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Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway is more than a road, it’s a journey into America’s transportation history with more than mere pictures and stories, but also historical sites galore. The Whitewater River Valley is waiting for you to drive its roads, hike its trails, or paddle its waters while enjoying its beautiful scenery, charming towns, recreational offerings, and so much more. In fact, there’s so much to see and do here that we’re thinking of changing our name to the Whitewater Canal Scenic DOway. The Byway’s Canal Route mirrors the settlement of the Whitewater River

Valley beginning on the Ohio River in Lawrenceburg and winding north to Hagerstown. More than a single route, this Byway has a bonus with three additional driving loops to help you discover the richness of the entire valley, not just the historic canal route. This is where Indiana all began with Native American settlements and hunting grounds of the Miami and Shawnee tribes. Their trails up the twin forks of the Whitewater River were followed by pioneers and trailblazers seeking space and prosperity. Many roads and highways still follow these familiar routes. As the Northwest Territory was opened to settlement, farmers were seeking better and faster ways to move their products to markets back east. When the Erie Canal in 1825, “canal fever” gripped the Great Lakes !

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What to Look for Along the Byway

Transportation History

Outdoor Recreation

Food and Wine

General History

Lodging

Tips for Traveling the Byway LOOK FOR RED – The sites directly on the Byway’s or Loop’s designated routes will be titled in orange. LOOK FOR BLUE – As you travel through a town or city, there will be many sites to see so those off the route will be marked in blue. LOOK FOR Off-the-Trail – These are significant sites farther away from the Byway and Loops, but might be worth a visit, depending upon your interests. LOOK FOR WEBLINKS - Several sites along the Byway have websites with more information–hours, days of operation or their own brochures. So, click and connect, and plan ahead for your visit. !

region and numerous river communities dreamed of a canal system that would crisscross the heartland. The Whitewater Canal was created to connect the Ohio River to east central Indiana. Initial funding was provided by the Indiana General Assembly as part of the 1836 Mammoth Internal Improvement Act which supported canals, roads and a railroad. The design of the canal called for a 76-mile route starting at Nettle Creek near Hagerstown and following the Whitewater River’s West Fork to Connersville, Brookville, and Harrison, Ohio, and then turning back to Lawrenceburg on the Ohio River. The canal’s design was quite ambitious as it required 56 locks, seven dams, and several aqueducts to accommodate the 491-foot drop or 6.7 feet per mile. In comparison, the Erie Canal’s descent was 1.7 feet per mile while the Wabash and Erie Canal was only 1 foot per mile. The State of Indiana started construction on the canal at Lawrenceburg in 1836. The first boat arrived in Brookville in 1839. Construction was suspended shortly thereafter due to budget problems and wasn’t resumed until 1842 under the leadership of a new private company–White Water Valley Canal Company. The canal was completed to Laurel in 1843 and boats were arriving in Connersville in 1845. The financially strapped company borrowed money from a Cincinnati financier to complete the canal to Cambridge City in 1846. A private group of investors formed the Hagerstown Canal Company to finish the last eight miles from Cambridge City to Hagerstown in 1847. Upon its completion, the Whitewater Canal cost nearly $1.2 million or $15,000 per mile. Meanwhile, another group of investors built the Cincinnati and Whitewater Canal from Cincinnati to Harrison, Ohio and connected to the Whitewater Canal in 1843. A major flood in 1847 severely damaged the canal and permanently closed the portion from Cambridge City to Hagerstown and from Harrison to Lawrenceburg. Additional floods in 1848, 1850, and 1852 caused extensive 2


damage that led to the canal’s abandonment in 1856. Seven years later, the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad purchased the canal and laid the rails on the towpath. A stretch of the canal from Milton through Connersville continued to provide hydropower into the mid-20th century. While the canal era lasted less than 30 years, elements of the canal have been used ever since. And many canal structures still exist throughout the region. Along the Byway, you’ll see lock ruins, get to ride a canal boat through the only covered wooden aqueduct left in the country and visit an operating grist mill in Metamora, a historic canal town which still feels like 1838. Common lore has it that fathers and sons went to the Civil War on boats and came home on trains. Today, the Whitewater Valley Railroad’s excursion train will take you on a scenic ride from Connersville to Metamora. And, since it’s built right on the canal’s towpath you can see canal ruins only visible from the tracks. In the northern reaches of the valley you can get an inside look at the region’s rich automotive heritage in Richmond and Connersville, once called “Little Detroit.” Horses and buggies, gave way to farm equipment, automobiles, and busses. See the old cars in local museums, see their manufacturing sites, and the change in the landscape brought on by the roads, bridges, highways, and interstates of the automobile era. Today, we are a more mobile society with everything and everywhere within reach. It’s interesting that many are seeking ways to get away from it all. If you find enjoyment in the great outdoors, the Byway offers hiking, biking, and paddling trails that help you slow down to relax or play. There’s also great camping, fishing, and horseback riding available. Golfers will find courses for all skill levels. In the winter, there’s skiing and tubing. Off-roaders and racing enthusiasts can get their thrills in the Valley. The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway takes some time to explore and you can choose when, where, and how you do it––from a one-day excursion, a long weekend, or an extended adventure––but make sure to do it.

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The valley offers great bed-and-breakfasts or traditional lodging, inviting restaurants, and an opportunity to experience the rhythm of the Whitewater River. Whether you stay on the Canal Route or venture off onto its three loops, you’ll find that a trip though the valley can truly refresh the soul.

