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Hyundai Walking Car Concept

Windshield Glass Is Replaced on a Model With Windshield Mounted Forward Facing Camera, It Must Also Be Calibrated Caliber Collision and ABRA Auto Body Repair of America Merger Payscape and SCRS Partner on Payment Processing Member Benefit Caliber CEO Backs Damage Specialization Strategy

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The Elevate concept is based on a modular EV platform with the capability to switch out different bodies for specific situations. The robotic leg architecture has five degrees of freedom plus wheel hub propulsion motors and is enabled by the latest in electric actuator technology. This design is uniquely capable of both mammalian and reptilian walking gaits, allowing it to move in any direction. The legs also fold up into a

stowed drive-mode, where power to the joints is cut, and the use of an integrated passive suspension system maximizes battery efficiency. This allows Elevate to drive at highway speeds just like any other vehicle. But no other can climb a five foot wall, step over a five foot gap, walk over diverse terrain, and achieve Elevate Concept Please to Turn Page 4

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Elevate Concept From Front Cover a 15 foot wide track width, all while keeping its body and passengers completely level. Further, the combination of wheeled motion with articulating legs provides a new paradigm of mobility by enabling faster walking speeds, unique dynamic driving postures and torsional control at the end of each leg. “By combining the power of robotics with Hyundai’s latest EV technology, Elevate has the ability to take people where no car has been before, and redefine our perception of vehicular freedom,” said David Byron, design manager, Sundberg-Ferar. “Imagine a car stranded in a snow ditch just 10 feet off the highway being able to walk or climb over the treacherous terrain, back to the road potentially saving its injured passengers – this is the future of vehicular mobility.” A Hyundai Elevate climbs itself out of a snow covered ditch. “We have been working with Sundberg-Ferar on the Elevate Concept for almost three years now,” added Suh. “Elevate is part of our various ‘Last-Mile’ technologies and solutions and it also has ‘Last-100 Yards’ capability too.” n


Inside the Elevate, passengers would experience a vehicle fully engineered to tackle the roughest terrain comfortably. Engineering enhancements include:

• Robotic legs with five degrees of freedom plus in-wheel propulsion • Ability to walk in mammalian and reptilian style gaits for omnidirectional motion • Capable of climbing a five foot vertical wall • Step over a five foot gap • Non-back drivable motors enable the legs to lock in any position • Modular electric vehicle platform April 2019

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Windshield Glass Is Replaced on a Model With Windshield Mounted Forward Facing Camera, It Must Also Be Calibrated

the rest of the shop. Only By: Brian Medford the calibration targets and Just a few of the different target types Automotive safety the vehicle itself can be in technology has grown at a required to perform a FFC calibration. the work bay. This is a tall rapid pace over the last few order for most shops due years. Amid the myriad of to the sheer space requiresensors found on a modments for arranging the ern car, the forward facing calibration targets at the camera (FFC) is one of the right distances from the most sensitive. Part of the vehicle. That makes a dediadvanced driver assistance cated business like Insight system (ADAS), these camerVehicle Calibration a logias can be found mounted to cal solution. Dan’s shop grilles or behind windshields services many of the local depending on the manucar dealers in his area. facturer’s choice. Obviously Replacing the windwhen one of these vehicles shield on a modern vehicle is involved in a front end colequipped with ADAS is lision with a grill mounted physically similar to replacFFC, that camera will need to ing any other windshield, be calibrated for a complete but what happens after repair. But whenever the the physical replacement windshield glass is replaced is far more important. The on a model that happens to FFC may appear to be have a windshield mounted mounted in the original FFC, it must also be calibratlocation, but just a single ed. degree of misalignment “Nobody is talking can change the camera’s about this in the industry.” Calibration takes not only specialized tools field of vision by several feet down the says Dan Keiser of Insight Vehicle Calibration to interface with the vehicle systems, it also road. That can make a big difference in the in Chamblee, GA. Dan’s company has taken requires a dedicated work bay just for the the step to establish a specialized ADAS service. The work bay has to be clear of any Windshield Please to Turn Page 8 calibration lab to service the Atlanta area. obstructions and quarantined visually from



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Additionally popular modifications like adding a lift kit or lowering springs can also throw off camera calibration. These vehicle’s ADAS reaction in an emergency. systems are designed to work based on This kind of problem can only be corrected knowledge of an absolute camera location through calibration. and angle, which makes them extremely Some manufacturers help force the sensitive to changes. issue of recalibration by sensing if the The good news is FFC has been unplugged, that calibration is considcausing a malfuncThe good news is that calibration is considered a part ered a part of windshield tion light to trigger. replacement when covUnfortunately some glass of windshield replacement when covered by an insurance ered by an insurance installers have figured repair. Collision repair centers should consider FFC calibration repair. Collision repair out that the camera can centers should consider simply be disconnected part of a complete repair, and not an option. FFC calibration part of a from the windshield glass complete repair, and not mount but still plugged an option. As much as pre- and post-repair Even if the ADAS camera is mountin to the vehicle wiring harness. Once the scanning has become the norm in the ed to the headliner instead of the windwindshield replacement is complete the collision industry, forward facing camera shield, replacing the windshield can alter camera is placed back on the windshield calibration should now be a routine part of the refraction angle of the glass, and thus mount. This is a big mistake, as the ADAS any windshield replacement.n alter the viewing angle of the camera. is no longer calibrated to the new windWindshield From Page 7

shield mount location, and possibly blind to areas of the road. Dan Keiser pointed out a replacement windshield at his shop that failed to calibrate due to an improperly located FFC mounting plate, causing a large portion of the right side of the road to be unseen.

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First Kia Telluride Crosses Brunswick Docks Made in Georgia, Vehicles Destined for Overseas Markets The automaker plans to export approximately 3,000 Tellurides per year.

