/ M AY 2 0 IL
109 ISSUE AP
NEW ZEALAND WINEGROWER
THE OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF NEW ZEALAND WINEGROWERS
PI NO T PROJ E C T
DE C A DE OF SUC CE S S
AP R IL/ MAY 2018 I SSU E 10 9
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60 R E GUL A R S
20 Finger on the pulse of powdery mildew
From the CEO
News from around the country
46 Biosecurity News
Dr Edwin Massey
Kensington Swan takes a closer look at a case finding earlier this year, which highlights the importance of making sufficient ongoing use of a registered trade mark, even when it is for one of your secondary wine labels.
10 years of the Burgundy Exchange
A programme that emanated out of a conversation in 2006 has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. In that time 75 interns and 100 domaines/estates in Burgundy and Central Otago have been involved. We look back at the highly successful Burgundy Exchange.
Bob Campbell MW
Not on the Label
Legal Matters with Kensington Swan
Wine events in New Zealand
The latest science and research projects funded by NZ Winegrowers
FRONT COVER Marlborough Pinot Noir 2018.
Yet again powdery mildew became an issue for growers throughout the country this summer. So we begin a six part series that will focus how to deal with it at each stage of the year â€“ beginning this issue with what to do post-harvest and during pruning.
30 Use it, or risk losing it
48 Bobâ€™s Blog
PHOTO: LISA DUNCAN
E D I TO R Tessa Nicholson email@example.com
FROM THE EDITOR TESSA NICHOLSON
CO R R E SP O N D E NTS Auckland: Joelle Thomson firstname.lastname@example.org Hawkes Bay: Olly Styles email@example.com Nelson: Neil Hodgson firstname.lastname@example.org Central Otago: Mark Orton email@example.com
A DV E R T I SI N G Sales Manager & Upper North Island: Stephen Pollard firstname.lastname@example.org Ph: 09 913 9637 Mobile: 021 963 166 Central North Island: Ted Darley email@example.com Ph: 07 854 6292 Mobile: 021 832 505 Lower North Island: Ron Mackay Ph: 04 234 6239 Mobile: 021 453 914 South Island: Kaye Sutherland firstname.lastname@example.org Ph: 03 376 5552 Mobile: 021 221 1994
C I R C U L AT I O N & SUBSCRIPTIONS Jodi Blair email@example.com Ph: 09 303 3527, ext 0 Fax: 09 302 2969 Mobile: 0277 00 2371 New Zealand Winegrowers PO Box 90 276, Auckland Mail Centre, New Zealand
PUBLISHING & P R E - P R E SS Rural News Group PO Box 331100, Takapuna, Auckland 0740 Ph: 09 307 0399 Location: Top Floor, 29 Northcroft Street, Takapuna, Auckland 0622 Publisher: Brian Hight Managing Editor: Adam Fricker Production: Dave Ferguson, Rebecca Williams
Published by Rural News Group Ltd under authority of New Zealand Winegrowers Inc. Unless directly attributed, opinions expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of Rural News Group and/or its directors or management, New Zealand Winegrowers Inc. or its constituent organisations. Published every second month. One free copy is mailed to every member of the New Zealand Winegrowers Inc, the New Zealand Society of Viticulture & Oenology and the New Zealand Vine Improvement Group, and to such other persons or organisations as directed by the owners, with provision for additional copies and other recipients to be on a subscription basis.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
SEASONS ARE A-CHANGING
he season of 2017/18 is drawing to a close, with the final plots of grapes ripening up and ready to head to the winery for fermentation. For most, this summer will be one that won’t be forgotten in a hurry. Record temperatures, record rainfall (in some areas) three cyclonic events, and crops that defied initial predictions, in Marlborough at least, of being below the longterm average. While no one is ever happy to say too much about a vintage until all the fruit is in the tanks, we offer a preview of how summer treated the vines in Hawke’s Bay, Marlborough and Central Otago. (See page 14.) Words such as bizarre, unique, strange and crazy have all been mentioned by winemakers and growers. And one admitted he was “looking to forward to looking at this harvest in the rear vision mirror.” But there are a lot of positives as well, with fruit flavours shining through at lower brix and lower acids being experienced in a number of regions due to a succession of warm night temperatures. Many of this year’s Sauvignon Blancs will be under the spotlight in 10 months time, as the New Zealand Winegrowers major event of next year kicks off. Sauvignon 2019 will take place in Marlborough over three days at the end of January. Hundreds of delegates are expected to descend on the home of Sauvignon in New Zealand, along with more than 70 wineries and a full list of guest speakers. Following on from the highly successful inaugural International Sauvignon Blanc Celebration back in 2016, the second event is aiming to hit even more consumers, especially via digital and social media. In an effort to ensure New Zealand Winegrow-
ers and wineries throughout the country maximise these two forms of marketing in the best way possible, New Zealand Winegrower’s marketing team are working on tools and playbooks that will be made available later this year. Chris Yorke, Global Marketing Director says the tests they have undertaken have been fascinating, and is excited about the potential for the industry once the material is made available. This issue we also begin a new series on dealing with powdery mildew. It seems this insidious disease is determined to be the bane of grower’s lives. Affecting fruit and leaves, it has been difficult for some to get on top of. In our on-going series we take a closer look at what you should be doing in the vineyard at each step throughout the season, beginning this issue with what needs to be undertaken post-harvest and during pruning. The tips come out of a research programme funded by New Zealand Winegrowers, and offer up practical solutions along with case studies that could help you prepare for the next season. Talking of research, the New Zealand Winegrower’s Research Centre to be based in Blenheim, has its first contract. Development Manager Tracy Benge explains where they are at in the development of this one-of-a-kind centre, and her hopes for its future. Tracy is also the focus on our first feature in a series entitled Women In Wine. With regional committees established in each of our regions, this initiative is well on its way to playing a major role in the future on New Zealand’s wine industry. So lots of reading ahead. Enjoy, as the season changes from summer to autumn, and we finalise vintage 2018. ■
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FROM THE CEO
WHAT’S CHANGED, WHAT’S CHANGING, WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR MEMBERS, FOR NZW?
embers were recently advised by Chair Steve Green of a Strategic Review of the industry to be conducted by consultants PwC. This Review builds on the outcomes of a 2011 Strategic Review, also conducted by PwC, which focussed on external market developments, the governance and management structure of NZW and the functions NZW performs on behalf of the industry. Recommendations from the 2011 Strategic Review have been successfully implemented over the past six years. The governance and management structures of NZW have been changed and are now largely settled, albeit there are one or two opportunities for further reform. However the domestic and global supply, market and business environment have changed markedly since 2011 and continue to evolve rapidly. It is for this reason the Board has initiated the new Strategic Review. The focus this time is on identifying and prioritising the impact of the changing supply, distribution, market and business dynamics affecting the industry and the implications of these for our members and for NZW. In addition the reviewers have been asked to address some specific issues of interest in the
Review. notably: NZW considers that now and into the future sustainability is a key strategic imperative from both a production and a market perspective. Clear articulation of future sustainability priorities is required. The benefits of sustainability need also to be articulated – is there current or future consumer and market value in sustainability, does it protect and prepare the industry for regulation and/or is it simply good for business? Over the past 20 plus years the growth of the industry has been fuelled by expansion of the vineyard area in Marlborough, but area for future plantings in Marlborough is limited. When Marlborough is fully planted how will this impact the industry, what will it mean for our markets, and what new opportunities and strategies will be available to and/or required of growers and wineries? Given rapidly changing markets, analysis is required of the size of key markets, New Zealand’s share of those markets and our position in premium market segments. This will necessarily include any relevant commentary on wine style trends, alternative drinks etc. The relationship between NZW and regional organisations has evolved in recent years. Is there a need for further evolution
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
of that relationship in order to ensure both national and regional bodies are effectively and efficiently meeting the needs of their members? What are the options for that evolution? NZW has recently received funding from MBIE for the creation of the New Zealand Winegrowers Research Centre Ltd to be based in Marlborough. In terms of industry research needs, what is the impact of the changing market and other conditions described by the Review? Beyond the term of direct government funding, what is the optimal governance structure that should be adopted for the NZWRC? Celebration of industry success and promotion in competitive markets is increasingly important. Domestically for over 20 years, platforms such as the Bragato Conference and Wine Awards, and the Air New Zealand Wine Awards have been important tools in promoting the industry to stakeholders including consumers, potential employees, government etc. In the future, how should we celebrate success in the industry and promote it? Are these events still relevant and fit for purpose? Me mbe rs have already received communications regarding the last of these issues. This matter is on a tighter reporting timeframe than the rest
of the Review with PwC due to report back by 30 April with the balance of the Review due at the end of the September. The reason for the earlier timeframe is simple – if NZW is to make any changes to events such as the Bragato Wine Awards in 2018 we need to know sooner rather than later what the recommendations are. To support the Review the Board has established a Working Group comprising Board members Steve Green (Chair), John Clarke (Deputy Chair), Clive Jones and Simon Towns, supported by CEO Philip Gregan and General Counsel Jeffrey Clarke. Once the Review is complete, the Review will be reported to the new Board of NZW, following the elections that will take place in September/October of this year. Currently the schedule is for the Board to consider the Review at a meeting on 25 October. It is envisaged that after this meeting the results of the Review and any decisions the Board has taken will be released to members – this is a similar process to that undertaken after the 2011 Review. So look out for future communications around the Review. There will be further opportunities for member input (and of the regions as well focussing on point 4 above) as the Review proceeds. ■
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INTERNATIONAL Hollywood elite sip New Zealand’s Loveblock wine Some of the biggest names in Hollywood had a chance to sample a New Zealand-made wine at this year’s Oscar Nominees Luncheon, held at the Beverly
Hilton in February. There were only three wines featured, one of which was Loveblock’s Sauvignon Blanc. Approximately 175 of this year’s
Academy Award nominees attended the event, including Hollywood royalty such as Meryl Streep, Willem Dafoe, Bryan Fogel, Gary Oldman, Christopher
Nolan, Emma Thomas, Guillermo del Toro and more.
NATIONAL Sauvignon 2019 – register now After a resounding success, New Zealand Winegrowers is bringing back one of the most important events in the wine industry, the International Sauvignon Blanc Celebration 2019 (ISBC). As a winery, this is your opportunity to host some of the world’s leading wine influencers, gatekeepers and anyone who’s got a thirst for our national icon, Sauvignon Blanc. Again, we will uncover the myths, secrets and the passionate
Romeo Bragato Conference 2018
people behind the industry. Spaces are limited, and we envisage demand for registration will be high. Register at www.nzwinemarketing.com by April 30 to ensure you are part of the celebration. If you have any queries with regards to this process please feel free to contact: Georgie Leach. Email: events@wine-marlborough. co.nz Phone: + 64 3 577 9299. For more on Sauvignon 2019 – see story on page 26
WELLINGTON WINE COUNTRY
New Zealand Winegrowers Romeo Bragato Conference is the largest and one of the most important conferences for grape growers and wine makers on the New Zealand calendar. The 2018 conference will be held at the Westpac Stadium in Wellington, from Wednesday 30 August to Thursday 31 August, with the Conference Dinner hosted on Thursday evening at Shed 6.
MARLBOROUGH First for education
Apology In the last issue of NZWinegrower an article on phylloxera in the Martinborough area may have given an incorrect assumption. The article referred to two vineyards in the region having had vines removed in 2017, due to phylloxera. “The first at Vynfields”, the article stated. It was never intended to mean that Vynfields had been the first vineyard in the region to contract phylloxera. In fact it has been one of the last. News of the destructive louse being discovered in the Martinborough region goes back to 2007, a good decade before Vynfields vines were removed. Previous owner Kaye McAulay says they had managed to “keep it at bay” by quarantining their vineyard, making sure visitors cleaned shoes and no equipment was shared. “We like to think our organic practices helped keep it at bay.” We apologise for any incorrect inference that Vynfields had brought phylloxera to the region.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
Five year 12 students in Marlborough are the first to undertake studies at the New Zealand Winegrowers School of Wine. Over the next 10 months they will have a chance to gain NCEA credits, while learning the basics of the wine industry. Marlborough Boys’ College Assistant Principal James Ryan says the students interest in the industry varies from considering a career working in a laboratory, through to becoming a winemaker. So far the students have completed over 20 credits at Level 2 – the students need 60 to pass so they are off to a flying start. They have completed a Health and Safety course visited wineries, vineyards, Wine Works Marlborough, Hortus and Tasman Crop. “With the early harvest,” Ryan says, “we have had to end our field trips but the students have vintage placements and we are grateful to the following wineries for their help; Babich Wines, Constellations, Saint Clair, Yealands and Villa Maria.
MARLBOROUGH SWE becomes carboNZero certified SWE (formerly known as Southern Water Engineering) has become just the second company in Marlborough to become carboNZero certified. The first was Yealands Estate. The latest milestone follows hard on the heels of SWE winning the Cawthron Marlborough
Environment Awards last year, in the Business Innovation category. Working with many of the region’s wineries and vineyards, SWE has a commitment to environmental leadership, says Managing Director Stephen Leitch. “As a business, we have integrated a
commitment to the environment into our everyday way of working; it’s not just lip service. We want to be know – and be able to demonstrate – we are running a business which works in an environmentally sound manner, as verified by a rigorous external audit accreditation process.”
producers without their own winery. “While I recognise that Marlborough needs largescale winemaking facilities to keep up with consumer demand for our Sauvignon Blanc, both Rhyan and I intrinsically believe that it is vital to showcase the diversity of our wine region for long-term sustainability. Passion-
ate people, small-batch, single-site winemaking is the only way to do that,” says Ben. The sale, which takes effect on May 1, does not include the Seresin label, or the remainder of the Seresin vineyards. Seresin wines will however continue to be made at The Coterie.
New Owner for Seresin Winery Marlborough winemakers Ben Glover and Rhyan Wardman have recently purchased the Seresin winery, along with 3ha of surrounding vineyard. The winery which will change its name to The Coterie, will become a hub for small-batch, single-site winemaking, providing winemaking services to regional
NORTH CANTERBURY NZ Winemaker of the Year
Greystone Wines’ winemaker Dom Maxwell has been named winner of the inaugural Gourmet Traveller WINE New Zealand Winemaker of the Year 2018. New Zealand Editor of Gourmet Traveller WINE, and chair of judges, Bob Campbell MW said Dom’s fusion of traditional winemaking and ground-breaking techniques (notably vineyard fermentations) earned him the accolade, which propels him into New Zealand’s winemaking history. “The award also acknowledges Maxwell’s thoughtful and often innovative winemaking practices and his contribution to the wider wine industry both directly and by example,” Campbell said. This is the first year Gourmet Traveller WINE has run the award in New Zealand and the 20th year it has run in Australia.
The Bone Line’s new walkway
The Bone Line winery has opened a new cellar door and vineyard walkway on Ram Paddock Road in North Canterbury. The winery and its vineyards are 50 minutes’ drive north of Christchurch and the new walkway takes another 50 minutes, give or take walking pace. It was designed to show the Waipara vineyards’ various different grape varieties throughout their seasons of growth. “It is a great way to get to see all our blocks of grapes and get a real feel for the property, what we do and how we do it. The walkway is sign posted with viticultural information including planting information, soil profiles and how this affects our decision making in the winery,” says The Bone Line partner Vic Sutton.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 9
TO THE EDITOR
A questioned posed
have a serious question for whoever it is in the management of the international drinks empire, Pernod Ricard (P-R), in either Melbourne or Paris whence it is reputed that all decisions regarding the marketing of the group’s products in New Zealand emanate: How would you react if I was to suggest that in North America at least, if not elsewhere in the spirit drinking world, there’s a vacant niche in the market for rye whiskies which your group could fill by having your Canadian subsidiary Corbys buy a distillery in Romania, where rye (and indeed also corn, another ingredient of this whisky style) have been widely cultivated for centuries, to produce a lower-priced version of this popular Canadian whisky style under the brand name: SEAGRAM? Why Seagram? Well, P-R can lay claim to ownership of this once iconic brand of Canadian whisky, having bought most of the spirit brands of Seagram in 2001. My guess is that such a suggestion would be instantly, and probably vehemently rejected, on the grounds of probable consumer resistance to the prostitution of such a once-proud name in the international rye whisky and other spirits fields. But that’s what P-R has just done in the wine field through its proposed launch of a lowerpriced range of table wines made in Australia from Australian grapes under the brand name MONTANA. I know that P-R is primarily a spirits-driven group, wine is something of a sideline. P-R’s acquisition of the largest New Zealand wine company that
was originally Montana Wines Ltd occurred in 2005 when it purchased Allied Domecq PLC, which in 2001 had out-bid Lion Nathan for the right to acquire Montana from its former owner, Corporate Investments Ltd. By curious coincidence there was a prior link between Montana and Seagram. In 1972, agreement was reached for Seagram to buy 40 percent of Montana shares in return for 50 percent representation on the company’s board, giving the Canadian giant effective control. The Seagram influence on Montana was huge, bringing world class viticultural and winemaking expertise to drive vineyard expansion and spectacular improvement in varietal wine quality. In a matter of months, Montana consolidated its position as not only the largest wine company in New Zealand, but industry leader in production, marketing and promotion, and the launch into exports. Seagram initially saw New Zealand as a contributor to its growing international wine portfolio, and supported Frank Yukich into opening up Marlborough. Marlborough’s international fame throughout the wine world rests on its unique style of Sauvignon Blanc, and for the ensuing 25 years at least its best-known wine was Montana Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc. When Seagram decided in 1986 to liquidate its Montana shareholding, it gave first option to Peter Masfen, a then current Montana director who had himself taken over the cornerstone shareholding of his late father-inlaw Rolf Porter. Through his company, Corporate Investments Ltd (CIL), Masfen beat Lion Nathan
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
to become major shareholder in Montana and its company chairman, a position he retained until CIL in its turn sold Montana to Allied Domecq in 2001. Under P-R control, Montana was to change its major wine brand name to Brancott Estate, after the location of one of its keystone Marlborough vineyards. Although the name Montana was coined by founder Ivan Yukich, it became confused, particularly in America, with the arid and viticulture-averse US state of the same name. Brancott was unique, more acceptable, and grounded on an actual vineyard location. It was a wise choice. But P-R’s latest venture into wine branding, applying to a
lower-price-pointed range of wines sourced from Australia a name that has as much historical and emotional impact on New Zealanders (and many Australians) as the names Pernod and Ricard have on French and other lovers of pastis, is not just grossly unwise, it is a prostitution of the sanctity of a well-known and wellloved brand, that will be forever associated with New Zealand and particularly with Marlborough. P-R management needs to ask itself two important questions: How this prostitution of the Montana brand aligns with its self-proclaimed dedication to premiumisation and ethics. I can recall a telephone conversation with a P-R executive in Melbourne
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when I was editor of this magazine, and he introduced me to the term “premiumisation” as a core principle of his company. Thus, as a former Montana executive myself, I was able to understand and support the change of brand name to Brancott Estate for export objectives, while retaining the Montana for local sales. With most Montana varietals sourced from Marlborough, this also retained the historical link with our largest viticultural region which Montana had pioneered. Can I recommend P-R management refer back to its own group website, where it says: Brilliant, beloved brands worldwide Our employees are proud to be ambassadors for our brands because they are, quite simply, great products. With a unique and diverse portfolio, Pernod Ricard is known worldwide as a creator of some of the most iconic and exceptional wines and spirits in the market. Our premiumisation strategy and our positioning are key components in building this image. The political implications of a renewal of criticism of the extent to which ownership of New Zealand assets has fallen into the hands of overseas companies who appear to care little or nothing for protecting the identity and interests of our country. This, so soon after the creation of a governing MMP coalition known to have strong views on
overseas ownership, as exemplified by the blunt comment by the new Minister of Agriculture, Hon Damien O’Connor, that the Pernod Ricard decision was “pretty bloody dumb.” Until this inexplicable decision, P-R has shown itself to be a model of the benefits of overseas ownership in opening channels to export markets, while maintaining the reality of dedication to our industry’s best interests in the local market. Now that hard-won reputation has been shredded. So, with all the intellectually persuasive strength I can muster, I plead with P-R management – stop it…now! Don’t prostitute the name Montana, which has such high and well-remembered reputation in our wine development history. Indeed, don’t prostitute your own reputation for premiumisation and integrity. For this new range, find another name, just as was done at Montana during my time when, faced with a similar need to fill a lower price-point, we introduced a range branded Brother Dominic. Terry Dunleavy MBE, FWINZ, was a senior executive of Montana Wines Ltd 1971-76, inaugural CEO of the Wine Institute of New Zealand, 1976-91, and inaugural editor of NZWinegrower magazine in 1997.