DO Experience the Byway X

The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway follows the the route of the historic Whitewater Canal up the western portion of the Whitewater River Valley. And while the drive along the primary route takes you on scenic highways and features the area’s rich transportation history, we would be selling you short if we didn’t share the rest of the Valley with you. With the Byway’s four routes, sister byways, and historic corridors you can explore more than 200 sites across 300+ miles. Along with the historic Canal Route, the additional loops will take you through small towns and cities, along the Whitewater’s East Fork and Brookville Lake, along the Old National Road, into the “Village of the Spires,” and even to the real-life home of the movie Hoosiers. There are also Off-the-Trail sites to add interest to your travels. It wouldn’t be a real road trip without enticing restaurants, interesting landmarks, small towns and fun things to see and do. So, click on the weblinks to get more details about sites, and connect to local tourism bureaus to round out your trip with food and lodging. Traveling the DOway isn’t about seeing its sites through a windshield. So, stop in our charming cities and towns, take a walking tour and explore the valley on foot and at a slower pace. This digital driving guide can help you plan the trip you want to take. We’ve provided site descriptions, photographs, and travel-friendly directions to take you through the region. Print the pages you want or download them into your smartphone. Just choose your route, grab your camera, hop in your car, and make a little history of your own. Go on, enjoy the Whitewater Canal Scenic DOway! !

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Whitewater River Valley Driving Guide Map

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Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway

A state scenic byway that traces the lives of two U.S. presidents from southwestern Ohio – William Henry Harrison (9th President) and his grandson, Benjamin Harrison (23rd President). The elder Harrison is buried in Cleves, Ohio. The 47-mile byway extends from the Ohio River area to Hueston Woods State Park north of beautiful Oxford, Ohio. Oxford is also home to Miami University, known as a “public ivy” in academic circles. Considered a sister byway to the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway, the two connect in West Harrison/Harrison just as two canals did nearly 170 years ago.

Base Map Image #om Google Maps

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From Elizabethtown to New Haven

Make the Connection From the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway in Lawrenceburg, head east on US 50 a short distance to Elizabethtown, Ohio and begin the trip from there.

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Continue east on US 50 for 1.1m. Turn left on Lawrenceburg Road to follow the Byway.

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Elizabethtown, Ohio An early stopover for drovers taking their livestock to market in Cincinnati. Once home to several businesses. Today, the American Discovery Trail, the only coast-tocoast, non-motorized recreational trail, splits here with the Northern Midwest Route heading to Oxford and into Indiana near Richmond on its way to Lake Michigan. The Southern Midwest Route heads west to Lawrenceburg then traces the Ohio River downstream across Indiana.

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Base Map Image #om Google Maps

Shawnee Lookout Park With over 1,100 acres, tucked between the Great Miami River and the Ohio River, the park has wonderful natural areas, three trails, great fishing, and an 18-hole golf course. The park includes an archaeological center showcasing the Hopewell and Shawnee cultures. The area is thought to be the oldest continuously occupied Native American hilltop settlement in the nation. 2

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Directions

Directions 2008 Lawrenceburg Rd.

Turn right onto Lawrenceburg Road, cross the Great Miami River and continue right to the park entrance, 2.3m.

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President William Henry Harrison Tomb Harrison's tomb and monument on Mt. Nebo in North Bend contains the remains of William Henry Harrison, ninth president of the United States. An obelisk of Bedford limestone, with a marble entranceway, rises 60 feet above the tomb. From the terrace, visitors have a spectacular panorama of the Ohio River valley. Open to the public. 3

Directions

Take Lawrenceburg Road back toward Elizabethtown 0.6m to Dugan’s Gap Road. Turn right, then road becomes Cliff Road, go 3.3m to the park.

Congress Green Cemetery Early pioneer families, including the Symmes, Harrisons and Eatons are buried here. The tombstones give clues to the history of this area. Please be respectful of these founders who envisioned so much and worked so hard in the early years of the state.

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Extending 1,780 feet, the tunnel had one entrance in Cleves, the other in North Bend. It was 24 feet in diameter with a water depth of about four feet. Almost as soon as the tunnel was complete the canal’s days were numbered. The canal closed in 1856 and the railroad utilized the tunnel until 1884.

Directions

Across Cliff Road from Harrison’s Tomb.

Directions 300 South Miami Avenue

Cincinnati-Whitewater Canal Tunnel This Ohio canal was built in the 1830-40s to connect to Indiana’s Whitewater Canal. Rather than build a system of locks to move the canal boats up and over the hill separating North Bend and Cleves, a canal tunnel was built, one of only twelve canal tunnels built in the U.S.

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Go south from the Park and turn left on Brower Road. Proceed 0.2m across US 50 to Miami Avenue. Turn left and go north 0.5m. Pass the school and Ridge Avenue on the

The tunnel was abandoned and sat in relative obscurity for over 100 years. The construction of US 50 took the North Bend end of the tunnel. The Cleves entrance and a portion of the tunnel remain although the tunnel has become almost completely filled with silt over the years. There are continuing efforts to preserve and restore the tunnel, now one of only four in existence.

right and two parking spots are on the left, then walk to the tunnel.

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Harrison-Symmes Museum This building is one of two left in Hamilton County that served as a Grand Army of the Republic hall. The GAR built the building after the Civil War and later deeded it to the township. It now serves as a museum for local artifacts. The building is named for President William Henry Harrison and John Cleves Symmes, a Northwest Territory pioneer who help in the founding of Cleves and North Bend. Open Sunday a$ernoons.