Representatives from Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia, the Georgia Ports Authority, the Georgia Department of Economic Development, the International Longshoremen's Association and the shipping line Glovis send off one of the first Kia Tellurides to be exported via the Port of Brunswick on the ramp of the roll-on/roll-off vessel Sirius, Tuesday Feb. 26, 2019, at Colonel's Island Terminal in Brunswick, Ga. Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia plans to ship approximately 3,000 Tellurides per year to global markets. Find print quality images here. (Georgia Ports Authority / Stephen B. Morton) The first of Kia's new Telluride vehicles were loaded for export onto the Roll-on/Roll-off vessel Sirius today at the Port of Brunswick. The 8-person SUVs are destined for ports around the Arabian Peninsula. "The Telluride is a bold, capable new offering, and the largest Kia ever," said Stuart Countess, chief administrative officer and vice president of Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia (KMMG). "For KMMG, it's the logical next step in

our commitment to meeting U.S. and global demand." Georgia Gov. Brian Kemp applauded the expansion of Kia models made in America. "The company's decision to build the Telluride here in Georgia is a testament to the caliber of hardworking men and women at the company's West Point, Georgia, plant," Kemp said. "Having created more than 14,000 jobs for Georgians, Kia is an outstanding cor-

porate citizen, and we commend them for their commitment to innovation, quality, and growth." Georgia Ports Authority Board Chairman Jimmy Allgood said the GPA is playing an expanded role for KMMG, handling both imported components and now the export of finished vehicles. "Through vertical integration - parts in via Savannah, autos out via Brunswick KIA Please to Turn Page 10

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KIA From Page 9 - Kia is taking advantage of Georgia's extensive road and rail infrastructure, as well as its broader network of shipping line services," Allgood said. The Port of Savannah hosts 35 weekly container ship calls, while nine ocean carriers call on Colonel's Island at the Port of Brunswick. "For 10 years, we have been proud to support the thousands of jobs Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia provides in West Point, through efficient, reliable port services via Savannah," said Georgia Ports Authority Executive Director Griff Lynch. "Today marks an important development, as KMMG branches out from the domestic market in a major way to export vehicles made in America." "Through continuous investment and expansion of infrastructure at the 1,700-acre facility, Brunswick is prepared

The Telluride is Kia's largest and most technologically advanced vehicle to date. to take on new business from Kia and other manufacturers," said GPA Chief Administrative Officer Jamie McCurry. "As the single largest and second busiest U.S. hub for automotive trade, the Port of Brunswick moved more than 600,000 units last year." The Telluride is Kia's largest and most technologically advanced vehicle to date. Initially designed with the

U.S. market in mind at Kia's design studio in California, the Telluride travels down the same manufacturing line as the award-winning Sorento, the highestranked Midsize SUV in the most recent J.D. Power Initial Quality Study. Powered by a 291-hp 3.8-liter V6, with available active on-demand allwheel drive, the Telluride is rated to tow up to 5,000 pounds.n

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Cadillac CTS-V is a Performance-Driven Super Sedan

The CTS-V is powered by a supercharged 6.2L V-8 engine SAE certified at 640 horsepower (477 kW) and 630 lb-ft of torque that is capable of 0-60 performance in 3.7 seconds and a top speed of 200 mph.

The Cadillac CTS-V is a performance-driven super sedan with sophisticated technology to enhance the quality of each ride. The CTS-V is engineered proof of Cadillac’s V-series promise of passion without compromise. Building on the strength of a strong year in endurance racing, the Cadillac CTS-V is the street-inspired version of the championship-winning Cadillac DPiV.R race car. The 2018 CTS-V is built for performance and equipped with luxury — including new smart auto-activated heated steering wheel and Apple Watch integration. Leveraging the strength of the award-winning rear-wheel drive architecture that also underpins the Cadillac ATS, Cadillac ATS Coupe, Cadillac ATS-V Sedan and Coupe, Cadillac CTS sedan and Cadillac CTS V-Sport, the 2018 Cadillac CTS-V super sedan delivers the most capable V-Series ever — a luxury sedan with sophisticated road manners and unprecedented performance, with true track capability straight from the factory.. Exterior Design – Functional form and the apex of the design philosophy Almost every exterior panel on the 14

Southern Automotive Journal

Cadillac CTS-V super sedan is unique, from the fascias and fenders, to the hood, rear spoiler and rocker moldings – and every one was designed to support the car’s capability, contributing to lift reduction, enhanced cooling and improved aero management. With its athletic stance, wide body and low height, the CTS-V’s shape is both aggressive and intelligent. The CTS-V super sedan is powered by a supercharged 6.2L V-8 engine SAE certified at 640 horsepower (477 kW) and 630 lb-ft of torque (855 Nm). The supercharged V-8 engine makes more power more efficiently than the previous Cadillac supercharged engine. It employs a more-efficient, more-compact 1.7L supercharger and matches it with direct injection and Active Fuel Management (cylinder deactivation). The supercharger’s rotors are smaller in diameter than the previous supercharged engine, allowing higher maximum rpm – and quicker “spin up” that enables power-enhancing boost to be generated earlier in the rpm band. That boost is achieved more efficiently via a more direct discharge port that creApril 2019

ates less turbulence, reducing heat and speeding airflow into the engine. The Cadillac supercharged engine also has several unique features designed to support its high output and the greater cylinder pressures created by forced induction, including Rotocast A356T6 aluminum cylinder heads that are stronger and handle heat better than conventional aluminum heads, and lightweight titanium intake valves. The paddle-shift eight-speed automatic, which offers full manual control via steering wheel paddles, is tuned for world-class shift-response times. Smaller steps between gears keep the engine within the optimum range of the rpm band, making the most of the output of the supercharged engine for exhilarating performance and greater efficiency. Performance Algorithm Shifting delivers shift performance that rivals the dual-clutch/semi-automatic transmissions found in many luxury performance sedans but with the smoothness and refinement that come with a conventional automatic fitted with a torque converter. CTS-V Turn to Page 22


