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periodical for the Building Technologist



student association for building technology

66. Adaptation




4th Quarter 2017 23rd year of publication

Membership Amounts per academic year (subject to change): € 10,- Students € 30,- PhD Students and alumni € 30,- Academic Staff

Praktijkvereniging BouT Room 02.West.090 Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft Julianalaan 134 2628 BL Delft The Netherlands tel: +31 (0)15 278 1292 fax: +31 (0)15 278 4178 Printing ISSN number 1567-7699 Credits Edited by: Pim Buskermolen Article editing: Pim Buskermolen Allard Huitema Layla van Ellen Quirine Henry Linda Vos Hayley Bouza Cover image: Re-bored floors with steel stairs in the building Anton, Eindhoven, ©Bouwen met Staal RUMOER is a periodical of Praktijkvereniging BouT, student and practice association for Building Technology (AE+T), at the Faculty of Architecture, TU Delft (Delft University of Technology). This magazine is spread among members and relations. Circulation: The RUMOER appears 3 times a year, with more than 150 printed copies and digital copies made available to members through online distribution.

Single copies:

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Available at Bouw Shop (BK) for 5€.

Sponsors Praktijkvereniging BouT is looking for (main) sponsors. Sponsors make activities possible such as study trips, symposia, case studies, advertisements on Rumoer, lectures and much more. For more info contact BouT: If you are interested in BouT’s sponsor packages, send an e-mail to: Copy Files for publication can be delivered to BouT in .docx or .indd, pictures are preferred in .png or .jpg format. Disclaimer The editors do not take any responsibility for the photos and texts that are displayed in the magazine. Images may not be used in other media without permission of the original owner. The editors reserve the right to shorten or refuse publication without prior notification.

Interested to join? The Rumoer Committee is open to all students. Are you a creative student that wants to learn first about the latest achievements of TU Delft and Building Technology industry? Come join us at our weekly meeting or email us @


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CONTENT > Student Workshop in Hanoi <

General 4 52 53 54 56

Debut.event 2017 BouT is Looking for a New Board Logo Design Challenge Upcoming & Past Events Symposium: Supernova


>>Transforming Buildings into Living Entities <<


6 (tu delft) Double Face 2.0 - Martin Tenpierik 12 Modular Bridge - Kalliopi Papangelopoulou (tu delft) Green Architecture for 18 Sustainable Communities - Andy van den Dobbelsteen & Layla van Ellen (supair) Transitioning from Student Life to 28 Working Life - an interview with Thyrza Bauer (bouwen met staal) Transformation and 34 Rezoning - Wim Verburg (octatube) Inspiring the Next Generation of 40 Engineers - Sharon Nobel Adaptive Fabric Facade for a High-Rise in 42 Paris - Antigoni Lampadiari-Matsa (eth zurich) Adaptive Facades 48 - Prageeth Jayathissa Praktijkvereniging BouT


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EDITORIAL Dear reader, We are a few months into the academic year, and have welcomed over 75 new Building Technology students. We hope all of you are settling in well and feel right in place in this track. The Rumoer committee has had to say goodbye to two valuable committee members: Popi Papangelopoulou and Antigoni LampadiariMatsa. We are happy to feature their graduation projects in this issue. Once again, thank you for your valuable contributions and good luck with your working lives! Luckily, the committee has been reinforced with three additions to the

team. Welcome Hayley Bouza, Linda Vos and Amey Thakur to our committee! This is our 66th publication, ADAPTATION. All articles are in some way related to this theme, whether it is about transformation of concrete structures or phase changing faรงade materials. The magazine is a collection of articles from different fields and contains company articles, interviews, academic articles and graduation projects. Enjoy reading! Pim Buskermolen Editor-in-chief Rumoer 2017-2018


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DEBUT.event 2017

The Building Technology company-case day On Wednesday the 7th of June, the second edition of the building technology career day took place at the faculty of Architecture at the TU Delft. Debut is an initiative of the study association BouT is and is annually recurring since 2016. In line with BouT’s mission - BouT connects – Debut forms the bridge between BT master students and the building-technical industry.

combined with the experience of the companies, resulted in interesting ideas that were taken back to the companies.

During the 2017 edition, over 70 students worked intensively on practical issues brought in by the companies. This year we were pleased to welcome:

We, the organisation, want to thank all the students and companies that participated in the career event. Of course Debut will again be organised in 2018!

• • • • • • •

Peoplehouse | DPA Caubergh Huygen Alkondor + VMRG Scheldebouw Inbo Sorba BAM Engineering Saint Gobain Benelux

At the end of the event, a TU Delft panel of judges selected the three most promising student ideas as the winners and they were invited to join a closing dinner with the companies.

Nick ten Caat Chair Debut 2017

Next to the main program, Enginear organised a workshop for the students on presentation competences and Supair facilitated a resume check. Students were challenged to fire up the discussion with each other and with the representatives of the companies to get inspired for new ideas, solutions, concepts and perspectives. During this one-day intensive collaboration between students and professionals, an exchange of knowledge, experience and business cards was established. The fresh knowledge and out-of-the-box thinking of the students, The DEBUT.event 2017 committee


Praktijkvereniging BouT


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Would you like to connect with your company to Building Technology Master students and are you interested to get involved in DEBUT.event 2018? Please get in touch with BouT or the Debut organisation.


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Double Face 2.0

A lightweight translucent adaptable Trombe wall written by Martin Tenpierik research by Martin Tenpierik, Michela Turrin, Yvonne Wattez, Tudor Cosmatu, Stavroula Tsafou

Over the past few decades there has been significant progress towards reducing building-related energy use (Gerdes, 2015). However, in 2015 the residential and services sector in the EU still accounted for about 39% of the final energy consumption in this area (Eurostat, 2017). Therefore, there still is an urgent need for further reducing the energy consumption of buildings in order to meet the European 20-20-20 targets and to enable the shift towards a society based on renewables. The Double Face 2.0 project looks into one way of reducing the energy use of buildings by harnessing the energy from the sun using a so-called Trombe wall. A traditional Trombe wall is a passive system made out of


thick and heavy stone-like material placed behind a layer of glass and air. In winter it captures the heat from the sun during the day and temporarily stores this as sensible heat in the stone-like material. In the evening and at night this heat is radiated into the space from the back of the wall. In improved versions of the Trombe wall, also the air cavity is opened to enable a convective flow that takes the heat from the cavity to the space. The Trombe wall thus in fact delays the moment at which the solar heat enters the space to the moment people need this heat (because they are at home in the evening and at night). Disadvantages of the traditional version are that the wall is heavy, blocks daylight and cannot be adjusted to changing environmental conditions and seasonal differences.

Academic article


Innovative Trombe wall The new Trombe wall that we propose is based on innovative materials like phase change material for latent heat storage and aerogel for thermal insulation, is shapeoptimised for best energy performance, is created with advanced rapid prototyping techniques like (robotic) FDM printing, enables daylight to enter the space and is adaptable to changing environmental or use conditions. This ensures that our envisioned Trombe wall not only works in winter to capture heat from the sun but also in summer to capture heat from internal heat sources thereby acting as a cooling device (fig 1). Another important aspect of the design we are developing is that we want the performance of the system to be part of its identity. Phase change materials The main ingredient of the Trombe wall that stores the heat from the sun is phase change material (pcm). A pcm is a material that can store a large amount of heat during the change from solid to liquid state. Inversely, it will release this heat during the change from liquid to solid state. As such it can increase the thermal inertia of a building. Water is one of the most well-known pcms. However, its melting/solidification temperature (0oC) is too low for practical applications in buildings. Pcms that are useful in buildings come in different types: paraffins, salt hydrates and eutectics. The pcm we are using in this

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project is a salt-hydrate with a phase change temperature of around 25oC. The advantage of salt-hydrates is that they are non-flammable and may come in transparent form when liquid. Surface and cross-section optimisation The heat transfer to and from the pcm occurs via (short wave) solar radiation, via (long wave) infrared radiation and via convection. This means that the ideal surface of the Trombe wall considers all these three modes of heat transfer. During experiments we observed that melting the pcm by solar radiation is a relatively fast process. However, solidifying the pcm via convective heat transfer takes very long. During the project therefore several different surface textures are being investigated both with simulations and with physical experiments. Figure 3 shows an example of a textured surface with increased surface area to enable faster convective heat transfer. Not only the surface needs to be optimised, also the internal cross-section needs to be fine-tuned. The temperature distribution inside the pcm is one aspect to consider, creating places of translucency and places to look through the wall are another. Simulations have shown that if a pocket of pcm is too high, a large temperature gradient arises. In a pcm pocket of 3 cm deep and 20 cm high the bottom may still be around 25oC (still solid)

Figure 1: winter and summer mode of the Trombe wall.


