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Technical university in zvolen

Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Published on the 250th anniversary of university technical study in Slovakia, the 205th anniversary of university forestry study in Slovakia and th the 60 anniversary of the establishment of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology, the present Technical University in Zvolen.

Zvolen 2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Reviewers:

Prof. RNDr. Oľga Kontrišová, CSc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Sládek, CSc. Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ferdinand Macko, CSc.

Editorial Director:

Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc.

Editor-in-chief:

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Jaroslav Šálka

Executive Editor:

PhDr. Eva Fekiačová

Graphic Design:

Ing. Miroslav Chovan, ArtD. Ing. Zuzana Tončíková

Technical Support Manager:

Ing. Rudolf Szabó

Proof-reader:

Mgr. Hana Weissová

Number of copies:

1,000

Printed by:

NIKARA Krupina

Published by:

Technická univerzita vo Zvolene

© Technická univerzita vo Zvolene All rights reserved. No part of the text or illustrations may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the prior written permission of the authors or publisher.

ISBN 978-80-228-2377-7


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Preface The Technical University in Zvolen as a successor to traditions of one of the oldest universities with the technical orientation in Europe and in the world, the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica, is commemorating three significant anniversaries in 2012. Relating to its historical roots connected with Banská Štiavnica and along with other universities in Central Europe, it preserves the heritage of the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica. This was established 250 years ago, in 1762, by the edict of the Empress Maria Theresa of Habsburg. Later on, in 1770, it was advanced by the Empress herself to the Mining Academy where forestry disciplines also started to be taught. Especially, an extraordinary jubilee is 205 years of university forestry study in Slovakia. Its beginnings date back to 1807, when the Forestry Institute was established at the above-mentioned Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica by the decree of the Emperor Frantisek I. The establishment of the Institute reflected an increasing importance of forest management for mining as well as for the general economic growth of the Austrian monarchy. It was also connected with the need for the development of forestry science and education at the highest level. Another significant anniversary of the University is its

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Preface

60-year operating in Zvolen. After the splitting of the University of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering based in Košice from 1946, the University of Forestry and Wood Technology was established in 1952. It has found its home in the heart of Slovakia, in Zvolen, a natural centre of forestry and wood technology. In 1992, the decision on the change of its name for the Technical University in Zvolen came to life. The Technical University in Zvolen belongs to the top and unique educational and scientific research institutions within the system of higher education in the Slovak Republic, but also in the European Union. The fundamental role of the University is to provide university education, to conduct scientific research and creative art activity. The educational process proceeds from the latest world knowledge of science and technology, from its own basic and applied researches, from cooperation with other universities, research institutes, the enterprise sphere, and organizations in the widest social sense. It educates the university cultivated specialists: bachelors, masters, and doctors for the area globally seen as “forest – wood – ecology and the environment” for the needs of Slovakia, but also foreign countries. Education at our university is understood as a process of not only the continually following and verifying of year-tested procedures and activities, but also searching for new innovative activities and adapting to current modern trends reflecting operational and social needs. The Technical University in Zvolen declares its support for implementing the strategy of the European Union and the Slovak Republic defined as the knowledge society. Information, knowledge and their general applications, especially in the form of innovations, were always a significant factor in principle enhancing the social and economic development. The Technical University in Zvolen is involved in common European efforts to integrate national scientific and technological policies in compliance with

the policy of the European Research Area, whose aims and priorities are set by the Lisbon Strategy. The strategic intention of the University, defined in the document of the Long-term Scheme of the Technical University in Zvolen for the years 2011–2016, is an internationalization of education, scientific research and practical application of knowledge. This also includes the further development of the Technical University’s status of a university, the emphasizing of its position within the European Higher Education and Research Area, its involvement in building a European knowledge society within the framework of its profiling and fostering its uniqueness in the higher education system of the Slovak Republic. In the long term, the Technical University in Zvolen has been profiling as a research-oriented university with the aim to accomplish internationally accepted results in some spheres of research and art activities. The Technical University in Zvolen also concentrates a great effort to create optimum conditions which would improve transfer and commercionalization of inventions resulting from the research and development efforts of the University to the commercial sphere. The strategic intention of the Technical University in Zvolen can be achieved only by honest and systematic work of teachers, researchers and students. Common efforts can be crowned with success if the staff and students of the University continue to be initiative, creative and active, and if they use the round historical anniversaries as a source of inspiration for their educational and research activities.

Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc.

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Contents

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Historical Roots

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250th Anniversary of University Technical Study in Slovakia Authors: Assoc. Prof. PhDr. Pavel Zdycha, CSc., Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, PhD. Translation: PhDr. Jana Luptáková

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Development of the Forestry School System – from Banská Štiavnica to Zvolen Authors: Assoc. Prof. PhDr. Pavel Zdycha, CSc., Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, PhD. Translation: PhDr. Jana Luptáková

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Zvolen Period – from 1952 to the Present Authors: Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, PhD., Assoc. Prof. PhDr. Pavel Zdycha, CSc. Translation: PhDr. Jana Luptáková

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Technical University in Zvolen in 2007–2012

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Education at the University Author: RNDr. Andrej Jankech, PhD. Translation: Mgr. Zuzana Danihelová

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Science and Research at the University Authors: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Jaroslav Šálka, Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Anna Danihelová, PhD. Translation: Dr. phil. Mgr. Veronika Deáková

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International Relations at the University Author: Assoc. Prof. Mgr. Ing. Rastislav Šulek, PhD. Translation: Mgr. Mária Laciková

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Developing Activities and Economy at the University Authors: Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Danica Kačíková, PhD., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Josef Drábek, CSc. Translation: Mgr. Ivana Slováková


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Faculty of Forestry in 2007–2012 Authors: Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Scheer, CSc. et al. Translation: PhDr. Oľga Lejsalová, CSc.

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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology in 2007–2012 Authors: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Hubert Paluš, PhD. et al. Translation: Mgr. Žaneta Balážová

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Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences in 2007–2012 Authors: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Branko Slobodník, PhD. et al. Translation: Mgr. Andrej Timko

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Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology in 2007–2012 Authors: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Marián Kučera, PhD. et al. Translation: PaedDr. Martina Babiaková

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OTHER ORGANIZATIONAL PARTS OF THE UNIVERSITY in 2007–2012

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Institute of Foreign Languages Author: Mgr. Marek Ľupták Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Institute of Physical Education and Sport Author: PaedDr. Martin Kružliak, PhD. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences Library Author: Ing. Alena Poláčiková Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Arboretum Borová Hora Author: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ivan Lukáčik, CSc. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Centre of Continual Education Author: Ing. Erik Selecký, PhD. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková


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Developmental Workshops and Laboratories Author: Ing. Jaroslav Ohanka, CSc. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Centre of Information Technologies Author: Ing. Tibor Weis Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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University Forest Enterprise Author: Ing. Ján Šulek Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Halls of Residence and Canteen Author: Ing. Zuzana Zelemová Translation: Mgr. Mária Laciková

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Publishing House Author: PhDr. Eva Fekiačová Translation: Mgr. Mária Laciková

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CULTURAL, SOCIAL AND SPORTS LIFE AT THE UNIVERSITY in 2007–2012

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Folklore Ensemble Poľana Author: Prof. Ing. Anna Šatanová, CSc. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Club and Leisure Activities of the Students Accommodated in the Student Halls of Residence Author: Ing. Zuzana Zelemová Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Slávia Sports Club Author: Mgr. Karin Baisová, PhD. Translation: PaedDr. Darina Veverková

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Epilogue Author: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Jaroslav Šálka Translation: PhDr. Jana Luptáková


Historical Roots


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

250th Anniversary of University Technical Study in Slovakia When commemorating the 250th anniversary of the establishment of university technical study in Slovakia, we are also reflecting on a broader context of this significant milestone reached a quarter of a millennium ago. Forests and the territory of Slovakia have always represented two significant intertwined historical phenomena. The Slovak territory was characteristic of its extensive forest cover at the ancient times, in the early modern period and also at present. In addition to the forests, it was also rich in mineral resources, especially in non-ferrous ores. Particularly valuable was the region of central Slovakia. From the 14th –15th centuries, a dominant position was already held by seven mining towns: Banská Bystrica, Banská Štiavnica, Banská Belá, Nová Baňa, Kremnica, Ľubietová, and Pukanec. Among these towns, Banská Štiavnica stood out as the most prosperous one. In the second half of the 18th century, the time of its top prosperity, it became the third biggest town of the former Hungarian Kingdom. Still more rapid acceleration of the technical development also affected the spheres of mining, forestry, metallurgy, and other branches of industry.