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Hyundai Sonata Blends Confidence-Inspiring Driving Dynamics and Premium Design The seventh-generation Hyundai Sonata is be built at the Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama plant in Montgomery, Ala. Fluidic Sculpture 2.0 is a confident evolution of the original fluidic sculpture design language that perfectly expresses Sonata’s premium look and excellent value. A larger, Sport mesh grille and front fascia with a wide air intake defines the face of the Sonata. Simple, harmonious lines adorn the exterior while hinting at the improved dynamic performance and human-machine connection Sonata provides. Taut, horizontal rocker panels reflect the chassis’ increased stability and surefootedness while the signature Sonata beltline is now stretched tight to accentuate the sedan’s strength. The coupe-like roofline remains, but it is balanced by a larger window graphic that emphasizes the roomier interior. Horizontal lines in the rear underscore Sonata’s width and give the car a planted look. This purposeful shape achieves a remarkable drag coefficient of just 0.27, lower than any non-hybrid in the mid-size sedan class. Confident, energetic lines define the Sonata’s exterior and are complimented inside the cabin by a premium interior with a special emphasis on ergonomics. Intuitive buttons and controls are placed on the center stack, which is angled toward the driver to make the controls easier to reach. Hyundai’s core interior design principles are safety, intuitiveness and simplicity and Sonata delivers in spades. The height of the display screen for the audio display or 8-inch navigation system and instrument cluster are optimized for visibility. A rigid platform is essential for a great car. Everything from ride quality to crash test performance is enhanced with a stiffer platform. The Sonata uses advanced high-strength steel for more than 50 percent of total platform composition, which results in 41 percent stiffer torsional rigidity and 35 percent greater bending strength. Advanced high strength steel is twice as rigid as traditional steel while weighing 10 percent less. More hot-stamped components are used, especially in the B-pillar area. A revised multilink rear suspension design enhances responsiveness, handling 16

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Not surprising the Sonata won Readers’ Choice Award in the “Most for Your Money” Advanced safety technologies Automatic Emergency Braking, The Detroit Lane Keeping Assist, Smart Cruise Control with start/stop, Electronic News . Parking Brake with auto vehicle hold, Qi wireless phone charging and Heated steering wheel. and stability while reducing impact harshness. Dual lower suspension arms replace the old single-arm design and distribute lateral forces more effectively to improve ride quality without sacrificing handling. The new rear suspension geometry helps keep Sonata more stable under hard braking and helps provide shorter stopping distances. Reinforced side and cross members strengthen sub-frame mounting points and improve suspension responsiveness. Revised front sub-frame bushings are 17 percent stiffer than before and contribute to better steering feel and improved responsiveness. 2015 Sonata Sport 2.0T utilizes a new rack-mounted dual-pinion electric power steering system that offers more natural steering feel. Sport 2.0T models receive a unique sport-tuned suspension and larger 12.6-inch front brakes. These upgrades deliver increased driver confidence and a premium driving experience. Hyundai continues its all four-cylinder engine lineup. A revised 2.4-liter Theta II GDI four-cylinder engine powers SE, Limited and Sport models. The 2.4-liter four-cylApril 2019

inder produces 185 horsepower and 178 lb. ft. of torque. A revised 2.0-liter Theta II turbocharged GDI, also featuring E-CVVT, powers Sport 2.0T models. The 2.0-liter turbocharged engine is also optimized for lower-RPM drivability and it produces 245 horsepower and 260 lb. ft. of torque. The turbocharger features a smaller turbine and compressor wheel, which provide better responsiveness and more torque in the low and mid RPM range. Both Theta engines are paired with a six-speed SHIFTRONIC® automatic transmission. Sonata comes standard with seven airbags, including a new driver’s knee airbag designed to help prevent the driver from sliding down the seat in a collision, which allows the other restraint systems to be more effective. The Sonata comes standard with Vehicle Stability Management (VSM) with Electronic Stability Control (ESC) and Traction Control System, fourwheel disc brakes and ABS with Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD) and Brake Assist and Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) with indicators for each tire.n



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Payscape and SCRS Partner on Payment Processing Member Benefit investment business experience through services through innovative software soluFinancial technology company, SCRS membership.” tions and increase cash flow. Payscape will Payscape has partnered with the Society of Comparative studies with active SCRS also offer members educational resources Collision Repair Specialists (SCRS). Through members produced proposed savings in and personalized consultation. this partnership they will be able to provide some cases upwards of $340 a month, rep“SCRS is actively engaged in develmembers discounted processing rates and resenting a three year savings in excess of oping solutions to address the challenges world-class financial technology to further $12,000. streamline their business operations. Every member business has simi“Payscape is excited to Comparative studies with active SCRS members pro- lar processing needs but their individupartner SCRS” said John Mills, Vice rates and fees likely vary. Through the President of Enterprise Sales at duced proposed savings in some cases upwards of $340 a al association partnership Payscape will Payscape. “Given their initiative to consider each members unique circumprovide members trusted sources month, representing a three year savings in excess of $12,000. stances and respond with a highly comand advanced learning, we aim to petitive bid, a free in-depth comparison enhance their financial technolfor them to consider, and If they cannot and costs of running a business in today’s ogy portfolio and hope to progress both our meet or beat their current processors pricing environment,” said Aaron Schulenburg, organizations.” Payscape will give them a limited-time offer SCRS Executive Director. “We are certain Through this strategic collaboration, of a $100.00 gift card and the peace of mind that through partnerships such as the one the Society of Collision Repair Specialists will of knowing they are engaged in a great deal. have the ability to negotiate more competiwith Payscape, that the association will be This promotion will run through April 30th. tive credit card processing rates for the small able to help many of our members lower To explore the Payscape solutions operational costs associated with payment to mid-size businesses that are members of being offered to SCRS members visit https:// processing, add to their bottom line, and their organization. Business owners will be increase the already valuable return on able to expand their payment processing

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Audi Expands Traffic Light Information - Now Includes Speed Recommendations to Minimize Stops Audi of America announced an expansion of Traffic Light Information to include Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA), another industry first in vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) technologies from the brand. GLOSA can provide speed recommendations to Audi drivers of select 2017 and newer models that can assist drivers in catching the “green wave,” helping to reduce the number of stops at red lights. GLOSA uses traffic signal information and the current position of a vehicle to display a speed recommendation intended to allow drivers to pass traffic lights during a green interval, in order to help reduce the number of stops at red lights. The distance to stop, the speed limit profile for the area, and the signal timing plans, are all used to calculate the speed recommendation displayed to the driver. Survey data from the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety shows that the average American driver spends nearly 300 hours a year behind the wheel, the equivalent to seven 40-hour weeks at the office. Providing drivers with additional information, such as green light optimized speed advisories, can help reduce anxiety and improve a driver’s comfort during their time behind the wheel. “Audi is committed to mov-