Response from Pernod Ricard: We are committed to delivering quality wines at good value for
money in the under $10 category and, for the Montana wine range, we feel this is best achieved by sourcing grapes from outside of New Zealand. We have worked hard to minimise the change in wine style and to ensure that the wines continue to deliver the quality our consumers expect. We have made this change as it is no longer viable to make quality wines below $10 using New Zealand grapes. This decision to source grapes from outside of New Zealand is not a first for the industry, and many wineries are implementing sourcing solutions to keep our industry sustainable.
This was a decision made locally to ensure we can continue to produce high quality wines, while still supporting the local industry. Pernod Ricard is one of the largest exporters of New Zealand wine and a strong contributor to the industry. It is in no-one’s interest for us to create wine at a financial loss or to produce wine of such low quality that it taints the reputation of Marlborough as a region. We will continue to produce New Zealand made wines under the Montana Reserve and Montana Winemakers Series ranges ■. Kevin Mapson, Managing Director, Pernod Ricard New Zealand
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NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
Number three in US imports, again
urpassing several major wine producing countries, New Zealand has again been ranked the third biggest wine importer (dollar value) to the USA. This milestone was first reached in 2016, and statistics from the latest Gomberg Fredrikson Report show New Zealand wine has achieved it again in 2017. Last year the total value of New Zealand wine imported to the US reached US$422 million, up 6% on 2016 and surpassed only by Italy (US$1.9 billion) and France (US$1.8 billion). New Zealand sits ahead of
Australia, Spain, Argentina and Chile. NZ Winegrowers CEO Philip Gregan says it’s an incredible achievement, given New Zealand produces less than 1% of the world’s wine. “What began as just a few hundred thousand cases per year in the late 1990s, is now over 7.7 million cases imported to the US per annum. “We have a reputation for premium quality and innovation. New Zealand itself is also a vital part of the success, with our sustainability practices and clean, green image very attractive to consumers, meaning they are prepared to pay a premium for
our wines.” New Zealand’s varietal offering to the United States is led by Sauvignon Blanc with a strong supporting cast of Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Pinot Gris and Syrah. The Gomberg Fredrikson Report shows New Zealand shipments of red wines to the US grew by 23% in 2017, indicating the quality of New Zealand reds, and particularly Pinot Noir, is being embraced by trade and consumers. Overall New Zealand wine import volumes to the US grew by 5% in 2017. Owner of the Gomberg Fr e d r i k s o n R e p o r t , J o n
Moramarco, says New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc continues to be extremely popular, with its distinctive style and flavor driving imports. “Having said that, people are really starting to recognise Ne w Z e a l a n d r e d s , a n d particularly Pinot Noir. While not inexpensive, the price point tends to be attractive for such high quality, and it’s something other countries struggle to compete with.” The Gomberg Fredrikson Report looks at month by month and year by year import figures provided by the US Department of Commerce along with data from US Customs. ■
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 13
A summer like no other It is always difficult to prepare a vintage preview, given mother nature doesn’t appreciate magazine deadlines. The following comments on three of our major regions was prepared in mid March – and all comments relate to that time period only.
Hawke’s Bay Oliver Styles
Ups and downs in Hawke’s Bay with a good start to the season and a hot - if humid run from January through to February. A spell of cool wind during flowering has affected some varieties, most notably Chardonnay, which developed a high rate of Hen & Chicken (although some viticulturists are saying this is more evident in Clone 15 than across the board). However, one viticulturist pointed out that, given the season, a few small berries will help to keep yields down as, by-and-large, the Spring and early summer weather was conducive
The “crazy” night time temperatures moved things along quite well. Craggy Range’s Matt Stafford to growth and reproduction. The high levels of sunshine running into the new year ensured that the vines developed very well in what one senior viticulturist called a ‘remarkable summer’. Higher than usual night temperatures also helped to push ripening. However, humidity during this time was an issue and
Hen and chicken in Chardonnay grapes has been noticeable in Hawke’s Bay this season.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
managing the onset of powdery mildew was challenging. There has been talk of some downy mildew in the vineyards but this has not been corroborated. Nonetheless, many winemakers and growers are seeing the warm start to 2018 in a positive light. The “crazy” night time temperatures “moved things along quite well” said Craggy Range’s Matt Stafford, who pointed out that “we haven’t really seen the impact of the warm nights just yet - it will be interesting to see the Merlots.” At Villa Maria, Jono Hamlet was similarly positive. Although he confirmed that the lack of diurnal fluctuation had prompted a drop in acid levels in the reds, the whites were very balanced. Syrah was also advanced, he said, drawing parallels with 2014. At the time of writing, many wineries in the Bay had brought in fruit with méthode base kicking things off in February. Although spared the ravages of cyclone Gita in late February, an easterly weather system brought periods of heavy rain on 7 March. Many wineries had already picked Chardonnay for still wine by this stage but most viticulturists and winemakers were watching the barometer as this went to press.
“Early physiological ripeness and pretty good acid levels, particularly in Chardonnay,” said Matt Kirby at Clearview. “Cyclonic activity has once again played its part for the region as a whole.” Despite the ups and downs, the general consensus is that the foundations were set for a very good vintage.
Marlborough Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
One of the best flowerings in the history of the region, was followed by the hottest January on record, which in turn was followed by the wettest February on record in Marlborough. All have played a part in this year’s lead up to vintage. With bunch numbers down, early predictions were for a yield of 15 percent below long term average. However that was before periods of timely rain just at cell division, which saw berry numbers soar, with latest predictions being yields could be anywhere from 15 to 25 percent above the LTA. Those rain events that saw canopies and berries thrive like triffids, also presented a number of disease threats. It has been a costly year for growers, with numerous thinning’s, mechanical shakings and pluckings having taken place since January, and a plethora of sprays being needed to avert potential disease threats. Powdery raised its ugly head yet again, and the rain especially during Cyclone Gita cause a number of botrytis concerns. Growers who have undertaken the hard work though will be rewarded once the fruit is ready
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Unusual shoulders – at times up to five – on grapes in Marlborough this year.
to come in, which despite high summer temperatures is not expected to be much earlier than normal. One of the interesting factors coming out of this year’s record breaking summer, is the fruit flavours have developed well before accepted brix levels have been achieved, according to winemaker Kirsten Creasy. She says parcels of fruit picked in mid March had great flavours despite the fact they were harvested at 17 to 18 brix. Acids were also noticeably lower, which has been put down to the warmer than average night time temperatures experienced in the region. “There is also some very strange bunch architecture this year, with multiple shoulders that I’ve not seen before,” Creasy said. “That could possibly be due to flower initiation back in 2016.” With the Chardonnay and Pinot having been picked for sparkling base, and a number of lower alcohol blocks of Sauvignon Blanc already in the tanks, the
There is also some very strange bunch architecture this year, with multiple shoulders that I’ve not seen before. Kirsten Creasy majority of Marlborough’s vintage was due to kick off by the end of March.
Central Otago Mark Orton
The 2018 harvest started earlier than at any other time in history, just another event in a season that has been described by separate people as “unique” and “bizarre”. “To put some perspective on this, the block that we harvested on March 1 is usually done around the 21-23 March, so we are three weeks early,” says James Dicey from Grape Vision. Jeff Sinnot from Vinesense
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
who also oversees grapes in the Waitaki reckons that the valley is running about 40 percent above average in terms of heat units, but the extra warmth is not necessary proving to be a bad thing. Whereas, the intense heat felt throughout Central Otago in January could have had disastrous effects for wine in the region if it wasn’t for a cooler February and some rain. “If the heat of January had continued into February, we would have been picking even earlier than we already are and the grapes would have been relatively tasteless,” says Dicey. “February is normally the
hottest and most settled month, yet we had less than half of January’s heat. We also had 152 millimetres of rain in February, more than the previous nine months combined. Surprisingly, the grapes have held up really well. Up until we got that rain, the grapes were so stressed out and dry, that the rain has actually been a season saver for us.” Rain at this time of the year normally creates concerned looks as the issue of Botrytis rears its head, but to date Central Otago vineyards aren’t reporting much of an issue. “We are not out of the woods yet,” says Sinnot. “The issue now is to manage certain vineyards where disease pressure hasn’t been such an issue in the past.” “If you keep adding rain to thin skins, there will be issues,” says Dicey, “but on the flip side the rainfall has increased yields in certain clones within Pinot Noir quite significantly and we are now looking at some decent crops. Before the rain we had very
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It’s been the most relentless and pressured season I have ever faced. Jeff Sinnot small berries with not a lot of cell division, but the vines have now taken a big gulp of water and the bunch weights are right up there.” For Sinnot who has been in the industry since 1985 and reckons that he hasn’t seen another season like it, muses that this might be the new normal…not a thought that Dicey is too keen to embrace. “It’s been the most relentless and pressured season I have ever faced and hopefully, am ever likely to face. We have totally been chasing our tails this year to be honest I’m looking to forward
to looking at this harvest in the rear vision mirror.” Sinnot though, is slightly more chipper. “I’m really looking forward to some of the flavours. From a phenolic maturity perspective, we have a really good opportunity to get into exploring the differences between vineyards, clones and more importantly soils. “The blocks I have on stony soil are struggling with the heat, but on the siltier-clay soils, being a little cooler, the vines are very happy. The potential is there for sure.” ■
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 17
Finger on the pulse of Powdery Mildew Anna Lambourne, David Manktelow, A n d r e w B l a k e m a n , Tr e v o r L u t p o n
he words “powdery mildew” are enough to send fear through any grape grower. It is the stuff of sleepless nights and money down the drain. But it doesn’t have to be! After a tough few seasons, with the sexual phase of powdery mildew (Chasmothecia) giving us an extra enemy to consider, and, the loss of some systemic chemicals to control powdery, we have faced an unprecedented work load to keep powdery mildew under control. Despite the gloom of the past there is good news. We know how to beat it and we know it can be done. In each edition of the ‘The New Zealand Winegrower Magazine’ for the upcoming season
we will keep an eye on powdery mildew and discuss the important things to consider and understand as we move through the season, to help you beat it. We will look at what science recommends, what to practically do in the vineyard and delve into case studies from around the country as we go.
POST HARVEST Research Sneak Preview Growers often observe a large increase in powdery mildew symptoms on leaves following harvest. In recent years growers have resorted to post-harvest trimming of infected foliage and additional fungicide sprays. These operations add costs to vineyard management and growers have frequently asked whether reduc-
ing autumn inoculum build-up reduces the severity of powdery mildew the following season. In late summer 2017 NZ Winegrowers conducted a trial in Gisborne where additional powdery mildew fungicides were applied in the lead up to harvest and in the post-harvest period. These applications reduced leaf infection in May 2017 from 55% to 5% of leaf area infected. In spring 2017 normal vineyard spray programmes were applied and the level of bunch powdery mildew infection was assessed at veraison. Despite the differences in autumn leaf infection there was no difference between bunch infection levels at veraison. This result is in line with similar studies conducted overseas. Full
results will be published and available soon at www.nzwine. co.nz.
WINTER PRUNING Control starts with the canopy Controlling powdery mildew begins at the very start of the season during pruning. Keeping your canopy open is critical - an open canopy means a less favourable environment for the powdery mildew to establish, and allows sprays to penetrate and achieve better coverage. The chemicals available for powdery control rely on coverage. Any green tissue – fruit or leaf not covered by spray it is not protected from powdery. During pruning it is important to set up the vines to avoid dense spots developing as the canopy grows. What to do in the vineyard Heads - Risk: Too many shoots growing vertically off the head running up through the fruit zone. What to do: At pruning leave only enough buds on a VSP head to give you the replacement wood required Remove as many excess buds as possible by paying attention to making clean secateur cuts. Do not leave unnecessary spurs Remove all unwanted head structure with big lopper and saw cuts were possible (don’t forget to protect the wounds)
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
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Cane ends - Risk: Having fruiting cane ends butted right up to or crossing over each other will cause a dense area in the canopy and may result in poor spray coverage. What to do: Aim to leave a minimum of a secateurs’ length gap between the laid canes from adjacent vines
Case study: Focusing on canopy management and chemical rates leads to a great powdery season
New Zealand Winegrowers followed 10 vineyards from pre-harvest 2017 to pre-harvest 2018. Each vineyard had powdery mildew levels, vineyard practices assessed, and was provided advice and support on chemical decisions and sprayer setup and technique based on the current recommended best practice for powdery mildew control. This case study vineyard’s story may be familiar to many. Managing well in general but feeling not quite on top of powdery mildew, with levels slightly higher
than they wanted and also feeling the effects of the increased effort and cost that now seem to be required to control powdery. “Three years ago we were spraying nine rounds and now it seems we have 13 or more just to keep on top”. “As a corporate vineyard we have a threshold of 5% maximum allowable powdery incidence so we have to get it right.” “The block is Sauvignon Blanc and is pretty dense. We have dense big heads on the vines, and don’t shoot thin. We do leave a hand width gap between canes, and leaf pluck pre 80%, at pre bunch closure and after pre bunch closure” Over the 2017/18 season the vineyard decided to focus on a few things to try and reduce powdery levels, which have worked really well. “We started with our pruning, deciding to clear out the bulk from the heads and keep this area more open which made a
difference to getting the spray in the canopy. Secondly we tightened up our timing and sprayed for a bit longer. Over the past five years our intervals had gone out so bringing these back has made a major difference. The other big change was with the chemistry. This season we probably threw less chemicals at the vines in general, and we also changed how we calculated the rates so we were more accurate. We adjusted the rates using the Grapelink calculator and ended up applying 3.5 kg/ha of sulphur throughout the season. We also added ‘Actiwett’ to all sulphur application this season to help coverage.” The efforts of this dedicated team over the season have proven worthwhile as they have had no powdery issues this season, and will not be applying any postharvest sprays. For more information on powdery mildew control go to www. nzwine.com ■
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CASE STUDY POWDERY LEVELS 2016/2017 BUNCHES Incidence 26% Severity 11% Infection 2.9% LEAVES Incidence 14% Severity 1.5% Infection 0.2% POWDERY LEVELS 2017/2018 BUNCHES Incidence 3% Severity 2.8% Infection 0.1% LEAVES Incidence 2% Severity 1.3% Infection 0%
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NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 21
RRI a benchmark Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
here may be no building yet, but the New Zealand Winegrower’s Research Centre (NZWRC) already has its first contract. One of four Regional Research Institutes (RRIs) funded by the government, the Wine Research Centre, to be based in Marlborough, will receive $10.5 million dollars from the Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE) over three years to become established. This is augmented with funding from both Marlborough District Council and NZ Winegrowers. Development Manager Tracy Benge says gaining the first research contract is just the first step on the road to making the
NZWRC a success. The contract is for the Pinot Noir programme ‘Breaking the quality-productivity seesaw in wine grape production’ which has received $9.3 million over five years from MBIE, combined with $1 million from NZW and additional in-kind contributions from industry. (See full story on page 24.) “Obviously the contracting of the Pinot Noir project with the NZWRC is in name only at this stage, as the centre doesn’t exist yet. But once it is up and running, we will integrate it into the Centre’s model,” Benge says. As for when the Centre will be opened, she says there is still a lot of work to be undertaken
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
before any ribbon can be cut, as it’s important to get such a fundamental decision right, and future-proofed for the long-term success of the industry. “The funding over three years is the establishment phase and our goal is to set the centre up so at the end of those three years we have financial sustainability. It is not that we are setting it up and after three years it finishes. Our plan is to make sure we have a model that ensures longevity, with long term funding.” Since the signing of the NZWRC contract with MBIE in June last year, the focus has been on strategic planning, and working with the new Board of the NZWRC.
“We have to present a set of work-plans to MBIE by the end of June. These will set out how the research centre will work, everything from a strategic plan right through to finances, risk assessment, operating models and budgets. Once we have finalised those plans and both the Board and MBIE are happy with them, we will then be able to release a lot more about proposed initiatives.” The four-person board for the Centre has already been appointed; Dominic Pecchenino, James Dicey, Peter Holley and Philip Gregan, while the independent Chair was announced in March, and is Mark Gilbert.
A research winery like this one at UC Davis is something Tracy Benge would like to see included at the NZW Research Centre.