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Banská Štiavnica also became a place of purposefully organized schooling for young people in the sphere of mining running here from 1605 already. In the first half of the 18th century, the rapid technical development of the state and guild enterprise in mining started in the Hungarian Kingdom and Banská Štiavnica became the centre of the most advanced mining engineering applied especially in mining water pumping. In 1735, the first Mining School came into existence in Banská Štiavnica. It was headed by the known multi-disciplinarian Samuel Mikovíni (1700–1750). His title was an empire-royal geometrician for the central Slovakia’s mining towns. The establishment of the Mining School was approved by the Chamber Court in Vienna already in 1737. In accordance with the instruction for mining students of 22nd June 1735, the students were educated and trained in four specializations: 1 construction of mining works, mining law and practices, 2 mining surveying, 3 upgrading, 4 testing and metallurgy. The director Prof. Mikovíni himself taught mathematics, mining surveying, geometry, hydraulics, and mechanics. He was an outstanding cartographer and so during summer months, he trained students in surveying fieldwork and moreover, also in more remote places. Practical training was given by competent instructors. The course of study took two years and it was completed by the final examination. The main aim of the school was to prepare


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

middle specialized cadres (superintendents, wardens etc.) following one of four specializations. Having finished more specializations, talented students could become senior officials. From the establishment of the Mining School in Banská Štiavnica in 1735 and in Smolník in 1747, the preparation of mining and metallurgy experts was not still sufficient. Especially in the second half of the 18th century characteristic of a distinct development of natural sciences, they intensively started laying a heavy emphasis on young engineering novices so that they could acquire theoretical knowledge and master laboratory practices along with their practice in the mining plants. An attempt to establish a mining college in Prague in 1762 based on the ideas of Ján Tadeáš Peithner (1727–1792), the registry official at the Office of the Supreme Mintage and Mining Master in Prague, was doomed to failure from the very beginning. Specifically, Prague and its surroundings did not provide even minimal possibilities for practices in plants or mines. J. T. Peithner elaborated an extensive paper on establishing the theoretical study of mining sciences in the Czech Kingdom and submitted it to the Sovereign Maria Theresa in Vienna in April 1762. He proposed to found the theoretical study of mining sciences by establishing a department of montanistic science (science of mining) at the Faculty of Arts, Charles University in Prague or by a separate mining academy. The Sovereign showed her approval to Peithner’s proposal and on 21st July 1762, she ordered him to rework his proposal. According to the Sovereign’s instruction, J. T. Peithner elaborated another proposal in which he already specified and worked out in more detail the programme for teaching mining sciences. Having studied the second Peithner’s paper, the Chamber Court called a meeting of experts concerned which was held on 1st October 1762. The special committee

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discussed in detail various possibilities for study of mining sciences and all participants of the meeting agreed to the idea that only one mining academy should be established for all lands of the monarchy (Herčko, 2006). The extensive report of the committee made up of the Supreme Court officials and mining experts was submitted to Maria Theresa on 22nd October 1762. On the basis of the collective proposal of the best experts in the country, on 13th December 1762, the Sovereign issued the decree establishing the school for the practical teaching of mining in Banská Štiavnica. The report from the meeting held on 1st October 1762 and submitted to the Sovereign says, “When choosing a place, the Upper Hungarian town of Banská Štiavnica was decided as the most appropriate one taking into consideration that there is at hand complete mining, metallurgical, driving and testing equipment, and also fire, water, and air machinery, “stangenkunst”, i.e. pumping equipment with reciprocating leverage which is lacking in other places. This equipment can be used by a professor to demonstrate his theoretical knowledge and students can acquire theoretical knowledge as quickly as possible. There is an opportunity to master chemistry as it is connected with metallurgy and also to learn mechanics”. The reality predetermined that the Mining and Forestry Academy was established in Banská Štiavnica. The Empress Maria Theresa respected this proposal and by the abovementioned decree, the school (Lehrschule) was established in the place which was the most suitable for this purpose. Progressive views about schooling were projected also in the organizational programme of the existing Mining School with its encyclopaedic teaching. They started to create particular departments of sciences. Only a lack of necessary trained and qualified experts made the organizational building of all departments at the same time impossible. As the first one was created the Department of Chemistry,


Historical Roots

Mineralogy and Metallurgy in 1763. Gerhard van Swieten, chairman of the Court Study Committee, suggested Mikuláš Jozef Jacquin, his fellow countryman and student, for the position of a professor at this department. Maria Theresa indeed appointed him as professor of the Mining School in Banská Štiavnica. The committee members and the Sovereign did not want to leave Peithner without an adequate reward either and so the Sovereign appointed him as professor of mining studies for the school she had decreed to establish in Prague. His superior count Pacht was announced to finish his work in the position of the registry official and he was appointed as professor. He was asked to work out a list of matters necessary for starting teaching. Having submitted the list of matters, on 14th January 1763, he was ordered to set off for Prague immediately and prepare himself for teaching. At the same time, he was said to start teaching on 1st November 1763. The Department of Mining Studies operated in Prague until the beginning of the year 1772 when Tadeáš Peithner was relocated to Banská Štiavnica. Another course of lectures was not opened in Prague (Vozár, 2006). As we have already mentioned, Gerhard van Swieten suggested Mikuláš Jozef Jacquin for the position of a professor at the school in Banská Štiavnica. Ján Seifried Herbertstein, the President of the Chamber Court, accepted the suggestion and put forward the Sovereign to appoint M. S. Jacquin as professor at the school she had decreed to establish in Štiavnica. However, Jacquin was reserved when accepting the offer. In his “promemoria” preserved of 13th January 1763, he laid down his conditions under which he was willing to accept professorship in Banská Štiavnica. He set the professorship in Banská Štiavnica on the level of chemistry and botany professorship performed by Professor Laugír at the University in Vienna. Professor Laugír taught chemistry in winter and botany in summer. Jacquin was also

to teach two subjects in Štiavnica: chemistry and metallurgy. He needed ovens, various materials and tools so that he could carry out experiments. He expected he would get the same finances and repayment of travel expenses and subsistence allowances as other empire-royal officials got. Ján Seifried Herberstein, the President of the Chamber Court, submitted the Sovereign the report on this matter on 21st February 1763. In the report, he expressed conviction that the intended

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

“theoretical mining school in the Czech Kingdom” would bring benefit. To achieve that, it was necessary to teach not only theory but undoubtedly also practice. Therefore, there was a need for a “practical school” where they could teach simultaneously also chemistry. Tadeáš Peithner did not have necessary knowledge of both these sciences (mining and chemistry) and therefore it was needed to find another person for the intended school in Banská Štiavnica. Then he also repeated M. J. Jacquin’s requirements and assured the Sovereign that he was ready to arrange everything to achieve the desired result by the introduction of teaching practical mining and chemistry. Maria Theresa took a brief but approving attitude to this report. She ordered to fulfil Jacquin’s wishes relating to payment and all the others as well as possible. She also asked them to inform her about the result. The President of the Chamber Court submitted the report on results of the next talks with M. J. Jacquin to the Sovereign on 15th May 1763. According to this report, Jacquin insisted on payment because the study of practical mining was demanding and chemistry was also dangerous to health. He was not able to present expenses for laboratory equipment and materials for chemical and metallurgical tests more exactly. He supposed they would be used within 1–2 years and the majority of materials would be provided by the mines. Therefore, it would not be needed to have a big sum at once. For the President of Chamber Court expected from this professorship the improvement of mining studies and a higher profit on mines, he recommended satisfying Jacquin’s requirements immediately. He recommended fulfilling them a lot more because Jacquin “was offered even more advantageous conditions from Moscow”. Maria Theresa approved these suggestions too. In the patent of 9th June 1763, it was announced the Sovereign appointed the Upper Hungarian mining

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counsellor M. J. Jacquin as professor of practical mining and chemistry studies in Banská Štiavnica in order to to enhance mining studies. The Sovereign also ordered all lands having the mining industry to send interns to study in Banská Štiavnica. They were asked to announce to Vienna the names of the sent students. The decree for M. J. Jacquin was issued by the Court Chamber on 13th June 1763. He was to get his salary from 9th June 1763, when the Empress decided on his appointment as professor in Banská Štiavnica. She approved his position of mining counsellor with the right to participate in meetings of the main chamber-count office in Banská Štiavnica and with suffrage. M. J. Jacquin came to Banská Štiavnica probably in September 1763. On 7th October 1763, he already took part in a meeting of the main chamber-count office where he was introduced as “Mikuláš Jacquin, the mining counsellor and professor of chemistry“. At the same meeting, he announced his intention to start his lectures from September of the following year. First, he wanted to make himself familiar with local minerals and ores, and therefore he wanted to stay in Banská Bystrica and Kremnica for a couple of months. He also chose an assistant from among his students. The main chamber-count office informed the Chamber Court in Vienna about this Jacquin’s declaration. The Chamber Court approved all his suggestions (Vozár, 2006). Jacquin had worked at the Department by 28th February 1769. His first lectures were heard on 18th September 1764, which was influenced not only by preparations for the beginning study and the establishment of the first department at this school, but mainly by problems with filling their vacancies. The lectures and especially scientific research were successfully conducted by the world-known mineralogist Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1723–1788). He was appointed as professor of chemistry, mineralogy and metallurgy by the decree of the Chamber Court


