilf Malcolm Institute of Educational Research.
Institute for Business Research
Doctoral scholarships are valued up to $85,000 over three years (this includes tuition fees and scholarship instalments over the tenure) and are open to New Zealand and international students. Masters scholarships of $12,000 are available to New Zealand students only. For more information and to apply, visit waikato.ac.nz or talk to us on 0800 WAIKATO. Applications close 5pm, Monday 30 June 2014.
At the University of Waikato, the possibilities are endless.
Que st ion for the E xec Q. What happened to the Māori Business major at Business School? A. The Māori Business (MBUS) major taught valuable skills
SONYA S AYS
s a Pākehā New Zealander, I felt a bit apprehensive when deciding what to write about this week. I wanted to make sure that while putting forward my perspective, I straight-up acknowledged that I am still learning about the fullness of what a true Treaty partnership means. Many wrongdoings have occurred through Pākehā thinking they know what is best for Māori. Furthermore, I know that Victoria University, including VUWSA, has a long way to go before the Treaty is fully actioned in a way that makes a difference to the lives of tauira Māori. Te Ao Mārama is a pretty special issue of Salient. It came about in the 1970s, as the revitalisation of Te Reo Māori was being strongly fought for, after many years of the use of Te Reo being suppressed in New Zealand. Last year, I went to Japan, as part of a delegation of New Zealand youth representing Aotearoa New Zealand on the ‘Ship for World Youth’. One of the awesome parts of the experience was being part of a delegation with multiple fluent speakers of Te Reo. While I had grown up in schools with a large percentage of Māori, this was the first time I experienced hearing Te Reo not just in the formal context – of a Kapa Haka competition, or a powhiri – but in the informal context all around me – in airports, over late-night beers, and when joking about wearing flu masks. I feel very strongly that one of the most important things we can do to honour Te Tiriti is to use, pronounce correctly, and appreciate Te Reo Māori. Language is key to respecting people. A study that came out this year showed that Māori students were less likely to achieve at school if their teacher pronounced their name wrong. When language is core to the respect of culture, Te Reo needs to be a key part of the education of every single New Zealander. I got really excited when I saw that The Warehouse in Gisborne last week has made the entire store and all of its signs bilingual – it seems really simple, but it means that many Gisborne locals will now learn many of the Māori words for everyday items. When I think about the limited Te Reo I can speak, I think of my teachers who made simple efforts to integrate Māori into every part of life – that ‘turituri’ meant ‘be quiet’, and ‘horoi o ringa ringa’ means ‘to wash your hands’. It didn’t seem hard for my teachers to do. As a university, and a Students’ Association, we must work alongside tauira Māori to entrench the role of Te Reo Māori in this university. Naku, na Sonya Clark VUWSA President M: 027 563 6986 | DDI: (04) 463 6986 | E: sonya.clark@vuw. ac.nz | W: www.vuwsa.org.nz
in doing business the Māori way: a business model governed by particular Māori principles and values. In the Māori business model, the bottom line involves not only monetary concerns, but also environmental, social, cultural and intergenerational sustainability. For Māori students in particular, a stable Māori Business major would be of special value in that it would provide a tool to empower them to engage and succeed in mainstream institutions – whether this be the University itself or in post-study careers – while still maintaining a connection with Tikanga Māori. MBUS courses aren’t just good for Māori to take, however – many non-Māori students also found these incredibly valuable. The Māori business model closely resembles other non-Western business models, particularly businesses in Asia which are family-oriented and concerned with sustainability throughout generations. From the end of 2012, following a sustained period of low enrolments, the Victoria Business School closed the MBUS major to new enrolments. Subsequent to this, in December 2013, the Business School put together a special review panel to look at ways in which Maori Business content might be offered to students. Among the issues to be looked at by the review were the definition of Maori Business as field of study, and whether a specific major and dedicated courses were required for the effective teaching of Maori Business content. As part of the submissions process, VUWSA consulted both recent MBUS graduates and students who wanted to take MBUS but couldn’t. Among the recommendations in our submission to the panel was that a major in the Māori Business field must continue to be offered by the Victoria Business School. No report from the review has yet been released, so we’re not sure of the fate of Māori Business at this stage. VUWSA will continue to speak up for what Māori Business students have told us they wanted: to keep Māori Business at Vic.