A full set of goals and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring success are being finalised, but Benge says the vision and mission statements are quite clear. Vision: Transforming the New Zealand grape and wine industry through research, innovation and extension. Mission: Delivering worldleading research outcomes – from grape to glass. Proving how excited she is about the opportunity, Benge has moved her family down from Auckland. “This is a once-in-alifetime opportunity to develop a national wine research institute under the new RRI initiative. This is our chance to set the benchmark high and be worldleading.” One of the major benefits as she sees it, is the ability to collaborate with other organisations, both nationally and internationally. Already contacts have been made with
the Australian Wine Research Institute and Wine Australia, to establish collaboration strategies. “Whatever collaborations we develop it needs to be for the good of the New Zealand wine industry, and protecting and growing our IP is paramount.” Further contacts are being made with UCDavis, who along with E&J Gallo Wines have established a research winery in California. “One of the things we are looking into is the feasibility of a national research winery to be based within the Research Centre. We have done the initial ballpark look at what it would cost and now we need to break that down into a full business case.” A national research winery would be a first for New Zealand. With her background in sustainability, (Benge projectmanaged the launch of the Sustainability scorecard, WiSE, and the SWNZ Continuous Improvement programme), she
is keen for any research winery to be fully sustainable, utilising renewable energy, waste and water recovery. There is also the ability for the NZWRC to collaborate with other RRIs, in terms of agriculture technology. The Centre for Space Science Technology based in Alexandra is focusing on spatial technology via satellite imagery. Then Plant Tech in Tauranga has received RRI funding to focus on technology development in horticulture, such as robotics and in-field decision support technology. Both RRIs could offer benefits to the NZ wine industry, Benge says. “Robotics, sensory and satellite technology are areas where you can’t afford to do it alone. You need to have collaboration with othe r companies. So there is the perfect opportunity for us all to work together for the benefit of the NZ wine industry.” ■ email@example.com
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Researching Pinot Noir Damien Martin and Matias Kinzurik
A look into this new five-year Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment (MBIE) and NZ Winegrowers co-funded research programme which aims to find effective and practical ways of breaking the quality-productivity seesaw of Pinot Noir.
hat makes a high quality Pinot Noir? What chemistry drives it? How can we replicate this at a commercially viable cost? Pinot Noir is an internationally acclaimed red grape variety suited to growing in New Zealand’s relatively cool climate, which has been recognized by the New Zealand wine industry for its potential export growth
opportunities in the US, Australia and China. However, this variety also seems to present an inextricable link between productivity and wine quality in commercial production systems. Therefore, in order to drive export growth, we will require the understanding of how to consistently produce high quality wine at a price point acceptable to the customer. This means the delivery of the current 6 tonnes/ha quality at 10 tonnes/ ha productivity.
The Pinot Noir Programme, undertaken by New Zealand Winegrowers, will span the entire Pinot Noir wine value chain: from sensory and consumer science, to chemical composition, to lastly, vineyard management scrutinized up to the single-berry level. This Programme will support the growth of New Zealand Pinot Noir wine exports from 12.2M litres in 2016 to 36.6M litres by 2027. Increasing exports will build on the success of the wine industry, but also help diversify the New Zealand wine sector. It further tells the story of the direct connection between land and the wines created here, reflecting on the particular Pinot Noir styles present throughout the different regions of the country. The programme will answer questions in four interlinked research areas:
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What do consumers look for in a glass of Pinot Noir? What sensory attributes describe qual-
Muddy Waters. PHOTO SUPPLIED BY NZW
ity? Beyond judgements of the sensory characters of a wine by wine experts, a wider definition of quality should include insights on value-for-money, suitability for an occasion, and familiarity of style/ brand known to influence liking, quality judgments, and purchasing decisions. The overall aim is to obtain holistic assessment of quality by consumers of Pinot Noir wines of markedly different styles or composition.
Viticultural and winemaking factors What are the biological controls and chemical signatures of Pinot Noir quality? Which of the some 40,000 chemicals in Pinot Noir strongly influence consumer perceptions of quality? Which viticultural and winemaking methods most effectively change the concentrations of the chemicals of interest? Based on knowledge gained from in vitro and controlled environment experiments we will develop a series of “validation” wines with
GROWING GRAPES? Protect from cold damage.
profoundly altered composition from viticultural and winemaking manipulations, to test with both experts and consumers. Grape and wine chemistry How do we best measure the complex chemistry of Pinot Noir? The programme will develop assays for critical Pinot Noir chemical components which can easily be applied by industry to manage Pinot Noir wine quality. We will use the latest technology and develop new methods to analyse a very broad spectrum of wine components including volatile, non-volatile and polymeric wine constituents. The latter two groups of compounds relate to taste and mouthfeel, commonly cited as contributors to quality judgements by wine experts.
Validation wines and machine learning What are the linkages between viticultural and winemaking factors, chemistry data and consumer perceptions? We will develop a series of validation wines made from highly charac-
terised vines and grape bunch lots that will feed into the chemistry and sensory projects. Machine learning and new systems of data display and analysis will be applied to the complex data sets in a way that allows industry and science experts to predict the relationships between the chemistry of wine and the holistic perceptions of quality. The fully integrated research programme and a big data-driven approach represent a new way of addressing challenging problems that have been studied for a long time, with limited success. We are confident with the funding from MBIE and New Zealand Winegrowers and the support of the New Zealand wine industry, the team we have built will be able to achieve what has not been done before, and will find effective and practical ways simultaneously to increase both yield and quality in Pinot Noir. The Pinot Noir Programme Managers are Philip Gregan and Matias Kinzurik, while the Science Leader is Damian Martin. ■
Andrew (Boots): 021 276 9963 Office: 06 879 8312 email@example.com Muddy Waters. PHOTO SUPPLIED BY NZW
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 25
Gearing up for Sauvignon 2019
Once again Brancott Estate will host the Gala Dinner, which will include a World of Wearable Art show.
Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
fter years of being New Zealand’s most iconic wine variety, Sauvignon Blanc was celebrated in true style for the first time in 2016. The International Sauvignon Blanc Celebration that saw more than 70 wineries from New Zealand and around the world on display, attracted close to 400 delegates. Over three days the delights of Sauvignon Blanc in all its forms were revealed to delegates, which included 65 international wine media, 10 Masters of Wine, sommeliers, winemakers and 30 guest speakers. Now plans are well underway for New Zealand Winegrowers’ Sauvignon 2019, which while it will be again focusing on our flagship variety, will not be a direct repeat of the inaugural event, according to Committee Chair Patrick Materman. “There will be a fundamental
change in the people we are targeting this time around,” he says. “The influencers will be more the lifestyle bloggers and those on social media, rather than just the wine media. That is a conscious thing, because if you look at how Sauvignon Blanc sells, it is very much tied in with the lifestyle aspect. So this is a fundamental change.” With the aim of creating the “most memorable Sauvignon Blanc conference in the world”, next year’s event will blend the technical and marketing aspects of the variety with a programme that provides those attending, with unforgettable experiences. For example, Materman says the first night will see delegates transported into the heart of the Awatere Valley, to Paripuma Lodge. This classic property that looks out over Cloudy Bay is renowned in the region for its raw and rugged outlook and award winning
native garden. A Gala Dinner will take place on the second night, at Brancott Vineyard, once again featuring a World of Wearable Art show. “For the international guests this is as unique to New Zealand as Sauvignon Blanc, so it is going to be a real highlight,” Materman says. Delegates will then get the chance to move from Gala to casual, with a night at the Marisco River Hut planned for the third night. Themes for each of the days have been finalised, with day one focusing on the international differences of Sauvignon Blanc. Day two will have a technical focus and incorporate a tasting of the classic “Fresh” style of Sauvignon Blanc. The final day will open delegates eyes to the “savoury” side of Sauvignon, or as Materman puts it – the alterative styles that are
This stunning site on the Awatere coastline is the venue for the first night of Sauvignon 2019.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
making their mark in the world. There will also be a focus on route to market. “We are really keen to explore how different cultures approach wine and how we can connect with those consumers in different markets.” An underlying theme throughout will be sustainability given this is a lynchpin for New Zealand Winegrowers. The inaugural event had a social media reach that was second to none. Both #nzwine and #SauvignonNZ reached millions of people throughout the world. From tracking twitter, #nzwine had 4,288 posts and appeared on 46 million timelines. #SauvignonNZ had 2,500 posts and appeared on 10 million timelines. It also trended at number one in New Zealand during the three days and number seven in Australia. Organisers of next year’s event are planning on increasing that domination. An event coordinator is about to be announced, and both sponsorship and a superb guest speaker list are well progressed. There will be more details on these aspects in future issues. Preceding Sauvignon 2019, the NZSVO will hold a one-day Sauvignon Blanc workshop. The NZW Sommit™ which brings sommeliers from throughout the world to New Zealand, will take place around Sauvignon 2019, and a sparkling and Chardonnay symposium, to be held in Gisborne, will follow. ■ firstname.lastname@example.org
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REGIONS HAWKE’S BAY
Fighting the wood fight Oliver Styles
hen Francebased UK wine writer Andrew Jefford - a selfstyled ‘verbal economist’ who only tweets in haikus - wrote earlier this year that the New Zealand wine industry was ‘uniquely vulnerable’ to Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), his readers would have taken note. Further drama will have been created by his quoting Louis-Benjamin Dagueneau as saying that GTD is “the next phylloxera”. Although no stranger to hyperbole, Dageneau’s prognosis is born of close proximity to Sauvignon Blanc, a cultivar particularly prone to GTD. Hence our - and in particular Marlborough’s - unique vulnerability. A recent paper by Mark Sosnowski and Greg McCarthy underscored the claim that “trunk disease threatens the entire national crop”. Nonetheless, not all is bad news. While Eutypa dieback (from the Eutypa lata fungus) and Botryosphaeria dieback are present in Hawke’s Bay, efforts
are afoot to manage GTD in the region. Jill and Robbie Payne, a husband-and-wife team working on the Vicarage vineyard for Sacred Hill, have recently finished repurposing 20ha across a range of affected Sauvignon Blanc vineyards in the region. In 2013 they trialled a drastic approach on a row of 173 affected Sylvos-trained vines. Snipping off the fruit wire of the affected vine, they took a chainsaw to the truck, cutting back until they reached clean wood. Once done, the stump was painted and the discarded wood burnt. Shoots already present or yet to come in the lower part of the trunk were held up by a bamboo stick tied vertically adjacent to the stump. The stump is cut on an angle to help the rain run off it. “We were told it won’t work,” said Jill, smiling. She tactfully won’t tell me who told her this but, given that all but 37 plants didn’t come back from their trial, it appears this was a hasty judgement. By 2014, the approach had been rolled out across 6ha of their principle vineyard with the
other 6ha of the Vicarage block being completed in 2015. This was further expanded across 7.5ha of vines in the region in 2017, by which time three people were working a chainsaw, with Jill and Robbie supervising. “It was a big job,” Jill says as she tells me that, out of over 15,000 plants on the Vicarage block, only 250 needed to be replanted after the program was complete. And while replanting remains a go-to option for many companies - not least with improved current nursery practices, of which more later - within their first year, the treated plants were already producing fruit, albeit at a quarter of their usual, pre-disease volume. Within two years, this had doubled. Full production and yield levels have now returned. “Luckily we’ve got some great guys who come in and do the work,” says Jill. Her and Robbie conducted the first trials themselves, but later managed to secure a dedicated team for the backbreaking work. O l l i e Po w r i e , h e a d o f
Robbie and Jill Payne, among the re-purposed Sauvignon Blanc vines.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
The trunk of this diseased vine was cut right back and the new shoot allowed to grow. Within a few years the vine was back to full production and yields.
viticulture at Villa Maria, also says that physically combatting the diseases is hard on the team. Given the spread of Villa Maria vineyards in Hawke’s Bay - and further afield - Powrie has instigated a “trunk renewal program” across the Villa Maria blocks. They have taken a more programmed, pan-regional approach - understandable, given the scope of Villa Maria’s holdings in the region. A sample of plants across each block is assessed in spring - the best time to spot disease in the plant - and the block assigned a percentage of trunk disease. Once a section or block passes a threshold, teams are sent in to cut back to the healthy wood and train up new shoots. In some circumstances, a full replanting is instigated. This is the fourth year of the program, which includes a standing order to paint - with protective sealant - each and every cut in the wood,
even in young plants. “Whatever you do,” says Powrie, “you want to do it in a way that doesn’t bring variability in your blocks. Our virus management programme has showed us that we can actively manage the disease. The vines want to survive, but the wood disease in the trunk is choking them up.” Proactively managing blocks in this way is also paying off in Villa Maria’s organic holdings. Any new plants reset the clock in terms of organic certification, obliging vineyards to return to conventional status for three years. If GTD can be cut back and the plant encouraged to develop new shoots from healthy wood, the certification stays in place. Furthermore, Villa Maria’s running of Vineyard Plants - its own grapevine nursery in Hawke’s Bay - enables Powrie to talk from that angle too. Nurseries in New Zealand and Australia are now leading the way in terms of healthy fruit, he says. He is forth-
right in that regard. While nurseries in Europe are still catching up on ‘best practice’ Australasia has little to fear in that regard. And what of Marlborough? Powrie admits that Marlborough has yet to face its biggest test, partly because the majority of vines are still young and partly because GTD has come along further in Hawke’s Bay - probably due to the warmer, generally more humid, climate. So while GTD might be the next phylloxera, while New Zealand may remain uniquely vulnerable, and while some in the industry - according to Powrie still think the best approach is to keep a vineyard running (despite the encroachment of GTD) until one is obliged to replant the whole block, there are many positives too. Much more work is going to be needed but, judging by the general air of enthusiasm in the Payne’s vineyard shed, it will be worth it in the long run. email@example.com ■
Ollie Powrie has instigated a “trunk renewal program” across Villa Maria blocks.
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LIME ROCK WINES AND VINEYARD, 601 TIKOKINO ROAD, WAIPAWA, CENTRAL HAWKE’S BAY
19.4007 hectares (more or less)
Award winning vineyard
Vineyard, Number of business, stock potential house & plant sites
Viewings by appointment only
Situated on Tikokino Road in Central Hawke’s Bay, Lime Rock Wines and Vineyard is a unique opportunity to purchase an award-winning vineyard and cellar door that reflects the emphasis on the surrounding environment and its ecology, whilst producing wines that are award winning and have gained international recognition. The soils play an essential role in this well thought out vineyard, with ecology and biodiversity as a primary driver. Lime Rock is planted in Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, Cabernet Franc and Gruner Veltliner. The vineyard, business, stock and plant all form part of the sale process. The stewardship of this land has been to a very high standard and every aspect of the growing process has been carefully considered.
James Parsons 027 490 0099 firstname.lastname@example.org Hadley Brown 027 442 3539 email@example.com CRHB Limited, licensed under the REAA 2008
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 29
Use it, or risk losing it C h a r l o t t e H e n l e y, P a r t n e r a n d Shelley Herbert, Associate - Kensington Swan
recent New Zealand trade mark case highlights to w i n e m a ke r s t h e importance of making sufficient ongoing use of a registered trade mark, even when it is for one of your secondary wine labels. In this particular case Kono NZ LP (‘Kono’) had a trade mark registered for its KOHA logo , used as a secondary wine label to its primary TOHU brand. The KOHA logo trade mark was ultimately revoked from the Trade Marks Register (upon application by Te Pa Family Vineyards Limited (‘Te Pa’)) after Kono failed to prove sufficient genuine use of the mark in the last three years (or that special circumstances existed to justify the non-use of its mark).
Non-use under the Trade Marks Act In New Zealand, the continuing validity of a trade mark registration depends upon the continuing use of the trade mark in relation to the goods and/or services for which it is registered. A trade
Charlotte Henley, Partner Kensington Swan
mark registration may become vulnerable to revocation (upon application by a third party) if the trade mark has not been genuinely used in trade in New Zealand in relation to the goods or services for which it was registered during a continuous period of three years after its registration date. The use does not however need to be substantive, provided it is genuine use as a trade mark in trade. However, a trade mark may not be revoked if its non-use is due to special circumstances that are outside the control of the trade mark owner. The Kono case demonstrates an application of the relevant legal principles underlying this exception to the general non-use principle. Challenge to the KOHA logo Te Pa brought the challenge to Kono’s KOHA logo trade mark registration because Te Pa was wanting to use the mark KOHA in New Zealand on its wine. It wanted to obtain its own trade mark registration for KOHA and was being blocked by Kono’s earlier trade mark registration for the KOHA logo. At the revocation hearing before the Assistant Commissioner of Trade Marks, Kono accepted that it had not used its stylised KOHA logo
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
during the relevant three year period, and attempted to rely on the defence that its non-use was due to ‘special circumstances’. The Commissioner pointed to the following principles relevant to assessing whether special circumstances in fact exist: The circumstances must
three year period, precluded from doing so due to poor grape yields leading to insufficient volumes of wine being produced to justify use of such secondary/ export brand (KOHA). Instead, it focused on marketing and sales of the wine that was produced under Kono’s popular primary
Given a trade mark registration provides you with valuable New Zealand wide protection. be “peculiar or abnormal” and result from external forces, rather than voluntary decisions of the trade mark owner; It is sufficient to show that the non-use occurred in circumstances that would have made it impractical in a business sense to use the trade mark, rather than impossible; and There must be a causal link between the alleged special circumstances and the non-use of the trade mark. Kono claimed to have had a continuing intention to make use of the KOHA mark, but argued that it was, during the relevant
TOHU mark. Kono further argued that the increased popularity and demand for its primary label wines (under the TOHU brand) combined with lower grape yields over the three year period, resulted in less surplus product being available for marketing and sale under the KOHA brand. However, the Commissioner considered that there was insufficient evidence to support Kono’s claim that reduced availability of grapes was “peculiar or abnormal”, and held that Kono’s evidence did not establish that it was
“impracticable in a business sense” for Kono to use the KOHA brand during the relevant three year period. The Commissioner instead accepted Te Pa’s claim that deciding to market the wine it did have under Kono’s primary TOHU mark (rather than its KOHA mark) indicated a deliberate internal business decision to prefer one brand over the other. The Commissioner also considered that Kono’s
from New Zealand. So in the context of the branding of wine, this recent case emphasises the importance of monitoring your trade mark registrations for, and use of, secondary (and/or third and fourth) wine labels, to avoid them becoming vulnerable to revocation for non-use and allowing a competitor to enter the market using the same or similar brand to that which you recently marketed your own goods and services under.
A trade mark may not be revoked if its non-use is due to special circumstances that are outside the control of the trade mark owner. decision to favour its primary TOHU brand and divert vintage accordingly, negated the required causal link between the claimed environmental factors and the period of non-use. Therefore the Commissioner concluded that Kono had failed to prove that ‘special circumstances’ justified its non-use of its stylised KOHA logo, and Te Pa’s application for revocation of Kono’s trade mark registration was successful.