Historical Roots

of 10th February 1769. After his leaving for the University in Pávia, his successor to the position was Anton Leopold Ruprecht (1748–1814), the student of the Academy proper. He was appointed as professor of chemistry, mineralogy and metallurgy and the head of the Department on 26th February 1779. Already during his work at the Department, Michal Patzier (1746–1811) was appointed as his substitute. After A. Ruprecht’s leaving for Vienna to be a court counsellor in 1792, there were three applicants for this post. Besides M. Patzier, they were a mechanic from Vindšacht and František Panzenberg, an accountant from the smelting works in Tajov. On 28th August 1792, M. Patzier was appointed as head of the Department and regular professor. He had lectured at the Department by the end of the academic year 1809/1810, when he asked for the termination of his pedagogical activity. Due to severe eye illness and inability to move, he was not able to continue further in his lectures and laboratory work. That is why the Chamber Court appointed an assistant and his substitute on 6th September 1810. This substitute was M. Höring, an administrator at the silver smelting works in Žarnovica, who had successfully run the sections of ironmaking and forestry at the main Chamber-Count Office before. M. Höring was experienced in chemistry and mining and he also filled in his knowledge on study trips. Thus, a fluent course of lectures on chemistry in the second half-year was ensured. M. Höring worked as a professor at the Department from 2nd February 1811 till 6th May 1820 (Herčko, 2006). When starting this school, the Chamber Court had the greatest worries with recruiting students. The demand for students to have a good command of two mathematical disciplines (arithmetic and geometry) was perhaps too difficult for that period and level of erudition. Due to not satisfying this demand, several students interested in the

study had to be rejected. These claims were fulfilled best by the then interns, probationers. Therefore, most students accepted to the new school were chosen just from them. At the end of the summer 1764, there was concentrated already about 40 students interested in study in Banská Štiavnica. The majority of them was of local origin and only about a quarter was from other lands of the Habsburg Empire, especially Corutania, Styria, Tirol, Lower Austria, Timis Banat, Transylvania, and Bohemia. That is why the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica was really a school of a new type open for all lands of the Habsburg Empire. At this Academy, theoretical teaching was closely connected with practice. It was a rational compromise between T. Peithner’s proposal to establish the theoretical study of mining sciences in Prague and the need of mining and metallurgic production for education of flexible mining specialists (Vozár, 2006). However, the beginning school activity showed it was not capable yet to meet all the claims laid down on it and required especially by practice. Therefore, the Empress and Queen Maria Theresa ordered to set up also the second department in Banská Štiavnica already in 1765, namely the Department of Mechanics and Hydraulics. The Department was established on 13th August 1765 as the second department of the arising academy. This was to ensure teaching mathematics, mining surveying, mechanics, physics, hydraulics, and mining engineering. Mikuláš Poda (1723–1796), who started his lectures to mathematics and physics in 1765, was appointed as professor at this Department. After his leaving in 1771, Karol Thierenberger (1731–?), the author of lectures to physics, was appointed as professor of mathematics and physics. He worked at the Academy from 25th October 1771 till December 1779. From 1st January 1780, his successor at the Department was Ján Szeleczký. After his appointment to a higher position

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Historical Roots

at the beginning of the year 1788, M. Patzier applied for the vacancy of a definitive professor at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics in March 1788. It was after 23 months of his substituting at the Department of Chemistry, Mineralogy and Metallurgy. M. Patzier was meeting the conditions for filling the vacancy at this department and moreover, he was also recommended by Professor A. Ruprecht. Despite this fact, they appointed Karol Haidinger (1756–1797) as professor of mathematics in 1788. He worked there from 9th May 1788 and lectured also in mining. So M. Patzier only lectured in mathematics at this department and he was appointed as a definitive professor of mathematics and mechanics only after K. Haidinger’s leaving. When Professor A. Ruprecht left for Vienna in 1792, M. Patzier successfully applied for his position again. It was sure already at that time, if he was appointed to the Ruprecht’s position, there would be a vacated position for a professor of mathematics and mechanics at the same time. To this position, the main chamber count Mitrovský recommended J. Lill on the first place, F. Panzenberg on the second place, and J. Möhling, the assistant of the mining surveyor, on the third place. The Department of Mathematics, Practical Mining and Mining Law, as this department is mentioned in the archival documents, was finally consigned to Andrej Pribyl (1755–1835), a pit foreman of the Upper Biberova gallery in Vindšacht. It was done according to the decision of the Chamber Court on 28th August 1792 and after M. Patzier’s leaving. A. Pribyl worked at the Academy as a professor of mathematics, physics and mechanics, practical mining and mining law until 10th June 1798. Then Ján Möhling (1762–?), a main mining surveyor in Vindšacht, was appointed as professor. He became the first regular professor of mining surveying, but he also lectured in the study of mining works, mathematics

and mechanics. Atthe same time, he was running practical and theoretical teaching of drawing. Before his coming to the Academy, he had already written a textbook on mining surveying. After his leaving for Leoben in Styria, the Chamber Court appointed František Reichetzer (1770–1835) as the professor of mathematics, mechanics, practical mining, geognosy and mining law on 2nd December 1805. He worked at the Department until February 1812. In 1809 Jozef Schittko (1776–1833) came to Banská Štiavnica and he was to run a two-year course of mathematics and logic. As the professor of mathematics, physics, mechanics and engineering and the head of the Department of Logic, Mechanics and Physics, he worked at the Academy till his death on 25th November 1833. The Practical Mining School in Banská Štiavnica was a higher, partly academically oriented school. Though it had two departments with theoretical contents, a department dealing with mining itself, which was taught only by external instructors, however, was lacking. Having been initiated by the Empress Maria Theresa, a special committee led by the count František Kollowrat Novohradský worked out a proposal for transformation of the school into an academy, including also a new curriculum on 16th March 1770. The Empress accepted the proposal on 2nd April 1770 with this memorable remark, “I approve the proposed plan. Moreover, I am highly satisfied with it. Concerning the shown eagerness of the committee, however, it is also necessary to take into consideration teaching forestry because it is inevitably needed for mining”. The statement confirms the Sovereign’s personal interest in promoting forestry education and prosperity of forest management. The Chamber Court for Mintage and Mining in Vienna issued the decree on the establishment and systematization of the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica on 14th April 1778. It ordered to create the third mining department

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

at which also forestry was to be taught. As compared with the practical Mining School, the study was expanded into three years and it had the following division: 1st year – arithmetic, algebra and analytics, geometry, trigonometry, physics, mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, geometry and optics – all of them from the standpoint of utilization in mining and metallurgy, 2nd year – general physical chemistry, specialized mineralogical and metallurgic chemistry, testing and ore metallurgy, 3rd year – mining and upgrading, mining law and forest management, including also surveying and plan drawing up. Regarding its administration, the Academy was subject to the Main Chamber-Count Office in Banská Štiavnica and the main chamber count was the director of the Academy at the same time. Principle questions (appointment of  professors and employees, accepting students, allotment of  finances and scholarships, changes in study programmes, and others) were decided by the Chamber Court in Vienna (Urgela, 1985). Along with the establishment of the third department, Maria Theresa approved a proposal to buy Belházy House in Štiavnica for the needs of the Academy. She also agreed to the proposal relating to a new system for the Academy by the mining counsellor Bartolomej Gersdorf and approved an assistant for the mining surveyor with the salary of 450 florins obliged to teach art of drawing to mining academicians. On 11th August 1770, Krištof Traugot Delius, the then assessor at the Mining Headquarters in Banat, was appointed as mining counsellor and professor of mining sciences and mining law in Banská Štiavnica. Thus, the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica was, in fact, built up. Other following changes were only an improvement of what had already existed (Vozár, 2006). With its developed mining industry, secondary and higher mining schools, Banská Štiavnica became one of the best-

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known centres for education of mining experts in Europe. An interest in study at the renowned Mining Academy was great – especially until the half of the 19th century students from various corners of the world were coming to Banská Štiavnica to learn the art of mining. For more than 150 years, the Mining Academy was a source of pride for the “silver town“ below Sitno which during centuries gave off the silver metal from its bowels and attracted members of the royal court, tens of walburgers and private miners in their desire for profits. They were coming from various corners of the world to Banská Štiavnica to convince themselves with their own eyes of richness and sophisticated technology helping miners to extract and mine ores from the bowels of the earth. The curiosity rose even more when the first technical university in the world for education of academically trained mining experts was established here and its professors with their technical discoveries and voluminous professional literature documented the high level of the Slovak mining