A Bit of History...

Suspension Bridge Road Originally the site of Calloway’s Ford, a suspension bridge was built over the Whitewater River in 1869 connecting Cincinnati to Indiana. It was the only bridge that remained standing on the Whitewater and Great Miami Rivers locally after the 1913 flood. It was replaced by a steel truss bridge in 1920 and again with the current bridge in 1984. The river crossing is next to Green Acres Canoe Rental. Stop by and learn more history about the bridges.

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Directions 112 South Miami Avenue, Cleves Continue north on S. Miami Avenue 0.2m and building is on the right.

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Directions 25 East State Road

Continue north on S. Miami Avenue 0.1m to State Road (Ohio Route 264). Turn right and and go 300 feet to church on the right. Take US 50 west 1.8m to Kilby Road, turn right and proceed north. Visit Green Acres Canoe Rental to learn more about the historic suspension bridge that once spanned the Whitewater River.

Cleves Presbyterian Church The church was organized in 1830 and ground was given by William Henry Harrison. The original log church was used for twenty years until the present structure was built. Future president Benjamin Harrison was baptized here. The church contains several Harrison family items.

Green Acres Canoe and Kayak Rentals On the site of the former Long Island Beach Amusement GA Recreation Park, people now venture into the Whitewater River for 10465 Suspension Bridge canoeing, kayaking, tubing, and Road Harrison, OH 45030 rafting. Also on site are picnic (513) 353-4770 areas and a miniature golf www.greenacrescanoe.com course. Choose between 3-mile and 8-mile trips.

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West HarrisonHarrison Canal Junction A two-sided marker shows the location of the junction of the Whitewater Canal and the Cincinnati and Whitewater Canal improving the connectivity between Indiana and the important Cincinnati markets.

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Directions

Proceed north on Kilby Road past Suspension Bridge Road for 3.7m to Campbell Road. Turn left and go 2.3m to its intersection with South State Street. The marker is at the NW corner of the intersection.

Harrison, OH West Harrison, IN Settlers arrived in the Harrison area in the early 1800s. Most were Revolutionary War veterans or others lured by the promises of abundant forested land located within the network of navigable rivers flowing to the Ohio. Othneil Looker, a leading citizen, built a home of lumber in 1804 and set about providing instruction in reading and writing to his fellow settlers. He eventually served as the fifth governor of Ohio in 1814. By 1810, the four blocks of the original town centering on the intersection of Market (now Harrison Ave.) and Walnut Streets were platted. The town has been called Harrison since 1814, in honor of General William Henry Harrison (later president), a resident of nearby North Bend. The electric railway came from Cincinnati through Anderson's Ferry, cutting o at Valley Junction and coming up the Whitewater Valley along Kilby and Campbell Roads into Harrison. The main line went to Lawrenceburg and Aurora. The Harrison terminal was at the corner of Harrison Avenue and State Street. The first car came into town July 4, 1900, and the last went out November 30, 1930. Located on a main route, Harrison Pike was the earliest road, followed by US 52, and today’s Interstate 74 connecting Cincinnati and Indianapolis.

Outdoor Transportation Food and Recreation History Wine !

General History

Lodging

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A bit of history... John Hunt

Morgan Heritage Trail

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Directions 10580 Marvin Road Continue north on State Street 0.7m, turn right onto Harrison Avenue. Proceed 4 blocks, turn left onto Hill Street/New Biddinger Road and cross over I-74 and turn

Governor Othniel Looker House Gov. Looker was the 5th Governor of Ohio (1814) after serving in the Ohio House of Representatives and the Ohio Senate. He served with Gen. George Washington during the Revolutionary War. He built the first milled lumber dwelling in Harrison. Private home, group tours by appointment.

right onto Marvin Road and go 0.7m to home.

The Byway intersects the John Hunt Morgan Heritage Trail. In 1863, Confederate Brigadier General Morgan led 2,000 troops on an 18-day raid through southern Indiana and Ohio. The band swept through here in July. To slow down the pursuing Union soldiers, they took horses and other loot and burned wooden bridges, including the one over the Whitewater River. They were eventually captured in northeastern Ohio. The trail follows their infamous raid. See the historical marker at the corner of Harrison Avenue and State Street.

Did you know? Benjamin Harrison, 23rd President of the U.S., was born in North Bend, Ohio and moved to Indianapolis to begin his law career at age 21. Before becoming president in 1889, he was a Union Army brigadier general during the Civil War and a U.S. senator from Indiana. He is Indiana’s only president and the only grandson of another president.

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Circling Hills Golf Course The 18-hole course features 6,350 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 70. Designed by Greg Guinen, the Circling Hills golf course opened in 1994.

Recreation 10240 Carolina Trace Rd Harrison, OH Â 45030-1604 (513) 367-5858 http://www.circlinghills.com

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Miami-Whitewater Forest This massive park offers 4,022 acres that include an 18-hole golf course, three nature trails, campgrounds, an 85-acre fishing lake, a soccer complex, a water park for kids, and Shaker Trace Trail, a 7.8-mile loop. The park is restoring 700 acres of wetlands and prairies. Open to the public.

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Continue on Marvin Road 0.5m to Carolina Trace Road. Turn right and go 1.4m to New Haven Road. Turn left, go 2.1m to Mt. Hope Road. Turn right and go 0.7m to park entrance.