ing America in many ways, including through the development of industryleading connectivity and mobility solutions,” said Mark Del Rosso, president, Audi of America. “Not only do vehicle-to-infrastructure technologies like GLOSA benefit drivers today, they’re also the critical steps needed as we continue toward an automated future.” In 2016, Audi, in collaboration with Traffic Technology Services (TTS), launched Traffic Light Information, an Audi connect PRIME feature that enables the car to communicate with the infrastructure in certain cities and metropolitan areas across the U.S. Today, more than 4,700 intersections support both the “time-to-green” and GLOSA functionalities. Enabled metro areas include: Dallas, Denver, Gainesville, Fla.; Houston, Kansas City, Kansas; Las Vegas, Los Angeles, New York City, Orlando, Fla.; Phoenix, Portland, Ore.; San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. and northern Virginia. “VDOT’s collaboration with Audi, TTS, and other innovative companies leverages the Commonwealth’s data and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, preparing us for more connected and automated vehicles on our roadways,” said Virginia Secretary of Transportation Shannon Valentine. “We are committed to improving safety,

reducing congestion and exploring opportunities to partner with the private sector.” Time-to-Green Traffic Light Information, an Audi connect PRIME feature available on select 2017, 2018 and newer models, enables the car to communicate with the infrastructure in certain cities and metropolitan areas across the U.S. When one of these select Audi models approaches a connected traffic light, it receives real-time signal information from the traffic management system that monitors traffic lights via the on-board 4G LTE data connection. When the light is red, the TLI feature will display the time remaining until the signal changes to green in the instrument cluster in front of the driver or in the head-up display (if equipped). This “time-to-green” information helps reduce stress by letting the driver know approximately how much time remains before the light changes. Future iterations of V2I technology could include integration with the vehicle’s start/stop function, optimized navigation routing, and other predictive services. All of these services are designed to help reduce congestion and enhance mobility on crowded roadways.n

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Caliber CEO Backs Damage Specialization Strategy Caliber Collision CEO Steve Grimshaw said Friday his company felt the day of fixing everything under a single roof had ended. “It’s just remarkably difficult,” Grimshaw said during the International Bodyshop Industry Symposium. He said his 1,064-shop company planned to expand its “premium capacity model” to every market. About four years ago, Caliber made

the decision it would segment repairs by capability in every market, according to Grimshaw, who provided some examples. One type of shop handles jobs taking up to 15 hours of labor, which Caliber could almost guarantee could be completed within 48 hours, he said. Other facilities are dedicated solely to undriveable heavy hits, with each stall containing the equipment, training and certification to handle that scope of work,

Grimshaw said. Each of those can support 10 driveable-damage vehicles, he said. This is a “completely different mindset” than trying to handle a heavy-hit repair in a typical shop — a scenario Grimshaw said would be disruptive to the shop. Instead, the 10 supported shops see improvements in cycle time, CSI and qualCaliber CEO Please turn to Page 32

Wyoming ‘Crash Parts’ Legislation Stalls in House ASA and Wyoming shop owners had raised issues regarding the legislation, including: • Who would be responsible for determining what parts meet OEM standards? • What state agency is equipped to evaluate certification standards? • What are consumer protections provided by the legislation? Opposed by ASA and collision shops in Wyoming, the “crash parts” bill – SF0095 – had been on a fast track after garnering quick approval from the Wyoming Senate. The Wyoming legislation stated: “AN ACT relating to insurance; providing standards for the use of aftermarket parts in automobile damage repairs; requiring disclosure when any use is proposed of a non-original manufacturer part; requiring

that all aftermarket parts be identified and be of the same quality as the original part; and providing for an effective date.” Collision repairers communicated their concerns to members of the Wyoming legislature – and it appears the Wyoming House won’t be moving forward this session with SF0095. The Wyoming legislature is scheduled to adjourn at the end of the month.

“It is important that collision shops continue to educate policymakers about the impact this bill would have on small businesses and consumers,” said Robert L. Redding Jr., ASA’s Washington, D.C., representative. “ASA would like to thank Wyoming collision repairers and industry partners for their support in educating policymakers about this harmful bill.”n

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Texas Appeals Court: Body shop had no contract with GEICO for specific rate By John Huetter Ruling that the collision repairer didn’t have a contract with the insurer for the shop’s desired labor rate, The Texas Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals earlier this month backed a summary judgment favoring GEICO over San Antonio-based Miracle Body and Paint. Miracle was also ordered Feb. 13 to

pay GEICO’s appeal costs. Miracle Body and Paint had in 2015 sued the insurer after it refused to pay Miracle’s desired labor rate and part prices following Miracle completing work on the vehicles, according to GEICO’s appellee brief. The shop brought counts of breach of both real and implied contract, quantum meruit and suit on a

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sworn account; or fraud, fraud by nondisclosure and negligent representation. The Bexar County 45th District Court had backed GEICO’s request for summary judgement, and Miracle appealed last year. Miracle agreed it and GEICO had no express contract. However, the shop said “the parties had an implied contract whereby Geico agreed to pay Miracle’s invoices based on the ‘prevailing market labor rate’ for work performed, which Miracle argues is the labor rate Miracle charged,” according to the Feb. 13 appeals court opinion by Chief Justice Sandee Marion. Justices Patricia Alvarez and Liza Rodriguez also heard the case. Miracle CEO Manuel Rubio had in an affidavit stated that the longtime “‘course of dealing . . . between Geico and Miracle is based on an agreement between the parties that if Miracle does the reasonable and necessary repairs, Geico will pay the reasonable and necessary costs to make those repairs.’” Miracle wrote to the appeals court that GEICO had a history of paying more than what was on the insurer-written estimate: Geico claims Miracle has no evidence it agreed to pay anything more than its initial estimate for repairs. Miracle provided affidavit evidence that the initial estimate is rarely the final total for the repair. Miracle provided evidence that no body shop would undertake a repair if the only amount it would ever receive was the amount of the initial estimate. There is no way to know the extent of what repairs are necessary until the vehicle is taken apart. Geico regularly pays more than what is on the initial estimate and Miracle provided affidavit evidence of this fact. Miracle also argued that that nothing in GEICO’s estimate uses the term “prevailing market labor rate,” and GEICO was bound to pay “the standards set out by law which is to repair or replace with like kind and quality and not some other arbitrary or internal standard Geico is raising for the first time in summary judgment.” The collision repairer told the GEICO Specific Rate Please turn to Page 24 Southern Automotive Journal