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while the top may reach a temperature of close to 50oC after 8 hours exposure to intense solar radiation. If the same volume is split into 5 smaller volumes of 4 cm high, the upper temperature will be limited to around 32oC. By creating patterns inside the wall both the temperature gradient and the translucency can be controlled (see fig. 4 for an example). (Robotic) 3D printing One of the main challenges of the project is to be able to design the Trombe wall such that it can be 3D printed, either in regular FDM 3D printers or with robotic FDM 3D printing (fig. 5). The advantage of 3D printing over more conventional means of prototyping (or production) are the enlarged freedom in design. That allows us to design complex patterns and surface textures that are optimised for many different objectives. However, the means of

production also has a strong influence on the development of the designs. Even though 3D printing creates a lot of possibilities, it at the same time has its limitations. Certain horizontal surfaces for instance may introduce issues concerning watertightness. Furthermore, FDM 3D printing at the moment is a very slow and expensive process. Since a couple of weeks the robotic set-up with a selfbuilt extruder is now up and running. The next weeks/ months will therefore also be dedicated to getting grip on the possibilities and limitations of this set-up. Adjustability One of the strengths of this novel Trombe wall is its adjustability. This means concretely that the position of the pcm can be changed so that it either faces the window or the room. In winter, this means that during the day the pcm faces the window where it slowly melts

Figure 2 (left): During the solidification process beautiful crystals start to emerge. The formation of these crystals can be controlled by adding elements inside the material where nucleation starts. Figure 3 (right): Mock-up of a Trombe panel with enlarged surface area.


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because of the heat from the sun and thereby slowly changes from solid to liquid and thus from whitish opaque to translucent. In the evening the system rotates or flips so that the pcm faces the room where it slowly gives off its heat and changes from liquid to solid and thus from translucent to opaque. In summer the position of the pcm is reversed so that it captures heat from internal sources during the day and cools down at night via cold outdoor air when facing the window. Since almost no energy simulation program is capable of including a rotation in its simulations, a colleague, Wim van der Spoel, created a custom-made energy simulation code in the Matlab/Simulink environment. Simulations with this model showed that our adjustable Trombe wall with 1 cm of pcm may lead to an energy reduction of around 30% for a typical office size room in

Figure 4 (left): Design impression of a possible Trombe panel pattern.

Figure 5 (right): Robotic FDM 3D printing of a test model in the AM lab.


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the Netherlands (figure 6). Increasing the thickness of the pcm layer does further reduce the energy use of this room but it does so only marginally. Furthermore, more detailed 2D simulations of the room in the multi-physics program Comsol showed that a layer of 1 cm pcm may easily get overheated in cases of intense solar radiation. Therefore 3 cm of pcm was selected to be sufficient for this Trombe wall application providing a good balance between the amount needed in summer and in winter. Figure 7 shows two moments in time of the temperature of a room equipped with the flipping pcm based Trombe wall. As can be seen, during the day the pcm heats up while at night it gives off its heat towards the space behind the wall. So, it indeed works as a solar battery. Conclusion During the Double Face 2.0 project an innovative, lightweight, translucent and adjustable Trombe wall based on phase change materials and 3D printing is being investigated and designed. One of the advantages of this wall is its adjustability enabling it for both winter (heating mode) and summer use (cooling mode). Several concepts


have been designed so far. Current investigations focus on among others the optimisation of the surface and the cross-section, on the adjustability mechanism and on the robotic 3D printing process. In a little over half a year we hope to have two working design concepts and accompanying prototypes. We hope that these results will convince many professionals from the building industry to start implementing Trombe walls in buildings. They may help in further reducing the energy use of our built environment and may, if designed properly, also provide a nice interior object for houses and offices.

Acknowledgement This work is part of the research programme Research through Design with project number 14574, which is (partly) financed by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and Taskforce for Applied Research SIA. The project includes the following partners from industry: Shau Architecture and Urbanism, GlassX AG, Esteco SpA, Rubitherm GmbH and Arup.

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References Eurostat (2017), Final Energy Consumption by Sector, Eurostat, Luxemburg, [online], available: < do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=tsdpc320&language=en>, [September 25, 2017]. Gerdes, J. (2015), Energy Efficiency trends and policies in the Netherlands, ECN, The Netherlands, [online], available: energy-efficiency-netherlands.pdf, [November 10, 2016].

Figure 6 (above): Simulated energy use of a standard office room using a custom-made Matlab/Simulink simulation model. Figure 7 (left page): Simulation result (temperature [oC]) from Comsol; vertical cross-section of a room; the circles around the Trombe elements are for setting up a rotating mesh only; they are not part of the design. Left: January 9, 12.00h - pcm faces window. Right: January 10, 00.00h; pcm faces room

About the author: Martin Tenpierik is an assistant professor of Building Physics and leader of the section Environmental & Computational Design, both at the faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment of the TU Delft. His main expertise is in the energy performance of building components, building systems and whole buildings, in the building physical properties of innovative materials and building components and in the room acoustics of classrooms, offices and sports halls. About the co-researchers: Michela Turrin is an assistant professor of Design Informatics; Tudor Cosmatu, Yvonne Wattez and Stavroula Tsafou are researchers on the Double Face 2.0 project.


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Modular series of

FRP PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES By Kalliopi Papangelopoulou Bridges are some of the most important infrastructures in the Netherlands. Due to Dutch landscape, bridges of every size and types are needed in the rural as well as in the urban environment and often more than one piece is needed for a specific location. Usually, bridges of different materials can be seen in existing examples. These last few years, engineers and architects interest rises towards Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) for structural and aesthetic reasons. Indeed, FRP is a light-weight and strong material, with low maintenance needs and the ability to be produced in double curved geometries. The purpose of this graduation project was to design a modular mould that would manufacture a series of FRP footbridges for the area of Tanthof Delft. Case Study area The design area of the project is Tanthof Delft which is situated in the south of Delft and consists of an old family housing neighborhood of small scale buildings. Due to the many canals in the area there is also a large number of footbridges throughout Tanthof. Sixty three of them are constructed out of wood and need to be replaced. That amount of footbridges with its different lengths and widths make up the population of the footbridges series. Bridge design The research showed that the maintenance of public infrastructures is a highly costly annual process, also in the case of footbridges, which can be replaced for structural but also aesthetic reasons. For those reasons, both the structural but also aesthetic performance of the bridge design should be taken into account. Hence, FRP material is used for both the structure and the railing of


Figure 1. Sandwich-FRP with different cores,

the project and also the railing that represents the facade of the bridge is replaceable. In that way the bridges have low maintenance need and can be easily aesthetically altered. Furthermore, for the most efficient production and design of the bridge series the different items of the series are grouped together in relevant dimensional groups of both width and length and produced by the same mould. Big part of the research involves the potentials of modularity both in production and product design in order to relate the different bridges that are needed in one design and

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Figure 2. Bridge cross-section

consequently in one production mould. Finally, the bridge series should produce 3 different widths according to the different needs of traffic lanes and 4 different lengths.

osmosis, Fire resistance. After a comparative analysis among the raw material, the most suitable options were Epoxy resin, Glass fibres and

Material Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRP) is a type of composite material broadly used in the automotive and aerospace industry, due to its high strength and light-weight properties. FRP can be found in the form of a sheetFRP or a sandwich-FRP. In both cases it consists of 2 plies of mixed composite resin and fibres. In the case of sandwich-FRP also a core is added in between the two plies. Shear web between the core that connects the two plies ensure a monolithic performance of the sandwichFRP. There is a broad variety of resin, fibres and core options for the construction of FRP material. Those options differ in cost (density*price), structural performance, and durability (flammability, water resistance, acids/ alkalis resistance, UV resistance). An important design aspect for the design of the FRP material consists of the understanding of its failure reasons. Namely the following reasons were investigated: Debonding and fibre out, Delamination, Creep, creep rupture strength and relaxation, Degradation from water ingress and

Figure 3. Different length and width groups of the bridge series


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PVC foam. With those materialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s properties the properties of the new sandwich FRP are calculated. Structural simulations Grasshoper and Karamba were used for the structural analysis of the bridge series under the load case of 5kN/ m2 as suggested in the NEN. Initially the larger and wider bridge option was selected from the series and was parametrically designed in Grasshoper. The structural performance of the different bridge variations were then further analyzed in order to decide on the most efficient shape. After that stage, it is researched how every parameter of the decided structure, meaning side curvature, flange height, plan curvature etc was influencing the overall deformation. For that purpose the resulted deformation value of every different value of its parameter is gathered and plotted in a graph. This way the significance in deformational influence of every parameter is understood. As a result, an optimized shape of the bridge structure is designed. This final shape determines the shape of the entire bridge series. Manufacturing An important aspect of the project was the manufacturing process of the bridge series. In order to manufacture a double curved geometry, molding techniques were investigated. Finally it was decided that the most appropriate manufacturing technique according to set criteria is the Resin Transfer Molding technique (RTM). This technique is a closed mould manufacturing technique and so two moulds are needed. The latest involvement of this technique is the Light- RTM, where the upper (male) mould consists of a light sheet-FRP instead of a sandwich-FRP. The lower (female) mould consists of a sandwich-FRP mould and offers the structural stability of


Figure 4. Graph of bridge deformation on different plan curvature

Figure 5. Light-RTM manufacturing process

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thermal and pressure loads during the curing process of the composites. In order for the modular mould to be produced, the general mould is divided in smaller modules respecting the different width and length categories. After testing the model, it was observed that attention should be given for the design of the module to prevent shear movement. In order for that to be achieved, an interlocking connection of female and male part is implemented for the connections of the different variations of the final project. Also extra attention was given on the faces of the modules, since these seams would influence the appearance of the final product. Figure 6. Bridge width modules

Finally a puzzle of modules is created and according to different combination of pieces a bridge of different dimensions is being created. In order to emphasize the modularity of the project the seams are highlighted even more with the railing design. The railing is being produced in the same manner and also consists of smaller items that combined, create the front side of the bridge. Transportation-installation The final aspect that is investigated, is the transportation and the installation of the bridges on site. Since the bridges are monocoque structures their ability to be transported had to be ensured.