Conclusion The Kono case is a reminder to use your registered trade mark, or risk losing it. Given a trade mark registration provides you with valuable New Zealand wide protection against someone else using your brand (or a confusingly similar brand) on the same or similar product, it is worth maintaining your trade mark registrations through ongoing use of the mark. A trade mark registration also provides exclusive rights to brands used on products solely to be exported
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The Kono case also emphasises that if an owner of a trade mark registration seeks to rely on the ‘special circumstances’ defence to nonuse, it is paramount that a causal link is established between an external factor beyond the owner’s control and the non-use of the mark (i.e. that the external factor actually prevented the owner from making use of the mark, or made use impractical in a business sense). If you’re worried that one of your brands might be potentially vulnerable to challenge for nonuse, or if you want to obtain protection for any of your brands that you haven’t yet registered as trade marks, you should contact your IP lawyer before it is potentially too late. For furthe r information contact; Charlotte Henley partner Wellington. charlotte. firstname.lastname@example.org +64 21 442 386 or Jenni Rutter partner Auckland. jenni.rutter@ kensingtonswan.com +64 21 225 9474. ■
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 31
Ask your neighbour.. There must be a better way of doing this.
Find out how at one of the HML grower workshops.
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“Ask any grape grower and they’ll tell you that growing is becoming more difficult.” “Our range of products - with HML Red, arriving next season - offer protection against all the major grape diseases. Our products use naturally-derived materials which, by themselves, have moderate fungicidal activity. But when combined with others, potency is greatly enhanced - in many cases surpassing that of ‘single site’ conventional chemistry. In other words, you can rely on our products to get the job done. A large investment of both time and money has produced solid research, both here and overseas, which proves this reliability.
“I look forward to seeing you at one of our grower workshops below”
So I would ask you to talk to growers who have used our products last season, and also come along to the presentation of this season’s research findings.
HML Winegrower Workshops 2018 Date
Monday 30 April 2018
Geisen Sports and Events Centre, 8 Uxbridge Street, Renwick
Wednesday 2 May 2018
Waipara Hills, 780 Glasnevin Road (SH1), Waipara
Friday 4 May 2018
Cromwell Early Learning Centre, 53 Monaghan Street, Cromwell
Monday 7 May 2018
Seifried Estate Winery, 184 Redwood Road, Appleby, Nelson
Wednesday 9 May 2018
Firestation, 9 Texas Street, Martinborough
Thursday 10 May 2018
Deerstalkers Clubrooms, 1534 Maraekakaho Road, Bridge Pa
Friday 11 May 2018
Bushmere Arms, 673 Matawai Road, Makaraka, Gisborne
Tuesday 15 May 2018
Cable Bay Winery, 12 Nick Johnstone Drive, Oneroa
Wednesday 16 May 2018
Auckland / Matakana
Warkworth Golf Club, 4 Golf Road, Warkworth
Thursday 17 May 2018
Marsden Estate, 56 Wiroa Road, Kerikeri
Henry Manufacturing Ltd Visit www.henrymanufacturing.co.nz Call Chris Henry on 027 294 1490 email email@example.com or contact your local technical advisor.
New marketing initiatives – getting social
ew Zealand Winegrowers’ marketing team have launched a number of new initiatives to help promote the story of New Zealand wine. Global Marketing Director Chris Yorke tells Tessa Nicholson about them.
Utilising digital and social media For many this is a strange new world of marketing yet it is one of the most important tools in the box for New Zealand Winegrowers and wineries alike. Which is why, Chris Yorke says, they are undertaking tests across all the major NZW activities in an effort to help the industry. “The idea is to come up with learnings we can share with wineries and NZW staff in terms of how best we should use the different elements within digital and social media. We want to develop tool boxes and playbooks for our members that will show the best way to use social and digital media, how to use them and the types of things that are needed to be successful.” Lending a helpful hand has been Alyssa Vitrano from America. A lifestyle influencer, Vitrano was in New Zealand earlier this year courtesy of NZW. With 168,000 followers on Instagram she provided a wealth of knowledge on the how, what and whys of social and digital media. “The areas we worked through
with her included detailing specific requirements for social media coverage pre, during and post her trip to New Zealand. We saw which of her posts were the most successful in terms of likes and then we looked at boosting one of her top posts to different audiences, monitoring which topics of interest and geographical locations generated the best engagement. We wanted to work out what was the best way to do that, and we have gained some very good learnings from that exercise.” In another “test” an article written and posted by Bloomberg’s Elin McCoy, regarding New Zealand Pinot Noir, is being studied carefully. “We are now testing to see how we can drive people to that article, so they read it. “The aim is that when influencers come to New Zealand and we are going to be having a lot during the International Sauvignon Blanc Celebration 2019, we want to know the best way to leverage what they are doing for us.” The tests are boosting stories and comments to between 30,000 and 40,000 people, which as Yorke says is much higher than the 1,000 to 2,000 followers most wineries would be connecting with. Part of the learnings being gained are just how to effectively use social and digital media. Just firing any old thing out, is not all
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
that effective he says. “We are looking at what images people respond to, and what is the best form of text required to gain a response.” With those tests having already been carried out, Yorke says they are now planning to take the learnings and put them into practice at NZW events being held in Canada during May. “We want to see how we can use Instagram and Facebook to drive people to register for and attend our events in Vancouver,
Montreal and Toronto. From this test, we aim to create playbook for wineries, which will show them how they can gain the best leverage for events via social media.” At the New Zealand Tasting held in Dublin in January, a test using social media and newsletters proved how important and cost effective this form of marketing is. “We invested €450 and sold 250 consumer tickets, which is double what we would normally
sell in Dublin. So not only was it an efficient investment, but it was also very effective in terms of bringing in an active audience. There was a real buzz in the room at that event.” All of the results and learnings will be available to wineries and NZW staff later this year, so look out for them.
#sauvblanc day – Friday May 4th “ We w a n t t o d r i v e impressions, drive engagements and build our data base, so NZW is organising a number of retail promotions, key influencer lunches and there will also be a major focus at wine fairs being held in Canada around that time,” Yorke says. On top of that, more than 100 independent wine stores in the UK have joined a promotion to run New Zealand Sauvignon Blanc events on May 4. “The best store promotion will win tickets 188W X 120H MM
to come to New Zealand for next year’s ISBC 2019.” NZW communications team is also supporting this with a global social media campaign - it’s not #sauvblanc day without #nzwine - which will launch in the month leading up to 4 May. Yorke is also encouraging wineries who are undertaking events to ensure they use the hashtags #sauvblanc and #nzwine, to ensure the message reaches as many people as possible. Wine Marlborough is hosting a Sauvignon Blanc Day degustation dinner on Friday the 4th of May. Tickets are limited and will be released soon. They are also organising a competition to find the biggest Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc fans from across the world. Event kits will be provided to at least five people across the globe to host their own Sauvignon Blanc Day celebrations. There will also be an opportunity for someone
to win a trip to Marlborough for Sauvignon Blanc Day!
Wine tourism Talking about hash tags, did you know that Tourism New Zealand has a hashtag #nzmustdo? It allows visitors to post photos of things they loved doing while here in New Zealand. Currently there are more than 900,000 posts. Yorke would like to see more winery and cellar door photos added to that long list. “We want to make sure that cellar doors and other wine tourism experiences throughout the country are encouraging visitors to use the right hashtags
when they post. Firstly make sure visitors have the winery hashtag, then the regional hashtag and then the #nzwine hashtag. Also encourage people to include #nzmustdo, so that when people outside of New Zealand are looking for the must do things here, they are seeing a lot of wine.” And finally NZW are working with wine-searcher.com to negotiate access to reports on searches for New Zealand wine and listings of New Zealand in our key markets, which will then be available to share with members. So lots going on, and more to come. ■
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Royal Easter Show Trophies Guala Closures Champion Wine of the Show Te Awa Single Estate Hawke’s Bay Chardonnay 2016 Mainfreight Champion Export Wine Babich Hawke’s Bay Merlot Cabernet 2016 Rapid Labels Champion Méthode Hawkesbridge Marlborough Méthode Traditionelle 2014 Red Badge Security Champion Riesling Ceres Bannockburn Black Rabbit Riesling 2017 Auckland A&P Assn Champion Rosé The Ned Pinot Rosé 2017 My Farm Champion Gewurztraminer Spy Valley Single Estate Gewurztraminer 2016 Esvin Wine Resources Champion Pinot Gris Giesen Estate Pinot Gris 2017 Glengarry Wines Champion Other Varieties Summerhouse Marlborough Verdelho 2016 Guala Closures Champion Sauvignon Blanc Whitehaven Marlborough Sauvignon Blanc 2017
Winemaker of the Year at the 2018 Royal Easter Show Wine Awards, Richard Painter, Te Awa Winery, Hawkes Bay (right) with Robb Kemp, chairman of the Wine Committee of the Auckland Agricultural & Pastoral Association. Richard’s Te Awa Single Estate Chardonnay 2016 was also the Champion Wine of the Show.
New World Champion Chardonnay Te Awa Single Estate Hawke’s Bay Chardonnay 2016
Wineworks Champion Cabernet Sauvignon & Blends Mills Reef Reserve Cabernet Merlot 2016
Generator Rental Champion Merlot & Blends Saint Clair Pioneer Block 17 Plateau Merlot 2016
Drinksbiz Magazine Champion Sweet Wine Riverby Estate Noble Riesling 2015
New Zealand Winegrower Magazine Champion Pinot Noir Two Degrees Pinot Noir 2016
Heritage Rosebowl Villa Maria Reserve Merlot Cabernet 2005, 2010, 2015
ASB Showgrounds Champion Syrah Villa Maria Reserve Gimblett Gravels Hawke’s Bay Syrah 2016
Winemaker of the Year Richard Painter – Te Awa Winery
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NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
LATEST INDUCTEE TO THE NEW ZEALAND WINE HALL OF FAME Well known throughout the world of wine, Dr Mike Trought from Plant & Food is the latest inductee into the New Zealand Wine Hall of Fame. It was 1984 when Dr Trought arrived in Marlborough, just as a research centre was being established. Grapes were only a blot on the horizon at the time, it was cherry, garlic and pasture research that occupied this English born scientist. How times have changed. By the early 90s he began working with grape growers struggling to keep yields in vineyards down to manageable levels. These first grape related trials involved inter row companion crops, in an effort to reduce that vigour. It was the first of dozens of trials that Trought has been involved in. From the Research Centre to Lincoln University, where he was the
viticultural lecturer for nine years In a past interview he said; “I believe I learnt more about viticulture than I had ever known beforehand, simply through being a lecturer.” From Lincoln to Villa Maria as regional viticulture manager, a position he held for the next three years. In 2004 he returned to research as the Principal Scientist at Plant & Food, based in Blenheim. Since then he has become the go-to for advice on what to expect in the months to come, how to deal with the consequences of the current conditions and solid management plans. His research is held in esteem the world over. In 2009 he was lauded as Personality of the Year by New Zealand Winegrower magazine and in 2015 he was made a Fellow of New Zealand Winegrowers. ■
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Bruce Corban P: 027-290 9231 E: email@example.com W: www.corbansnurseries.co.nz
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 37
WOMEN IN WINE
Connect – Inform – Change Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
orthland to Central Otago and all wine regions in between are well on the way to establishing regional Women in Wine committees. And the first National Committee meeting has taken place, held in Auckland in February. Women in Wine NZ coordinator, Nicky Grandorge says a number of objectives have been established, with the goal being to Connect, Inform and Change. Connect: provide opportunities for women in the New Zealand wine industry to create valuable networks, share successes and ideas. Provide: valuable information and resources to support and advance the careers of women in the wine industry. Change: encourage wine industry commitment to the support and advancement of women’s careers. Yet despite the name of the group, Grandorge is keen to point out, Women in Wine NZ is an inclusive initiative, and men are also invited along to events and workshops. She says at the first National Committee a number of issues were raised, by regional representatives, including; as people get older, it is harder for them to be heard, young women have said it is hard to break into some established networks and a common denominator in all regions was that people felt they needed help gaining confidence and assertiveness in their career path within wine. Some interesting figures have emerged regarding women in wine here in New Zealand. According to stats from NZIER, there are 7350 people working in the New Zealand wine industry and 46 percent
The National Committee, from left; Patricia Miranda-Taylor, Pragati Thorat, Nicky Grandorge, Kerry Stainton-Herbert, Sarah Szegota, Trudy Shield, Brittney Duval and Katherine Jacobs (Chair).
of those are women. In terms of Central Otago, who have undertaken their own survey, women are involved in ownership of 103 of the 120 vineyards in the COWA area. Nine of those 103 were owned by women outright. The region is also home to 18 female winemakers. Women in Wine NZ is keen to gather more information and gain a wider perspective of the role of women throughout the country. Grandorge highlighted that more women are taking part in the annual Young Viticulturist and Winemaker competitions,
although there is still a long way to go before there is parity in numbers. In 2017, of the 35 competitors in the Bayer Young Viticulturist, 10 were women. (That is up on 2016, where seven out of 32 were women.) In the Tonnellerie de Mercurey Young Winemaker of the year, three of the four finalists in 2017 were women, there have been a total of six female finalists over three years, with two of the overall winners being women. She is hoping those figures will encourage more young women
to have a go at the competitions later this year. In terms of where to from here, Grandorge says another national committee meeting will take place next month. But she is quick to add they are moving carefully, rather than quickly. “We are very much in the infancy stage at the moment and we are adamant that we want to ensure we get it right for the future. We want to build a strong, positive community to promote and facilitate the participation and success of women in our industry” ■
Regional Women in Wine Representatives NAME
Stewart Town Vineyard
Paroa Bay Winery Ltd
Waipara, North Canterbury
Big Sky Wines
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
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Valuing women throughout the wine chain Lee Suckling
nce upon a time, winemakers prepared their daughters for sales and hospitality roles while they groomed their sons to take over from them in the vineyard. Now, women are more prominent than ever in winemaking: they’re winemakers, they’re cellar managers, they’re oenologists, and they are vineyard managers. In fact, forty-six percent of all people in the New Zealand wine workforce are female. What’s more, according to Lincoln University, international research has found that up to 80 per cent of all wine sold is to female buyers. As such, wine is an industry that must value women at both ends of the bottle. However it’s not all womenfriendly in wine. While women are present everywhere in the wine industry from the vineyards to the Masters of Wine, there still aren’t many women in top jobs yet. There are few women executives in wine who come in as outsiders and don’t run the company as generational businesses. In her book Women in Wine: The Rise of Women in the Global Wine Industry, Ann B. Matasar writes, “No business or industry reaches further back in history or is more global in scope than the wine industry. And no industry has so resolutely excluded women from positions of influence for so long.” Getting women to the top To combat this sort of mentality, New Zealand Winegrowers has launched a nation-wide Women in Wine New Zealand initiative. All wine growing regions now have established advocacy groups, with Central Otago
launching theirs in January, to a group of 83 members (and growing). “If women in the wine industry are not an identifiable group then they are not showing the next generation of women that there is a professional career path here and one that offers exciting opportunities and rewards,” says Janiene Bayliss, Managing Director of Ata Mara Vineyard and an organiser behind Central Otago Women In Wine. Eighteen women winemakers are in the region, as are 104 women who are significantly involved in ownership of the 120-odd vineyards in the area. “It has proven difficult for women to enter this industry from different specialities and then to get the recognition, mentoring and advancement that their male counterparts enjoy.” Jing Song, managing director of Crown Range Cellar, understands such challenges. The 30-year-old Chinese New Zealander worked as a chartered accountant then formed a wine distribution partnership with Grant Taylor, her neighbour in Queenstown. This enterprise turned into a small-batch vineyard that produced premium wine for export to China, the US, Europe, and Australia, and even won the Pinot Noir Trophy at the International Wine and Spirit Competition (IWSC) in 2015. Yet it hasn’t been easy for Song in industry circles. She finds that some other winemakers are quite shocked with her identity. “This is a male-dominated industry, and it’s also an industry made up of families for generations, so people think it’s really unusual that I’m an outsider,” she says.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
Jing Song, managing director of Crown Range Cellar.
“People also aren’t used to a new face that is different in age and race, as well as gender. Some treat me equally, but others could be more supportive.”
Women as a consumer market As paying consumers, women make up the majority of the winebuying market. A Lincoln University literature review found that women purchase wine more often, and spend disproportionally more, than their male counterparts. Yet research also suggests women find buying wine an intimidating experience, and that the wine industry believes they are more confounded by the product than men are. This doesn’t seem to add up, considering the power women hold in the market. “Understanding our consumer is important and the growing influence of women in the con-
sumption of wine and enjoying wine and events has not gone unnoticed by our group,” says Bayliss. “Eight of every 10 bottles of wine in the UK that are drunk at home are purchased by women and 85 percent of women of legal drinking age in the USA drink wine. Supermarkets know that women are the shoppers and food and household decision makers – they buy the majority of the wine.” Wine buying is generally a gender-neutral experience, and this is something the wine industry deserves kudos for. There are few wines marketed specifically with women in mind. Those in wine don’t patronise consumers like some other industries do by using gendered colours, logos, and explicit wording (though one regrettable exception would be “White Girl Rosé” from Swish Beverages in the USA).
ever one glass – say when the children go to sleep – can turn into a whole bottle, and with such behaviour addiction (and other health problems) becomes a possible outcome if mothers’ winedrinking activities are habitual and chronic (as it does for all people). If such a vulnerability were to be exploited by the wine industry for sales purposes (e.g. marketing of wine specifically to stressed mothers, in the same way White Girl Rosé is marketed specifically to Caucasian millennial women) it would prove unethical. It would also go against the way the industry operates in terms of both gender neutrality in wine marketing and promotion of responsible drinking. Winemakers should hold each other to account if such a marketing practice does ever emerge in the future.
Janiene Bayliss, Managing Director of Ata Mara Vineyard and part of the Central Otago Women in Wine initiative.