Shaker Trace Trail Located in the Miami-Whitewater Forest, the trail has two loops – a short 1.2 mile inner loop and the extended 7.8 mile outer loop. Both begin and end at the Harbor. The entire trail is paved and gently graded with distances marked along the trail at every .2 miles. Along the way, see restored wetlands and prairie, as well as creek beds and farmland.

MiamiWhitewater Forest Golf Course The 18-hole course Recreation MW features 6,780 yards of golf from 8801 Mount Hope Rd the longest tees for a par of 71. Harrison, OH 45030-9223 Designed by Hamilton County Park (513) 367-4627 http://www.greatparks.org District, the Miami-Whitewater golf course opened in 1962.

Did You Know? William Henry Harrison, who became the Ninth President of the United States, served only 32 days as president before succumbing to pneumonia. He had homes in Vincennes, Indiana (the capital of the Northwest Territory, Louisiana Territory, and the Indiana Territory) and North Bend, Ohio.

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Directions 9001 Mount Hope Road

Directions New Haven

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Retrace route from Mount Hope Road to New Haven Road. Turn right, go to New Haven. Turn left onto Oxford Street and take an immediate left onto Baughman Road and cabin is behind the Fire Station.

Passmore Cabin As one of the earliest Crosby Township symbols, this log structure is believed to be the first cabin built in the village of New Haven. The cabin stood on Lot 29 on the northeast corner of Willey Road and Passmore Street. The original cabin was 16 x 18 ½ feet. Room additions had been added to the north and east sides. The cabin is owned by the Crosby Township Historical Society and was reassembled on this site in 2002. Tours by appointment only. 12


From New Haven to Reily Base Map Image #om Google Maps

White Water Shaker Village The White Water Shaker Village was established in 1824 by the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, generally called "Shakers." It is the only one of four Ohio Shaker villages retaining most of its original buildings in their original settings. The village contains 22 buildings, including at least two “family� houses with women living on one side and men on the other side of the house. Tours by appointment only. 12

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Directions 11813 Oxford Road

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Return to Oxford Road, turn left and go 2.2m to Village on the left.

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Directions Okeana, Ohio

Continue north on Oxford Rd/ Race Lane Road 3.1m to Ohio 126 (Cincinnati-Brookville Rd). Turn left onto highway and go 0.4m and take a slight left onto Okeana-Drewersburg Road. Building is on the left.

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Morgan Township Hall Built in 1858 for township meetings, it was used as a school. Disenchanted with President Lincoln and the ongoing Civil War, the first Copperhead Society was organized in Butler County in 1863, using the hall for its meeting place. The building houses a small museum and a historical marker tells about the turbulent times.

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Governor Bebb Preserve This preserve appeals to nature lovers, history buffs, and outdoor recreation enthusiasts. The park takes its name from William Bebb, 19th Governor of Ohio, whose 1799 birthplace cabin and boyhood home is the centerpiece of the Pioneer Village. Public access.

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Directions

Return to Ohio 126 and turn right, go 0.7m to California Road and turn left. Proceed 1.1m to Ohio 129 (HamiltonScipio Road), turn right. Go 1.8m east to Sample Road/ Ohio 732 turn left. Go 2.9m to town.

Continue through Okeana to Church Street and turn right, then left onto Ohio 126W. Continue west 3.4m to Bebb Park Lane, turn left and follow entrance signs.

Reily – Smalltown Ohio

Revolutionary War artist John Ward Dunsmore, painted the most famous depictions of Revolutionary War heroes including Betsy Ross making the first US flag. The Reily Historical Museum stands at the corner of Main Street and SR 732 across the street from the Indian Creek Tavern.

Indian Creek Pioneer Church Indian Creek Pioneer Church was built in 1829 and was restored in 1960. The adjoining cemetery, which dates back to 1810, is reputedly the first land sold in Butler County for public burial. It is the site of the Annual Salute to the Pioneers hosted by the Restoration Committee. Continue on Indian Creek Road to the Unitarian Universalist Cemetery. Park admission charged. 16

Directions

Directions

Did you know? Ohio and Indiana shared the same fervor for transportation systems. Ohio constructed a 1000-mile canal network between 1825 and 1847. By World War I, the state’s interurban electric rail network had nearly 2,800 miles of track connecting the state’s cities, towns, and rural communities.

1899 Oxford-Reily Road Continue north on Ohio 732 for 0.3m and church is on the left.

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Oxford In 1803, a college township was set aside in the almost uninhabited woodlands of northwestern Butler County. In 1810, a year after Miami University was chartered, the Village of Oxford was laid out and the first lots were sold. In the following year the first school was built and by 1830, with a population of over 700, the Village of Oxford was incorporated. A charter form of government was adopted in 1960 and a decade later population growth had turned the village into a full-fledged city. The original boundaries of the city consisted of the Mile Square. A number of annexations during recent decades increased the size, resulting in the city currently consisting of approximately six square miles. Miami University was founded in 1809, and has about 14,000 undergraduate students today. Miami University is the second oldest liberal arts educational institution in Ohio. Miami University is well known for development of the McGuffey Readers by W.H. McGuffey, that began publication in 1836. The six readers were based on landmarks of world literature that had good basic values. The readers were used over one hundred years in United States schools. The McGuffey Museum is on the Miami University campus located on the corner of Oak and Springs Streets.

Outdoor Transportation Food and Recreation History Wine

General History

Lodging

Oxford Visitors & Convention Bureau Stop by and learn more about this vibrant city and Miami University. From music in the park to historic homes to the birthplace of Caroline Scott Harrison, Oxford has something for everyone in the family.