Historical Roots

and the development of all scientific disciplines which they lectured at this school. Within the course of its 155-year existence (1763–1918), the Mining Academy went gradually through further reorganization. Curricula as well as contents of lectures and laboratory exercises were changed. A significant contribution to the development of chemistry, forestry, metallurgy, and mining sciences were undoubtedly also many, often unique, inventions by professors at the Mining and Forestry Academy as well as the tens of inventions by mining technicians and engineers from mining and metallurgical operations who obtained their professional qualifications just at this outstanding school. We are obliged to them for introducing the new mining and technological, upgrading and metallurgical equipment in operations. It was also a broad array of professors of the Academy participating in improving the existing technologies and equipment for ore transport, ventilating the mining works, mine water pumping, ore treatment, and others. The range of topics and problems the professors of the Academy dealt with is very huge. It covers mathematics, physics, mechanics, electrotechnics, chemistry, forestry, and other fields. They were such experts as chemists – Mikuláš Jozef Jacquin, Anton Ruprecht, and Alojz Wehrle, a mining expert – Krištof Traugot Delius, physicists – Jozef Schittko, Ján Adriany, Gustáv Faller, Anton Péch, Ferdinand Helwig, and Eugen Broszmann, an expert in metallurgy – Anton Kerpely, a mining geologist – Ľudovít Cseh, the accumulator inventors – Štefan Farbaky and Štefan Schenek, and many others. At the Academy worked also many excellent mining surveyors – inventors and constructors of mining surveying apparatuses and tools, and the authors of the first textbooks on mining surveying, such as Ján Mőhling, Ján Nepomuk Lang von Hanstadt, Ján Adriany, Otto Czéti, and Július Szentistványi (Herčko, 2006). The name of any professor at the Mining and Forestry

Academy was connected with a technical novelty, new construction of a mining machine, apparatus or equipment, or technology of mining, upgrading and metallurgical work. Implementing their ideas, designs or inventions was thus all round. The Mining Academy had an international character and a European and even worldwide importance. It was a workplace of world-known scientists and specialists in the sphere of mining, metallurgy, mineralogy, chemistry, forestry but also other natural and exact sciences. The Academy in Banská Štiavnica, which was in the town until 1919, is inseparably connected with many significant European and worldwide primacies in science and technology. Mikuláš Jozef Jacquin (16th February 1727 in Leyden, the Netherlands – 26th October 1817 in Vienna), the first professor of the Mining Academy, belonged to the most significant chemists and botanists in Europe. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences in Petrohrad, Uppsala and Stockholm, a member of the Paris and Basel Doctor’s Societies. Jacquin was extraordinarily greatly respected also by the then most significant world chemist Antoine Laurente Lavoisier, the French scientist and the founder of modern chemistry. He declared the Jacquin’s work as a “dissertation introducing the experimental method”. Sequentially, the second professor of this school was Mikuláš Poda (4th October 1723 in Vienna –29th April 1798 in Vienna). He was also a scientist of a European importance. Before coming to Štiavnica, he had been an administrator at the observatory in Graz. His three textbooks describing mining water pumping and upgrading equipment used in Banská Štiavnica ore area and published in 1770 –1773 were the first university textbooks on mining engineering in the world. An outstanding scientist was also Jacquin’s successor, Giovannini Antonio Scopoli (3rd June 1723 Cavalese, Italy

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– 8th May 1788 Padova, Italy). He was a medicine graduate from the University in Innsbruck. During his work in Banská Štiavnica (1769–1779), he published 14 books, among which especially those of botany were of a European importance (Novák, 2006). Krištof Traugot Delius (1728 Wallhausen, Germany –21st January1779 Florence, Italy) was also a scientist on a European level. He was the first professor of the Academy and at the same time the head of the Department of Mining in the years 1770–1772. He finished the law study at the University in Wittenburg and then also Mikovíni’s Mining School in Banská Štiavnica. Many students from abroad, even graduates from many renowned European universities, were coming to the Academy especially because of the high level of his lectures on mining economy, organization and administration. In 1773, he published in Vienna the world-known university textbook on mining “Einleitung zu der Bergbaukunst”, the unsurpassable work in the world for many years. In 1778, this textbook was published in the French language in Paris and its second edition was published even in the German language in 1806. This work was not only a classic textbook on mining. It also included the detailed principles for construction of the earth embankments of water reservoirs according to the generalization of the practice in construction of these reservoirs of that time. They were called tajchy in the surroundings of Banská Štiavnica. Until 1855, technically the most courageously solved earth embankment of the water reservoir in the world was Rozgrund near Banská Štiavnica. Only in 1855, it was overcome by the French dam Meuraud in its technical courage and effectiveness. When building it, they still were following the principles described by Delius in his work. In 1779–1791, Anton Ruprecht (14th November 1748 in Smolnická Huta – maybe 6th October 1814 in Vienna),

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an outstanding chemist and mineralogist of a European importance, was a professor at the Academy in Banská Štiavnica. In 1782–1785, Ruprecht was intensively engaged in the problem of tellurium production along with its later discoverer František Muller. For his experiments, he equipped the laboratory with the latest equipment in Europe. Building up this laboratory drew an extraordinary admiration of the whole European scientific public. When smelting, Ruprecht was probably using pre-heated air and a mixture of air and oxygen. During his experiments, he even succeeded in getting barium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, manganium, and volfram. However, he did not manage yet to find out what was left in the testing pots after the experiments. As Ruprecht’s chemical laboratory was equipped with the most modern equipment in the whole Europe of that period, the experiments in it were carried out by Ruprecht along with the most renowned European chemists and physicists – Savaresi, Lippi, Tondi, Melogrami, and others. After Ruprecht’s leaving the Academy, the chemical laboratory kept its number one European priority also at the time of his successor Michal Patzier, the author of the 4-volume “Introduction to Metallurgical Chemistry” (Novák, 2006). At that time, there already were unique democratic principles at the Academy. Everybody had the access to school regardless of their nationality, citizenship, political or religious persuasion. Despite the orders of the Chamber Court in Vienna relating to strict holding the newest knowledge and inventions back, in practice, there were no obstacles for expanding the most progressive knowledge of extraordinarily developed science from Banská Štiavnica to the European and even world mining centres. It could be happening due to cosmopolitan views of professors from the Academy in Banská Štiavnica. In 1786, Ignác Anton Born (26th December 1742 in Alba


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Júlia, Romania – 24th July 1791 in Vienna), the significant European cosmopolitan scientist, geologist, mineralogist, mining and metallurgy expert, built the amalgamation smelting works in co-operation with Ruprecht and Haidinger in Sklené Teplice. It was the first one in the world. In front of the most significant scientists from Europe and even from Mexico, I. A. Born introduced his so-called Born amalgamation method or the European amalgamation, a new effective method for getting gold and silver out of poorer ores. This gathering of the public is considered as the first international scientific congress in the world. Its members decided at once to publish the first international scientific journal in the world “Bergbaukunde” (Mining). Its 1st issue was published in 1789. By the year 1789, up to 147 most significant personalities not only from Europe but also from America had applied for the membership of this society. Among them was Antoine Laurente Lavoisier, but also James Watt – the world-famous English inventor of the two-stroke steam engine. Even Johan Wolfgang Goethe became an honorary member (Novák, 2006). In 1795, a polytechnic institute was being established in Paris, France. It is considered as the first one of its kind in the world. However, when establishing it, they used the Academy in Banská Štiavnica as a model. In its teaching programme, the newly established school in Paris took over mainly laboratory teaching of chemistry which was on the world level at the Mining Academy at the time.