Figure 7. Bridge length modules

According to regulations for the maximum permitted weight and dimensions for goods transport in the Netherlands, the limitations on height, permitted weight and truck length are found. Since FRP is a light weight material, the limitation of weight are far too high for the project. Also, due to the

Figure 8. Bridge series transportation


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modularity of the manufacturing and thus the final project, the bridges of same width can be stack onto each other. So the most efficient transportation of the bridges is achieved and finally only 14 trucks can transport the 63 bridges. Moreover, due to light weight construction the structures can be easily be placed on the site with the help of a crane truck and after that the railing is being assembled on the bridges. Conclusions This graduation project chose to solve a real need for design of bridge design and that was its challenge. It was important to merge architecture and engineering in order for a structurally solid and aesthetically satisfactory result to be produced. More specifically, the research on the FRP material revealed the weaknesses but also the potentials. For example, it might not be possible to recycle FRP, but its extreme strength compared to the low weight and high resistance against weather and aging makes it into a respectable structural material for the future as well. More specifically, for the design of a member, when less material is needed to bare the load due to big strength and also this member is more lightweight than all the other building materials, the less weight is loading onto the foundations. Such an advantage is crucial in areas as Tanthof where the soil conditions are not stable.

Figure 9. Module connectivity geometry

Also, a manufacturing technique based on molding where low tooling demands are needed can easily be applicable from any FRP manufacturer. In that sense, the principles of this bridge series could be used for any future problem in case of replacement of existing bridges, implementation of new ones, or in case of natural disaster where quickly many bridges need to be produced almost in suite. Finally, in the case of bigger structures where the designer has more freedom to experiment with shape and monocoque structures are almost impossible to transport it would be interested for FRP modular connections to be investigated further.


Figure 10. Modules arrangement

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Figure 11. Photo realistic representation of Tanthof with the implementation of the new bridge design

After completing her studies in Architectural Engineering in Athens, Kalliopi Papangelopoulou decided to follow her passion for construction and technology by attending the master of Building Technology at TU Delft. She graduated in July 2017 working on Bridge Design and Innovative Materials. Kalliopi is currently looking for a working position in the Netherlands. Her aspiration is to combine structural design and computational optimization.


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Green Architecture for Sustainable Communities Building Technology students designing for Hanoi

by Andy van den Dobbelsteen The Delft – Hanoi connection For some years already our Department of Architectural Engineering + Technology has had a memorandum of understanding with two universities in Hanoi – the National University of Civil Engineering (NUCE) and Hanoi Architectural University (HAU) – as well as with A+G, a young energetic club of green architects and engineers in the capital city of Vietnam. Within the lines of this collaboration, staff and student exchange takes place, joint events are organised and our educational book Integrated Sustainable Design was translated to Vietnamese, to mention a few activities. I have had the pleasure to coordinate the collaboration from the TU Delft side.


Remnant of the American War The activities were made possible with support from the Committee Science & Technology Vietnam, founded in the 1970s to support ongoing academic exchange between the Netherlands and Vietnam while the American War was taking place (the Vietnamese do not call it the Vietnam War, of course…). The fund of CSTV enables travel and expenses of the activities undertaken and I want to take the opportunity to specially thank Peter de Goeje, chairman of CSTV, for his enduring enthusiastic support.

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GASC2017 This year the collaboration between Delft and Hanoi reached a new highpoint. In the week of 27-31 March 2017 a conference and workshop week was organised in Hanoi. Coined Green Architecture for Sustainable Communities, GASC2017 was meant to celebrate the collaboration between the parties, and to bring academia together with the public and private market. Apart from the three academic partners and A+G, local authorities and companies were invited, and the Netherlands Embassy played a stimulating role throughout the week. Figure 3. Students of TU Delft, NUCE and HAU focused on the design assignment briefing.

GASC2017 was meant to celebrate the collaboration between the parties, and bring academia together with the public and private market

Figure 2. A glimpse of Hanoi, seen from the university building of NUCE.

Student workshop Red thread through the week was a workshop with students from the three universities. I was able to take 8 Building Technology students with me, plus my student assistant Floor and Vietnamese PhD candidate Phan Anh. The workshopâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assignment was the green design of a building plot in the old French quarter of Hanoi, with a colonial building from the 19th century and a school from the 1980s. 8 mixed groups were formed from students of TU Delft, NUCE and HAU. After a site visit on Monday, an interesting cultural difference was visible, when the Vietnamese students preferred to demolish the school and build a new green building, whereas our Dutch students insisted to keep and reuse the old structure. They won, of course, and this led to very interesting design proposals at the end of the week.


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of media attention.

Figure 4. The Suoi Re community house, designed by Hoang Thuc Hao of 1+1>2 Architects.

Vernacular bioclimatic design But before design ideas were shaped, on Tuesday students and academic staff attended a morning of interesting lectures and excursion to one of the most interesting buildings in Vietnam. Although built around ten years ago, with its loam and bamboo structure the Suoi Re community house looks like a historical building. Hoang Thuc Hao (Hao for friends) of 1+1>2 Architects used bioclimatic design principles and local materials for this gem of tropical architecture. In the hot weather of that day the building proved that good thermal comfort can be achieved without mechanical building services, which inspired students and staff alike. The Suoi Re community house is an exponent of a generation of young Vietnamese architects, who embrace the intelligence of vernacular building principles and translate these to modern architecture.

Prince Claus Award The day after the conference, the Netherlands Embassy organised a special event around Prince Claus Award winner Vo Trong Nghia (Nghia for friends). The Prince Claus Award is a prestigious prize for artists across the world, and in December 2016 Vietnamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frontrunner architect Nghia was awarded in Amsterdam. As part of the procedure, the ceremony is repeated in the country of origin, and this was organised in conjunction with GASC2017. Nienke Trooster, Dutch Embassador, very kindly involved our TU Delft team in the event. Final results and more awards On Friday the student workshop gradually came to an end with the presentation of the eight plans before a jury with representatives from the universities and Vietnam Architects Association (VAA). While the jury was still in deliberation, A+G threw a smashing party before the VAA building with music, food and drinks. After a lot of speeches on stage, the four best student plans were awarded, and I was honoured with the annual VAA award. A festive end to an intensive and interesting week.

The conference More of this vernacular, bioclimatic movement of young architects could be seen with the GASC2017 conference on Wednesday, attended by more than a hundred people. A wide range of green architecture, from traditional like Haoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s to beautiful modern expressions of Nguyen Hoang Manh (Manh for friends) of MIA Architects, was presented there. And while the students were working hard in the studio, the conference continued successfully with a lot Figure 7. One of the final (re)designs of the Old Town school plot


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Figure 5. The compulsory group photo of GASC2017 conference attendees

Figure 6. Shining Prince Claus Award winner Vo Trong Nghia with Dutch ambassador Nienke Trooster

Figure 7. Nghiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s famous Tree Houses


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Exhibition near the lake But that was not all. The Vietnamese organisers had arranged with the Hanoi city council that all student plans be exhibited next to Hoan Kiem Lake, the pulsating heart of Hanoi. So we had hardly finished partying on the lively late-night streets before we got up again to officially see the exhibition opened on a sunny Saturday morning. It was a great success, with general public interested and media present for interviews with students, academics and professionals present. That night the event was broadcasted on Vietnamese national television. More than the interest of media, the GASC2017 week was a success especially because of the friendships made, the inspiration gained and the seed of sustainable design laid. I want to thank our friends of NUCE, HAU and A+G for the excellent co-organisation of the week, and Vincent, Layla, Niels, Hessel, Maurits, Jelle, Nick, Quirine, Floor and Phan Anh for the wonderful experience we shared in Hanoi.

Figure 9. Our Building Technology students in front of the Ho Chi Minh mausoleum: Vincent, Layla, Niels, Hessel, Maurits, Jelle, Nick, Quirine and student-assistant Floor on the floor

Figure 8. A lot of public interest from the Vietnamese public for the GASC2017 exhibition and tv interview with Floor next to Hoan Kiem lake


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Green Architecture for Sustainable Communities Student workshop: designing together with students from Hanoi by Layla van Ellen


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GASC 2017: Green Architecture for Sustainable Communities: student workshop. Apr 2017 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Apr 2017

Student workshop The goal of the Conference was to share ideas and technologies on sustainable green design in Architecture and the Built Environment. The goal of the student workshop was to work together with student from Hanoi and Delft to renovate an educational centre into a green social and educational community. Collaboration with the team. Each team was a collaboration between two NUCE, two HAU and one TU Delft student. We started to get to know each other on Monday when we visited the site of the educational centre crossing within the busy streets of Hanoi on the back of a bike. After visiting the


vocational centre in the French quarter, we came back to the university and started designing. The first meeting was a bit of a culture shock as most of the Hanoi students wanted to start by demolishing the old structure while the delft students wanted to keep as much as possible. My team was quite driven as they had already started making an analysis and even plans for the new centre even before I arrived in Vietnam. The analysis was especially useful as designing in Vietnam is different than designing for The Netherlands. The students had put together a great analysis of the building with regards to the sun path, shadows cast by surrounding buildings and wind directions. Those aspects are essential when building in Hanoi as heat is a major issue.

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Figure 2. Hanoi Tube House example.

Figure 1. Analysis: sun path over the location.