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Directions 30 West Park Place

Continue north on Ohio 732 for 6.1m and wind into Oxford. Just past the intersection with High Street/US 27 on the left.

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From Reily to Hueston Woods

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Oxford Inset 24

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Oxford Community Arts Center The original portion of this building housed the Oxford Female Institute, a post-secondary school for women. The Institute eventually became part of Miami University. Today, the beautiful building is a centerpiece for community art exhibits, classes, and performance events. 18

Directions 10 S. Co&ege Avenue

Return to High Street and turn right. Go two blocks west to College Avenue, turn right and Center is on the left.

Base Map Image #om Google Maps

Miami University The foundations for Miami University were first laid by an Act of Congress signed by President George Washington, stating that an academy should be located Northwest of the Ohio River in the Miami Valley. Founded in 1809, it is the 1oth oldest public university in the nation and second oldest in Ohio. Five museums and the Freedom Summer Memorial are open to the public.

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Directions 501 East High Street

Return to High Street and go 8 blocks east, across the downtown, to the campus.

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Oxford, Ohio

DeWitt Log Cabin The log house of Zachariah Price DeWitt is now the oldest remaining structure in Oxford Township, built before Oxford Township, the town of Oxford, or Miami University even existed. It stands on the east bank of Four-Mile Creek about three hundred yards north of Route 73. Located on university land, the structure is leased to the Oxford Museum Association, which restored this rare example of early 19th-century log construction. Open Sundays a$ernoons during summer.

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Base Map Image #om Google Maps

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O-the-Trail 4824 Oxford Trenton Road

Continue east on High Street/US 27 and then turn left onto Ohio 73/Oxford Trenton Road. Proceed 1.0m and cross the river, farm is on the left.

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Did you know?

Indian Ridge Golf Course The 18-hole course features 7,001 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 72. Designed by Brian Huntley, ASGCA, the Indian Ridge golf course opened in 1999.

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Recreation

2600 Oxford Millville Road Oxford, OH 45056 (513) 524-4653 www.golfindianridge.com

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Off-the-trail

Backtrack 0.1m to Kelly Drive. Turn right and go 0.3m to Brown Road. Turn right and go 3.3m to farm museum on the right side.

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Caroline Scott, later Mrs. Benjamin Harrison, was one of the Ohio Female Institute’s first graduates. As First Lady, Mrs. Harrison had electricity installed throughout the White House, established the China Room to show off past Presidential China, and helped design the now famous West Wing. She was also the first President General of the Daughters of the American Revolution.

Doty Pioneer Farmhouse This property was purchased from an early pioneer by Samuel Doty in 1844. Soon the neighborhood became known as the Doty Community and included a school, other farm houses, and the Campbellite Church and cemetery located just south of the house on the west side of Brown Road. The Pioneer Farm and House Museum, now part of Hueston Woods State Park, is open to the public. For tour information.

Black Covered Bridge One of the few remaining covered bridges in southwestern Ohio and the only one in Butler County on its original site, this bridge was built in 1868-1869 to give access to a saw and grist mill owned by James B. Pugh on Four Mile (Tallawanda) Creek. One of the longest and most impressive of Ohio’s covered bridges, it is unique for its combination of two truss types—Childs and Long— within a single structure. Public Access 21

Directions

From downtown Oxford, go north on Ohio 732/Main Street 0.7m to Corso Road on left. Turn left and drive to bridge.

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Directions

From Black Covered Bridge continue north on Ohio 732 4.0m to the park entrance.

Hueston Woods State Park After serving with General Anthony Wayne in the Indian Wars, Matthew Hueston bought land in 1797 and set aside the woods for his descendants. Now a state park with 3,596 acres, including a man-made lake of 625 acres, 12 miles of trails, a 96-room lodge, and an 18-hole golf course. HW

Recreation

6962 Brown Road Oxford, OH 45056-9793 (513) 523-8081

Hueston Woods State Park Golf Course The 18-hole course features 7,005 yards of golf from the longest tees for a par of 72. Designed by Jack Kidwell, ASGCA, the Hueston Woods Golf Course opened in 1969.

Miami & Erie Canal Side Trip Just east of the byway, the 300-mile canal connecting Toledo, Ohio and Cincinnati was completed in 1845. Visit Middletown or Hamilton to take in the M&E Canal Trails along the Great Miami River. Or stop and see Middletown’s murals about the canal’s history.

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Off-the-Trail Head east from Oxford on Ohio 73. Take Ohio 177 southeast to Hamilton (15m) or stay on Ohio 73 to Middletown (20m).

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The End of the Byway Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway officially ends in Hueston Woods State Park. We encourage you to explore other routes throughout the Whitewater River Valley.

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Food, Wine and Lodging ! ! ! ! ! ! ! along the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Here are just some of the many places to eat in the Whitewater Valley. Find out more options at WhitewaterCanalScenicByway.org. Restaurants are listed here by town in the order the town appears on the byway and its loops. Restaurants There are numerous culinary delights throughout the Valley. From brewpubs to casual dining spots, to chocolatiers. So the choice is yours. Check on the location on your route and visit the appropriate tourism site for a complete dining guide. J’s Dairy Inn Liberty

Dearborn County (Indiana) Aurora • Lawrenceburg • Greendale Hamilton County (Ohio) North Bend • Cleves • Harrison Franklin County (Indiana) Brookvi&e • Metamora • Laurel

GhyslainChocolatier

Richmond

Fayette County (Indiana) Connersvi&e Kunkel’s Drive-In Connersville

Wayne County (Indiana) Cambridge City • Hagerstown • Centervi&e • Richmond Union County (Indiana) Liberty Butler County (Ohio) Oxford Ripley County (Indiana)