A key issue arising for 2018 On the internet and in the entertainment world, a specific group of women has been identified and it may, regrettably, become a target market for the wine industry in 2018 and beyond. You may have heard of the popular term “Wine Mom” – thankfully it’s nothing to do with expectant mothers and alcohol consumption. Rather, Wine Moms (or mums, as we would say in New Zealand) are a group that is unashamed of partaking
in “liquid patience” after dealing with unwieldy children at the end of the day. The Wine Mom is visible on TV in Modern Family, in films such as Girls Trip, and in the real world in large Facebook groups (consisting of hundreds of thousands of members), quizzes, and viral memes. Why is this so problematic? The drinking of wine to relax away from one’s children is something seen as essential (even fashionable, humorous, and “cool”, if you look at the online memes) for the modern mother. How-
Steering clear of marketing wine specifically towards women In a study of California wine drinkers by Neilson, female and male consumers share similarities in wine drinking in terms of occasion, motivations to drink, and preferred wine style. This reinforces the case for genderneutral wine marketing as the ideal way of reaching the largest demographic and therefore a better market share. With that in mind, are there any aspects of women’s wine purchasing behav-
iour that are useful for winemakers, potentially usable in subtler ways? The aforementioned Lincoln University research found that women evaluate the price discount cue for buying a lot more than men – they are more likely to evaluate the region of origin purchasing cue. But that’s the extent of it: research does not support notions that brand name, medals, and awards are more valued by one sex over the other; nor is there much support for the idea that women choose wine based on artwork or label design more than men do. Women are more involved in wine production than ever. And more women are buying wine than ever. There is work to do around allowing women to get into top executive jobs in wine, and we must continue to ensure to keep the industry in check when it comes to vulnerable groups of women. As the daughters of the future follow their mothers into the vineyard, the cellar, and the boardroom, their passion for the drop is something to foster. Will wine ever be a women’s world? Only if women band together and support each other. As Matasar writes in her book, “What one sees is the emergence of an industry that is changing in a multitude of ways, from vineyard management to winemaking to international sales. No matter where you look women are participating in and leading those changes.” ■
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In a new series that highlights the very many roles of women in the New Zealand wine industry, we profile Tracy Benge – the Development Manager for the New Zealand Winegrowers’ Research Centre, to be based in Marlborough. Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
ack in 2014, Tracy Benge could not have imagined that she would be taking on the development management role for one of the biggest New Zealand Winegrower initiatives ever. After all she only had a three-month contract to instigate the Sustainable Winegrowing WiSE programme. Now four years later, she is the person who is overseeing a benchmark development for the New Zealand wine industry. She is the face behind the country’s first national grape and wine research centre as part of the new government Regional Research Initiative. For Benge it is the opportunity to utilise every one of her many skills including qualifications as a Chartered Accountant, a Business degree, a qualification in grape growing and winemaking from EIT, and Project Management certification to name a few. Her extensive business background in finance, operations and management has a heavy focus on process engineering and project management, and more recently, 10 years in the wine industry including sustainability. It all began back at Victoria University in Wellington, where Benge completed a business degree. She then chose to carry on studying, gaining a chartered accountancy qualification. With a scholarship from Price-
waterhouseCoopers, she went on to work in audit and management consultancy for the next four years. “I left the traditional accountancy background and worked more in the area of business management,” she says. Like many young New Zealanders, Benge headed off shore for further experience, ending up in London for five years, where she worked in investment banking and also established her own consulting business. “It was called E2E (End to End) Consulting. I specialised in re-engineering processes and controls, improving operational efficiency for businesses. “I love this type of work, the whole endto-end business process, how it can be improved and how businesses can be made more efficient with better controls and processes. When I was at PricewaterhouseCoopers, I worked in audit and on fraud investigations, which is all about tracing transactions back to source. I guess that is where I really developed
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
that process style of thinking.” While in London, Benge also worked for the largest bank in the world, JP Morgan, which is where she decided she would like to study project management.
It was a wise choice, given just as she had completed her qualification, JP Morgan merged with Chase Manhattan. “I put my hand up and said I would like to project manage the merger of the two investment companies, valued at £2bn. I got the job and my role was to merge the two operating platforms into one. It wasn’t always an easy environment, mergers never are, so in many ways it taught me important management skills. It also taught me a lot about putting together a business case, because I was constantly having to do that, to make decisions on what the merger model was going to look like, and deploying change management skills to get the right outcome.” So how did she go from project managing one of the largest bank mergers in the world, to working for New Zealand Winegrowers? It was all thanks to a “light bulb” moment she says, which took place at New Zealand House in
London. “I have always been interested in wine and I went to a wine tasting they were holding there. Mark Inglis, who was the winemaker for Montana at the time, was running the tasting.” Having lost both his legs below the knee to frostbite, after being stranded on Mt Aoraki back in the 80s, his story on having to change career, resonated with Benge. “I thought this guy has been through all this adversity to get where he is today. It is an amazing story. But for me I was thinking, I don’t have to go through any adversity to change career, I can just do it. That was my light bulb moment. I decided there and then that I wanted to pursue a career in wine. So I went back to work and resigned. I’ve never looked back.” Then it was back to New Zealand, where she enrolled in the two-year correspondent course in grape-growing and winemaking with EIT. Motherhood intervened before
she could gain work experience in the industry and from the time she finished her course, she was a stay at home mum for seven years. But her desire to be involved with wine hadn’t diminished any in those intervening years. Once she made the decision to go back to work, she began taking on contract jobs in Auckland. “I wanted to gain experience in the industry from the ground up,” she says. She took on work with Constellation, Toi Toi Wines and Coopers Creek. But checking out the NZW website was all the impetus that was needed to move on to her latest career path. “I had decided that I wanted to work for NZW, so I had a look at the website to see what projects they had going. “That was the start of the PGP and I thought they might require a project manager.” So she updated her CV and contacted Philip Gregan. Unfor-
tunately for her the role had already been taken. But her skill set was obviously impressive, because they asked if she would be interested in another project, the implementation of WiSE (NZW’s Wine Industry Sustainability Engine). She went for the interview the next day and was offered the job on the spot. That was the initial threemonth contract. Since then Benge has been involved in a strategic review, the financial benchmarking programme with MPI, and the development of the SWNZ Continuous Improvement Project which was launched last July. “I had literally just launched that, when this job came up. It is an amazing opportunity and I am really excited about it, mostly because for the first time I get to use every one of my skills in the industry I love, in the place I love. Moving to Marlborough was an easy decision. It is the chance of a lifetime.” ■ email@example.com
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BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG Legal status: Unwanted organism This insect is NOT present in New Zealand but we would like to know if you have seen it here.
Photo: David R Lance, USDA APHIS PPQ
Photo: Pensylvannia Department of Conservation and National Resources
Underside of adult insect.
Eggs with emerging nymph stage insects.
Photo: Ministry for Primary Industries
WHAT IS IT? Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Halyomorpha halys) is an agricultural pest found in Asia, notably China, Japan, and Korea; it has aggressively invaded the US and could successfully establish in New Zealand. This insect feeds on more than 300 hosts, primarily fruit trees and woody ornamentals but also field crops. A broad range of crops can be attacked including: citrus; pipfruit; stonefruit; berries, grapes, asparagus, soybeans, sweetcorn, honeysuckle, maple, butterfly bush, cypress, hibiscus and roses. Adults generally feed on mature and immature fruit, while nymphs feed on leaves and stems as well as fruit. It severely disfigures fruit and renders it unmarketable, which results in control costs and production losses. Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) damage to woody ornamentals and forest trees has been reported as cosmetic only.
Young nymph stages are yellowish brown, mottled with black and red. Older nymph stages are darker, with the banding pattern on the legs and antennae beginning to appear.
HOW COULD IT GET HERE? The adults naturally tend towards cracks/ crevices to shelter from the environment in the winter months and may find their way into loaded containers for import into New Zealand. The insect has also spread through the transport of personal effects and housewares. It may also find its way into luggage and mail. MPI has a number of measures in place to reduce the risk of exotic pests being introduced including requirements for importers and screening at the border. However there is no such thing as zero risk and it is possible the insect could hitch-hike its way into the country undetected.
WHAT CAN I DO?
BMSB is not a risk to human health but is a public nuisance. When disturbed or crushed it emits a characteristic, unpleasant and longlasting odour.
Horticulturalists and home gardeners: Report any suspect finds to MPI on 0800 80 99 66. If possible photograph and/or collect samples. Catch it and call us.
WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE?
Travellers and those receiving mail from overseas: Please make sure you open luggage and mail from overseas in an enclosed space to contain any hitch-hiking pests. Report anything you find to MPI on 0800 80 99 66. If possible photograph and/or collect samples. Catch it and call us.
Adults are approximately 1.7 cm long, with a distinctive brown “shield” shape. Underside is white/tan, legs and antennae are brown with white banding. Eggs are light green, barrel shaped, and found in clusters of 20–30 eggs. These eggs are laid on the underside of leaves.
0800 80 99 66
Brown shield bug (Dictyotus caenosus). Approx 10mm long Present in New Zealand
Pittosporum shield bug (Monteithiella humeralis). Approx 9.6mm long Present in New Zealand
HOW CAN I IDENTIFY BMSB? There are currently other species of stink bugs found in New Zealand that could be confused with the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB).
Brown soldier bug(Cermatulus nasalis). Approx 15mm long Present in New Zealand
Brown form of Green Vegetable bug (Nezara viridula). Approx 17mm long Present in New Zealand
Brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys). Approx 17mm long NOT Present in New Zealand
Key distinguishing features of the adult BMSB are: » its size (14–17mm); » white banding on the antennae; » alternate black and white markings on the abdomen.
Yellow spotted stink bug (Erthesina fullo). Approx 23mm long NOT Present in New Zealand
If you are unsure, catch it, call us. Photos: Ministry for Primary Industries
0800 80 99 66
Contaminated vessels sent away from New Zealand Dr Edwin Massey
his month’s column highlights rece nt events at Ports of Auckland which has seen MPI redirect four incoming car carriers from Japan due to them being heavily infested with Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB). BMSB is one of the wine industry’s biggest biosecurity risks which could potentially cause the loss of approximately $600 million in foregone export revenue over the next twenty years.
Direction to reship – keeping risk offshore So far during February and March, MPI declared four car carrying vessels from Japan, which were docked at Ports of Auckland to be a high biosecurity risk due to the presence of large numbers of BMSB and other regulated pests. On entering New Zealand all owner/operators of goods which are deemed to be “a biosecurity risk” are given a choice to either, treat, reship or destroy the risk goods to manage the biosecurity risk. In this case, the
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vessels were directed to reship the cars outside of New Zealand waters until the vessel itself and its cargo had been treated. One of the shipping companies concerned also made a decision to divert another incoming vessel to another port for treatment prior to arrival in New Zealand. These decisions help to keep the risk of BMSB offshore. Upon arriving in Auckland, these vessels will then be subject to strict inspection and follow up treatment procedures to minimise risk. These decisions also send a
strong signal to shipping companies and car importers that they have an important role to play in protecting New Zealand’s biosecurity. New Zealand Winegrowers understands the costs the move to reship these vessels from New Zealand has on vehicle importers. It has been great to see the Vehicle Importers Association working so proactively alongside MPI to resolve this issue.
What’s changed in Japan? Car carriers have been arriv-
A car carrier docked in Ports of Auckland – subject to MPI inspection and treatment if required.
ing in New Zealand from Japan for many years. While individual BMSB and small numbers of other regulated pests have been intercepted before on this pathway, to date the numbers have been so small that spot treatment at wharf side facilities in New Zealand have been effective to manage the risk. The sudden spike in detections indicates that something in Japan has changed. This could be a result of climatic conditions or even where vehicles are stored prior to shipment or a range of other factors. New Zealand Winegrowers will be engaging with MPI to ensure we better understand the changing risk environment to ensure preventative measures are in place for the long-term. Managing this risk effectively will require a range of measures. There is no silver bullet long-term solution. Sulfuryl Fluoride fumigation is one of few fumigation options which does not damage vehicles’ interior. However, this particular treatment option is banned in Japan. Similarly, while
heat treatment in Japan would be effective to kill BMSB, it would take so long to treat such large numbers of cars, that it is not logistically feasible. To manage risk MPI has
much as possible New Zealand Winegrowers is also working actively with MPI and other horticultural industry organisations through the Government Industry Agreement (GIA), to
It’s your asset, protect it!
If you see anything unusual, Catch it; Snap it; Report it; call the MPI Biosecurity hotline 0800 809966. already strengthened the off shore requirements to clean cars in Japan prior to shipment. Furthermore, shipping companies have adopted voluntary measures to fumigate vessels with pestigas in Japan. This treatment option is similar to what a homeowner can do to treat their house for cockroaches or flies. Both these measures help to reduce risk.
Improving New Zealand’s readiness for BMSB While engaging with MPI to manage risk offshore as
wine industry and New Zealand horticulture. https://www.nzwine.com/ members/grow/biosecurity/mostunwanted/brown-marmoratedstink-bug-bmsb/
prepare for a BMSB incursion. This work involves developing a plan to eradicate a newly established population. New Zealand Winegrowers will share this information with members as it is developed. Through GIA, all industry partners are working to promote BMSB awareness amongst their respective membership. In the video clip (details next paragraph), New Zealand Winegrowers Board member Fabian Yukich highlights the importance of staying vigilant for BMSB, due to the impact it could have on the
The ongoing issues at Ports of Auckland highlight that BMSB risk can change very quickly and that MPI is prepared to take strong measures that help to mitigate BMSB risk for the wine industry when necessary. Nonetheless, all wine industry participants have a role to play. If you are importing any viticultural or wine making equipment from Europe or Asia between September 1 and April 30 you should ensure you inspect the equipment and packaging in a secure environment prior to use. If you see anything unusual, Catch it; Snap it; Report it; call the MPI Biosecurity hotline 0800 809966 and notify New Zealand Winegrowers Biosecurity and Emergency Response Manager Ed Massey 0211924924 firstname.lastname@example.org ■
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 47
FROM THE BOB’S BLOG CEO
BOB CAMPBELL MW
STRONGEST WINE CALORIES IN WINE BRAND IN NEW ZEALAND IS … JACOB’S CREEK British-based research company, Wine Intelligence, has just released its 2018 report showing Jacob’s Creek as this country’s strongest wine brand according to consumers. In October 2017 1000 “regular wine drinkers” were asked to “list the wine brands purchased in the past three months”. The results are shown below with results from a similar study in 2016 shown in brackets next to the current figures.
Top Brands 1st Jacob’s Creek – 24% (25%) 2nd Villa Maria – 21% (18%) 3rd Oyster Bay – 17% (18%) 4th Montana – 17% (20%) 5th Lindauer – 16% (17%) Other brands 6th Stoneleigh 7th Wither Hills 8th Cloudy Bay 9th Church Road 10th Selaks 11th Corbans 12th Brancott Estate 13th Banrock Station 14th Mission Estate 15th Wolf Blass
The most frequently asked question over the holiday season was “how many calories in a glass of wine?” or variations on a theme such as “does red wine have more calories?” After a little research here is what I came up with. The two calorific components in wine are sugar and alcohol. Grape juice before fermentation is very sweet and has approximately 50% more calories than Coca Cola, according to UK wine critic, Simon Woods. During fermentation yeasts transform sugar to alcohol although the yeasts never quite complete the job. There is always at least a tiny bit of residual sugar in even dry white and red wines. During the fermentation process some calories are lost therefore a litre of wine will have less calories than the litre of grape juice that produced it. A gram of sugar has 4 calories. That’s straightforward but calculating the calories in alcohol is a little more complicated. A litre of wine with 13% alcohol by volume contains 130ml of alcohol. A 750ml bottle of the same
wine has 97.5 gms of alcohol. One ml of alcohol weighs 0.8 gms. Alcohol has 7 calories per gm. Therefore a 750ml bottle of 13% alcohol wine has 97.5 x 7 x 0.8 = 546 calories plus the calories represented by any residual sugar. If the wine was dry with just 1 g/l of residual sugar you would need to add an extra .75 x 1 x 4 = 3 calories, effectively negligible. Here are some of my calorie calculations per 750ml bottle for a few common wines: Sauvignon Blanc 13% alc, 5 g/l RS = (130 x .75 x 7 x 0.8) + (.75 x 5 x 4) = 561 calories Riesling 12.5% alc, 20 g/l RS = (125 x .75 x 7 x 0.8) + (.75 x 20 x 4) = 585 calories Chardonnay 14% alc, 2 g/l RS = (140 x .75 x 7 x 0.8) + (.75 x 2 x 4) = 594 calories Syrah 14.5% alc, 1 g/l RS = (145 x .75 x 7 x 0.8) + (.75 x 1 x 4) = 612 calories Less difference than I had anticipated. Let’s try a “Lifestyle” wine with 9.5% alc and 20 g/l RS = (95 x .75 x 7 x 0.8) + (.75 x 20 x 4) = 459 calories
HANNIBAL LECTER’S WORST NIGHTMARE What’s a nice sheep like you doing in a muzzle like that? Welcome to the somewhat tragically named “Wine Baa”, a muzzle designed to stop sheep nibbling grapevine leaves while allowing them to graze under the vines. Peter Yealands, founder of Yealands Estate in Marlborough, went to the trouble of obtaining a breed of small sheep called Baby Dolls, that weren’t tall enough to bother the vines so clearly there is a need to let sheep into the vineyard if they don’t eat the vines. Wine Baa inventor, Australian social worker, David
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
Robertshaw, certainly believes so. Robertshaw has calculated that grape growers will save around A$558.40 per hectare annually if they graze seven sheep per hectare. They would also achieve greenhouse gas reductions of 0.21 CO2 emission. Other less tangible benefits might include discouraging trespassers who fear the sheep may be aggressive. That could be emphasised by a few “Beware of the Sheep” signs. For further information or to purchase a Wine Baa register your interest on the website www.winebaa.com
Photo courtesy of Riversun Nursery
When Reliability When Reliability Matters. Matters.
CASUALTIES OF CLIMATE CHANGE I was looking forward to lamb chops and salad with a glass of Pinot Noir when I arrived home after a wine class recently. It was a sultry summer’s night in Auckland. 24oC and raining with around 95% humidity. I cooked the chops and sloshed a Central Otago Pinot into a glass. The chops were great but the wine was lacklustre. I’d given it a solid gold rating that morning. Now it was thin and insipid with a brandy-like aroma. It was clearly too warm. 10 minutes in the fridge transformed the Pinot Noir into the wine I’d tasted earlier in the day. Rising summer temperatures demand that red wines routinely get a brief spell in the fridge before serving. I’ve never met anyone who enjoys tepid red on a hot day. Dropping the temperature by just 4-5oC can transform red wine. I don’t use a thermometer to check wine temperature, relying instead on taste. Every wine is different but in general terms I find that lighter, softer wines such as Pinot Noir, or perhaps Merlot, are better at slightly lower temperatures than more concentrated, structured wines such as Syrah or the so-called Bordeaux blends. Chilling mutes flavour and accentuates the drying effect of tannins – it’s easy to overdo it. When a waiter asks if I’d like to sample a red wine that’s sporting a screwcap I readily accept, not just to assess the condition of the wine but to check its temperature. If the wine is too hot or cold I ask for a bucket of ice or warm water. Temperature misfits are easily fixed.