Hanoi architecture. In Hanoi, architecture is, of course, already adjusted to the demanding climate. A typical Hanoi house is the tube house which is based on a traditional shop home. The house is part of a larger closed building block and therefore has a long deep shape. The long buildings are separated in smaller blocks by different external courtyards which allows natural ventilation to cool down the house as well as allowing natural light deep into the house. These typical Hanoi tube houses can be compared to the typical Dutch â&#x20AC;&#x153;grachtenpandâ&#x20AC;?. Both design have holes to allow natural daylight deep within the house. However Dutch houses have more mass to keep the warmth in in the winter whereas Hanoian Houses have a light structure allowing wind to flow all around.

Figure 3. Analysis of vocational centres in Hanoi.

Concept For the workshop, my team came up with the concept of merging education and commercial facilities to ensure that children stay within the educational system rather than going to learn in a commercial workshop. In Hanoi, there are many vocational training schools, however, this environment isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t inspiring students as most facilities are old and deteriorating. Therefore, student choose to

learn within a workshop, this way they can learn and earn money at the same time. To counteract students leaving the schooling environment, the concept of this design is to bring commercial facilities together with educational facilities to keep children within the educational system. Bringing commercial facilities also creates a social community where parents and tourists can come appreciate the work of the students.


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Figure 4. Multi purpose roof: rain collection and shading.

Figure 6. My team with our model and first prize certificate.From left to right: My, myself, Minh,Tùng and Tièn, thank you all very much. Figure 5. Solar energy collection.

Architecture and energy The facility is rearranged to match a typical Hanoi tube house where wind can flow around the building blocks to cool down the facility. The Hanoian students made a great analysis of the natural environment however they only consider wind and sun as a problem rather than as a potential. That’s where TU Delft expertise came in and we designed an energy system which is supported by a water collecting roof and solar panels which both ensure the building is energy neutral and cost neutral within four years. Through the different expertise of all the students within my team, we were able to create an integrated design combining typical Hanoi architecture with technical innovations.


Presentation We had only a few days to get to know each other and to work together towards the same goal. As much as the beginning of the week was hectic and miscommunication was a bigger issue than we initially thought it would be, the end of the week ended beautifully and we were able to exchange knowledge, experience, food and jokes. We ended the week by presenting our concept and model to a jury panel and were happily surprised that our concept had won the First Prize for the student workshop. I am incredibly proud of my team and wish to thank them for this great experience and warm welcome I received during the whole week I was there.

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Transitioning from student life to working life an interview with Thyrza Bauer, a graduate from the TU Delft

Thyrza Bauer graduated from the TU Delft in 2016 with her thesis: ‘Renewing the existing Airey strip and making it energy neutral by adding a greenhouse’. Now she works as Process Manager for Willems Vastgoedonderhoud. She found her position through Supair, an Intermediary for graduates of the TU Delft. In this interview, we talk about her experiences with Supair, and her experiences with working life.


1. Congratulations on joining the “grown-up life”. How are you finding it so far? Was the transition of environment difficult for you? So far, I really like it. Working life is very different to studying, of course, but there is much more structure in my days now. Once my work for the day is done, I leave my desk and do not return to it until the next day. During my graduation, I could never really let my thesis go – it was always there, in the back of my mind. At one point, my professor actually sent me away with the message: “You are going home now, and do nothing over the weekend. Just do something totally different this weekend and do not even dare thinking about your



thesisâ&#x20AC;?. It worked, though, because after those four days, I had a lot more inspiration again. The transition from university to the workplace was not hard for me at all. I think I must credit my colleagues at Willems Vastgoedonderhoud for that to some extent. The company has a very flat management structure, so I could easily make contact with everyone. Also, I was in the rather luxurious position of receiving a month and a half of training from my predecessor before he left, that helped a lot with transferring into the job.

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At work, there are deadlines, of course, but not making one does not result in that kind of delay. I feel that success is measured out differently at work: you either do your job right or you are not qualified to fulfil that position. It is still personal, but on a different level. If I make a mistake it does not feel like I lose three months. 3. Any advice for people struggling with the same issues you had while writing your thesis?

2. What is the biggest difference between the work flow at university, compared to what you experience now? Are deadlines more pressing, for example?

Get some measure of distance from what you are doing. Make sure you get enough rest while you are working on your thesis, and sometimes do not work on it at all! It is okay to do nothing over the weekend. And find some fun somewhere, anywhere. You need to have something that will give you more energy on the long run .

As I mentioned before, work stays at work a lot better than work stayed at university. I got to this point where I did not enjoy my graduation project any more, and I really had to drag myself to university, even though I had a group of people to work with.

Also keep in mind that writing a thesis or designing your graduation project means that you are being pushed to your limits. You keep being brought face to face with your weaknesses, twenty times over. In the end, however, that diploma is all worth it.

Now, I go to work feeling happy every day. To a certain extent, that is also because I receive a lot more support from my colleagues than I did from my main professor. That is no point of criticism to my professor; after all, during graduation, it is his or her job to keep you on your tip-toes, to make sure you really know what you are doing. But the pressure kept on mounting, without any chance to get away from it. Also, I kept feeling that deadline: â&#x20AC;&#x153;if I do not get this done, or if I do not get this right, it could mean graduation has to be postponed by another term, resulting in three more months gone, and I really wanted to be done graduatingâ&#x20AC;?.

Success is measured out differently at work: you either do your job right, or you are not qualified to fulfil that position 31

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4. Building Technology as MSc-programme is a bridge between architecture and civil engineering. Do you feel your studies have provided you with the professional tools necessary to succeed in your job? Are there any specific aspects of your job that you feel particularly (un)prepared for? Yes and no. As an architect, I felt partly prepared, but when I take a step back and look at what I am doing now… not completely so. It does help that I know quite a lot of the techniques involved, but the most important thing I learned at the TU is the way of thinking; breaking down a problem, analysing its components and being able to solve it. Additionally, how creativity is stimulated to come up with solutions that are a little out of the box. At work, my background with technology comes in

extremely handy when talking with my colleagues, but the real communicative part, the soft skills, those could be – and maybe should be – better prepared. This is not just something that applies to my current job, if I had decided to become an architect instead, I would still have run into that same problem. It comes up especially when talking to people who do not have the same, technical background. You often do not realise it, but those people are your clients and stakeholders! There is so much more you can do after graduating from the faculty of Architecture than becoming an architect. 5. Your graduation project focussed on the redesign and repurposing of the Airey homes in Amsterdam. Which skills that you acquired during your research are still relevant in your current job, and how so? Firstly, that a building is worth much more than one would initially think. I see that in my office now, because Willems mostly renovates social housing, rather than building anew. Also, architects’ lingo could do with about 50% less vocabulary.

Figure 1. Ground floor of two airey buildings with their greenhouses


But really, money is so much more important than you realise during your studies. Even though we all know money is important some way or another, during your studies it is mostly disqualified. There is a much heavier focus on why you think something should or should not be done, and your arguments are more important than the money factor. I had this brilliant idea for the Airey homes, and even though I kind of did know that it would be expensive, I had no idea how much it would cost. At the TU, I had never been asked to put a price tag on my project. Later I found out that the greenhouse alone would take it so far over budget that it would not be realised in a million years… That was quite a reality check.



Another reality check I took from my project is that you can have all the best ideas, but sometimes, the neighbourhood is just not up for it. I do not think the greenhouses would have worked, after all. Based on the analyses I did and the goals the municipality had, I came up with an idea that would get a better socio-economic mixture in the neighbourhood. But current residents would, in the end, still be the tenants and the mix I was going for would not have worked out, which changes the entire premise of my project. So, I learned that a good idea is not always workable. 6. You found your job through SUPAIR. How would you describe your experiences with them? Enthusiastic and personal! It all went super-fast â&#x20AC;&#x201C; they approached me on LinkedIn and I had a job within three, maybe four, weeks. But they are very involved; called me up before the interview, checked up with me afterwards. I really felt that I was not alone in this. I have no experience with other agencies, but the personal touch stayed with me. 7. What about SUPAIR appealed to you most? Would you recommend registering at SUPAIR to other

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Building Technology graduates? Like I said, the personal touch stood out. I do recommend registering, even though a lot of my friends found a job through their internships. If they had not contacted me, I probably would not have registered on my own. I had a couple of job interviews, and am glad that I tried to find a job by myself. But I am also glad I ended up registering. It did get me my job, after all. 8. You have been working at Willems VGO for about five months now. Could you tell us more about your daily schedule? [laughs] Oh, I have not had a day yet that was just like the one before. - Okay, then tell us about your day today. [thinks, then laughs] Today has been so busy, that I forgot how it started! Willems is a family company ran by three cousins and two uncles, who all work directly from the workplace. The uncles have their own offices in-between departments and the cousins all work from

Figure 2. The greenhouse facade seen from the inner garden


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the department they work with most. So, there is a lot of involvement from those at the helm. As a process manager I am on the floor a lot, talking to everyone there about what they feel could be improved. Right now, I am working on a big project with one of the managing directors. We are trying to establish a chain of cooperation, so I visit a lot of companies, too. 9. Chain of cooperation? Please tell us more! A shift is occurring within the building industry. Traditionally, a building company was hired to build a certain building, with certain materials, a certain amount of time and for specific costs. Nowadays, the established top-down approach often is traded in for asking the

expert to do what he does best.We try to establish a select number of regular partners and suppliers for three different aspects within our processes, that we involve from very early on in each project. This way, we benefit from the long-standing relationship as well as the expertise involved. Instead of telling a supplier what we want, how much of it we want and when we want it, we now present them with our project: Our goal is this, what do you recommend we do? The longer we keep doing this, the more acquainted with each other we become, so over time, the whole process increases in efficiency. 10. What achievement are you most proud of, and why? Knowledge wise, that I already know so much of our project, that my boss allowed me to do a presentation by myself. He is still there to complement the whole story, but the vote of confidence gave me a boost. That confidence in me was there from the early days on: during one of my first days, we were doing a training and my predecessor just said: “I am going to leave , but if I see the way Thyrza is handling all this, I think it is going to be just fine”. But I am also very proud of what I have achieved on an interpersonal level. I get told by people how happy they are to have me here – even that one colleague who scared me a bit on my first days likes me now.