Great Crescent Brewery Aurora

Batesvi&e • Milan • Versai&es • Osgood

Wagner’s Village Inn Oldenburg

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The Hearthstone Metamora

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Lodging

Bed and Breakfasts Philip W. Smith B&B Richmond

Herman Leive House - Aurora The Brookville Inn - Brookville The Metamora Inn - Metamora Stonebridge Inn and Spa - Batesville The Hermitage B&B - Brookville Huntington B&B - Milan Newman-Vollmar House B&B - Osgood Brookville Inn Brookville

Victorian Garden B&B Osgood Schaefer’s B&B - Sunman Thorpe House Country Inn - Metamora Lantz House Inn - Centerville Philip W. Smith B&B - Richmond

Stonebridge Inn & Spa Batesville

Martha E. Parry B&B - Richmond Girls Night Inn - Richmond Carriage Lamp B&B - Liberty Potters Wheel B&B - Richmond The Doctor’s Inn - West College Corner Maplevale Farm B&B - Oxford (OH) Metamora Inn Metamora

White Garden Inn - Oxford (OH)

Hotels and Motels There are additional hotels, motels and other lodging options so visit the counties’ tourism websites.

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Timeline The Whitewater Valley’s Layers of Transportation

Early Trails

Canals, Early Roads, and Early Rail

1800-1830s

1830s-1860s

Native American, Trailblazers and Pioneers Native Americans living in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes region traversed its streams by canoe and connected their villages on well-worn paths over land. One in particular followed the Whitewater River up the valley then from the east fork to the west fork at Connersville and then cross country to major settlements in Munseetown (Muncie) or Andersontown (Anderson) both on the White River. In 1787, the U.S. Congress established the Northwest Territory in the Great Lakes region including Ohio and Indiana. William Henry Harrison, with ties to Indiana and Ohio, was named Territorial Governor, led a successful military campaign which vaulted him to the US presidency. Pioneers made their way down the Ohio River and then headed into the interior along streams such as the Whitewater River. As new settlers flooded into the territory, the Native Americans resisted ! the incursions. Little ! Turtle, the Miami ! Chief and General Anthony Wayne led their sides in battle. After several setbacks, Wayne !

and the US government prevailed resulting in the Treaty of Greenville in 1795 that opened up Ohio and a wedge of southeastern Indiana called The Gore. From there a few adventuresome souls began blazing trails over land connecting river settlements across Indiana, often following historic Indian routes. Many early Indiana trails began in the Whitewater Valley, including Whetzel’s Trace, Berry Trace, Kibbey’s Road, Quaker Trace and the Brookville-Brownstown Road. In 1811, construction on the National Road began in Cumberland, Maryland and it was completed to Vandalia, Illinois in 1838. The road reached Indiana in 1827 at Richmond and construction continued westward reaching Terre Haute in 1834. The road spurred rapid emigration to the Midwest and laid the foundation for other road-building efforts.

Farm to Market and Western Migration Following the opening of the Erie Canal, canal fever

swept across the nation. In 1836, Indiana’s legislature passed the ambitious Internal Improvement Act calling for the construction of two railroads, three main roads and three canals, including the Whitewater. The Whitewater Canal’s surveys showed that to accommodate the 491 feet fall over 76-miles would require fifty-six locks, seven dams and 22


Rise of Railroads 1830s –present twelve aqueducts. Canal construction with public financing began in 1836, connecting Lawrenceburg to Brookville. Private funding constructed the canal to Connersville by 1845 and Cambridge City later that same year. Private business interests funded the canal’s extension to Hagerstown by 1847. Extensive flooding in 1847 and again in 1848 led to runaway repair expenses and ultimately the canal’s demise. Early plans called for it to connect to the White River at Muncie or Anderson, but time and money ran out on Indiana’s canals. In 1865, the president of the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad purchased the White Water Valley Canal Company and soon laid the White Water Railroad on the canal’s towpath. The Canal continued providing hydraulic power to several towns and Connersville continued using it into the early 1950s. In the 1940s, the Whitewater Canal Association was formed to save the canal around Metamora. In 1945, the state of Indiana created a state memorial which included the restoration of the Laurel

! ! Feeder Dam, and the Grist Mill, Duck Creek Aqueduct and Gordon’s Lock (#24). Many other sites and canal remnants can be found along the Byway.

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Also included in the infrastructure plan was the Michigan Road. Created to connect the Ohio River and Lake Michigan, it was the state’s north-south response to the east-west National Road. The road began at Madison and headed northeast to Napoleon and the northwest to Greensburg and Indianapolis. The northern segment required negotiations with the Potawatomi Indians to get access through their lands. The road connected the future state capital city with Logansport, Rochester, Plymouth and South Bend before heading due west to Michigan City. A more direct route was not possible because it impossible to cross the Grand Kankakee Marsh in northwest Indiana. The Act also called for construction of two railroads one of which–Lawrenceburg and Indianapolis Railroad–became the state’s first chartered railroad. Completed in 1853, the line changed its name to the Indianapolis and Cincinnati Railroad and later became part of the Big Four system.