URGELA, J.: Dejiny lesníckeho školstva a vedy na Slovensku. Osveta Martin 1985. VOZÁR, J.: Založenie Baníckej akadémie v Banskej Štiavnici. In: Alma mater Banská Štiavnica. Európsky význam Baníckej a lesníckej akadémie v Banskej Štiavnici. Zborník vydaný pri príležitosti otvorenia rovnomennej medzinárodnej výstavy v Banskej Štiavnici 7. 9. 2006. http://www.institutdugrenat.com/2012/03/martin-van-meytens-marietherese-dautriche-1752-1753/ http://etc.usf.edu http://herbarium.biol.sc.edu

References BARTÁK, J.: Vývin lesníckeho školstva na Slovensku v rámci lesohospodárskych pomerov. Vydala Lesnícka a drevárska ústredňa v Bratislave 1942. HERČKO, I.: Stručný prierez dejín Baníckej a lesníckej akadémie v Banskej Štiavnici, Slovenské banské múzeum, 2006, s. 53–92. NOVÁK, J.: Európsky význam Baníckej a lesníckej akadémie v Banskej Štiavnici, 2006, s. 105–114.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Development of the Forestry School System — from Banská Štiavnica to Zvolen From the viewpoint of the history of technical education, the introduction of general forestry subjects into the curriculum at the Mining Academy already in 1770 was a significant deed. However, it did not meet with success. The academy graduates worked in their main field – in mining. The executive personnel were gaining only practical experience in individual study conditions, predominantly of a hunting character. In such a political and forest management situation, they appointed Fantišek Wisner from Morgenstern as chamber prefect of the Hrádok-Likava dominium. In 1796, he initiated the establishment of the Forestry School in Liptovský Hrádok. The establishment of the Forestry School was only an intermediate stage to fill in a gap in the education of qualified personnel – gamekeepers and forest guards. However, it was not sufficient for education of forest management experts capable of meeting the increasing need for wood production concerning needs of industries, mainly of mines and smelting works. The next attempts at making forestry study independent resulted in that vocational forestry schools started to be

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established and in 1807, the independent Forestry Institue (Forst-Institut) was establihed at the Mining Academy in Banská Štiavnica. The need for the specialized forestry school system was not felt only by the countries of Central Europe with the developed mining, mainly of non-ferrous ores, but also by the countries with the developed navy. Therefore, it was not a coincidence that on the basis of the decree of Tsar Alexander I already in 1803, they started teaching forestry at the established Practical Forestry School in Tsarskoe Selo (near St. Petersburg). It was moved to the imperial capital in 1811 and renamed as St. Petersburg Forestry Institute. In the Russian Empire, the need for quality wood raw material in shipbuilding was considered as decisive for equipment ofboth merchant navy and mainly war fleet. By comparison with other countries, it is necessary to say that they started establishing university forestry study later (Mariabrunn 1813, Tharandt 1816, Nancy 1824, Eberswalde 1830, Lvov 1874, etc.). The task to manage the Forestry Institute was assigned to Dr. Henrik Dávid Wilckens, who became the first university professor of theoretical teaching forestry in our country. The opening ceremony of the Forestry Institute was held on 12th February 1809. H. D. Wilckens was a German expert. After having studied medicine in Helmstedt, he graduated from the


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Faculty of Mathematics at the University in Göttingen and he also attended lectures at the Mining Academy in Freiberg. Before he started lecturing, he had studied thoroughly forest conditions in Austria-Hungary, he made several study trips (also to the forests in the surroundings of Žarnovica and Banská Bystrica among others), and on the basis of the obtained knowledge, he developed the curriculum. He planned out forestry study for two years at first and from 1811, for three years. The first Prof. Wilckens’ curriculum included general subjects, specialist forestry and law disciplines. The general subjects included mathematics, forestry mapping, mechanics, structural engineering, forestry natural history within which were lectured mi­neralogy, botany and zoology, and also physics, forestry research into the environment, wood technology, and hunting. The specialist forestry subjects covered silviculture, forest harvesting, and forest management. Within forest harvesting were also taught wood and bedding utilization, fishing, beekeeping and gamekeeping. Forest management included forest mensuration, forest management itself (chamber forestry principles), and forest valuation. Forestry law studies consisted of general law studies of forest-police principles and  forestry law. Besides theoretical education, Professor Wilckens also laid a great emphasis on practical education. He introduced, therefore, practicals in the forests surrounding Sklené Teplice and Repište. A result of the practicals and forestry experiments have been some stands which, also nowadays, remind of the high level of forest management concerning not only our wood species, but also introduced ones (Weymouth pine, limba, larch). In the Slovak Central Mining Archive in Banská Štiavnica, there is found the mensurational description from that period elaborated for the forest districts of Sklené Teplice

and Repište which were a regular school area from 1816. Here Wilckens mentions the principles which had to be followed when working out mensurational descriptions and he also describes in detail the ways how to do particular works and calculations. He does not limit himself only to the instructions, but he also analyses a situation of forest management of that period and he shows reasons for newly suggested procedures. Thus, “Všeobecná a podrobná úprava pre okres sklenoteplický a repištský” (The General and Detailed Forest Management for the Districts of Sklené Teplice and Repište) becomes the first forest management plan and elaborated technological procedures which could be applied by school-leavers from Banská Štiavnica in practice. Owing to this forest management plan, Wilckens ranks as one of pioneers in the area-volume method. His views, working procedures and details of the forest management plan had been applied, in principle, in forest management and in operation itself by the end of the last century. In 1835, Rudolf Feistmantel, an Austrian forest engineer, became Wilckens’ successor. This outstanding expert continued in principles of his predecessor and in 1842, he achieved the equality of graduates from Banská Štiavnica with graduates from the Austrian Forest Institute in Mariabrunn, where a higher three-year institute was established in 1813. Moreover, he endeavoured to get the school forest district of Kysihýbeľ and established the collection of wood species which has been called Feistmantel garden till today. The development continued by the establishment of the Mining and Forestry Academy in 1846 and its reorganization into the Mining and Forestry University in 1904. A remarkable feature of this university was that not only students from the former Austria – Hungary (that is also Czechs and Slovaks) studied there, but also students from Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Turkey, Italy, Prussia, Saxony, and Japan.

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At the Academy and University in Banská Štiavnica worked many excellent foresters and researchers. Apart from H. D. Wilckens and R. Feistmantel, especially K. Wagner, L. Fekete, E. Vadas, G. Muzsnay, and A. Guttenberg. They not only educated the generations of good forestry experts, but they have left a valuable wealth of specialist literature. The history of forestry research deserves a special attention. In our country, its pioneers were professors of the Academy in Banská Štiavnica, but also some outstanding forest managers – Jozef Dekrét Matejovie (1774–1841), Ľudovít Greiner (1796–1882), and William Rowland (1814–1888). A main driving force of forestry research in Hungary was the Academy. The first proposal for the establishment of a forestry research institute in Banská Štiavnica was worked out by Ľudovít Fekete already in 1874. He submitted it at the annual meeting of the forestry association “Uhorský krajinský lesnícky spolok”. Despite a positive response, it was not carried out because of financial and personnel reasons. In 1892, after finishing the new building of the Forestry Academy, where a place for research purposes was also reserved, there were more real chances to establish a forestry research workplace. A pioneer in the organized forestry research was Professor Eugen Vadas (1857–1922), by his original name Vlkolinský. At the Academy, he lectured on botany, zoology, silviculture, forest protection, and other subjects. In 1893, E. Vadas made study trips to Germany, Switzerland and Austria for the purpose of getting to know the local forestry research organizations better. In 1897, Eugen Vadas founded the Central Research Station in Banská Štiavnica as the first forestry research institute in the Hungarian Kingdom. On 31st July 1897, L. Barányi, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, issued the decree establishing the Hungarian Royal Forestry Research Station with effect from 1st January 1898. The establishment of the central station

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required a link to four forestry schools (in Liptovský Hrádok, Vadászerdő, Görgényszentimre, and Királyhalom) Eugen Vadas became the first head of the central station and Rudolf Benko became the head of the outside station in Liptovský Hrádok. In 1900, they established the Forestry Arboretum Kysihýbeľ at the Central Forestry Research Station. By the decree no. 91928/A/2 905, the Central Forestry Research Station was separated from the Mining and Forestry Academy on 6th September 1906. The policy plan of the research station was especially aimed at solving biological questions of forest management. At the beginning, it was mainly a series of research areas established by Professor Roth in 1905 – the research areas for study of thinnings (Likavka and Kysihýbeľ) and provenance areas of larch and pine (Likavka and Malacky) as well as research areas oriented to management of spruce, oak and fir stands established in Žarnovica, Banská Bystrica, and Marmaros. The research of that period was also aimed at the