Figure 3. The walkways connecting the residents with the inner garden and their neighbours


11. In your opinion, what is the greatest challenge the market will face in the near future? Any thoughts on its solution?



Obviously, we didn’t come up with the chain of cooperation because we just felt like it; the market is shifting from a top-down, ‘do-what-the-boss-tells-you’ approach to a more specialised demand. You become an expert at your role in the process, and get treated that way. This is not a change we should fight; embrace it and become that expert. Specialise! Now is the time, because the market has been in a lift. It is not yet at the level from before the crisis, but the market is becoming more and more attractive again, and we really feel its effects. Creativity is appreciated again; and ideas can now be realised because there is more budgetary leeway.

In practice, money is much more important than you realise during your studies

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SUPAIR is the job mediation agency linked to the TU Delft. For over 20 years, we have been helping engineers to find the job that fits all their wishes and ambitions. Are you an (almost) graduate or PhD, or do you already have some work experience? You will be warmly welcomed! This is how it works: Go to and register. We invite for an extensive intake interview, to talk about your resume and ambitions. We help you to find the job that fits you. We are right on campus (faculty of EEMCS, 20th floor)

In 2009 Thyrza Bauer started her Bachelor of Architecture at the University of Technology Delft. Since then, architecture and the built environment have always been a fascination of hers. During holidays, she was always looking up to the surrounding buildings, and got intrigued by the way they were build. Now, eight years later, she works as Process Manager for Willems Vastgoedonderhoud, and does so joyfully every day.


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Transformation and rezoning Rezoning concrete buildings through steel interventions By Wim Verburg (Adviesbureau voor Bouwmarketing, Rotterdam)

Old multi-storey buildings that have fallen into disuse often have a robust support structure of concrete, a rigid layout, an outdated appearance and likewise architectural performance. However, because of their built-in reserve capacity (over dimensioning and curing) they offer a solid base for rezoning and reprogramming, although it requires interventions. This article explains the convenience of a lightweight steel support. The office buildings, post offices, co-working spaces, factories, warehouses and storage buildings that have fallen into disuse are often robust. A well-known example: The Van Nelle Fabriek, built in 1931 and rezoned in 1998, which is now accommodating several small businesses (fig. 1). The support structures of similar buildings, built before World War II, were made of steel or concrete. Later, concrete structures gained the upper hand, because the use of steel was discouraged in the Netherlands due to the implementation of guidelines, named ‘Richtlinien zur Eisenersparnis’. Steel was predestined for other applications. When the guidelines were not followed sufficiently, a building permit could even be refused. There were also similar guidelines for wood structures. For this reason, existing economically outdated buildings are usually constructed of aesthetically appreciated concrete structures. Since they are technically still sufficient and able to be main-tained for generations, the question is: what to do with them?


Figure 1. Restored complex Van Nelle Fabriek, Rotterdam

Vision of the Chief Government Architect Floris Alkemade has been Chief Government Architect since September 2015. He also lectures Architecture at the Academy of Architecture in Amsterdam. In the latter position, he focusses primarily on the existing built environment in the condition of Tabula Scripta (‘the described sheet’), ‘in which the context isn’t seen as a limitation, but as a chance to use the potentials of a place […] How can the existing context be reread, understood, valued and further developed.’ While designers and contractors aren’t the first to initiate such a process, they do play an essential role. After all, they are the ones who are aware of the technical possibilities and have to assess the feasibility of solutions. Achievable rezoning, determined on the basis of a business case (costs - benefits), requires smart solutions and interventions. Both for the realization of the new programme as well as for the climate and structural requirements.

Industry article


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Transformation possibilities Often old buildings have to be adapted to the following programme objectives: -- Increase of square meters gross floor area (for additional exploitation) -- Adjustment of daylight entrance -- Improvement of acoustics -- Renewal of installations (outside the scope of this article) Common structural interventions (Fig. 2) for these objectives are: -- Carving (breaking open the faรงade); -- Adding or thickening (additional facade); -- Breaking through (walls, floors and roofs); -- Building up (additional floors on top of the building); -- Inserting (additional volumes or floors in the building); -- Bridging (an additional self-supporting building volume over the building).

Figure 2. Common architectural and structural interventions

Often, the retained floor load of the prior function is greater than that of the new function, for example library then versus housing now, or the concrete structure is sufficiently strong due to over dimensioning and curing. Because of this, the foundation is often also strong enough to carry the new loads. Extra square meters gross floor area has to be found in, on or by the existing building. Adapting the daylight entering requires breaking open the faรงade, whether or not in combination with the removal of floors and columns (so carving and breaking through). Two examples: the residential building Jobsveem in Rotterdam (fig. 3) and the stairs in the building Anton (former Philips factory in Strijp-S) in Eindhoven (fig. 4). By carving (for daylight entrance) at Jobsveem it was necessary to manage structural stability, in this case with building-high, moment-tight steel portals. At the building Anton, remarkable voids and overlooks are realised by sawing out round openings and adding steel stairs.

Figure 3. : Carved facades of Jobsveem, Rotterdam, with new steel stability portals


Adding or thickening (1)

Adding or thickening (2)

Building up




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Adapting concrete supports In theory, any element of an existing concrete structure can be removed. But is this practical? In the national programme Industrieel Flexibel Bouwen (IFD) this is experimented with in the project Flexibele Doorbraak (2003) (fig. 5). A partition wall between dwellings of a concrete construction complex, built in the sixties, has been removed and replaced by a steel portal. From this IFD-experiment it appeared possible to remove crucial structural parts and to replace them with parts suitable to the new function and the desire for more floor space. Next to this the load distribution can also be adjusted. This approach was applied during the transformation of the Termeulen building in Rotterdam into the residential building Karel Doorman (fig. 6). The concrete structure of the former warehouse was unsupported. The horizontal loads were held by the portals, resulting in the columns being loaded with bending and normal force. The column loads at the new function and the desire for more square meters through building up would increase in such a way that they couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be carried by the columns, loaded with bending and normal force. By reconstructing the unsupported construction to a supported one (through two new concrete stability cores) the columns do not contribute to the distribution of the horizontal loads and can thereby absorb a greater normal force. This made it possible to add no less than sixteen floors on top of the buildings. Extra gross floor area Another remarkable example of surface enlargement is the rezoning of the former Schakelgebouw 25kV (fig. 7) in the Lloyd quarter in Rotterdam, which is now a coworking space for, amongst others, graphic designers. Using steel frame construction, the gross floor area of the


Figure 4. Re-bored floors with steel stairs in the building Anton, Eindhoven

Schakelgebouw was enlarged by removing the old, solid façade and replacing it with a cantilevering steel-glass structure without the need of expanding or strengthening the foundation. Steel-framed floors and structures are flexible in terms of functionality (strength and stiffness), mass (low selfweight) and pre-assembly. In the cases where there is no lifting capacity available, the system can also be completely assembled on site, delivered as a building kit. The finishing floor (sand-cement/anhydrite) can be supplied with a pump. If this wet filling is too heavy or undesirable, a dry filling can be chosen. With this, no profiled plate is used on the top side, but a wooden plate can be shot or screwed on top of the supports. The desired acoustic insulation can be obtained with one or more gypsum boards on the underside (on omega-profiles),

Industry article


insulation in the floor and/or a floating deck floor. With a relatively light construction method it is often possible to add one or more floors in or on top of the building. When needed one floor can also be removed for weight reduction. Removal makes room for building up. Currently in Antwerp at a former warehouse, several layers are being removed from the top of the building to transform it into a YUST-complex (Young Urban Style) with multiple steel framed floors (fig. 8).

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completely executed from ground level. For De Brug integrated supports were used with a high steel-plate concrete floor, due to the combination of low self-weight and comfort.

In the factory complex of Unilever in Rotterdam another solution is used. Office building De Brug (fig. 9) has been built over this complex on its own foundation (bridging). This execution was financially attractive, because in this way ground became vacant for the building of apartments, that would otherwise be used for a simple new office Figure 6. 16 extra floors with a steel structure, residential building Karel Doorman, Rotterdam

Figure 5. Steel portal replaces concrete wall in the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Flexibele Doorbraakâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

Figure 7. Former Schakelgebouw 25kV is thickened with a cantilevering steel-glass structure for more floor surface and daylight entrance


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The Nieuwe Havenhuis in Amsterdam (fig. 10), designed by Zaha Hadid, is an exotic variant of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bridgingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. On top of two enormous concrete pillars four floors are added through a heavy steel construction and steel-plate concrete floors. Sometimes existing buildings are so large (especially in floor height) that the extra meters can be found in the volume. An example is the transformation of the former post office station in Rotterdam. This building from 1959 was transformed into the Central Post in mid 2010. The extra meters were found by the insertion (in this case

Figure 9. Bridge. Office building de Brug stands on top of the Unilever building in Rotterdam.