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A decade of success Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
hen Dr Simon Hooker arrived at New Zealand Winegrowers back in 2007, he had two clear goals: to increase the amount of winerelated research undertaken and to ensure that the information from that research was passed on to industry members. The latter is something he has felt strongly about ever since he undertook his own PhD at the Leigh Marine Laboratory in Northland. “I remember going through the library at Auckland University and looking at all the PhD theses
and MSc theses in science – there were thousands of them – and most had never seen the light of day. It amazed me.” So when he came into the job as Research Manager for NZW, he was determined to ensure all the important findings from wine research were passed back to those who would ultimately benefit. “I noticed that there was not a dedicated tech transfer component to what we were doing. That is the one thing I was very keen on. It is all very well doing all the science, but we have to integrate that into the industry.” Bringing Ruby Andrew on
After a decade of success, Dr Simon Hooker has moved on from NZW.
board, to turn scientific findings into numerous fact sheets, proved a winner for both NZW and the industry at large. “I think that is one of the real successes of what we have done,” he says, “and we can thank Ruby Andrew for having worked so closely with us, pushing that information out.” As Dr Hooker now moves on from NZW, after more than 10 years in the job, firstly as Research Programme Manager and later as General Manager of Research and Innovation, there have been many successes, which will be felt by the industry for decades to come. Number one being the amount of government-funded research the industry is now involved in. “When I started, I was amazed there wasn’t more government funding. It almost shocked me to be honest. I think a lot of the industry thought $1.2 million (for the first Sauvignon Blanc Programme) was a lot of money. I thought wow, that is miniscule. The industry can be doing a lot better than that. So that was what I focused on, leveraging the dollars from member’s levies. I had come from other sectors, fishing and aquaculture – where they had huge amounts more funding than
the wine industry.” In the next decade, Hooker would increase funding, not only from government sources, but also via other research providers, to nearly $40 million – far and above the original $1.2 million provided for the very first major research programme. That funding has seen some major wins for the wine industry, in terms of research findings. Take for example, the Virus Elimination programme, which Hooker admits is one that he is extremely proud of. “It had become clear that people had been researching virus in grapes for years and years and years. We knew a lot about it, but there came a point when we needed to implement that knowledge, rather than just keep on doing research. So we went to the Sustainable Farming Fund (SFF) and got the first three years of funding. “That was all about taking that knowledge we had accumulated and implementing it and seeing if it actually worked. We trialed it on the Gimblett Gravels primarily, and it worked really well. Then we got another three years of funding from SFF. The virus protocols we developed in that
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programme are still in use today. It may sound easy today, but we weren’t sure whether you could reduce virus in a vineyard – but the research programme was a huge success in that regard. It was world leading and other countries have looked at it in amazement.” As Hooker says, in science you don’t get many big wins, but the results of the Virus Elimination programme were a major win. Another was to come a few years later, when research into Mechanical Thinning began. The idea was driven by Dominic Pecchenino, Chair of the NZW Research Committee. “A lot of people thought it was a waste of time when we began,” Hooker says. “And it was hard to get funding in the beginning. But we got it in the end and when we started researching we also measured botrytis, thinking that was going to increase due to the physical nature of the shaking. As you know, the story is the complete opposite. Now a lot of the indus-
try is using mechanical shaking to alleviate botrytis pressure. So that was another neat outcome and it was a huge win.” Other research programmes that Hooker has been involved in during his decade with NZW are: the PGP Lighter Wines programme; “That is producing amazing results and some of the market penetration we have had with lighter wines is pretty incredible.” Then there’s the Vineyard Ecosystems programme: “That is a different way of researching, trying to understand vineyards rather than fire-fighting individual issues.” Most recently, the industry has seen government investment in the NZW Pinot Noir programme, which has received funding of $9.3million over five years, and, of course, the NZW Research Centre, which received RRI funding of $10.5 million over three years to become established. Dr Hooker observes that this
investment has been achieved partly due to the successful partnerships that have been formed between NZW, Plant & Food, Auckland University and Lincoln University. “Over the 10 years, I have really focused on pulling those relationships between those providers and NZW, and now that relationship is very tight. There is a really good team feeling between all of us and how we strategise and work together for the benefit of the industry.” So much so that many of the researchers’ names are known throughout the New Zealand wine industry – Vaughan Bell, Trevor Lupton, David Jordan, Mike Trought, Dion Mundy and many others. Part of the reason for that, Dr Hooker says, is because these scientists are presenting their research findings on a regular basis at events such as NZW Grape Days, (instigated by Hooker after a suggestion by Dominic Pecchenino) and the
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Romeo Bragato Conference. As for the future of research as it relates to the wine industry, Hooker says it is important to keep building on the foundations already laid. “I like to think of science and innovation as the foundation of the industry. Without a good solid base, the whole thing can fall over. Marketing is the really important house we are building, it is massive and strong. But research and innovation are the foundation and without them, things can go pear shaped. The key with research is to have a programme that allows resilience, so that when the impacts happens – and it will happen and we never know from where it will come – we will have the resilience to deal with it. It is that resilience that the research programme gives to the industry, so we are going to be around producing the world’s best wines in 100 years’ time, not just in five years.” ■
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REGIONS CENTRAL OTAGO
10 years of the Burgundy Exchange Mark Orton
hen Pinot Noir was first planted in Central Otago, there’s a very good chance that no-one was giving much thought about garnering the attention of Burgundy. Just getting the vines to take and making palatable wines was a good start; but as anyone familiar with the trajectory of the region goes, Pinot Noir loves Central Otago and yes, Burgundy has taken notice. Eschewing the complete No.8 wire ethos of having a go and ‘to hell with tradition’, winemakers in the region not only recognise the importance of fostering links with Burgundy, but actively seek ways to share knowledge and experience. Nowhere is this relationship more pronounced, than the formal vintner exchange program that celebrated a decade of collaboration in 2017. Born from a conversation in 2006 between Rippon’s Nick
Mills and Sophie Confuron of Domaine Jean-Jacques Confuron, the initial idea was to send a select group of budding wine industry interns from either side of the world to experience harvest, and hopefully sow the seed for an enduring exchange of ideas, culture and experience. “From the beginning, it was clear that the two regions had much to offer each other,” says Mills. The enormous history and respect for tradition is something that a person from a very young country like New Zealand cannot fully appreciate until being fully immersed amongst it. Conversely, Burgundians come to Central Otago and find a place that does not have the detailed geographical and political overlays, so is free of the sort of constraints they have grown used to. “It’s an opportunity for meaningful conversation between friends, the sharing of values and ideas, and the celebration of our collective heritage.”
In the 10 years that the exchange has been operating, 75 stagiaires (interns) have been sent and received between the regions, and over 100 domaines/ estates have been involved in the activities. As Mills who is co-founder of the exchange sums up; “If we assume that each participant has come into contact with at least five people, then it’s entirely possible that several hundred people have been affected by the exchange on both sides. This amounts to a significant cultural impact, not to mention the benefits gained from the practical experiences.” Structurally, the running of the exchange is shared between a winegrower association and an agricultural college from each region. Between the Mosaïque Bourgogne International (MBI) and the CFPPA de Beaune on the French side, and the Central Otago Winegrowers’ Association (COWA) and the Otago
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Polytechnic Cromwell Campus in New Zealand, there are a great number of people working really hard behind the scenes to elevate the experience for those lucky enough to be chosen. Central Otago is also lucky enough to have the commitment from French import, Lucie Lawrence (Aurum wines). After honing her wine-making skills in Burgundy before moving here 14 years ago, Lucie likens her role as a link between the two cultures. “For me, the key of this program is the cultural exchange. The two regions are so different, sure we have Pinot Noir in common but almost everything else is different. It’s not so much the technical side of things as we all make wine in a similar way. Really, for people from the New World it is about appreciating Pinot as part of society and community which is really important.” In October 2017, a celebration of the Bourgogne Central Otago Exchange or l’Échange Bourgogne
Taken at the monument of Notre Dame de Bonne Espérance in PernandVergelesses. Beaune is in the distance.
Central Otago as it’s known in France, took place in Burgundy and was attended by key contributors to the wine industry in both countries. While it was extremely important to mark a decade of collaboration and discuss some of the remarkable initiatives that this partnership has given rise to; such as a moment of diplomatic intervention when the New Zealand
Intern Ben Holt, digging out the tanks in Burgundy.
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 53
Government provided support for Burgundy’s candidacy to achieve UNESCO World Heritage status, and conversely when friends from Burgundy sent rare wines to New Zealand to raise money for the Christchurch earthquake appeal, three stagiaires from Central Otago were already well into their Burgundian education. Last August, Ben Holt from Carrick Wines, Alex Easton from Grape Vision and Leslie Johnston from Rippon, departed for Burgundy after successfully passing the interview process to be part of the program. Lucie Lawrence who is part of the selection committee stresses that experienced wine makers are not necessarily guaranteed an automatic ticket to Burgundy. “Firstly, we’re looking for people who are committed to Central Otago as we want this experience to benefit the region for years to come. They have to be prepared to fully immerse themselves and to take ownership of their time. More important than technically knowing how to make wine, is a good work ethic and not being shy to pick up a broom and brush some grapes away.” On arrival in Burgundy, the trio spent their first week at The Centre de Formation Professionnelle et de Promotion Agricole (CFPPA) in Beaune, a technical college where they were introduced to Burgundy through lectures and tastings before being placed at different host vineyards
for three weeks. Leslie and Ben were dispatched to Nuits-SaintGeorges while Alex went to Chablis. Back home and full-on preparing for an early Central Otago harvest, all three totally rated their time in Burgundy. For Ben who primarily works in viticulture, the hands-on nature of being a vigneron in Burgundy was special. “I wanted to learn as much as I could in the winery, as that is where my expertise is lacking, but at the same time ask questions about what they do in the vineyard. I needed to see for myself what hundreds of years of tradition looks like. If I wasn’t working in the winery I would ask if I could go and pick grapes to see the different sites and locations. I definitely look at things with more foresight now, a lot more monitoring and making sure you don’t get caught out.” Not every moment of their time in Burgundy was stringently managed either, which worked
perfectly for Leslie who fortunately had a car to use. “I drove through every appellation, wandered through the forests where our barrels are grown, spoke with so many people and saw so many things of which I previously had only a theoretical understanding. Visual and tangible effects are often, to me, the best way to understand a thing. The whole experience has given me a lot more information to share with visitors to our cellar door which is great.” Though, as fascinating as many hundreds of years of French wine making culture are, Leslie did discover that some traditions can be a little difficult to get used to at first. “One of the most surprising things for me as a woman, was being told that there were certain things that I could and couldn’t do which was frustrating. But, I just took a step back and realised that they weren’t doing it to be mean or chauvinistic. If anything
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they were trying to be nice to me.” As I race to meet the publishing deadline for this article, the next group of enthusiastic stagiaires from Burgundy have touched down in Queenstown and been whisked off to Maude, Mt Difficulty, Rippon and Valli where they are being hosted. It’s pretty evident to see what our interns might gain from an insight into the life in the historic home of Pinot Noir, but what do the French make of Central Otago? “Well, for them it is all about freedom and open-mindedness,” says Lawrence. “We’re not shackled by the appellation system and heavy bureaucracy which can be a downside of 100s of years of wine making. When they go home, they can ask the question ‘are we doing this because that is what has always done, or is it relevant’? The benefit of the exchange is that the best part of both world’s can be applied to where we are right now.” ■
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The big Chardonnay debate Chardonnay is arguably the world’s most popular white wine so why are consumers more confused than ever before about how to find the style they want to drink? Joelle Thomson investigates. Peaches and cream or gunflint and the dreaded ‘m’ word - minerality? Chardonnay has never been more polarising nor more diverse than it is today, so it could be suggested that wine consumers are spoilt for choice. Instead, many winemakers, retailers and wine drinkers say that Chardonnay has become something of a confusing wine, due to the diversity of styles now made.
A wider range of winemaking methods are now used globally for Chardonnay production than at any other time in its history. These include when to harvest, how the grapes are pressed, choice of fermentation vessels, choice of yeasts, temperature of fermentation, use and degree of malolactic fermentation, lees aging, battonage (aka lees stirring) and maturation time with or without oak or other oak influences, such as wood chips.
It could be argued that the quality of New Zealand Chardonnay has never been better, even if consumers are confused, says Gisborne winemaker Steve Voysey.
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The inspiration for Irongate Chardonnay came from a trip that Joe Babich made to Burgundy.
Chardonnay has been on a roll since the 1980s when global plantings quadrupled everywhere from France and North America to Australia and here in New Zealand, where it was the most planted grape for several years in the early 1990s before being eclipsed for the foreseeable by Sauvignon Blanc. Today, there is significantly less Chardonnay grown and made in New Zealand than there was a decade ago. It remains the third most planted grape overall in this country, but it has shrunk in number and percentage share of the national vineyard from 3,881 hectares nationally in 2008 to 3,203 hectares today. Figures quoted are the latest from New Zealand Winegrowers. And the numbers pale in
comparison to the growth in Sauvignon Blanc and Pinot Noir. It could be argued, however, that the quality of New Zealand Chardonnay has never been better, even if consumers are confused, says Gisborne winemaker Steve Voysey, who moved from Marlborough to Gisborne in 1990 specifically to make Chardonnay. Today, Voysey works for Indevin and makes his own Spade Oak wines, but for many years he was in charge of making Montana Gisborne Chardonnay, a wine he describes as being “like a Chablis style but with fruit”. “Montana Gisborne Chardonnay went from one success to another, due to having lots of easy to taste fruit but with oak in the background rather than
being too upfront. I see this as a style of Chardonnay that New Zealand does extremely well. It would be nice to see more of those styles on shop shelves again. It hits the sweet spot of peaches and cream without oak being too dominant.” Voysey is also a fan of Marlborough Chardonnay that has had full malolactic fermentation, something that works well in the relatively cool South Island climate where acidity tends to be high and can respond well to a proportion of malolactic fermentation. For Voysey, the winemaking bells and whistles are imperative to Chardonnay which, he says, has as many thiols as Sauvignon Blanc; something which becomes apparent if the wine is made like
Sauvignon Blanc – with its fruit pronounced rather than subdued. For this reason, he works hard to make full bodied, creamy Chardonnays where both fruit and oak take the passenger seat rather than the driving role. He sees huge growth in terms of sales of big buttery Chardonnays. “The passionate consumer seems to yearn for that golden creamy expression of Chardonnay; they don’t mind the oak, the colour and the richness and I guess the more traditional Burgundian style with its gunflint character is more of a statement wine. This style is getting a good following in the wine show fraternity but I’m not sure whether the consumer is enjoying it as much as some people in the industry are.” One of those in the industry who enjoys a more subdued Chardonnay with gunflint-like aromas is wine writer John Saker, who sees the exploration into different styles of Chardonnay as something to welcome. “I think overall that there is a leaning to a tighter style of Chardonnay among winemakers, and I would have thought this is because these are more refreshing and better food wines than some big buttery Chardonnays. It also helps temper the sweetness, which is something that I’m quite sensitive to,” says Saker, who suggests that tighter, flintier styles of Chardonnay are more food-friendly.
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Voysey says these wines are a harder sell. “We find consumers are asking us for that creamier, peaches and cream style and the more refined, acid driven wines are more likely to generate that more mineral, gun flinty character. To my mind, it’s something that the Australians have changed their style to and New Zealanders have followed suit through the show system. It’s not a consumer-driven trend, it’s a show driven trend.” Veteran winemaker Joe Babich agrees. Chardonnay represents a relatively small percent of Babich Wines’ branded sales today, despite the fact that it constituted more sales than Sauvignon Blanc at one stage. “That was because we had no Sauvignon at one time,” chuckles Babich; the family owned company’s former chief winemaker. “Once we moved down to Marlborough, the growth in Sauvignon Blanc was meteoric, but prior to that Chardonnay was
important for us and for more reasons than numbers.” Babich pioneered one of New Zealand’s first Burgundianinspired Chardonnays when he made the first vintage of Babich Hawke’s Bay Irongate in 1985, five years after the company’s first ever Chardonnay, made from Gisborne grapes. The inspiration for Irongate Chardonnay came from a trip that Babich made to Burgundy. “I was intrigued by the way they made their wines differently to how we were making them. We followed what could loosely be called the Australian system from so many of our winemakers being trained at Roseworthy. So when the opportunity arose to buy Chardonnay grapes from a Gimblett Road vineyard in the early 1980s, Babich leapt at the chance and made a 100 percent barrel fermented style in new oak and with batonnage; lees stirring. Initially the wine was made in 500 litre puncheons with inoculated
yeasts from machine harvested grapes. These days, natural yeasts are used for a portion of the fermentation and the barrels have been downsized to barriques and stored in a temperature controlled room. The pH of the wine has dropped as the vines have grown older and the wine tends to have between 10 and 20 per cent malolactic fermentation. Another change is from mechanic to hand harvesting and whole bunch pressing. Aside from that, the vineyard source is still the same and is still predominantly the Mendoza clone. In terms of the direction of Chardonnay in New Zealand today, Babich finds many of the most highly awarded wines to be overtly oaky. “I find many show winning Chardonnays today to be too exaggerated in style. I like the subtle, fine styles of wine and we want to create wines with a nice palate feel in the mouth rather
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than wines to stand out and win a gold medal. “I don’t like the gunflint character in Chardonnay and we would never go down that path to high solids, reductive winemaking, which we see as a negative, not a positive. I don’t think it’s a mistake but the consumer is the final arbitrator and if they don’t like it, they won’t buy it. Today, Babich branded Chardonnay represents about four percent of the company’s production while Pinot Noir branded is about nine percent and Sauvignon Blanc is nearly 75 percent. As for the future, Voysey says that immediacy is key. “The whole wine industry is about immediate value because wine consumers are generally buying wine to drink now and they want an impactful experience rather than having to learn too much and get into the whole story that we like to think wine is all about.” ■ firstname.lastname@example.org
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From gap year to Executive Officer Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
aunting is the one word that Sue Binnie uses to describe how she feels about taking over the role of New Zealand Society of Viticulture and Oenology’s (NZSVO) Executive Officer. Not surprising really, given she is following in the footsteps of a man who held that position for 17 years. The NZSVO, was established by Dr Richard Smart back in 1988 to assist New Zealand grape growers and winemakers with the dissemination of technical information. In 2000, committee member Nick Sage took on
the role of Executive Officer, to ensure that dissemination continued, only retiring last year. When the job was advertised, Binnie wasn’t too sure whether she could take it on. The former owner of Lake Chalice Wines, (along with husband Phil, friend Chris Gambitsis and winemaker Matt Thomson) had been rather enjoying her year away from the wine industry, after selling the company and assets to Saint Clair Wines in 2016. She describes it as her “gap year”, where she got to take a breather, having been involved in the industry for 28 years.