W hat ’s on this w e e k: Monday 2 June: Holiday! Tuesday 3 June: Clubs Showcase in the Hub, 12–1 pm. Wednesday 4 June: UniQ Lunch Space 12–4 pm: Queer-friendly Lunch in the Hub, all welcome! Thursday 5 June: Prez in the Hub – Come along to chat with Sonya at Vic Info Ihonui Level 2, from 12–1 pm. Friday 6 June: Free Bread @ VUWSA Reception Saturday 7 June: Languages and Cultures Ball – Tickets are $40 and on sale @ VUWSA Reception Str e s s F r e e St u dy W e e k : Freaked out about exams? Feeling strained with study? All during study week, VUWSA, in partnership with Victoria University, is providing Free Breakfasts and Lunches at Kelburn, Pipitea, and Te Aro. The Recreation Centre is offering free classes, and I heard a rumour about puppies being on campus…
AN I NT ERVI E W : Tina Makereti
By Nina Powles
few weeks ago, Victoria University’s creative-writing institute, the IIML, announced a new undergraduate course beginning in Trimester 2: Te Hiringa a Tui, the Māori and Pasifika Creative Writing Workshop. It is a new kind of course that encourages students “to bring their cultures with them through the workshop room door.” Tina Makereti, highly acclaimed novelist and non-fiction writer, is the course convenor. There are relatively few Māori and Pasifika students enrolled in creative-writing courses at VUW. Why do you think this is? Is there something a bit insular about university creative-writing culture? There could be. I guess that’s one reason to make a course like this; do Māori and Pasifika students find IIML creative-writing courses accessible? I hope that by directly addressing the question of how culture relates to writing, we open up a space for people who are interested in exploring cultural identity in Aotearoa NZ, and for people who don’t see themselves reflected in our publishing culture. And we also create another space on campus that has different cultural imperatives: where speaking different languages, different traditional creative forms, joking and political discussion can take place. What
alerted you to the necessity of this
The Te Ao Mārama Issue
In my PhD, I did some of statistical analysis that revealed just how few Māori-fiction-inEnglish books are produced. In 2007, there were six per cent; in 2008, 1.6 per cent; in 2009, four per cent. This is well below what might be expected for our population, and I am sure Pasifika writing is similarly underrepresented. Victoria has lost its own Pacific and Indigenous literature papers for the time being, and I’m not sure if they will be invested in again. The loss for students is palpable to me. The loss is great for Māori and Pasifika students, but also for any student interested in literature. And how can we understand our national identity if so many of our national stories are not taught in any active way? How can we tell new stories if we don’t know what has gone before? I would call this a crisis, and not one I would expect us to be addressing in 2014. The new course will incorporate a range of forms, poetry and prose, while other IIML courses focus only on one. There will be a lot of freedom to experiment with form. I guess we will be approaching these questions in class: is something better expressed as a poem or an essay? Could it be both? Is it a piece of fiction or non-fiction? Which class?
writers will you be reading in the
Tusiata Avia, Hinemoana Baker, Sia Figiel, Patricia Grace, Epeli Hau’ofa, Selina Tusitala
Marsh, Karlo Mila, Robert Sullivan, Albert Wendt and many others! What
do you hope to achieve with your
It’s about finding strength in their writing and finding the thing they can do with words that no one else can. The best outcome would be for them to go on and publish or take more courses, perhaps apply for the MA. Writing takes incredible tenacity. I hope to give them some tools for the journey. What do you see in the future for Māori and Pasifika creative writing at Victoria? I’d like to see this paper succeed, and for there to be a healthy and diverse range of cultures here and out in the publishing world. Out of all novelists, poets and playwrights studied in the undergraduate english literature programme at vuw in 2014 : (taken from course outlines available online)
67% male 33% female 82% white 18% non-white 10% non-white male 8% non-white female
NOTICES MARX IN SOHO
A play by Howard Zinn, performed by Anya Tate-Manning. This is the New Zealand premiere of this amazing play. Marx is back! The premise of this witty and insightful “play on history” is that Karl Marx has agitated with the authorities of the afterlife for a chance to clear his name. Through a bureaucratic error, though, Marx is sent to Soho in New York, rather than his old stomping ground in London, to make his case. When: 7 pm, Saturday 14 June (one night only!) Where: Newtown Community and Cultural Centre Tickets: $15/$20 Details: https://www.facebook.com/ events/559571887491085/?fref=ts Hosted by International Socialists
LANGUAGES AND CULTURES BALL
You have ONE more week to buy tickets for the Languages and Cultures Ball (7 June). This Ball is open to all students and their partners! Tickets are $40 and include two drinks and nibbles. There will be a professional photographer and DJ present. Purchase tickets at the LLC, Level 0, von Zedlitz. Cash only. Any questions, email email@example.com.