Figure 9. Bridge. Office building de Brug stands on top of the Unilever building in Rotterdam.

Figure 8. In this former warehouse in Antwerp old, heavy floors are removed and then built up with more floors than before.


Figure 10. Het Nieuwe Havenhuis in Antwerp is an exotic bridge variant and also a landmark of the diamant city.

Industry article


hanging) of so-called Slimline-floors (hollow steelconcrete floors). If it is feasible to place this type of floor in existing buildings, a relatively thin floor is generated in which ducts can be placed. By providing the floor with low temperature heating and high temperature cooling, less utilities are needed for heating and cooling installations. Choice of solution The most difficult question with the transformation of locations and buildings is finding a positive business case. If found, the contractor will have to make choices for the best interventions, based on the conveyed test results. These differ per type of client. A private party will be most interested in the total cost of ownership (TCO) for the expected exploitation period. A public party will prefer the Best Price Quality Ratio, also referred to as Best Prijs Kwaliteits Verhouding in Dutch. This replaces the Economisch Meest Voordelige Inschrijving (the Economically Most Favourable Subscription), which is mainly used for infrastructural tenders.

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Potential The size of the vacant surface area of multi-storey buildings in the Netherlands is large. In Rotterdam 19% of office space was vacant in 2015. Part of this area will be rented out, the rest is waiting for a realistic rezoning plan or for demolition. Whether a plan is realistic depends on the benefits and the costs, and thus in several cases depends on the contractor. Because, once again, it is up to him/her to take advantage of the existing conditions in a smart way. And that is possible as shown in practice, but above all it is necessary, because the task already lies there.

Bouwen met Staal (the Dutch Steel Construction Institute) informs all disciplines within the Dutch building industry â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from building clients and architects to structural engineers and steel building companies â&#x20AC;&#x201C; on the use of steelconstructions in building projects and civil works. The organisation develops a.o. activities in the fields of promotion, and education throughout several media like a magazine, courses, lectures and visites to projects and companies. Especially for students a chain program provides (free) products/publications (like the magazine) and activities. Amongst others.

Bouwen met Staal Louis Braillelaan 80, 2719 EK Zoetermeer Tel. +31(0) 88 353 1212


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by Sharon Nobel

At Octatube we organise a range of events over the year designed to inspire students and develop an awareness of Octatube’s world of realizing challenging architecture. That’s why we were happy to receive about 32 students from BOUT, the Student Association for Building Technology. The afternoon was organised by Barbara van Gelder and Nick van der Knaap and before the group visited the factory they looked at some projects that Octatube has recently done like the Victoria & Albert Museum and the Sammy Ofer Centre in London. Two case studies were explored deeper: The Van Gogh Museum First up was the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. The entrance of the Van Gogh Museum is one of the largest glass structure in the Netherlands: both glass beams, glass mullions and double glass units are elements of the building’s main structure. The project demonstrates – together with projects such as the Municipal Museum in


The Hague – that glass can be used as a primary structural material for breathtaking architectural facades. The largest glass fin is 12 meters long and 700 millimeters in height. The glass beams are supported by steel shoes, precisely welded to the main tubular steel structure. Due to the complex geometry, the many glass fin connections and extremely tight tolerances, the entire steel structure of 60x15x10 meters was pre-assembled in the factory (scale 1:1). Market Hall The Market Hall is an architectonic residential project and market hall in Rotterdam. The building needed to be as open as possible to attract the public and at the same time it had to be closed off due to weather conditions. This resulted in a spectacular design covering the front and backside with a flexible suspended glass facade, allowing for maximum

Industry article


transparency and a minimal structure. These transparent cablenet facades have a width of 42 meters and a height of 34 meters, the largest of its kind in Europe. Octatube has been responsible for the engineering, production and installation of these large glass facades in collaboration with several partners.

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the students mentioned that it was clear that the work atmosphere at Octatube is noticeably good. Thank you for the great compliment! Of course we want to wish all the students all the best with their studies and thank you for visiting!

By organising this afternoon we hope to have given a bit of an insight into how we manage our projects. One of Octatube is a family business born out of passion for construction and architecture, and driven by innovation. We design, develop and realize complex architectural constructions, with an emphasis on high-quality applications of glass and steel. By combining multiple disciplines (design, engineering, production and assembly), Octatube delivers an all-in-one product via a single, responsible, accountable team. This is beneficial to the customer, especially for highly specialized, new or experimental projects. We also do maintenance, repair and small-scale (renovation) projects. We believe in a highly sustainable world and a responsibility to the future. We recognize that well maintained buildings last longer and are valued more. It leaves a legacy for generations to come.


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ar p n i


By Antigoni Lampadiari-Matsa

The topic of this graduation project is the design of an adaptive fabric faรงade for a high-rise in Paris. The stimulus for this choice was the turn of nowadays towards lightweight materials and constructions, a trend that is growing tremendously. Therefore, membranes can be an interesting solution as an alternative of glass. They offer a number of possibilities and have many advantages, such as a variety of transparency levels and the fact that they are extremely lightweight materials. Furthermore, the project concerns an office building, which is a rather demanding building type, as it requires an envelope that offers a high level of indoor comfort, in terms of thermal and acoustical insulation, as well as efficient solar control.


Design Concept After a long research on materials, the ETFE membrane was decided to be used in the final design. The reason for this was based on the fact that ETFE has, firstly, a rather high tensile strength compared to the other membranes, Furthermore, it offers a light transmittance of 90% and above and thus it is transparent, important factor in a multi-layer component. In addition, it has an excellent UV-resistance, with the suitable coatings it can be completely watertight and also it has self-cleaning properties, important aspect concerning its maintenance. Lastly, it offers the possibility of printing, something that can be used for sun shading for instance (fig.1). There are three main categories in which fabric structures can be divided: inflatable, deflateable and multi-layer structures. Furthermore, membranes can be combined with PV films, silica-aerogel and phase change materials

Graduation project


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(PCMs) in order to improve their thermal insulation (fig.2). Based on these categories and combinations, several preliminary designs were created that were mainly based on design principles taking into account certain parameters. The final design concept consists of an inflated cushion on the outside and a vacuum system element (deflateable) on the inside. The reasons for this choice were, first of all, the thermal and acoustical improvement possibilities that the combination of these two systems offers. Furthermore, my curiosity for exploring the potential of the vacuum element was another determining factor and finally, my wish to investigate how an inflated and a vacuum system could be combined in order to form a complete and sufficient faรงade element of a high-rise building (fig.3).


PV flexibles





Figure 2. combinations of fabric structures

Figure 1. ETFE foil with different printed patterns

Figure 3. final concept


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Building Physics After chosing the final design concept, the building physics aspect had to be taken into account. For this reason, a number of hand calculations and simulations were conducted, under the scope of thermal and acoustical performance, both for the inflated and the vacuum system. Various different versions were investigated, depending on the number of the membrane layers and thus the number of cavities, the cavity’s filling and width and of course the different pressure levels (fig 4). inflated 2 layers

inflated 3 layers


the pressure difference doesn’t seem to have an influence in the thermal performance of the element, as even at a very low pressure of 1 Pa the results aren’t that remarkable. Nevertheless, the combination of the two systems (inflated and vacuum) proved to be giving considerable results, along with the application of a suitable coating. As for the acoustics, the inflated system acts as a glass unit, but since the mass of the membrane is less than that of a glass pane, the mass-spring resonance frequency (fms) occurs in higher frequencies, which is not desired in general. Moreover, argon has a negative effect in the airborne sound insulation, as the gas filling lacks attenuation of the mass-spring resonance. On the contrary, a lighter gas than air might have a positive impact, but this is rather difficult to contain into the cavity because of leaks and of course with the membranes this becomes almost impossible to achieve. Another remark would be that the reduction of the pressure increases the airborne sound insulation of the cavity structure and decreases the stiffness of the cavity. Therefore the mass-spring resonance frequency (fms) shifts to lower frequencies.

Figure 4. different versions of the inflated and the vacuum system

The conclusions that can be drawn from the hand calculations are the following. As far as the thermal performance is concerned, the addition of layers and therefore cavities leads to an increase of the thermal resistance. Also, the application of reflective coatings plays a significant role in the reduction of the radiation value and thus the total U-value. In addition, the argon as a cavity filling improves a bit the thermal insulation and the aerogel gives the best results, but its high price doesn’t render it very popular to be used for such applications. As for the vacuum component,


Subsequently, a number of simulations with THERM software and Design Builder, as well as an actual acoustic test were conducted in order to validate the above results. FINAL DESIGN Position of the proposed façade & pattern configurations The new façade is placed in front of the existing one, as the purpose was to design a building envelope consisting exclusively out of membrane cushions (fig. 5). The final design follows the orthogonal grid of the existing façade of the office building. More specifically, a rectangular stiff

Graduation project


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n of the new façade

ore and it can also be seen

“wide” frame (aluminum or steel) surrounds various membrane cushions, whose frame (FRP) is thinner and less “heavy” than the outer one. Furthermore, each façade element consists of both transparent and translucent parts depending on the insulation material (argon=transparent, aerogel=translucent) and the existence or absence of shading (fig 7). The next step was to define the design and shape of the façade element itself. Two options were examined, one with the cushions following the rectangular grid as well and one with a more irregular pattern for the cushions, from which the second option was chosen to be developed further (fig. 6).

ere are concrete structural of the existing building. n that was immediately he new membrane façade

ation to the old one. One

side the existing openings,

he façade elements should

nt, in terms of thermal and

nd water and airtightness

on was to place it in front as to surround the whole allenge would be to design e consisting of membrane

on was chosen (figure 190)

design a building envelope

ut of membrane cushions.