“But I was looking for something part time that would keep my hand in, because when it comes down to it, wine people are fun people. I love being around them. On the whole they are funny, engaging, passionate about they do and interested in what everyone else is doing.” When the advertised job was pointed out to her by a friend, her initial reaction was; “What does the NZSVO do?”. After some research, she was more than keen to apply. “I love the idea that its primary function is dissemination of information. It’s technical, the
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growing side of the industry and how can we do it better, smarter. I would like to help in raising the profile of what they do, because it is an important part of the New Zealand wine industry.” With her past experience, it is not surprising that she understands the value of such an organisation. When her and Phil first became involved in wine, they knew nothing about the industry, how to grow grapes, or even what grapes to grow. Good friend Gambitsis who had owned a restaurant in Wellington had announced to the couple that he was moving to Marlborough to buy some land and grow grapes. “We went, that’s nice, you go do that,”
Binnie says. “Then we started going down to help him and one day Phil came to me and said; “That’s it, I am done with the police. I have been talking to Chris and I am going to retire from the police, go to Marlborough and grow grapes with him.” So a few months later, with a three-month-old baby in tow, the pair made the move south. Lake Chalice Wines was born and the pair have been an integral part of the wine scene ever since. Phil undertook the one-year Polytech viticulture course, “and learned some valuable things about growing grapes that we hadn’t known before-hand”. The era of information being shared over the fence or over a bottle of wine, is something Binnie remembers strongly from those early years. It is something that she readily admits helped them long-term, and is just one of the reasons she is now passionately taking on her new role.
With a strong committee behind her, she is trying to get “up to speed” as quickly as possible. “Nick has done it for 17 years, he created the role and could do it with his eyes shut.” There will be no rest for her, given the NZSVO is planning two major workshops for the near future. A sparkling workshop will be held just prior to this year’s Bragato Conference, while a Sauvignon Blanc workshop is planned prior to next year’s International Sauvignon Blanc Celebration, being held in Blenheim in January. Binnie is not the only new face within the Society. The committee has undergone a major change as well. Jeff Sinnot is the new Chair, and committee members include Dr David Jordan, Andy Petrie, Helen Morrison, Jenny Dobson, Mark Krasnow and Roland Harrison. For more information on the NZSVO, visit the website; www. nzsvo.org.nz ■
NZSVO SPARKLING WORKSHOP With the theme of Joining the Dots, the Sparkling workshop will be held at The Vintners Retreat, Marlborough on August 28. Speakers include; Ed Carr – the man who makes the Australian wine industry sparkle and Louisa Rose, one of Australia’s most experienced and talented winemakers. New Zealander Sparkling experts Jamie Marfell and Evan Ward will also be on the speakers list. Sessions will include; regional characteristics, fermentation, production technologies and a tasting of New Zealand and International Sparkling wines. Registrations are open, at www.nzsvo.org.nz
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Taking the UK & Europe by storm Flavours of New Zealand, the New Zealand Wine annual trade and consumer tastings, took place in London, Dublin and a frozen, snowy Stockholm over the course of eight days, back in January. In London and Dublin new venues were used - the old County Hall overlooking the Thames, Big Ben and Houses of Parliament in London, and Aviva Stadium in Dublin. Shorter, more varietal focussed seminars were held with themes including Expressions of Sauvignon, Classic Reds, Aromatics, Unexpected New Zealand and Shades of Pinot (not just Noir but Gris and Blanc too). We also had a Masters Selection table at each tasting featuring wines selected by Masters of Wine and Master Sommeliers who have visited New Zealand recently. Quality guests were in attendance and we had strong media interest including an item on New Zealand’s TV One News. ■ 60 //
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INTERNATIONAL DEMAND FOR ORGANIC WINE GRAPES Organic Winegrowers New Zealand is calling for more grape growers to convert to organic production to meet growing international demand. Organic viticultural consultant Bart Arnst says the current state of play is not meeting the demand, and there is an obvious shortage of organic winegrapes in New Zealand. “I’m constantly fielding phone calls from established wine companies and new wine companies looking to purchase organic fruit, because they’re seeing and being asked for it in markets around the world, and the supply’s not there,” he says. The thirst for organic grapes in New Zealand is being driven by international demand. “The volumes of fruit people are asking for is much greater than it was. Some organic grape growers now have waiting lists of wineries asking for their fruit.” That is backed up by Jared White, senior auditor for the organic certifica-
tion body BioGro NZ. “BioGro receives regular queries about the availability of organic grapes for sale, but there is currently a gap in supply,” he says. White says now is the time of year for more growers to consider becoming organic. “It takes 36 months to convert a vineyard to organic production. If you think organic growing may be your future, ensure that no non-organic products are applied to your vineyard as the harvest approaches. After vintage, you can register with an organic certifier, and work towards full organic status in 2021.” Organic markets are continuing to grow worldwide, according to figures released recently by IFOAM, the International Federation of Agriculture Movements. The global organic market grew to nearly US$90 billion in 2016, according to the report, and certified organic land area continues to grow worldwide as well.
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OWNZ presence in Europe Te s s a N i c h o l s o n
Booker herself says the increase in organic wines and wineries taking part in the London trade tasting is a good portent for the future. In 2017 there were eight organic wineries involved, with a range of 22 wines. In 2018 those numbers had increased to 17 organic wineries with a range of 57 wines. Each of the organic wines were identified in the NZW brochure, and the logo was placed in front of each of the wines on the stand.
“It was about placing organic wines to the forefront and identifying them separately from conventional wines. OWNZ also had its own stand which included maps indicating where our members are located throughout New Zealand,” she says. One of NZW’s new initiatives in London was the Masters’ Table, where 15 Masters of Wine and Master Sommeliers who had visited New Zealand recently, were asked to nominate their favourite wines. In total 100 wines were nominated, which were then whittled down to 16. Of those 16 wines, six were organic, which Booker says was a major coup for producers. “I think organic producers are now seeing the benefit of being at events such as this, especially as the demand for organic wines grows.” While a number of larger producers, such as Pernod Ricard, Villa Maria and Giesens are producing organic wines, Booker
admits that many of the OWNZ members are smaller producers. So being able to work together in terms of marketing, is allowing more to take part in international events. “Having a OWNZ representative in Europe does help with the smaller wineries. And they have been very receptive to having our logo in front of them – they understand the benefit of us doing that.” Plans are now underway for Prowein 2019, where Booker says they would like to have an organic stand within the greater NZW stand. “This is the biggest wine event in the calendar year – you are looking at 50,000 plus people over three days. Sabine Fehrmann from NZTE in Germany believes this is a must for organic wines to be a part of.” OWNZ is also planning on having a presence at a number of the many other wine fairs throughout Europe, as they take their own unique story to the world. email@example.com
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rganic Winegrowers New Zealand (OWNZ) has begun an all-out push into European markets, on behalf of its 180 members. With New Zealander Sarah Booker as its European representative, OWNZ has already attended New Zealand Winegrower events, including the recent trade tastings in London, Dublin and Stockholm. Spokesperson, Stephanie McIntyre says having representation in such a large market is the logical progression. “For the past 10 years we have been building the platform for members and now it is at the point where we have been thinking about what next do our members require? We realised it is the disconnect with the consumers. That gap needs to be bridged. We will still roll out the conference every two years, providing education and international speakers. But we now need to add on some focus to marketing. Obviously with Sarah based in Europe, it opens up so many opportunities.”
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 63
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ew Zealand Winegrowers has a new marketing team in Canada, with Andrea Backstrom and Melissa Stunden taking over from Robert Ketchin and Anik Gaumond of Ketchin Sales & Marketing. The new team was announced in March, and NZW was quick to thank Robert for his leadership, drive, energy and passion for NZ wine over the past 25 years. Along with the hard work and dedication of his colleague Anik Gaumond, NZ has seen unprecedented growth in the Canadian
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lier at one of Canada’s largest food and beverage outlets, as well as having years of experience managing national accounts at a leading wine agency. Melissa is a past CAPS Board Director and brings strong relationships with key wine buyers and sommeliers across Canada. Andrea and Melissa’s role with NZ wine in Canada will be focused on collaborating with wineries, distributors, media and customers to find efficient and creative ways to continue driving growth and awareness of this category across the country. One focus will be developing education, working with schools and educational bodies to teach the diversity and distinctiveness of NZ to the young sommelier communities and taking this education through to customers including liquor boards, national accounts and media. The team will also be reviewing new event
opportunities that will capitalize on new consumers and bringing a younger demographic into the category, where they can also work on developing a significant social media footprint. NZ Sauvignon Blanc has been a great success in Canada; Andrea and Melissa will be working to continue driving that growth while building more awareness on the diversity of sub-regions. In addition to this, they see a great opportunity to build other varietals in Canada, in particular Pinot Gris, Rosé, Pinot Noir, Syrah and Red blends and will be working closely with liquor boards and customers to find unique ways to increase the footprint of other varietals in each province. ■
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REGIONS - WELLINGTON WINE COUNTRY
Alana Estate moves to new site Joelle Thomson
lana Estate in Martinborough is alive and well but with a change of ownership and a new location. The owners of Alana Estate sold their main vineyard and winery to Murdoch James in 2014 and, in October that year, they began construction on a new site for Alana Estate at 50 Kitchener Street. Its nearest neighbours include Palliser Estate and Nga Waka wineries. The new Alana Estate winery was completed in time for the first vintage in 2015 and all
of the wines produced are single varietals, made from the winery’s home block vineyard and leased local vineyard sites. The wines made are Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc, all produced by local winemaker Alistair Gardner. The Alana Wine brand is now wholly owned by Mike Cornish and his family. The former Alana Estate vineyard was sold in 2014 to Wellington businessman Charlie Zhen, who renamed it Luna Estate and incorporated the former Murdoch James vineyard and winery into the new brand. ■
ALD0471 NZ Wine Grower Half Page 120x180mm-Ron_PATHS.indd 1
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
Alana Wine brand owner, Mike Cornish.
19/09/16 4:31 PM
Among the vines April/May
his is the time to take stock of the blocks to assess their performance and determine pest and disease pressure so that a comprehensive plan can be made for the vineyard. It is also time when the vines are setting themselves up for next season. Pests such as mealybug and leaf roller peak in early autumn so problem blocks are most apparent at harvest. Knowing where the pest pressures are, aides in decision-making ensuring that pest control strategies are targeted. Autumn is also a prime time to see leaf roll virus expressed and therefore a good time to rogue out infected vines. If powdery mildew has not
been controlled, the impact of the disease will be evident. Post-harvest control of powdery mildew can be beneficial for improving
powdery mildew after harvest reduces the amount of chasmothecia the following spring but does not reduce it sufficiently
If powdery mildew has not been controlled, the impact of the disease will be evident. photosynthesis and thus carbohydrate sequestration, but will have limited impact on disease control next season. If a block has high powdery mildew infection this season, it will have a high load of chasmothecia overwintering and will subsequently have high disease pressure next spring. Studies have shown that eradicating
to have a significant impact on next season’s outcomes. As the vines shut down for winter they sequester nutrients and carbohydrates into their roots and wood. The nutrient and energy reserves in the vine going into winter is an important determinant of the bud health next spring. Good bud health is important for fruitful-
ness and early growth, especially if spring conditions are challenging. Therefore, ensuring the canopy is in good health after harvest can improve bud health and set things up well for next season. Powdery mildew infection robs the plant of carbohydrates, reduces photosynthesis and accelerates leaf senescence. Controlling powdery mildew post-harvest can therefore improve carbohydrate storage on blocks with high infection. An application of JMS Organic Stylet Oil provides excellent eradication of powdery mildew as long as coverage is sufficient. Application nitrogen fertiliser through fertigation or as a foliar can enhance nutrient accumulation and extend canopy quality which will improve quality of early growth. ■
WE HAVE MATCHED A FINE SELECTION OF LEGAL EXPERTS TO COMPLEMENT YOUR BUSINESS. FOOD STANDARDS Tania Goatley / Kristin Wilson RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Andrew Beatson PUBLIC LAW Simon Watt HEALTH & SAFETY Tim Clarke CORPORATE STRUCTURE Anna Buchly To access the full breadth of our team, please contact Tania Goatley in the first instance on 09 916 8766 or email firstname.lastname@example.org W W W. B E L L G U L LY. C O M
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 69
REGIONS - NORTH CANTERBURY
Let’s go foraging Joelle Thomson
e stood in a field of colourful cardoons, eating wild strawberries and drinking an unusually savoury tasting orange juice as we listened to the story of the man who made it – Michael Voumard, who lost the love of his life last year to cancer. Voumard smiled as he told us about their dream project – the wild food farm we were standing on, which was home to the vegetables that had been distilled into the juice we drank. It was a poignant moment in a day that was both intriguing and humbling, by turns. It was the fourth Forage North Canterbury (FNC), held in January this year. Thanks to the WOOFers helping Voumard on his land, he and the farm are still in running order and his client base is growing. The WOOFers volunteer their work for him in exchange for food and accommodation while he builds a sustainable food farm to feed his neighbours. His story is typical of those involved with Forage North Canterbury, which is a not for profit annual event aimed at championing the food that grows, literally, beneath our feet. The event is the brainchild of Angela Clifford, co-owner of The Food Farm and managing director of Tongue in Groove Wines. She and her team of volunteers invite chefs and wineries to donate their time, wines and venue (the outstanding Pegasus Bay Winery restaurant) to the event each year. Writers are invited to record
what takes place. This is the second year that I have attended FNC. The produce haul was different, but for one thing; there are always too many delicious fresh plums to know what to do with. This year’s FNC saw a significantly larger haul of protein than last year’s and most of it came from the sea and rivers, which was why chef Alesha Bilbrough-Collins’ dish of kahawai and tua tua was so impressive, particularly with the wine match being the first North Canterbury Albarino. The event may sound food-based, but there’s a strong sub-text and that’s the wine, says Clifford. “When people think of wine, they usually just think of the vineyard. Our aim with Forage North Canterbury is to make the wine make sense in the context of the food it’s served with. That’s why we prepare the food that we forage and highlight its qualities alongside wines
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
to match it.” There were nine wineries which took part in FNC this
year; Bellbird Spring, Black Estate, Crater Rim, Greystone,
Mount Brown, Pegasus Bay, Terrace Edge, The Boneline and Tongue in Groove. Clifford says the event wouldn’t be possible without the help of informed local foragers Kate McMillan and Melany Wright as well
as Peter Langlands from Otago; a professional forager at Amsifield in Central Otago. The forage teams this year were divided into eight groups, which included:
Fields & Vineyards, Fields & Verges, Hunting, Fishing the Rivers, Sea Shore, Ocean Fishing, Diving and Truffieres & Hives. ■
Reduce the opportunity for disease to overwinter.
Clean up with Digester
Digester uses BioStart’s signal molecule technology to activate the beneficial fungi and bacteria that decompose leaf litter, prunings and dead roots into humus. AvAilAble from leAding HorticulturAl SupplierS For further information on BioStart Digester or any of the BioStart range, phone 0800 116 229 or visit the BioStart website www.biostart.co.nz
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 71
Enhancing appreciation of the terroir concept Wendy Parr from Lincoln University reports on the Synopsis of the 2nd Terroir Renaissance International Symposium, in Shanghai, late last year.
ew Zealand and French wines, the former representing the New World and the latter representing the Old World, were showcased to thousands of Chinese wine enthusiasts and professionals attending an innovative and spirited symposium held recently in Shanghai. Aimed at enhancing understanding and appreciation of the concept of terroir amongst Chinese wine connoisseurs, the 2nd Terroir Renaissance International Symposium in Shanghai brought together the Chinese attendees with wine producers, sommeliers, wine writers/critics, and scholars from France, Italy, Switzerland and New Zealand within a unique forum of lively and informed presentations concerning the notion of terroir. Organised by TasteSpirit (TasteSpirit.com), the Symposium comprised an impressive number of wine Masterclasses, a one-day Fine Wine Tasting and a one-day Seminar. Each wine Masterclass involved description and discussion of the philosophies and practices behind the particular wine-production ‘house’ and invited attendees to taste selected wines. Masterclass presenters each emphasised the strong links of terroir (e.g., vine provenance; climate; soils; production practices) to the quality and individuality of their wines. This overall theme was made particularly poignant by words
conveyed by Aubert de Villaine, co-owner of the Domaine de la Romanée Conti and Honorary President of the Association des Climats du Vignoble de Bourgogne in France, via a video interview that was specially recorded for and played during the Seminar. The Symposium Seminar was interspersed between days comprising wine Masterclasses. The programme was introduced by two opening speakers, New Zealand’s Trade Commissioner in Shanghai, Damon Paling, who highlighted the historic links of New Zealand Maori to their land and the concept of turangawaewae when referring to the notion of terroir, and Philippe Castéja,
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
President of the Le Conseil des Grands Crus Classés en 1855. Three modules of talks then followed, these being titled ‘Terroir expression of New Zealand and Italy’, ‘Making Chinese tea and Baijiu in harmony with Nature’, and ‘Terroir about French wines’. The New Zealand contribution began with Michael Brajkovich MW of Kumeu River who gave a New Zealand perspective titled “Revealing vineyard terroir”, his talk ending with description of key outcomes of the Auckland University-based, yeast research project with which Kumeu River Wines has been involved. I followed, presenting ‘academic insights’ on the terroir concept by drawing on the notion of perceived wine typicality and providing data from studies involving French and NZ
Young Shi, co-founder of TasteSpirit, and Wendy Parr, Lincoln University sensory scientist, at theSymposium Gala Dinner.
wines to support arguments concerning perceivable differences in wines as a function of wine origin. Continuing the more scientific theme, renowned wine critic Ian D’Agata then moved the audience to Europe and presented a talk titled ‘Terroir and native wine grapes of Italy”. To conclude this module, a round table discussion of ‘The terroir of New Zealand’ then took place, chaired by Young Shi, co-founder of TasteSpirit. This involved four New Zealand wine producers answering questions and discussing topics pertinent to their own practices, philosophies and wines. The New Zealand wine producers involved were Michael Brajkovich of Kumeu River, Blair Walter of Felton Road, Anna Flowerday of Te Whare Ra, and Helen Masters of Ata Rangi. Opening up the topic of terroir for serious, animated discussion amongst Old World and New World wine professionals and knowledgeable Chinese wine consumers within a forum such as this created a powerful learning experience for all involved. The meeting not only offered attendees and speakers alike an immensely enjoyable, educational opportunity in terms of knowledge sharing and wine tasting, but the global perspective enhanced crosscultural sharing and understanding. Last but certainly not least, by including New Zealand wines to exemplify New World, terroir-driven wines the Symposium organisers provided a wonderful forum for New Zealand wine producers to raise awareness of the calibre of New Zealand wines amongst the many Chinese wine-enthusiast attendees. ■
BOOK REVIEW Latitude 45.15S, among the world’s southernmost vineyards Ric Oram RRP $20, (PLUS POSTAGE) LOJO.RICO@GMAIL.COM. REVIEWED BY TESSA NICHOLSON
atitude 45.15S is a self published book that heralds the history, people and vineyards of the Alexandra area of Central Otago. From the very first growers and winemakers who arrived in the region in the mid 1850s, through to the modern pioneers, such as Verdun Burgess and Sue Edwards of Black Ridge. While this pocket of the region makes up only seven percent of the total plantings, it has played an important role in the development of the story of Central Otago. Ric Oram details those that took the chance, in an at
times inhospitable environment, those that didn’t make it and those that kept on trying due to their passion. Each of the vineyards in the area has been afforded their time in print, as have the wineries that inevitably emerged over time. Reading this book makes
you wonder at the tenacity of all involved. Not only is the climate forbidding, but the pioneers have had to deal with what varieties, then clones to grow, the inevitable frosts (122 a year on average) the lack of water, the pests and of course
the rabbits. This is a fascinating insight into the small southern region, which once could boast being home to the southernmost vineyard in the world – a title that is now held by an Argentinian vineyard and winery. ■
Specialist advice for the wine industry.