CTS-V From Page 14 CTS-V driving experience – Classleading capability on the highway or track, balanced with luxury and refinement The Cadillac CTS-V super sedan’s track-honed design, chassis and suspension elements complement the supercharged powertrain, providing true track capability, performance and driver control without modifications or special procedures. With more than a decade of V-Series production models and the Cadillac Racing program experience, Cadillac has engineered the third-generation Cadillac CTS-V super sedan to deliver greater body motion control for a more agile feel, while maintaining excellent ride quality. The CTS-V incorporates unique performance elements, components from world-class performance automotive suppliers and segment-leading, company-exclusive technology. The Cadillac CTS-V Nineteen-inch wheels wrapped with specially developed Michelin Pilot Super Sport summer-only tires give the Cadillac CTS-V its footprint and enable nearly 1g in lateral acceleration. The lightweight, forged aluminum wheels – measuring 9.5 inches wide in the front and 10 inches wide in the rear – are constructed of a low-mass forging that helps reduce unsprung weight for greater agility and a more direct feel to steering inputs. A Brembo brake system provides durability, consistency and the capability for track-day performance. The system includes 15.3-inch-diameter (390 mm) front Duralife rotors with staggered six-piston calipers and 14.3-inch-diamter (365 mm)

Performance Traction Management software was derived from the Cadillac Racing program rear Duralife rotors with four-piston calipers. Third-generation Magnetic Ride Control “reads” the road a thousand times per second, sending data to magneto-rheological fluid-filled dampers that can independently control the damping characteristics of all four dampers. Third-generation improvements enable 40-percent faster damping response. In fact, at 60 mph, the third-generation Magnetic Ride Control system calculates the optimal damping force for every inch of the road. Segment-exclusive Performance Traction Management (PTM) software was derived from the championship-winning Cadillac Racing program for the V-Series

and implements appropriate measures of electronic assistance, matched for driver skill or road condition. Five driver-selectable modes specifically for the track – Wet, Dry, Sport 1, Sport 2 and Race – provide progressive levels of electronic assistance, adjusting traction and stability controls. The standard electronic limited-slip differential translates the PTM software to optimal traction and enables maximum corner exit acceleration. Automatically activated in all five PTM modes, Launch Control manages tire spin to optimize full-throttle acceleration from a standing start. Developed to respond to cornering and torque loads that go significantly beyond the levels experienced by the non-V models, the super sedan is almost 20% stiffer to meet high performance demands. Interior Design – a performancefocused cabin with handcrafted execution The Cadillac CTS-V’s dual-purpose capability carries over to the interior, where the design and relationship of key components are focused expressly on performance-driving ergonomics. Handcrafted cut-and-sew elements, with decorative stitching and authentic materials, surround performance seating, features and technology.n

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“… Similarly, here, the fact that Miracle and Geico have a long-standing course of doing business, on its own, court the shop held that “Geico agrees is not sufficient to raise a fact question that if Miracle performs the repairs it as to the existence of an implied conis liable and will pay for the repairs. tract on the terms Miracle now asserts. Miracle does not start a repair until that Rubio’s conclusory statement that Geico happens. Miracle knows that if Geico is paid the “reasonable and necessary” cost responsible for repairs then it is required of repairs in the past is no evidence that to pay for repairs as determined by the Geico ever paid laws governing auto repair the cost of repairs claims.” Miracle deterGEICO told the court The Texas Appeals Court ruling certainly reinforced this relationship mined was “reait writes estimates “for the proposed repair work and by citing a lack of evidence from Miracle that GEICO and the shop had any sonable and necessary.” Therefore, replacement parts for the agreement, as well as by declaring that Miracle gave no direct benefit to because Miracle damage,” each of which failed to pro“clearly and unambiguousGEICO. duce evidence of ly identifies the applicable mutual assent to labor rate that will be paid the terms of an by GEICO, including labor express or implied contract, we conrates for body labor, paint labor and “While Rubio alleges a course of clude the trial court did not err in grantmechanical labor” as well as “anticipatdealing in which Geico paid the ‘reasoning Geico’s no-evidence motion for sumed replacement parts and the amounts able and necessary’ cost of repairs, he mary judgment on Miracle’s claims for GEICO will pay for each part.” does not allege the parties ever had a breach of contract and breach of implied Miracle noted that “Geico never meeting of the minds as to what concontract.” (Emphasis court’s.) even set out how it determines the prestitutes a ‘reasonable and necessary’ Similarly, the appeals court found vailing market labor rate,” and Rubio amount, nor does he allege Geico ever that Miracle didn’t have a fraud or negpresented evidence that other insurers paid Miracle any amount other than the ligent misrepresentation case, despite — Hallmark, Travelers, State Farm and amounts disclosed in the Geico repair Fred Loya — paid more. estimates,” Marion wrote. GEICO Specific Rate From Page 21

“Most other insurance companies pay rates that are higher than the rates Geico has unilaterally decided to pay and are now in this suit calling the ‘prevailing market labor rate,'” he said in the affidavit. But the shop never presented evidence “Geico ever agreed to pay more,” according to the appeals court.




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the shop’s statement that “‘Geico made representations to Miracle during the course of business that it would pay for repairs if Miracle performed them.'”

ting paid for it. Marion wrote that Texas courts hold that plaintiffs can’t sue an insurer for it “because any services rendered only indirectly benefit the insurer, if they benefit the insurer at all.” Marion noted the Eastern District of Texas once quoted the Southern District of New York’s view that it was “‘counterintuitive to say that services provided to an insured are also provided to its insurer. The insurance company derives no benefit from those services; indeed, what the insurer gets is a ripened obligation to pay money to the insured—which hardly can be called a benefit.’” The body shop’s work was “for the benefit of and accepted, used, and enjoyed by Geico insureds, not Geico,” Marion wrote for the appeals court. The harsh ruling seems to support the notion that a collision repairer should bill and predominantly deal with the customer, rather than try to hash the repair out with an insurer. Under this school of thought, it’s up to the motorist to pay the full shop’s bill up-front, and it’s that policyholder’s problem — not the shop’s

Marion continued: Rubio’s affidavit, however, does not allege Geico or its agents ever represented that Geico would pay for repairs based on a labor rate determined by Miracle. Rather, Rubio’s affidavit acknowledges Geico always paid for repairs based on the labor rates determined by Geico and set forth in the Geico repair estimates. Rubio acknowledges: “Geico demands that independent shops, like Miracle, comply with its internal arbitrary rules in order to be paid for reasonable repairs properly performed.” While Miracle may take issue with Geico’s policy of only paying the amounts set forth in the Geico repair estimates, Miracle has not demonstrated Geico ever misrepresented that policy or failed to disclose it to Miracle. (Emphasis court’s.) Quantum meruit describes conveying a benefit upon someone but not get-