2014/15 INTERNSHIPS AND GRADUATE JOBS
Applications closing soon: Organisations: Closing Date Methanex New Zealand: 6 Jun Xero: 6 Jun IBM: 13 Jun Accenture: 18 Jul Shell Todd Oil Services: 18 Jul Deutsche Bank: 24 Jul Palantir Technologies: 13 Aug Upcoming Free Careers Events for all students: Careers with NZDF – 22 Jul Science Careers Expo – 7 Aug Victoria Business School: Executive Careers Expo – 11 Sept Check details/book on CareerHub: ww.victoria. ac.nz/careerhub
Here at Film Society, we’ve realised recently that
If you want a notice in Salient, email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. nz.
Notices must be sent to us by
Wednesday 5 pm for the following week’s issue, and must be fewer than 100 words in length.
GIVEAWAYS As We Enter “What happens on tour stays on tour, right?” Not today. Join Slave Labour Productions as they explore what it is that makes the big OE so enticing. Inspired from interviews with recent Kiwi backpackers, these are the unfiltered accounts of what really happens on Contiki tours. Simon, from the land of the flightless bird, is leaving the nest for the first time. But not without his own baggage. Playing at BATS Theatre (Corner Cuba and Dixon Streets) 17–21 June, 6.30 pm. Tickets $18/$14 email@example.com SALIENT HAS TWO TICKETS TO GIVE AWAY. JUST EMAIL THROUGH YOUR IDEAL OE DESTINATION TO GO INTO THE DRAW
there simply isn’t enough French absurdity on offer for free around Victoria University. So to fix this problem, we’ll be screening a double Dupieux feature of both Rubber (2010) and Wrong (2012) in the Memorial Theatre on Thursday 3 June, from 6 pm onwards. And you don’t have to pay a thing! But if you do want the deluxe experience, you can become a VIP member for only $10, and win prizes while you watch the films we play for you. Need to know more? Find us on Facebook: https://www. facebook.com/groups/vicunifilmsociety/
Generation Zero Wellington is having a planning and workshop Hui on 6–8 June at Ako Pai Marae in Karori. Join us for an actionpacked weekend of connecting and workshops for campaigning against climate change. 2014 is going to be a big year, and if you have ever wanted to get more involved, Hui are where it all begins – where we share the skills we need to
make this thing work, get to know each other, get on the same page and make plans for putting climate change on the agenda this year. To sign up, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. nz.
Wellington’s late-night improv comedy show. Every Friday, it brings the laughs with a troupe of trained performers transforming any suggestion to life on stage. If you like Whose Line is it Anyway?, you’ll love this show. Plus, a rotating cast of 39 members, and a different season each month, means every week is different. PlayShop draws from a pool of Toi Whakaari, Long Cloud Youth Theatre and Victoria University grads, and students are characterised by intelligence, theatricality and energy. Laugh the week away with us! Every Friday, 10 pm, Paramount Cinemas Student tickets: $13 Approx. 80 mins
DOCUMENTARY EDGE 2014
The ninth annual Documentary Edge Festival 2014 rolls into town once again from 5 June, taking place this time at the Roxy Cinema in Miramar. Though usually boasting an incredible lineup of films each year, this one seems to have a particular interest in popular culture. From A Brony Tale (13, 18 June) giving an inside look into the incredible niche world of the brony, through to Doc of the Dead (13, 15 June) and its celebration of the zombie horror genre, there is almost something for everyone this year. Go find out for yourself: www.documentaryedge.org. nz/2014 has full details.
Are you from Feilding? Come to the world premiere of this new play! Revelations, by Theatre Programme lecturer Dr Lori Leigh, directed by Fiona McNamara. When Jesus tells Nana the Rapture is coming, she summons her prodigal daughters home to Feilding. But everyone has their own plans of salvation when they realise this might be “the end”. Will they ascend into the clouds? Or be cast into a fiery pit? Or is simply being together again hell in itself? 4–14 June @ 6.30 pm, BATS Theatre Tickets $14 for students, or $12 on student night, 10 June Book at www.bats.co.nz
SALIENT WANTS (NEEDS) A NEW THEATRE REVIEWER
Salient is looking for a theatre reviewer. The successful applicant will be responsible for one page of content per fortnight which will include reviews of upcoming shows. Email our Arts Editor, Chloe Davies, at email@example.com with a short blurb outlining why you would be most suited for the position, and a sample of your writing. Applications due 27 June.
The Te Ao MÄ rama Issue