Figure 5. position of the new façade Figure 190: position of the new façade in relation to the existing building

Figure 7. final design

Figure 6. rectangular and irregular cushions pattern

Figure 8. shading system

Shading System As far as the shading system is concerned, the outer layer of the inflated cushion (and of the whole component) is printed with a pattern, whose negative is printed in the middle layer of the same cushion. Therefore, by inflating and deflating the two air chambers alternately, the middle layer can move forwards and backwards. Thus, when the two patterns coincide the light transmission is blocked; otherwise light is permitted into the interior space (fig.8). Another alternative would be to integrate PV films into the outer layer with a specific pattern and to print its negative on the middle layer and follow the same logic as before.


separate cushions vary in shape and size (from 0.6 to 2m.). The whole component is already pre-fabricated in the factory in order to save construction time and

The connection of the glass-fibre rods to the membrane sheets

to ensure that the façade requirements are met, in terms of watertightness,

is shown in figure 237. An additional part is used, also made

airtightness and thermal bridges. Therefore, when the elements arrive on site

out of a composite, which is welded onto the membrane and

RuMoerthey #66are ready to beAdaptation assembled. The panels are suspended from their upper

its shape locks the spacer in between and holds it in place. The

part and connected in their lower part, so the assembly process starts from the bottom to the top. Figure 221: individual element

spacers, apart from reducing the forces that are developed on


the frame, they are also responsible for preventing the two


membrane sheets from touching each other.

As far as the cushions are concerned, the inflated one consists of three layers

Structural Concept of ETFE that are clamped together at the same point with a PVC keder and a The façade element described before spans from floor clamping bar and then it is placed into a FRP frame all around. The vacuum, on to floor and its dimensions are 2.90m (width) x 3.65m the other hand, consists of an already sealed bag (welded), whose edges are (height) (fig.9). It consists of two elements placed rolled around a PVC keder. The whole bag is first placed around a FRP frame and one behind the other, the inflated cushion and the then its edges are clamped with an additional cap (figures 223-224). vacuum system. The separate cushions vary in shape and size (from 0.6 to 2m.). The whole component As for the air supply system, each inflatedfactory cushion needs pipes for is already pre-fabricated in the in two order toits two air chambers andtime the vacuum So, three that pipes are necessary in total for save construction andonly toone. ensure the façade both elements. all theincushions are immediately connected with the outer requirements are Since met, terms of watertightness, frame and all thethermal tubes are guided inside it Therefore, to end up to the when upper corner, airtightness bridges. thewhere installations are placed fromready there they guided further away to elementsthearrive on site theyandare tocan bebeassembled. The panels are (figure suspended from their upper part and the pumps 222). connected in their lower part, so the assembly process 174 the bottom to the top. starts from

ETFE membrane welded composite “case” on the membrane glass-fibre rod


Figure 222: pipes system diagram

Figure 9. pipes scheme

Pipes Scheme As for the air supply system, each inflated cushion needs two pipes for its two air chambers and the vacuum only one. So, three pipes are necessary in total for both elements. Since all the cushions are immediately connected with the outer frame all the tubes are guided inside it to end up to the upper corner, where the installations are placed and from there they can be guided further away to the pumps. (fig.9) Spacers In order to prevent the two layers of the vacuum element from touching each other, because of the very high forces that are developed due to the reduction of the pressure, several forces calculations were conducted and a number of spacers were placed between the two sheets. The material that was chosen for the spacers is glass-fibre rod, because of its high strength under compression and also its good thermal resistance (fig.10)

Figure 11. cushions assembly concept



Graduation project

Figure 10. vertical section of a spacer

Figure 237: detail of the connection of the spacer with the membranes


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Figure 12. 3D impression: view to the outside from the offices space

Cushions Assembly As far as the cushions are concerned, the inflated one consists of three layers of ETFE that are clamped together at the same point with a PVC keder and a clamping bar and then it is placed into a FRP frame all around. The vacuum, on the other hand, consists of an already sealed bag (welded), whose edges are rolled around a PVC keder. The whole bag is first placed around a FRP frame and then its edges are clamped with an additional cap (fig.11).

Figure 13. 3D detail connection of the faรงade element with the steel console

Antigoni Lampadiari-Matsa following her first studies as an Architect-Engineer at the National Technical University of Athens, she decided to turn towards the technical side of architecture and attend the master of Building Technology at TU Delft. During these two years she realised her deep interest for the faรงade engineering field resulting in her graduation project (July 2017) being about an adaptive faรงade component, which investigates the potential of membranes as an alternative for glass. She is currently looking for a job in the Netherlands that would provide her the opportunity to combine her knowledge of both the architectural and the engineering domaines.


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ADAPTIVE FACADES Transforming Buildings into Living Entities

by Prageeth Jayathissa

Figure 1: Render of the HiLo building detailing two Adaptive Solar Facades [3]


A building, in its original manifestation, is a shelter. A means to protect the human body from the harsh exterior environment. And throughout our history the quality of the envelopes have increased, allowing us to manufacture our own internal environments through artificial heating, cooling, and lighting systems. Although this can greatly increase our human comfort, it is also responsible for 19% of global greenhouse gas emissions [1].

One example of this lies in the design of responsive facades where solar radiation is mediated to increase interior comfort. Iconic examples include the Al Bahr towers in Dubai, Arab World Institute in Paris, and the ThyssenKrupp Headquarters in Essen. A responsive system will open when solar radiation levels are low to maximise natural lighting, and close when radiation levels reach a threshold at which the building begins to overheat.

Mediator vs. Barrier Instead of thinking of the envelope as a barrier, one can ascribe the notion of the envelope as a mediator. An envelope that doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t isolate, but rather utilises the energy of the exterior environment to fulfil the comfort of the interior. An envelope that is not rigid, but dynamic, and can adjust itself to the ever-changing environment.

Responsive vs. Adaptive In a responsive system, such as the examples described above, the designer sets threshold levels at which the envelope should change its state. In an adaptive system, it is the envelope that decides. An adaptive envelope senses the external and internal environments using temperature and light sensors, and runs mathematical

Academic article


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PV daylighting



Figure 2: Schematic detailing how an adaptive envelope can balance energy and user comfort parameters [5]

Figure 3: Render of the Adaptive Solar Facade mounted on the HiLo Building [5]

models to predict the future environment for each of its possible states. Afterwards, the envelope chooses the state that generates the most comfortable interior environment with the minimal use of artificial heating, cooling and lighting [2].

seasons and even account for long term effects such as increased temperatures due to global warming. Regardless of the conditions, the envelope will continue to adapt to fulfil its goal: maximise occupant comfort while minimising total energy consumption.

Due to the control complexity of a responsive system, the number of possible states of the envelope is limited. With an adaptive system, an infinite number of possible states theoretically exist where the limitation is simply computational power.

The Adaptive Solar Facade The adaptive solar facade is a realisation of an adaptive envelope. The facade consists of 30 independently actuated photovoltaic panels that can each rotate with a range of 90° in two axes. This allows for optimal solar energy harvest and reduction of the interior building energy consumption. The latest Adaptive Solar Facade design was constructed in July 2017 and is currently mounted on a temporary wall for testing. It will eventually be assembled over a window at the HiLo building, seen in Figure 3 [3].

This inherent intelligence of adaptive systems allows the designer to design facades that are modular and have multiple states such as the schematic shown in Figure 2. Here the envelope consists of multiple independently actuated louvres that can fulfil multiple functions. Parts of the envelope will respond for optimal daylight distribution, whereas others will optimise for cooling reduction, electricity production, and views for the occupant. The adaptivity of such a system can span multiple time durations. In the short term, the envelope will adjust for sudden changes in cloud cover or an increase in room temperature due to an increase in occupancy. Likewise, the envelope will also adapt to changes during the day,

Soft Robotics for Kinetic Architecture One key innovation for the design of the Adaptive Solar Facade is the soft robotic actuator [4]. The actuator, shown in Figure 4, is made of a flexible material that changes its form as the pressure in the chambers changes. Such actuators are currently only used in the biomedical industry, but we are exploring how they can also be utilised in future climate adaptive buildings. The


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Photovoltaic Panel Junction Box Panel Adapter Soft Pneumatic Actuator Cantilever Junction Element Electronics and Valves Rod Net Structure

main advantage of soft actuators is their compliance in heavy winds and large reductions in cost. The actuator is fabricated in a one step injection moulding process which is significantly cheaper than waterproof servomotors.

The Future of Adaptive Systems The future of adaptive systems ultimately lies in the hands of future architects. What we have shown in this study is that a small team of four designers are able to develop, evaluate, prototype and construct a complex adaptive system. It is a system that brings dynamic life to a building where observers can physically see how the building is feeling, thinking and changing its state. It opens up new avenues of human â&#x20AC;&#x201C; building interaction where users

Performative Design One major challenge in the design of kinetic architectural elements is the multiple technological branches that are involved. Among these branches, we can count structural engineering, energy engineering, control, industrial design, and architecture. Each of these branches is heavily interlinked, and a change in the control system, for example, can heavily influence the overall energy performance and architectural image. This ultimately results in large iteration cycles which stagnated the project. By using the Rhino / Grasshopper environment with Python as a scripting language, we were able to produce a performance driven environment which automatically finds its form to withstand hurricane force winds, provide feedback on its structural performance, analyses the energetic performance and day lighting of the building, renders images, and produces the fabrication plans [5].