To l l Fr e e



— to battle the insurer for any part of that claim which was denied. After all, the shop has a contract with a customer, and the customer has a contract with the insurer. The customer owes the shop, and the insurer owes the customer. The repairer and insurer don’t technically have a business relationship at all, unless there’s a direct repair program or some other concessions they negotiated independently. The Texas Appeals Court ruling certainly reinforced this relationship by citing a lack of evidence from Miracle that GEICO and the shop had any agreement, as well as by declaring that Miracle gave no direct benefit to GEICO. Collision repair attorney Erica Eversman offers a series of documents that establish such clear contractual agreements with a customer, and repairers might be interested in our coverage of them here. Courts understand contracts, which might make life easier for the shop — and an insurer’s attempt to interfere with them creates grounds for a tortious interference suit, she said.n





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Caliber Collision and ABRA Auto Body Repair of America Merger Caliber Collision Centers (“Caliber”) and Abra Auto Body Repair of America (“Abra”) announced the closing of their merger that unites the companies’ talented teams, trusted brands and industryleading operations to better serve our customers, insurance clients and teammates across the U.S. The combination joins two worldclass leaders in the $47-billion-a-year collision repair industry, each known for delivering consistently high customer satisfaction. Going forward, the combined company will be investing even more in enhanced technologies, specialized resources and innovative processes to redefine world-class standards for quality repairs and customer service in the industry. "Caliber and Abra have very similar leadership philosophies and cultures. Combining these two world-class organizations will allow us to offer our customers greater convenience of our best-inclass collision repair experience across 37 states and the District of Columbia,” said

Steve Grimshaw, Caliber's Chief Executive Officer, who now serves as CEO of the new combined company. “We plan on maintaining all existing centers from both companies as we embark on our journey to create one company with one operating model and one culture. We plan on further strengthening our culture that strongly supports our teammates’ careers behind industry-leading development programs. And we remain committed to serving our valued insurance clients through the companies’ partnership programs, while enhancing their customers’ overall experience and complete satisfaction. That ability to stay ahead of what’s next will be vital in an industry that becomes more complex every year.” The new combined company, now operating under the Caliber brand name, will provide customers and clients with the first national lifetime warranty along with even more offerings, including dedicated Non-Drive facilities, Express repair centers and Aluminum-certified and highline centers. The combined company will

also offer glass repair, diagnostic scanning and calibration services and the broadest network of OEM-certified locations in the U.S. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed. Private equity firm Hellman & Friedman – Abra’s majority shareholder since 2014 – will become the majority shareholder of the combined company. Caliber’s two largest shareholders, OMERS “We believe this merger represents the next evolution of the collision repair industry. The combination further enhances the companies’ best-in-class performance metrics, proven acquisition integration processes, strong relationships with insurance clients and career opportunities for our teammates,” said Erik Ragatz, Partner at Hellman & Friedman. “The combined company’s expanded suite of one-stop services, together with its culture dedicated to doing the right thing for customers, clients and teammates, represents the future of the collision repair industry.”n

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I-CAR® and ASE Present Third Annual Master Collision Repair & Refinish Technician Award to Chris Shepherd

I-CAR® has awarded the 2018 I-CAR Platinum™/ ASE Master Collision Repair & Refinish Technician of the Year award to Chris Shepherd, an I-CAR instructor at Caddo Career & Technology Center in Shreveport, Louisiana. The award was presented by Nick Notte, I-CAR’s senior vice president of sales, on November 14 during the Fall 2018 ASE Board of Governors meeting and annual Technician Recognition Awards banquet in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Shepherd has extensive experience as both an educator and collision repair technician. He was selected from among hundreds of individuals who hold both I-CAR Platinum recognition and ASE Master Collision Repair and Refinish

certification for demonstrating superior commitment to the industry and the importance of training. Shepherd has earned Platinum status for the Refinish Technician, Educator and Non-Structural roles. He is also working on earning Platinum status for the Steel Structural Technician, Aluminum Structural Technician, Estimator and Auto Physical Damage Appraiser roles. A second-generation I-CAR instructor who started attending I-CAR courses with his stepfather at the age of 13, Shepherd began his collision repair career on a part-time basis at the age of 16 at Shouse Collision in Shreveport. He later worked full-time as a technician at Rush Truck Center and Krystal Auto Collision

Inc. in Bossier City, Louisiana. Shepherd started teaching collision repair courses at Bossier Parish Technical School in 2002, followed by a teaching stint at Northwest Louisiana Technical College. He has been teaching collision repair courses at Caddo Career & Technology Center since 2015. “It’s been an honor for me to help educate students about repairing vehicles correctly and returning them to preaccident condition,” said Shepherd. “I especially enjoy that ‘aha moment’ when a student has an important realization. My work in the collision repair industry and ability to help train the next generation of technicians has been very rewardI-CAR Please Turn to Page 30

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2019 Ram 1500 a No-compromise Truck 2019 RAM Awards • North American Truck of the Year

• Best Pickup Truck of the Year by • Car and Driver Full-Size Pickup cat. 2019 • Motor Trend 2019 Truck of the Year® • TRUCK TREND’S 2019 Pickup Truck of the Year • Consumer Guide® Automotive Best Buys • 2019 Rebel Wins Off-road Title — Four Wheeler Magazine’s Pickup Truck of the Year • MotorWeek,“Best Pickup Truck.”of the Drivers’ Choice award • All-new 2019 Ram 1500 Wins “Editors’ Choice Award” from Edmunds • Full-Size Pickup Trucks Best Buy by Le Guide de l'Auto/The Car Guide The 2019 Ram is a no-compromise truck, leading in luxury, efficiency, capability and innovation. Ram leads the full-size truck segment with significant gains in fuel efficiency through an all-new eTorque mild hybrid system in both V-6 and V-8 configurations.The 3.0liter EcoDiesel engine is mated to the TorqueFlite eight-speed automatic transmission. Together, the powertrain system delivers an outstanding combination of fuel efficiency and towing capability up to 9,200 pounds. The frame uses advanced materials and engineering to eliminate 100 pounds while increasing stiffness and durability for 12,750 pounds of towing capability and 2,300 pounds of payload. The new Uconnect 4C with a massive 12-inch touchscreen leads the pickup world with technology, featuring split-screen capability, 360-degree camera views and exclusive content from SiriusXM with 360L. 28