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introduction of exotic wood species. To assess a possibility for the introduction of wood species, J. Tuzson established the forestry arboretum with 283 wood species in Kysihýbel in 1900. After all, it is also necessary to mention a edition of the classic work “Verbreitung der forstlich wichtigen Bäume im Ungarischen Staate“by the authors L. Fekete and T. Blattny. The 2-volume work was published in the Hungarian and German languages in 1914. E. Vadas published a pioneer work aimed at locust utilization in forest management “Die Monographie der Robinie und mit besonderer Rücksicht auf ihre forstwirtschaftliche Bedeutung“ (Banská Štiavnica 1914). After finishing the World War One and the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, temporary management of the areas belonging to the Central Research Station was assigned to the newly established State Forestry College. In 1922, the State Forestry Research Institutes were formally constituted in Banská Štiavnica. In the areas of the Experimental Forestry Station in Kysihýbeľ, the Institute for Silviculture and Forest Biology started working. The Institute had been professionally subordinated to the Institute for Silviculture and Forest Biology in Brno until 1936, administratively to the director of the Forestry School in Banská Štiavnica. The research of that period was focused on solving problems of the exotic wood species acclimatization. Prof. B. Polanský, the superintendent of the Institute for Silviculture and Forest Biology in 1936, dedicated himself to the questions of selection forests, natural forest regeneration and tending felling in oak woods. In 1924, was formed the Institute for Wood Harvesting and Technology. Due to insufficient highly qualified staffing and apparatuses equipment, its activity was fully developed only after coming Prof. R. Ille in 1929, when the apparatus equipment was moved from Prague to Banská Štiavnica. A full attention was paid to research into beech wood. They studied its false heart, causes of its rise, its

impact on penetration of impregnating agents, impregnation and fire wood treatment, questions of harvesting, mechanical processing and beech wood utilization. Activities of both the institutes continued in Banská Štiavnica until 1964, when the Institute was relocated to Zvolen and only one of six research stations remained working in Banská Štiavnica. Professors of the Mining and Forestry Academy, especially J. von Scholtz and E. Vadas, stood at the start of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO), though Prof. Vadas did not attend personally the founding congress held in Mariabrunn and going on in Eberswalde. Regardless of this fact, the Academy in Banská Štiavnica, substituting also a professional forestry research institute at the time of establishing the IUFRO, is rightly considered as a founder member of the IUFRO along with the research institutes in Mariabrunn, Eberswalde and Zürich. E. Vadas was elected as president of this international organization at the 6th IUFRO congress. After 1910, they started preparations for the 7th IUFRO congress which was planned to be in Budapest on 7th –17th September 1914. Within the preparations, they expected to arrange an excursion to Slovakia, to the region of Banská Štiavnica. A memory of this event is retained in a book form of three excursion guidebooks. Unfortunately, the planned IUFRO congress was not held in the Hungarian Kingdom for the reason of breaking out the WWI. After the disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918 and after moving the Mining and Forestry University from Banská Štiavnica to Budapest at first and to Sopron later on, forestry university study in Slovakia was temporarily finished. Simultaneously with the disintegration of the AustroHungarian Monarchy and the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic, the question of the Mining and Forestry University in Banská Štiavnica was also being

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solved. A result of the negotiations was an official take-over of the school by the representatives of the Czechoslovak government on 8th January 1919 and the refusal of the Hungarian professors to take an oath of loyalty to the Czechoslovak Republic. Under these circumstances, the university closed down and in Banská Štiavnica was established the Czechoslovak College of Forestry and later on also the College of Chemistry. Slovakia remained without a forestry university for a long period. The situation concerning the establishment of higher forestry education in the new republic had developed in such a way that they opened the forestry department at the agricultural section of the Czech Technical University in Prague already on 10th March 1919. Another city where forestry could be studied was Brno. The National Assembly approved the establishment of the independent state University of Agriculture in Brno under the law no. 460 Coll. of 21st July 1919. We know that the Slovaks did not agree on the cancellation of the Mining and Forestry University. The placement of the school in Slovakia, which along with Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia had a considerable forest acreage, would surely help the development of forest management much more than it was by means of two remote forestry faculties in Prague and Brno. The question of university forestry study was topical for the overall duration of the first Czechoslovak Republic. The officials of the Czech Technical University in Prague, mainly professors at the forestry department, opposed the law on the establishment of the University of Agriculture with the Forestry Department in Brno and they did not allow to move the University of Forestry from Prague to Brno despite the explicit decision of the government. There was a steep scramble for whether there should be one university or two. This scramble was run very persistently by the forestry commission at the Czech Technical University (ČVÚT)

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in Prague. Resolving the disputes between the representatives of the two groups, for one or for two universities of forestry, had not been successful until 1938. The scramble was more and more intensifying and then attempts at establishing four universities of forestry appeared. Only the German one was established in Děčín (Tetschen)-Lebverde in 1938. The Slovak University of Forestry in Košice, planned as a faculty according to the draft law No. 170 Coll. of 25th June 1937 on the establishment of the Technical University in Košice, however, was not established. All the period of the first republic is characteristic of efforts of the Slovak political representatives to establish a technical university in Slovakia. On the basis of the Cabinet decision, Vavro Šrobár delegated Michal Ursíny, the professor at the Czech Technical University in Brno, to create organizational conditions. M. Ursíny worked out the draft law and rightful report and in January 1920, he submitted them to V. Šrobár and the Club of the Slovak deputies. In 1928, the second draft law on the establishment of the Technical University in Košice was elaborated. Although the ministers of education during the first Czechoslovak Republic were Slovaks: V. Šrobár I. Markovič, M. Hodža, A. Štefánek, and I. Dérer, neither of the laws was approved by the Parliament. University students also joined the political struggle for the establishment of the Slovak technical university. In particular, the Union of the Slovak Students organized several rallies already in 1930. “Matica slovenská” (Slovakia's public-law cultural and scientific institution) also organized numerous rallies. Finally, on 8th June 1937, the government passed the law no. 170/1937 Coll. on establishing the Technical University of M. R. Štefánik in Košice. The Technical University in Košice only started to be constituted when the Vienna Arbitration came into force and Slovakia lost Košice. The University moved to Prešov and Turčiansky Sv. Martin. A higher viewpoint and interests in the Slovak


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higher education requested to place the technical university in Bratislava. It happened after enacting the law No.188 Coll. of 25th July 1939 on the Slovak Technical University. The Slovak Parliament decided about this on the basis of the draft law by Jozef Sivák, the Minister of Education and National Culture. According to the government directive no. 236 of 20th September 1939, the Department of Forestry and Agricultural Engineering was constituted at the Slovak Technical University. The Department of Forestry started working at once. Teaching was provided by the following institutes and their heads: the Institute of Mechanical and Chemical Wood Technology – Ing. Dr. Vojtech Hollý, the Institute of Silviculture – regular Prof. Ing. Samuel Kriška, the Institute of Forest Protection – Ing. Štefan Kapsa, the Institute of Forest Establishment – Ing. Vojtech Illenčík, and the Institute of Forestry Construction and Hauling Machinery – Prof. Ing. Róbert Binder. Economic problems were part of work of the Station for National Economy ran by JUDr. Rudolf Briška. Lecturers were regular professors: RNDr. Dmitrij Andrusov for geology and petrography; Ing. Dr. Techn. Anton Bugan for the rudiments of technical mechanics; PhDr. Juraj Hronec for the rudiments of higher mathematics; Ing. Samuel Kriška for silviculture and forest aesthetics, and for the forest habitat study. Associate professors: JUDr. Rudolf Briška for national economy and the science of finances, economic policy and taxation, rudiments of public law; Ing. Dr. Techn. Peter Danišovič for torrent control; Ing. Dr. Techn. Vojtech Hollý for the introduction to the study of forestry, mechanical wood technology, and forestry research; Ing. Ján Mikuša for the introduction to land cadastre and bridge building; Ing. Viliam Illenčík for forest establishment and forest statics and forest plan drawing, forest valuation and rate of return; Ing. Koloman Kosljar for forest harvesting, forestry

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accountancy, and the study of forestry trade. Other teachers were supply teachers and remunerated associate professors. Study at the Department of Forestry took four years. Accepted were secondary grammar school-leavers, in small number also secondary forestry school-leavers. When developing the study plan for the Department of Forestry, they used as a starting point the curricula of the forestry department of the former university in Banská Štiavnica and the curricula of forestry departments of the Czech universities. Shorter practicals in forest management were organized in the Small-Carpathian forests, longer holiday practicals in the areas belonging to the directorships of the State Forests in Žarnovica and in Banská Bystrica. From its beginning, the rector position at the Slovak Technical University was held by the following professors: Hronec, Bugan, Valentín, Bella, and also Prof. Kriška for several months. The position of the dean of the ForestryAgricultural Department was held by Professor Hollý and later on by Professor Kriška. During seven years, the study of forestry engineering was successfully completed by 114 students (six of them were from Bulgaria). Although it was only 16 graduates a year, the fact remains that university forestry study was renewed and forestry obtained young specialists. In Slovakia, the year 1945 was under the sign of joy concerning the end of WWII and the victory over fascism. People were overwhelmed by enthusiasm to renew what the war had destroyed, to build modern industry, to improve conditions in underdeveloped agriculture. Generally, this period in our country is called the period of industrialization, agricultural collectivization, and the national and democratic revolution. In the sphere of education, it was also necessary to draw level with what was not managed in the last decades. Other research workplaces and schools were being established. There was an interest in resolving differences