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NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 73
FROM NOT ON THE THE CEO LABEL
LEGAL MATTERS WITH MARIJA BATISTICH AND BARBARA DEAN BOTH OF KENSINGTON SWAN
NEW ZEALAND’S NEW APPROACH TO CLIMATE CHANGE
s one of the new Government’s priorities climate change will be a big issue for 2018 requiring both the consideration of how to reduce emissions and the consideration of how New Zealand manages and adapts to a changing climate. New Zealand’s climate change legislation is just around the corner. The Government has signalled its intent to introduce a Zero Carbon Bill in 2018,
announced by the Climate Change Minister the Hon. James Shaw at the end of last year. He said: “The legislation will see New Zealand put a bold new climate change target into law and establish an independent Climate Change Commission.” According to Shaw: “The nature of the challenges we face with climate change are long-term and that means we need an independent commission which can take a long-term non-partisan view, provide
independent advice to the government of the day, and ensure New Zealand stays on track to meet its climate change goals.” The Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment, Simon Upton, has just published a report with detailed advice to Parliament on what he sees as some of the more critical elements in the formation of a UK-style Climate Act. The report follows on from the Stepping stones to Paris and beyond: Climate change, progress and
predictability (July 2017) report by the Commissioner’s predecessor, Dr Jan Wright, which looked at “how successive Governments can best deal with the ultimate intergenerational issue: climate change”. Simon Upton makes nine recommendations which focus around setting effective carbon budgets, establishing a credible Commission and ensuring that words are turned into deeds. The report also underlines the importance of addressing
Order now for your 2018 planting Ph: 0800 444 614 Producers of vines certified to NZW GGS v3.1
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
ture should be included within climate change adaptation, an the current emissions trading issue of particular relevance to scheme but a decision on this is horticultural production. not expected to be made until The Ministry for the Envi2019 or even later. ronment intends to publicly consult in May and June 2018 on the scope of the Bill. The Managing the effects of public consultation period will climate change then be followed by Cabinet The severity of New Zeaconsideration of policy by land’s recent extreme weather August 2018, with a view to events is already being linked to introducing the Bill to Parliaa changing climate. Local govment by October 2018. Once ernment entities have responthe Bill is introduced, it will go sibilities under the Resource through the legislative process Management Act to prepare (including Select Committee) and respond to the impacts of with the intention to have the climate change. Act in force in 2019. As councils deal with this In the meantime, according issue, we will see stricter planto Shaw, an Interim Climate ning controls in the coastal Change Committee will proarea. Developers and infrastrucgress key issues for climate ture providers with assets close change policy in New Zealand, to the coast or seeking consent such as agriculture and renewfor projects may be affected able electricity, engaging with by these tighter controls and key stakeholders and the wider benefit from being involved public from mid-2018. The in local government planning Interim Committee will work around this issue. This would on the issue of whether agriculalso affect vineyards established WINEGROWER ADVERT 188W X 120H MM
close to the coast or on coastal flood plains. Other effects of climate change will also need to be managed. In New Zealand, according to the Ministry for the Environment, there will be increased coastal flooding and erosion, heavier rainfall and associated river flooding. Droughts are expected to become more frequent, with associated water scarcity issues for primary production. Therefore, reliability of water for irrigation is likely to be another significant local planning issue. There will also be a higher risk of wild fires and new pest incursions. The Government has established the Climate Change Adaptation Technical Working Group to assist New Zealand to be better prepared to adapt to the effects of climate change. The group provides advice to the Climate Change Minister on options for building New Zea-
land’s resilience to the effects of climate change while sustainably growing our economy. The group’s first report was its Stocktake Report of existing adaptation work across central and local government and the private sector. This was released in December 2017 and concluded somewhat unsurprisingly that “the response of central government agencies to adaptation is not co-ordinated and there is little alignment of legislation, adaptation goals or agreement of priorities”. Whether the Zero Carbon Bill will include provision for processes or targets around adaptation or whether this will be addressed through a different legislative means remains to be seen. We will keep you posted as policy develops. We provide regular updates on various environmental and resource management law related matters on our website www.kensingtonswan.com ■
AP PLY SUP DU-W WITH ET ® ER FOR -SPR T E O PTI ADER SP PER READ MUM FOR AND MA NC E
POTENT PERFORMANCE ON POWDERY MILDEW Eradicant and forward protection Fast effective control of Powdery Mildew
® JMS Stylet Oil is a registered trademark of JMS Flower Farms Inc ® Du-Wett is a registered trademark of Elliott Chemicals Ltd
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 75
To have events listed in this calendar, please email details to: firstname.lastname@example.org
MAY 4: International Sauvignon Blanc Day
9: Microbiological Strategies to Optimise NZ Wine Regionality and Personality – Marlborough Convention Centre – Blenheim
The World of Wine Festival, 12 – 6pm – AUT’s City Campus Main Foyer, Auckland
Auckland/Northern Bayer Young Viticulturist of the year
Wairarapa Bayer Young Viticulturist of the Year
Tonnellerie de Mercurey North Island Young Winemaker of the Year Competition
21: Hawke’s Bay Bayer Young Viticulturist of the Year
24-26: Fine Food New Zealand 2018 – ASB Showgrounds, Auckland
NZW Grape Days
13: Marlborough Bayer Young Viticulturist of the Year
New World Wine Awards Judging
Central Otago Bayer Young Viticulturist of the Year
– Hawke’s Bay
NZW Grape Days
NZW Grape Days
Tonnellerie de Mercury South Island Young Winemaker of the Year Competition
– Central Otago
AUGUST 22: Tonnellerie de Mercurey Young Winemaker of the Year National Final – Auckland
NZSVO Sparkling Workshop – Vintners Retreat, Marlborough. Register www.nzsvo.org.nz
Bayer Young Viticulturist of the Year National Final
Romeo Bragato Conference – Westpac Stadium - Wellington
JANUARY 2019 28-30:
Sauvignon 2019 – International Celebration of Sauvignon Blanc - Marlborough
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
UPCOMING NEW ZEALAND WINE GLOBAL EVENTS A service by New Zealand Winegrowers to remind exporters of forthcoming events. Further details are available on the nzwine.com members website under Global Events or nzwinemarketing.com
Made in NZ - San Francisco
Made in NZ – New York
Flavours of NZ - Vancouver
Flavours of NZ – Montreal
Flavours of NZ - Toronto
Pure Discovery – Guanzhou
Pure Discovery - Beijing
Pure Discovery - Shanghai
Vinexpo – Hong Kong
NZ in a Glass - Boston
NZ Wine Fair Tokyo
Pellenc Selectiv’ Process Grape Sorters
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MAJOR NZ VINEYARD AREAS PRODUCING HECTARES Region
PRINCIPAL EXPORT MARKETS % of Total in 2018 forecast
Hawkes Bay Central Otago
Wairarapa / Wellington
Exports for the year to date to the end of January 2018 (Moving Annual Total)
Growth Decline Litres %
Growth Decline FOB %
MAJOR VARIETIES IN MAJOR AREAS Variety
Chardonnay Pinot Gris
All other varieties Total
AVERAGE VINEYARD SIZE Region
Regional area producing ha
Auckland/Northland Canterbury Gisborne
Average of Area ha 4
Number of Vineyards
Northland Central Otago Waikato
Wellington / Wairarapa
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT Information and Updates on NZ Winegrowers Research Programmes. Editors: Dr Matias Kinzurik, Research Programme Manager
A regular feature at the back of each issue of WineGrower to inform industry people about research projects being undertaken for their benefit. Newly approved projects (when available) are briefly summarised in the first section ‘Introducing New Projects’. Longer reports in the section headed ‘Progress Reports’, will describe what has been achieved so far. Scientists in charge of each project have been asked to make these reports reader-friendly rather than to follow the usual format of scientific papers. When completed, each project will be reported in full detail, with references, on the website: www.nzwine.com
LIST OF PROJECTS Quality Wine Styles for Existing and Developing Markets Lighter wine (PGP) University of Auckland and Plant and Food Research (Various) Jointly funded by NZW and MPI Primary Growth Partnership (PGP) fund. High-throughput genotyping of transposon-induced mutations in vines Lincoln University (C Winefield) Population genomics of the wine spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis Auckland University (M Goddard)
Exploring the chemical space in Vineyard Ecosystems (VE) Programme juices and wines University of Auckland (B Fedrizzi)
Pests and Disease Grapevine Trunk Disease; young vine ecology, diagnostics and preventative treatments New Zealand Viticulture Nursery Association Incorporated (VINA) (N Hoskins)
Low alcohol-reduced calorie wines using molecular sponges for sugar removal University of Auckland (B Fedrizzi)
Virus diversity in New Zealand grapevines: sequence, ecology and impact – The Rod Bonfiglioli Scholarship Plant and Food Research (R MacDiarmid - student A Blouin)
Shoot trimming effects on Pinot noir vine leaf area to fruit weight ratio, productivity and fruit composition Lincoln University
Optimising management of grapevine trunk diseases for vineyard longevity South Australian Research & Development Institute (M Sosnowski)
Assessment of commercially available yeast nutrient products on Sauvignon blanc microvin ferments Kirsten Creasy
Developing Powdery Mildew Best Practise in New Zealand Vineyards A Lambourne - Supported by MPI Sustainable Farming Fund
UC Davis collaboration to determine factors that affect colour in Pinot noir wines when grapes are harvested at lower than target berry soluble solids. Plant and Food Research (C Grose)
Spray protocols to quantify and optimise spray deposits applied to dormant grapevines (trunks, heads, cordons and canes) Plant and Food Research (M Walter) Supported by MPI Sustainable Farming Fund as part of the Powdery Mildew Best Practise project.
The role of microbes in regional Pinot Noir quality and style University of Auckland (M Goddard)
Cost Reduction/Increased Profitability Precision Grape Yield Analyser Programme 2016-2021 Lincoln Agritech Limited (A Werner) An automated grape yield estimation system – The Rod Bonfiglioli Scholarship Massey University (M Legg)
Sustainability/Organics Pinot noir wine composition and sensory characteristics as affected by soil type and irrigation in the Waipara region Lincoln University Vineyard Ecosystems Programme University of Auckland and Plant and Food Research (Various) Jointly funded by NZW and MBIE Sector weather data licence & tools HortPlus (NZ) Ltd. Cost efficient optimisation of weed management in vineyards Thoughtful Viticulture (M Krasnow) Optimisation of irrigation and water savings in Marlborough Sauvignon blanc and Pinot noir and Hawke’s Bay Chardonnay and Merlot Thoughtful Viticulture (M Krasnow)
Powdery Mildew Case Studies A Lambourne
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 79
Optimising management strategies for grapevine trunk diseases Mark Sosnowski1, Dion Mundy2 and Eline van Zijll de Jong3 South Australian Research & Development Institute The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited
firstname.lastname@example.org 16 - 102
Eutypa and botryosphaeria dieback cause significant yield and quality reduction worldwide. They threaten the sustainability of New Zealand vineyards and are becoming an increasing problem as vineyards age, leading to removal of vineyards. Outcomes of previous research by New Zealand Winegrowers (NZW 13-100) has led to registration of fungicides, which can be applied with tractor-driven sprayers post-pruning to protect against infection by grapevine trunk pathogens, and could save the New Zealand industry up to $NZ20 million per annum. Subsequent research (NZW 16-102) continues to optimise strategies by determining the duration of susceptibility of pruning wounds, validating the curative and preventative properties of fungicides, and monitoring spore inoculum in vineyards throughout the year. Two vineyard trials were established on 3,640 Sauvignon Blanc vines in the Rowley Vineyard (Marlborough Research Centre) during winter 2017. In the first trial, susceptibility of wounds to dieback diseases when pruned early (early June), mid (mid July) and late (late August) is being evaluated, as well as the duration of susceptibility following pruning. Vines were inoculated with fungal spores that cause eutypa and botryosphaeria dieback from
Figure 1. Vineyard trial on Sauvignon Blanc vines in the Rowley Vineyard (Marlborough Research Centre).
1 to 84 days after each pruning time. In the second trial, three fungicides: Gelseal Ultra™ (tebuconazole), Megastar™ (flusilazole) and Gem® (fluazinam), were applied to pruning wounds up to 7 days after pruning and inoculated with fungal spores to evaluate curative properties. In addition, wounds were inoculated up to 14 days after fungicide application to evaluate preventative properties. Treated canes will be removed this winter for assessment in the laboratory to deter-
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
mine the wound susceptibility and efficacy of fungicide timing treatments, and the trials will be repeated. Two Burkard spore traps were deployed in vineyards in Hawke’s Bay and Marlborough during winter 2017. The spore traps were activated to begin spore collection and spore tape drums are being regularly changed. Spore tape is being stored in preparation for analysis. Molecular assays have been developed to specifically target eight fungal species
attributed with causing grapevine trunk diseases. Tests against 13 non-target species present in New Zealand vineyards indicated high specificity for most trunk disease species. Spore tape artificially inoculated with different concentrations of fungal spores was used to validate DNA extraction procedures. There was strong correlation between spore numbers and quantity of DNA, with as few as three spores able to be detected. Analysis of vineyard spore tape samples will commence soon and
results will be reported in future updates. The outcome of this research will be to develop best-practice recommendations for the critical timing of grapevine pruning and wound protection based on fungicide efficacy, wound susceptibility and spore dispersal. In future, this research will expand to other regions with different environmental conditions and provide localised regional recommendations, which will contribute to vineyard longevity.T
Figure 2. Burkard fungal spore trap with solar rechargeable power supply in a Hawke’s Bay vineyard.
UC Davis collaboration to determine factors that affect colour in Pinot Noir wines Grose C, Oberholster A, Martin D, Sherman E, Stuart L, Albright A 17-104 What is this new collaboration? The New Zealand Winegrowers Incorporated (NZW)-funded Pinot Noir Colour project is an international collaboration with University of California (UC Davis) Davis, USA, The New Zealand Institute for Plant & Food Research Limited (PFR)’s Viticulture and Enology team, and the New Zealand Winegrowers Research Centre Limited. Anita Oberholster, Extension Specialist in Enology from UC Davis, is travelling to New Zealand in April 2018 to visit Claire Grose, PFR Research Winemaker. This is not just a one way visit; New Zealand scientists will also travel to UC Davis to conduct research. We will investigate the respective influences of pomace and juice on the phenolic composition of Pinot Noir wines (especially anthocyanins) and on the sensory perception of these wines, especially on poor colour and ‘greenness’ when grapes are harvested
at lower than target soluble solids contents (usually 24-25 °Brix). The New Zealand industry has identified these features as major challenges to producing high quality Pinot Noir wine. This project establishes an important
international collaboration with UC Davis, which will help to generate new knowledge to develop commercially suitable colour in Pinot Noir wine, to support New Zealand’s growing Pinot Noir export mar-
Anita Oberholster, Extension Specialist in Enology from UC Davis.
kets. The colour research undertaken in this project is aligned to and complements the New Zealand Winegrowers Research Centre Pinot Noir programme, a five-year programme funded by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE), aimed at growing returns through the dissociation of quality from productivity in New Zealand Pinot Noir production.
What is the challenge? New Zealand Pinot wines can be lightly coloured but there is limited knowledge of factors that contribute to low colour in these wines. Previous research has indicated that monomeric anthocyanin concentrations reach a maximum in the Pinot Noir berry at a relatively low soluble solids content (19-20 °Brix; well before optimal harvest maturity of 24 -25°Brix), but that other juice or skin compositional factors may prevent the development of commercially suitable colour in Pinot Noir wine when grapes need to
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018 // 81
be harvested early. This indicates that anthocyanins are not the limiting factor in stable wine colour development in wines made from less-ripe grapes. Grape maturity at harvest not only affects the appearance of Pinot Noir wines; ripeness plays an important role in wine flavour and mouthfeel as well. While monomeric anthocyanins are primarily responsible for the red colour of grapes, red ferments and very young red wines, co-pigmentation and the development of polymeric pigments are critical for the formation of stable red wine colour. The formation of these pigments occurs as wine ages primarily from the reactions of anthocyanins with tannins, with the source, structure, and concentration of the tannins influencing stable colour development.
The development of stable wine colour, while primarily important visually, may also play an important role for in-mouth sensory quality. Additionally, some New Zealand winemakers are concerned about perceived ‘unripe’ or ‘green’ tannins in their Pinot Noir wines. The untested hypotheses tend to revolve around the idea that highly coloured wines, and particularly wines that have high concentrations of anthocyanintannin polymers, are perceived to be less green. This project is designed to acquire new knowledge in this area also.
What research will be undertaken? Our primary research question: Is grape berry pomace (skins and seeds) phenolic composition at various stages of berry ripening
the determining factor in Pinot Noir wine phenolic composition? To control the composition of the liquid phase preferment, a single Pinot Noir juice will be fermented with pomaces from grapes of varying maturities. Initial work will involve developing and refining this novel methodology to explore the respective impacts of juice and pomace manipulations on wine composition. Once optimised, the methodology will be available for use in the wider Pinot noir research programme. The experiment will harvest grapes at multiple maturities (20, 22 and 24 °Brix, weather permitting). Grapes will be gently pressed to remove a maximum of their own juice and that juice will be substituted with a common single, low-phenolic juice sourced at an early stage of the
harvest period. The experiment will also ferment the Pinot Noir juices without pomace, and ferment the pomace with a synthetic juice solution, to further investigate the extractability of phenolics and anthocyanins in the resulting wine. As well as Anita Oberholster’s visit to New Zealand, Claire Grose and Emma Sherman (PFR research associate) will each visit UC Davis. Claire will implement a replicate experiment for juice pomace manipulations during the US 2018 vintage, and Emma’s visit will utilise analytical chemistry techniques to evaluate relationships between wine composition and sensory properties. Anita Oberholster is expected to return to New Zealand in 2019 to present a summary of project findings to the industry at the Romeo Bragato Conference.T
Photo Palliser Estate, supplied by NZW
NZ WINEGROWER APRIL/MAY 2018
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NZ Winegrower April/May 2018