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• Overall 'Best Family Car' From the Greater Atlanta Automotive Media Association • Sunny Pickup Truck’ Award at the Southern Automotive Media Association’s Topless in Miami Competition

The new Uconnect 4C with a massive 12-inch touchscreen leads the pickup world with technology, featuring split-screen capability Active safety and security systems join the technology onslaught with adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking and blind-spot monitoring. The Ram 1500 capitalizes on a truckload of exclusive, pioneering, fuelsaving systems, including an eightspeed automatic transmission, thermal management system, pulse-width modulation (PWM) and active aerodynamics with grille shutters and air suspension. April 2019

The Ram 1500 Rebel brings a one-of-a-kind off-road design to the full-size truck segment, offering an offroad-style package. The Rebel drops right into a core segment of the truck market with unique design cues and mechanical innovation backed by Ram Truck engineering. Rebel features an all-new grille with a prominent billet silver “RAM” letter badge. Departing from the brand’s iconic “crosshair” designs, the blackedout Rebel grille tops a completely new black off-road front bumper design with a durable powder-coated surface. It also incorporates a powder coated, billet silver skid plate, front tow hooks and an all-new 17-inch aluminum wheel. RAM Please Turn to Page 35

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5 Quick Tips To Spot Counterfeit Parts A new graphic illustrates five of the tell-tale signs of a counterfeit auto part. Since counterfeit auto parts continue to be a problem, the team at GMB North America created this infographic to help protect both customers and retailers from potential safety and financial risks. This chart offers a quick visual aid to help keep inferior aftermarket parts out of a retailer’s inventory, which prevents counterfeit part installation on customer’s vehicles. “As a parts manufacturer, we value our retail and repair shop clients and want to help them keep their strong reputations in the industry,” says Sarah Porter, marketing manager at GMB. “The infiltration of counterfeit parts into the supply chain could make those clients unwitting sellers of these parts. Not only can a low quality part damage a vehicle but the business that sold the part could face damage to their reputation." The graphic features these at-a-glance tips for spotting a counterfeit part: • Parts that arrive in cheap, flimsy packaging. Check the printing on the box and inside materials. Actual auto parts are usually shipped with care and in high quality boxes. • Real brand parts often have the part number printed on the box. If the number is absent or slapped on with a sticker, it may be a fake part. • Look closely at the printing on both the package and the instructions. If there are typos or misspellings, inspect the part carefully. It may be a counterfeit. • Instructions are incomplete or incorrect. Fake auto parts may come with instructions that are missing a step or a diagram. • Compare it to the part you’re replacing. Do the fasteners match? Does the material feel like the same weight? An authentic part should match almost exactly, if not perfectly. A counterfeit part is designed to replicate a legitimate auto part, so the infringement of intellectual property is another negative effect of this trend. If you suspect you've received counterfeit parts, file a report with the Intellectual Property Rights center or the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. “In addition to causing financial issues, counterfeit parts can be unsafe,” Porter says. “Buying and selling counterfeit parts and stealing intellectual property are crimes and do have victims. We hope this graphic reminds everyone what to look out for.” I-CAR From Page 27 ing to me.” Shepherd has been an I-CAR instructor for more than a decade, and is also an active member of I-CAR’s Shreveport volunteer committee. His stepfather, Duane Kimball, is in the I-CAR Instructor Hall of Fame. “I-CAR is pleased to acknowledge the strong emphasis that Chris Shepherd places on continuing education and technical knowledge, along with his

commitment and dedication to the collision repair industry and I-CAR,” said Notte. “We applaud his efforts to remain ahead of the constantly changing technical and material demands of repairing the vehicles of today and tomorrow and his desire to remain as well-trained as possible. We also want to acknowledge Chris’ wife, Melissa, who supports his industry involvement and attended the award ceremony.”n


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ity, he said. The facilities handling undriveable vehicles also post higher quality and cycle time as a result, according to Grimshaw. Grimshaw’s notion of segmentation is worth examining at all levels of the industry, even small operations. A two- or three-shop MSO might find value in specialization, while a single-shop operation might wish to experiment with segmenting techs. Or, if nothing else, it can’t hurt to know what your competition is doing. The notion of a segmented market and a possible controversy regarding one surfaced during a question about Caliber’s relationship with the OEMs. Grimshaw mentioned the idea of

working with automakers to define “what does a great OE certified program look like” that guarantees overall quality, the safety of the vehicle and the car being as close to preaccident condition as possible. Grimshaw said this included networks and said Caliber’s premium model included shops having access to pre- and post-repair scanning and establishing calibration stations in every market. He argued that Caliber should be able to certify an entire network if it can prove its minimum level of quality exceeds the OEM’s certification standard. “It’s very inefficient to certify an individual center at Caliber,” Grimshaw said. He used the example of a direct repair program. Caliber had an internal

certification program regarding the metrics of net promoter score, keeping the customer informed, on-time delivery, cycle time and return rate, according to Grimshaw. Those are some of the most important metrics for a carrier, according to Grimshaw, who suggested that if Caliber’s lowest “Silver” standard on those core metrics met an insurer’s expectations there, that ought to be enough. His staff at a single center shouldn’t need to keep track of 150 different metrics daily spread across its 13 DRPs. He said Caliber was examining a similar scenario with OEMs, which would include third-party verification: The OEM in theory would have enough confidence in Caliber’s system that it wouldn’t have to visit and certify all 1,064 facilities. n

West Virginia state Sen. Randy Smith, R-Terra Alta, has resurrected his 2018 bill requiring insurers to effectively only use new OEM parts on late-model vehicles. Senate Bill 49, which is effectively identical to last year’s Senate Bill 308, removes the opportunity for insurers to use recycled or aftermarket parts on vehicles within the first three years of the car’s life. Currently, West Virginia’s Code prohibits shops using and insurers requiring aftermarket parts through the vehicle’s first three years unless a consumer provides written consent. The West Virginia Code as worded today still allowed the use of recycled parts, as the West Virginia Supreme Court of Appeals famously held in 2014. The courts declared that if the Legislature desired to exclude salvage parts, it would have said so in the law. Under the new bill, insurers still could demand recycled parts but no aftermarket

components for the “current model year plus two years,” even if the customer were to consent in writing. SB 49 would remove the West Virginia Code’s requirement that all shops use “genuine crash parts” to preserve a warranty unless the customer consents in writing. It would instead only apply Code 46A-6B-3 to collision repairers fixing a vehicle whose bill would be at least partially reimbursed by an insurer. Under SB 49, repairers doing insurerpay work “must use genuine new original equipment parts sufficient to maintain the manufacturer’s new vehicle warranty for fit, finish, structural integrity, corrosion resistance, dent resistance, and crash performance.” The notion of installing something else with customer written consent has been excised. In addition to closing the door on aftermarket parts, this change would seem to bar any used or reconditioned parts, which by definition wouldn’t be “new.”