Creating and Connecting National Markets In 1832 the state of Indiana chartered the Lawrenceburg and Indiana Railroad, the state’s first railroad. By the 1850s, rail lines were springing up everywhere. President Lincoln’s inauguration and funeral trains both made stops in the Whitewater Valley and are designated by historical markers along ! the Byway. From 1860-1900, railroads expanded and consolidated into huge rail networks. Located between Cincinnati, St. Louis, Indianapolis, and Chicago, the valley was crisscrossed by the Big Four RR, Ohio and Mississippi RR, Nickel Plate, and the Panhandle. Railroads 23


Bicycles and the Good Roads Movement 1880s-1920s continued to dominate transportation until automobiles, trucks and highways pushed them aside. Railroad depots were symbols of a community’s importance. By 1920, over 1,500 depots were spread across Indiana’s landscape. Early depots were functional buildings, while laterbuilt, larger depots were more deliberately architecturally marvels, such as Richmond’s depot and Union Station terminals in Indianapolis and Cincinnati. As rail companies abandoned underperforming lines and consolidated routes, things were bound to change. In 1980, the federal Staggers Act deregulated the railroads and created opportunities for short-line railroads to step in and continue service for key industrial customers off the main lines. Short lines still operate key railroads in the region. In the mid-1970s, the non-profit Whitewater Valley Railroad was formed and began a excursion train from Connersville to Brookville on the Penn Central line. In 1983, the group purchased 18-miles of track from Connersville to Metamora and now provides regularly scheduled rides from May through October and special events including the official “Polar Express.” In addition to its collection of engines and cars in its museum, the group has also restored the Dearborn Crossing tower and the Rushville Depot in its new park south of Connersville. Step back in time and ride the train along the old Whitewater Canal. All Aboard! !

As railroads abandoned tracks, bicycle groups jumped on an opportunity to turn rails-to-trails. One of the earliest effort in Indiana was the Cardinal Greenway, reusing parts of the C&O railway from Richmond to Sweetser.

Pedaling to Prosperity In the 1880s, well before the advent of automobiles, bicycling turned people’s focus toward independent, long distance travel resulting in a desire for “good roads.” This well-organized movement pushed for public paving of roads connecting cities and towns. The goal was to afford bicyclists the same privileges as those of horse-drawn vehicles. As automobiles moved to the forefront of transportation, business and user groups began promoting the building of the famous Lincoln-Highway (east-west) and Dixie Highway (north-south) In the Whitewater Valley, there were at least three bicycle companies and one bicycling club. The most famous bicycle was constructed by Charles Teetor of Hagerstown. In 1894, Teetor worked in a bicycle shop in nearby New Castle. At the request of his cousin, Charles Hartley, superintendent of the Chicago and Northwestern Railroad, he built a four-wheeled bicycle that could be used to inspect railroad tracks. Thus, the Railway Cycle Manufacturing Company was born and soon its was shipping inspection cycles all over the world. This was one of many first for the Teetor family. Come to Hagerstown and learn more about the Teetors, Teetor-Hartley Corporation and Perfect Circle Corporation.

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Interurbans (electric rail)

The Automobile’s New Freedom

Automobile:Roads and Highways Part 2

1898-1941

1900s-present

1910s-present

Creating the First Wave of Commuters At the turn of the 20th century, electric trains , called interurbans, swept across the midwest connecting small towns and big cities alike. By 1914, Indiana’s mass transit system spanned 1,425 miles, second only to Ohio.

from horses to automobiles signaled a big change with twelve different cars manufactured in Connersville, fourteen in Richmond, and two in Lawrenceburg. While some cars were well-known, Auburn, Cord, Lexington, McFarlan and Davis, the region was prominent in auto parts making bodies, lamps, radiators, jeeps for the military and even inventing cruise control. The region still plays a major role in the automotive industry and the legacy lives on. The automobile changed more than the mode of transportation, it changed the American landscape. People began traveling for leisure, giving rise to auto camps, parks, drive-in restaurants, auto dealers, service stations and more.

Interurbans connected Richmond east and west, and Connersville to Indianapolis. Even small-town Milton was connected to Cambridge City with a smaller passenger car called “The Dinky.” In the lower part of the Valley, trains connected Lawrenceburg and Harrison to Cincinnati through Valley Junction, a major railroad interchange. With the advent of the automobile and the freedom to go wherever and whenever, the last interurban in Indiana ceased in 1941. Today’s discussions of light rail have brought the spotlight back to a transportation legacy left behind.

Freedom to Move As the industrial revolution hit full stride, companies in Whitewater valley were making horse-drawn buggies and mechanized farm equipment. With the advent of the combustion engine, the move

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Connecting, then Bypassing Following in the footsteps of bicyclists, National Auto

Trails began in 1910 as an outgrowth of the Good Roads Movement. Trails were the forerunners of today’s interstate highways connecting cities all across the country. As the Crossroads of America, eleven different trails traveled through Indiana, including the Lincoln Highway, and the Dixie Highway, two of the earliest auto trails. Inconsistencies in building, maintenance, and support led to the creation of the U.S. Highway System in 1926. Indiana developed its own auto trails with seven trails through the Whitewater Valley with interesting names––Minute Man Highway, National Old Trails Road, French Lick Route, and the AtlanticPacific Highway. Prior to 1920, Indiana began numbering its main highways, starting with five Main Market Highways in 1917. Many of these roads became 25


New Trails 1950s-present U.S. Highways with the arrival of the national system in 1926.

The next big change came after World War II with the introduction of Interstate Highways, championed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who crossed the country with the 1919 US Army Convoy on the Lincoln Highway. Interstate highways paralleled U.S. highways and skirted cities and towns––Interstate 70 traced U.S. 40 and I-74 shadowed U.S. 52––shifting commerce and development all across the nation.