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between individual regions. Especially the region of eastern Slovakia lagged behind in more spheres. The Slovak National Council decided on the placement of the University of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering (VŠPLI) in Košice by the decree No. 48 of 25th April 1946. The school started in the autumn 1946. Study took four years and had, in the main, such syllabi as they were at the Slovak Technical University (SVŠT) and at the Czech universities. Forestry and related sciences were lectured by above-mentioned Prof. Ing. Samuel Kriška, and professors: Ing. Róbert Binder (1897–1980), Ing. Dr. František Papánek (1912–1996), RNDr. Ján Martin Novacký (1899–1956), Ing. Ľudovít Minich (1908–1981), Ing. Dr. Alexander Knapo (1912–1981) and several supply teachers and remunerated associate professors. More teachers taught at both the departments. A special contribution mainly to the interlinking of the university and practice was made by Prof. Papánek, who was simultaneously a professor at the VŠPLI in Košice and also the Managing Director of the State Forests in Bratislava in 1948–1950. In the autumn 1950, Professor Papánek was appointed by the President of the Republic as the Rector of the University of Agriculture and Forestry Engineering in Košice for two years. In the postwar years of intensive building, there was an increasing need for university experts in the sphere of wood-processing. During the period of forestry study in Bratislava was already established the Institute of Mechanical Wood Technology. It was a pioneer deed representing a new quality in the university teaching of wood sciences and technology. Thus, forestry study became the first step to a wood-processing and chemical or chemical and technological department. It was a situation leading to the establishment of a new type of university study – woodworking engineering. The leading experts endeavouring most in this sphere were: Ladislav Dérer, Víťazoslav Sprock,

František Papánek, Róbert Binder, Imrich Janota, Rudolf Jandel, and others. In 1949, they established the Department of Wood Sciences and Technology with the four-year study programme at the Forestry Department of the VŠPLI. This department became the basis for the establishment of the Faculty of Wood Science and Technologies in Zvolen in 1952. Forestry study in Košice lasted six years (1946–1952) and prepared 339 graduates, on average 56 students per year. In the summer 1952, the Faculty of Forestry with the Department of Wood Science and Technologies started to be moved from Košice to Zvolen. By the governmental resolution of 8th July 1952, the University of Forestry and Wood Science and Technologies in Zvolen was established. At the same time the Faculty of Agriculture was moved from Košice to Nitra. Thus, a new period started in the history of agricultural and forestry university study in Slovakia. References HERPAY, I.: Mindnyájan voltunk egyszer az Akadémián. Sopron 1919–1969. Erdészeti és Faipari Egyetem, Sopron, 1970, 331 p. PAPÁNEK, F.: Šesť kníh môjho života. Fedor Papánek, vlastný náklad, 2012, 430 s. PRIESOL, A.: Vysoká škola lesnícka a drevárska vo Zvolene 1807–1952–1982. Vysoká škola lesnícka a drevárska, Zvolen, 1987, 184 s. REMIŠ, J., PAULE, L.: Beitrag zur Entwicklungsgeschichte von IUFRO und unser Anteil an ihrer Aktivisation. 1992, Lesnícky časopis – Forestry Jurnal 38(4): 289–292. URGELA, J.: História lesníckeho a drevárskeho vysokého školstva na Slovensku. In: Technická univerzita vo Zvolene 1807–1952–1997 (J. Urgela, ed.). Technická univerzita, Zvolen, 1997, 197 s. ZDYCHA, P.: Počiatky technického vysokoškolského štúdia, vznik a vývoj lesníckeho a drevárskeho vysokého školstva na Slovensku. In: Technická univerzita vo Zvolene 2002. (P. Zdycha, ed.). Technická univerzita, Zvolen, 2002, 220 s. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_historic_schools_of_forestry http://etc.usf.edu http://gallery.hd.org

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Zvolen Period — from 1952 to the Present The rapid development of almost all areas of economy laid higher and higher demands on supply of young professionally well-prepared labour. At the same time, there was also an attempt of the government to reduce the economic and cultural inequality in the development of individual regions of Slovakia. I could be also significantly helped by a more even placement of universities in our territory. These and other not mentioned reasons made the government of the Czechoslovak Republic approve the resolution no. 30/52 on the basis of which the University of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering in Košice was dissolved and two separate universities were formed from its two faculties: the University of Agriculture placed in Nitra and the University of Forestry and Wood Technology placed in Zvolen. The decision to place the University of Forestry and Wood Technology (VŠLD) in Zvolen was motivated by the good communications network and an advantageous location of the town lying in the middle of forested regions of Slovakia. The location was also favourable for a faculty of wood technology as there were wood-working plants in the town itself as well as in its vicinity (Bučina Zvolen, Smrečina

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Banská Bystrica, and Preglejka Žarnovica). The local authorities were a great help in every possible way and they were showing all-round readiness to help with establishing the new university. With its population of around 20,000 at that time, Zvolen became the university town with a significant forestry and wood technology community. The Faculty of Wood Technology had an all-state competence. Moving and establishing the university was not managed without difficulties. The university had very poor facilities. For example, if we compare the value of finances and facilities for teaching and research available in Košice and initially in Zvolen, it was approximately in the ratio of three to one. When moving to Zvolen, not only material conditions of the school were aggravated, but also personnel ones. More teachers, namely those of basic theoretical disciplines, stayed behind in Košice or they left for the University of Agriculture in Nitra. Their positions were replaced by young graduates from the forestry and wood technology study who started at the University as assistants and later on, they worked their way to top experts in many scientific disciplines. The academic year 1952–1953 was starting in emergency conditions. Accommodation for students was in a provisional arrangement. The classes were taught in the building of the former “gymnázium”(secondary grammar school) in T. G. Masaryk Street. It is necessary to mention that all


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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

personnel of the school, employees and students worked devotedly to build a provisional residence for students, to finish a boarding house for teachers and also a building for the rector’s offices in Ľ. Štúr Street, initially planned for purposes of the municipal authorities. With the lapse of time, it is especially necessary to appreciate efforts of the university team of that time, the devotion of students, employees and functionaries of the university who were able to build, work, teach and learn under those difficult conditions. The first rector of the VŠLD was Prof. František Papánek (1952–1955), the first dean of the Faculty of Forestry was Assoc. Prof. Ing. Pavel Višňovský (1952–1955), and the first dean of the Faculty of Wood Technology was Assoc. Prof. Ing. Víťazoslav Sprock (1952–1955). In the academic year 1952/1953, the first year of the VŠLD in Zvolen, the Faculty of Forestry had four departments, the Faculty of Wood Technology had three departments and at the rector’s office, there were four common departments. At that time, the University had altogether 54 pedagogical staff, including 3 professors, 6 associate professors, 45 assistant professors, 67 other economic and technical staff, 37 employees in the hall of residence and canteen. In that year, both the faculties were attended by 486 students. Professional training for foresters was given in the Forest District of Kyslinky with an area of 2,958 ha. The Faculty of Wood Technology ran its operational and technological practices directly in the wood-working plants. Modest material conditions available during the first years of the University in Zvolen were gradually improved. By the decree of the Authorized Commission for Education, Sciences and Art in Bratislava of 18th December 1952, the State Study Library was established in Zvolen. With regard to complicated commuting to Kyslinky by the small railway and problems concerning accommodation

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during the professional training and doing research, in 1958 was formed the Faculty Forest Farm with an area of 5,375 ha. It was close to the town on the south-eastern slopes of the Kremnické vrchy Mountains in the vicinity of Sliač. In 1969, it was changed into the School Forest Plant with an area of 7,746 ha and later on, in 1969, into the School Forest Enterprise which was managing 8,018 ha of forest land in 1981. In the last period, since the year 2002, it has been called the University Forest Enterprise (ŠLP) and it manages 9,942 ha of forest land. The Student Residence of Ľudovít Štúr with the sleeping capacity for 600 and a lodging house were built in the years 1958–1962. The fourth pavilion of the Student Residence served as the basic building of the Faculty of Wood Technology of the VŠLD until 1983. The building of the gym at the Faculty of Forestry was built in 1969. Insufficient accommodation possibilities for students were improved by building a provisional student