The bill also would hold shops handling such insurer-pay work and insurers to slightly different time frames. The insurer can’t require any aftermarket parts for the current model year plus two years, a change in wording. Collision repairers working on insurer-pay cars still couldn’t use anything other than new parts on vehicles “in the year of their manufacture or in the two succeeding years thereafter” — the language previously applied to insurers as well. For the record, Experian reported that the average third-quarter 2018 lease length was 36.18 months, up 0.09 months. The average new car loan was 68.47 months, down 0.53 months, and the average usedcar loan ran 64.36 months, up 0.41 months. The bill’s predecessor had four sponsors but still died in the Judiciary Committee. Currently, only Smith has sponsored SB 49. The bill currently is before the Judiciary Committee again.n

Caliber CEO From Page 20

W.Va. Bill Requiring New OEM Parts for 3 Years

Jim Ellis KIA of Kennesaw

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RAM From Page 28 Inside, Rebel is every bit as brawny and rugged as it is outside, featuring dramatic, industry-exclusive seating elements. High-durability technical-grain vinyl seats are finished in Radar Red and black with Sedoso fabric inserts embossed with the Toyo tire tread pattern, matching the Rebel’s actual footprint. Standard heated front seats feature Light Diesel Gray accent stitching, Radar Red Ram’s head embroidery on the headrests and black with Light Diesel Gray Rebel nameplate embroidered on the upper seat bolsters. Ram Truck brand also has taken the Ram Laramie Limited – the benchmark in truck opulence – to an even higher level of sophistication and attention to detail. Featuring premium materials, such as all-black, full-leather seating; real wood interior components; and unique badges, Limited is a “black-tie” luxury alternative to the popular southwestern-themed Laramie Longhorn edition pickup. The Limited is the apex of modern luxury. Subtle stitching accents, pinstriping, unique materials and patterns are found throughout the interior. These are details created for the customer who appreciates them. A new console bin houses a cellular phone and tablet holder, which can be concealed with a new tambour wood sliding door. The real wood door is made from Black Argento wood, the chosen timber for the Limited interior. The collective silver pinstripe theme runs through the wood and a satin chrome handle rolls the door with ease. Finally, passengers will enjoy solid black premium Berber carpet inserts, which can easily be removed from the floor mats to reveal double-duty slush mats. The limited-edition trucks are available in Crew Cab 4x2 and 4x4. Among the features in the Sport trim, the trucks include a 395-horsepower HEMI V-8 engine, eight-speed TorqueFlite transmission, 3.92 gear set, dual exhaust, vented sport hood and 20-inch wheels. Colors include: Ignition Orange, Torred Red, Stinger Yellow and Ceramic Blue. Aptly branded EcoDiesel, the 3.0-liter powerplant is a turbocharged

Ram 1500 Laramie Longhorn with Black/Cattle Tan interior 60-degree, dual overhead camshaft (DOHC) 24-valve V-6 engine, which produces 240 horsepower and 420 lb.-ft. of torque and is more efficient than all available pickup trucks. This abundant torque from the 3.0-liter EcoDiesel engine is the enabler for 9,200 pounds of towing capacity while delivering fuel economy of 29 mpg on the highway. Like the 3.6-liter Pentastar V-6 and 5.7-liter HEMI V-8 gasoline engines already offered on the Ram 1500, the EcoDiesel V-6 is mated to the TorqueFlite, the only eight-speed automatic transmission offered in the half-ton class. The 3.6-liter Pentastar V-6 engine with variable-valve timing (VVT) offers 305 horsepower, 269 lb.-ft. of torque and fuel economy of 25 mpg. The legendary 5.7-liter HEMI V-8 engine with fuel-saving cylinder shutoff and VVT provides up to 22 mpg, 395 horsepower and 410 lb.-ft. of torque. The Ram 1500 features frame and body modifications for the new Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) small front overlap test. Tire blockers are integrated with the frame rails to reduce passenger compartment intrusion by transferring wheel loads to the frame. Reinforced A-pillars and door sills also contribute to the structural integrity of the passenger compartment during impact. Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is a fuel-saving technology for the Ram 1500 that reduces parasitic electrical load. The technology not only eliminates unnecessary load on the alternator but also improves the durability of benefitting systems. The forward cooling fan takes advantage of PWM, addApril 2019

ing a 0.2 percent improvement in fuel efficiency. As opposed to a “fixed” a/c displacement compressor, the variable displacement compressor (VDC) automatically varies its pumping capacity to meet air-conditioning demands rather than work in an on/off fashion. As a result, the variable displacement compressor lessens loads on the engine, reducing parasitic losses for enhanced fuel efficiency and helping to maintain a consistent cockpit temperature. The technology also reduces related noise and vibration annoyances. When the interior cabin temperature is higher than what’s desired (outside the automatic temperature control setting), the VDC increases refrigeration capacity until the desired temperature is reached. Once the temperature is reached, the VDC automatically reduces its capacity to maintain the desired temperature rather than shut off completely. The Ram 1500 was the first in its competitive set to carry F1234yf refrigerant, an application developed to help reduce greenhouse emissions. Exclusive link coil suspension with four-corner air suspension option for best ride and handling The Ram 1500 uses several fuelsaving features to lead the segment in efficiency. Although a standard eight-speed transmission and exclusive EcoDiesel yield double-digit percentage improvements, other components are optimized, such as accessory drives to reduce parasitic loss and advances in thermal dynamics engineering, which contribute to America’s most fuel efficient full-size truck.n Southern Automotive Journal


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