Figure 5: Temporary testing location of the latest facade design. This facade will be moved to the HiLo building when completed

Figure 4: Exploded view of a single dynamic photovoltaic module [5]


Energy Saving Potential From our first results, we can predict an energy saving potential of 20%-80% compared to a static equivalent [6]. The large variation is simply due to the type of building being evaluated. The Adaptive Solar Facade mediates solar radiation, and therefore is most functional in buildings that are occupied during sunlit hours such as an office or a school, over a building that is occupied at night such as a house [7].

Academic article

Adaptation can learn from their building as much as the building can learn from its users. The Adaptive Solar Facade is simply the first stepping stone to the breadth of possibilities that adaptive architecture can bring. Sources [1] Fifth assessment report, mitigation of climate change, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2014) 674–738. [2] Z. Nagy, B. Svetozarevic, P. Jayathissa, M. Begle, J. Hofer, G. Lydon, A. Willmann, A. Schlueter, The adaptive solar facade: From concept to prototypes, Frontiers of Architectural Research 5 (2) (2016) 143–156. [3] P. Block, A. Schlueter, D. Veenendaal, J. Bakker, M. Begle, J. Hofer, P. Jayathissa, G. Ly- don, I. Maxwell, T. Mendez Echenagucia, Z. Nagy, D. Pigram, B. Svetozarevic, R. Torsing, J. Verbeek, A. Willmann, Nest hilo: Research & innovation unit for lightweight construction and building systems integration, Journal of Building Engineering.

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[4] B. Svetozarevic, Z. Nagy, J. Hofer, D. Jacob, M. Begle, E. Chatzi, A. Schlueter, Soro-track: A two-axis soft robotic platform for solar tracking and buildingintegrated photovoltaic applications, in: Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2016 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE, 2016, pp. 4945–4950. [5] P. Jayathissa, S. Caranovic, J. Hofer, Z. Nagy, A. Schlueter, Performative Design Environment for Kinetic Photovoltaic Architecture, In Review (2017). [6] P. Jayathissa, M. Luzzatto, J. Schmidli, J. Hofer, Z. Nagy, A. Schlueter, Optimising building net energy demand with dynamic BIPV shading, Applied Energy 202 (2017) 726–735. [7] P. Jayathissa, J. Zarb, M. Luzzatto, J. Hofer, A. Schlueter, Sensitivty of Building Properties and Use Types for the Application of Adaptive Photovoltaic Shading Systems, CISBAT 2017 Lausanne, Energy Procedia, (2017).

Prageeth Jayathissa Institution: ETH Zurich, Switzerland Contact:
 Prageeth, with a background in mechanical engineering, is currently finishing his PhD at the Chair of Architecture and Building Systems at the ETH Zürich. His main focus revolves around the design, control, and evaluation of adaptive building technologies, where he uses the Adaptive Solar Facade as a case study. The work is done in collaboration with Stefan Caranovic, Moritz Begle, and Bratislav Svetozarevic.


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We are passing the torch

Interested? Swing by our office and have a chat with us! In March 2018, the current BouT board is passing the torch. Our tasks will then be handed over to a new group of students, to make sure BouTs ideals are continued. Our team has worked very hard this year to bring the association to a higher level, helped by our valuable committees. We hope for this legacy to be maintained and extended. Are you a Building Technology student and would you like to gain relevant experience by running a healthy organisation, whilst being in close contact with


companies, professors and students? Then this is your opportunity to broaden your network! We are looking for 5-6 board members with relevant experience, that possess excellent communicative skills, that have varying backgrounds and are above all very passionate about everything that is related to Building Technology. Does this describe you? Then do not hesitate to swing by our office and have a chat with us! You can also contact us via e-mail on: if you have any questions.

Praktijkvereniging BouT


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BouT Logo Design Challenge With 74 new Building Technology students and many new members, we felt it was time for a fresh start. Time to say goodbye to the old, and welcome the new. Therefore BouT has been looking for a new logo, and asked its members for help.

1 Logo 1:  Logo 2:  Logo 3: 

PARTICIPANT Ignace de Keyzer AE(MSc 3)

Hayley Bouza BT (MSc 1)

Niels Lok BT (MSc 4)

Logo 4: 

Vincent van den Aardwegh (Unknown)

Logo 5: 

Andreas Angelo Thiis BT (MSc 1)

Amey Thakur BT (MSc 1)

Vincent Hofte BT (MSc 4)

Pim Buskermolen BT (MSc 3)

Yufe Wong BT (MSc 3)

Logo 6:  Logo 7:  Logo 8:  Logo 9: 

Through an official BouT logo design challenge, members were invited to put their creative skills to good use and design a new logo. Many loyal BouT members gave it a try, resulting in nine official entries. Now it is time for the jury to determine a winner, which will be announced during a special event. Stay updated!




BouT 4








BouT 7



Logo design entry - Amey Thakur (BT, Msc1)

student association for building technology


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Upcoming Events November 30.11.2017


An entrepreneurial Master student event at Studio Automat, in Amsterdam



A yearly event for Building Technology graduates, hosted by BouT at the Faculty of Architecture



Celebratory event at the Bouwpub for all Buckylab students

February 22.02.2018


A Symposium about Space Architecture organised by BouT


Praktijkvereniging BouT


RuMoer #66

Past Events 07.06.2017




09.07.2017 - 30.07.2017

15.11.2017 - 19.11.2017


Excursion: De Rotterdam Skyscrapers

Summer School of Architecture: Wroclaw

Summer Grills 2017

Octatube Excursion

Bilbao Study Trip


䈀 漀 甀 吀   瀀 爀 攀 猀 攀 渀 琀 猀


䄀   匀 礀 洀 瀀 漀 猀 椀 甀 洀   愀 戀 漀 甀 琀   猀 瀀 愀 挀 攀   愀 爀 挀 栀 椀 琀 攀 挀 琀 甀 爀 攀

䘀愀挀甀氀琀礀 漀昀 䄀爀挀栀椀琀攀挀琀甀爀攀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䈀甀椀氀琀 䔀渀瘀椀爀漀渀洀攀渀琀Ⰰ 吀唀 䐀攀氀昀琀 ㈀㈀渀搀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㈀ ㄀㠀

The BouT symposiums aim to focus on a topic which benefits humanity and is relevant to today’s issues. Last February, the symposium topic was the architectural and technological response to climate change. This year, it will be on the topic of extraterrestrial architecture, with an emphasis on how the field can inform sustainable progress on Earth. To our knowledge, a symposium focusing mainly on extraterrestrial architecture has not been done before, and the time is ripe to dive into this emergent topic.

started out for space applications.

We would like to cordially invite the architecture and technology community of TU Delft, along with innovatiovecompanies and experts in the topic itself, to discuss this exciting new field of design. The BK faculty, situated in the same campus as one of the world-leading Aerospace Faculties, is a fitting home to this event, as there are already masters students who have graduated in this field.

Among the challenges to be explored are questions such as: what would people and technology have to do in order to deliver humanity to new planets, what would life be like in space and on other celestial bodies, and how do we design the next genre of buildings fit for the Moon and Mars? The answers to such questions may be powerful drivers for innovation on Earth. Over all, this event aims to raise awareness and equip young professionals with new insights and a head start when they tackle challenges of the future. With the help of an international ensemble of speakers, we hope to inspire the next generation of designers by showing them the technological prowess and relentless audacity of the new space race!

Why is it important? PVs, water purification systems and satellite climate data are examples of sustainable technologies invented or accelerated by space innovation. A whole catalogue of other inventions, including the laptop,


Leading pioneers will be speaking at the event, such as winners of the NASA Mars Habitat Challenge of 2015: Space Exploration Architecture, Liquifer and the space design team of Foster+Partners. There will also be a lecturer from ESTEC talking about current ground-breaking research. The Dean Peter Russel will open the event and deliver an expose on a 1970s space station design by Fritz Haller.

Praktijkvereniging BouT




Peoplehouse gelooft in het enthousiasme, de scherpe innovatieve blik en de creativiteit van ondernemende talenten. Toch gaat 90% van de start-ups onder leiding van dit talent kopje onder. Voor het succesvol uitrollen van een bedrijfsconcept is namelijk meer nodig: (praktische) ondernemerskennis, een gevalideerde business case en een goed netwerk.

In het door Peoplehouse samengestelde Entrepeneurs Lab wordt er gewerkt aan de entrepreneurial skills en persoonlijke ontwikkeling van jonge ondernemers. Tegelijkertijd doen de ‘Young Entrepreneurs’ werkervaring op bij gerenommeerde bedrijven.

Peoplehouse stelt WO-toptalent (0-3 jaar werkervaring) in staat te denken en handelen als start-ups. Onze Entrepreneurs bezitten de mindset, methodes (‘Design Thinking’ en ‘Lean Startup’) en tools die van belang zijn om een idee door te ontwikkelen naar een nieuwe business. Peoplehouse maakt de vertaalslag van nieuwe trends en ontwikkelingen naar lopende business, die daadwerkelijk rendement oplevert.



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Cabinet 02.West.090 Faculty of Architecture Julianalaan 134 2628BL Delft The Netherlands PRAKTIJKVERENIGING


student association for building technology

+31 (0)15 278 1292

Rumoer 66: Adaptation| BouT | TU Delft  
Rumoer 66: Adaptation| BouT | TU Delft