Seeking Spaces and Places With the creation of state and national parks to protect natural areas, people began to travel from place to place seeking new experiences. These parks created trail systems to let visitors explore the wonders of these natural spaces. The first park in the region, Versailles State Park, began as a federal project during the Great Depression and was built by the Civilian Conservation Corps. The Whitewater Memorial State Park, near Liberty, was established as a living memorial to to the men and !

women who served in World War II. In the 1970s, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dammed up the East Fork of the Whitewater River as a flood control project resulting in Brookville Lake and its undeveloped shorelines. Beyond the parks, trails advocates have created other systems in the region––Whitewater Gorge Trail, Richmond; Smalley Lake, Connersville; Whitewater Canal Trail, Metamora/Brookville; and the AuroraLawrenceburg Trail. Other nature sites have shorter trails as well. Cycling groups have been developing trails on abandoned railroads-Cardinal Greenway–– and creating designated bike routes on highways and back roads in the valley, such as the Vatican Ride through Franklin County. Canoeing, and subsequently kayaking, has been a part of the valley since the Native Americans lived here. Running the river is still a very popular activity on the Whitewater River. Unofficial driving trails, such as the Vatican Ride (bike trail) and the Chicken Trail, respectively, are the latest addition to the Whitewater Valley’s extensive trail system.

Reconnecting Communities––Creating Experiences Established by Congress in 1991 to preserve and protect the nation's scenic roads and promote tourism and economic development, the National Scenic 26


Scenic Byways 1991-present Byway Program recognizes roads for their archeological, cultural, historic, natural, recreational, and/or scenic qualities. The program is administered by the Federal Highway Administration along with state transportation departments. There are five state or national byways in parts of the Whitewater Valley. At a glance... The Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway with its 78-mile Canal Route and three Byway Loops. The National Road Scenic Byway which roughly follows U.S. 40 from Maryland to Illinois, entering Indiana at Richmond. It is an AllAmerican Road, the nation’s highest designation. The Ohio River Scenic Byway is a national scenic byway following the river through Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. Indiana’s Historic Pathways Scenic Byway is a national scenic byway that traverses southern Indiana following US 50 and US 150 from the Ohio River to historic Vincennes on the Wabash River. The Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway is a state byway that parallels the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway in southwestern Ohio and celebrates the the legacy of two U.S. presidents. The historic Michigan Road, Indiana’s first north-south “highway” from Madison to Michigan City, is initiating byway designation. It travels through Ripley County––part of the Whitewater Canal Scenic Byway Association–– and is spotlighted in this guide. !

Photograph and History Acknowledgements Phillip Anderson Paul Baudendistel Big Oaks Wildlife Refuge Brookville Inn Cardinal Greenway Coachbuilt.com Connersville Parks and Recreation Cope Environmental Center Dearborn County Convention and Visitors Bureau Lawrenceburg Public Library District Dougherty Orchards Eklund’s Crazy Acres Ertel Cellars Winery Fayette County Government Franklin County Convention, Recreation & Visitors Commission Franklin County Government Gennett Mansion Ghyslain Chocolate Cafe Great Crescent Brewery Jim Grey Town of Hagerstown Bob Hansen Haspin Acres Hayes Arboretum Hermitage B&B Hillforest Mansion Historical Marker Database (www.hmdb.org) Indiana Audubon Society Indiana Department of Natural Resources Indiana Historical Bureau Indiana Landmarks J’s Dairy Inn Kent’s Harbor Lee Lewellen Sharon Lutz MacDuffe Family Phyllis and Jerry Mattheis Metamora Inn Milan ’54 Museum Oxbow, Inc. Philip W. Smith B&B Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway James Resh Richmond/Wayne County Convention and Tourism Bureau Ripley County Government Ripley County Tourism Bureau Inezeta Stiver Stonebridge Inn and Spa Dan Tate (http://dantate.featuredblog.com/) Wayne County Historical Society Emmett Vaughan Wagner’s Village Inn Whitewater Canal Byway Association Whitewater Valley Railroad Ron Yurcak

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Thanks This guide book was prepared by Phillip Anderson, ReThink! as a consultant to the Whitewater Canal Byway Association. The project was funded by a Historic Preservation Education Grant from Indiana Humanities and Indiana Landmarks. We would like to thank all those who provided photographs, site entries, and historical information. Also thanks to the community leaders who reviewed the document: Charles Whiting, Dearborn County; Bob Hansen, Fayette County; Candy Yurcak, Paul Baudendistel, Terry Duy, and Gail Ginther, Franklin County; Duane Nickels, Union County; Mary Walker, Phyllis and Jerry Mattheis, and Bob Hansen, Wayne County; Sharon Lutz, Hamilton County; and Bonita Porter, Butler County. We hope this guide provided the road map to an exciting adventure for all those who visited the Whitewater Valley. We invite you to come again to experience the changing seasons and the vibrant culture in this beautiful are of southeastern Indiana and southwestern Ohio. The Whitewater Canal Byway Association is a nonprofit organization working in collaboration with all stakeholders to promote the Whitewater region and its history as a unique and valuable asset, the development of which will serve to enhance the economic vitality of the region and the quality of life for current and future generations.

Whitewater Canal Byway Association P.O. Box 75 Metamora, IN 47030 www.whitewatercanalscenicbyway.org

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Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway  

A turn-by-turn four-color driving guide to the Presidential Pathways Scenic Byway through Hamilton and Butler counties in southwestern Ohio....

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