Historical Roots

boarding house in the yard of the Student Residence in 1970. Significant for all the University were the Developmental Workshops and Laboratories which came into use in 1972. The Institute of Computer Technology was also placed in their premises. With its equipment, it has undergone considerable changes from large computers to computer network with the interlinking of all workplaces and actually of all employees of the Technical University. The premises of the ŠLP were also improved. In 1988, the head office of the ŠLP was moved in the new building in Študentská Street. The modern Student Residence of the VŠLD in the town neighbourhood of Záhonok was put into operation in 1988. In 1977, the foundation stone of the new main building of the VŠLD was laid. The building was finished in 1983, when the Faculty of Forestry moved in. Teaching in the new premises started in the autumn 1984. The question of student’s accommodation was solved by building the new modern Student Residence in Bariny in the years 1990–1993. The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences established with effect from 1st October 1991 was partially placed in the main building as well as in the building of the former rector’s office in its first years. Later on, it obtained teaching premises at the Vocational Forestry Apprentice School in Banská Štiavnica and moved there in the years 2000–2001. In 1996, the Technical University obtained a building for the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology in Študentská Street. Teaching-learning orientation of the University was specified by a required profile of a graduate from each faculty. The profile was formed by means of curricula, the composition of individual disciplines, their contents, range and sequence. With regard to a versatility of the forest and wood-working engineer when getting to practice, the curricula included general engineering subjects and biology,

chemistry, technological and economic subjects as well as social sciences. With the development of the scientific disciplines, the subjects started to be differentiated and this resulted in changes in curricula. A common feature in the curricula of forestry and wood-working studies was an effort to educate forest and wood-working engineers with a general profile, able to manage all aspects of forestry practices and operations in woodworking plants and specialized services. New subjects were added at both the faculties year by year. They were new scientific disciplines such as forestry phytocenology and typology, amelioration, landscaping, genetics and forest tree breeding, ergonomics, sociology, biocybernetics, mathematical methods in forest and woodworking plants, forest protection, problems of die-back of forest stands. Topical were problems of complex biomass utilization and needed mechanization. Study at the Faculty of Wood Technology was focused on an appropriate application of mathematical-physical and technical sciences in individual engineering branches of study. The aim of such oriented study was to educate experts for constantly changing demands of the labour market. The pedagogical profiling of the VŠLD came out of the profile of a graduate with broader theoretical rudiments which were followed by the specialized postgradual study after the 3–5-year practice. At the Faculty of Forestry, the one-branch study of “forest engineering” was kept and at the Faculty of Wood Technology, there were two branches of study – wood technology and economics of managing woodworking industry. The latter one was divided into two specializations: technology and manufacture machinery. The length of study was various in individual periods, from 8–12 semesters. Postgradual study at the Faculty of Forestry was organized in the specializations: economics of forest management,

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

forest management, machinery and manufacture process technology, forest engineering, silviculture, landscape conservation and formation. Completing the postgradual study taking 4 semesters was tied down with the systemizing order of the Ministry of Forest and Water Management and it was organized according to the requirements of the industry. At the Faculty of Wood Technology, the postgradual study was running in the following specializations: the systems management of manufacture processes in woodworking industry, hydrothermal treatment and drying of wood, furniture production, production of musical instruments, quality features of raw material for primary wood processing. Completing the postgradual study was not compulsory and it was organized sporadically according to the needs of woodworking plants. The postgradual study was organized at the VŠLD from 1962. An important role in the job description of the university staff was played by research activities, which created a scientific profiling of the VŠLD. It formed a unity with the educational process. An important milestone was the establishment of research institutes at both the faculties on 1st August 1957. These institutes coordinated research programmes, cooperated closely with the departments and manufacturing practice. Research work at the VŠLD was directed to be an inseparable part of all the university activities and to accomplish its mission in three main spheres: performing research tasks for the needs of forestry and wood technology and social sciences, improving proper research work, a direct participation in introducing scientific and technological progress in practice of forest management and woodworking industry. In the years 1961–1990, basic research tasks were allstate coordinated and they were solved within the State Scheme of Basic Research. The University of Forestry and

44

Wood Technology was a coordinating workplace in many cases. Within research activity, the tasks of basic research were prevailing over faculty and industry tasks. In 1992, the research base had 226 employees, including 162 teachers and 64 researchers. Important was also the co-operation of the University with practice by means of its additional economic activity which, on the one hand, presented an expansion of applied part of research activities of university staff and, on the other hand, it was also a source of out-of-budgetary incomes of the University and thus also the improvement of its economic situation. Talented and hard-working students were engaged in research activities at individual departments. In many cases, it presented a preparation for their following scientific career. The results of the research activities were published in the Proceedings of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology being issued in the years 1957–1963. From 1964 they were published in separate scientific proceedings of both the faculties – the Proceedings of Scientific Works at the Faculty of Forestry of the VŠLD in Zvolen, later on Acta Facultatis Forestalis, Zvolen and the Proceedings of Scientific Works at the Faculty of Wood Technology of the VŠLD in Zvolen, later on Acta Facultatis Xylologiae, Zvolen – with summaries and contributions in foreign languages. The results of research activities were also published in the professional journals “Les a Drevo” (Forest and Wood), but also in the scientific journals “Lesnícky časopis” (Journal of Forestry) and “Lesnictví” (Forestry). Our teachers were authors or co-authors of university textbooks and university study texts. Increased publishing activity was directly proportional to qualification growth. There were more professors, associate professors, PhD candidates and doctors of sciences year by year. Leading university staff were becoming supervisors in the scientific preparation for home


45


Historical Roots

candidates as well as for those from other workplaces and from abroad, too. By the year 1997, 247 scientific degrees of CSc. and 20 of DrSc. had been awarded at the Faculty of Forestry, 229 CSc. and 10 DrSc. degrees had been awarded at the Faculty of Wood Technology, and 50 CSc. and 1 DrSc. in interdisciplinary specializations. At the University were held polythematic international scientific conferences, most often on the occasion of round anniversaries of forestry and wood technology education. The conferences were significant owing to the exchange of scientific information and promotion of the Slovak science. They were also an opportunity to make personal contacts. In 1957, the University of Forestry and Wood Technology became a member of the International Union of Forestry Research Organizations (IUFRO). From 1977, one section during the international scientific conferences was organized within the IUFRO structures. Moreover, several IUFRO symposiums with a greater international attendance were organized at the University. Due to its IUFRO membership, the VŠLD and later on the Technical University has brought itself to the attention in the international scientific area and altogether 8 researchers of the University (A. Priesol, Š. Šmelko, L. Paule, J. Réh, A. Osvald, R. Réh, and R. Kropil) acted in the positions of the IUFRO structure officials. They worked as chairmen and vice-chairmen of its working and professional groups and divisions. In the years 1996–2005, L. Paule acted as a member of the IUFRO Executive Board. In 1995, Prof. A. Priesol was given the Distinguish Service Award and in 2000, Prof. R. Kropil received the Outstanding Doctoral Research Award. Besides the involvement of the Technical University staff in IUFRO activities, the University became a member of the International Academy of Wood Science, a founder member of the movement for nature oriented forestry Pro Silva, the European Forestry Institute (EFI), and many other international organizations.

More teachers and researchers of the Technical University were awarded honorary doctorates abroad as an acknowledgement of their scientific and pedagogical contribution: Prof. J. Palovič (Dresden, 1984), Prof. A. Priesol (Poznan, 1989), Prof. Š. Korpeľ (Zürich, 1993), Prof. L. Miklós (Gödöllő, 2001), Prof. M. Babiak (Sopron, 2003), and Prof. E. Rónay (Sopron, 2005). Life of the University was influenced by significant nationwide events and processes. Such a process was socalled “political thaw” headed by Alexander Dubček which culminated in January 1968 and then in August when tender shoots of the “Prague spring” were burnt down by the “Moscow frost”. Enthusiasm to build “socialism with a human face”was replaced by fear for a bare existence. Political screening and vetting were carried out especially thoroughly at universities. Many teachers of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology were either entirely excluded from the pedagogical process or they were permanently shifted to less qualified positions and limited in their following qualification growth. Besides personal wrongs, in many cases it also signified a sensible loss of experts who could have been a contribution to the development of the University. In the educational process, an increasing emphasis was laid on political-educational work, on the communist education, political trainings etc. It could be also seen when accepting to the University. The class background belonged to priorities. Political shackle was counterbalanced especially for students by certain social advantages, such as cheap accommodation in student residences, cheap meals, reduction on fare, social and works scholarships, subsidized practices, and others. Building and investment activities were also intensified. Finishing building the VŠLD was being prepared from the end of the 1960’s. The choice of a building site was slow and

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

time-consuming: Baková jama, Stráže and finally, the place opposite the railway station. The project was elaborated by Ing. Arch. Vladimír Dědeček and the building was carried out in the years 1977–1983. By putting the new building into operation in September 1984, the conditions for teaching and research work were significantly improved. The political course of Husák’s KSČ (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia) leadership practised a continuity of cadres in personnel questions. In some leading positions, people stayed until the “gentle revolution” (November 1989). The 1989’s events created conditions for democratization of life on the academic grounds. The monopoly of one party came to an end, the personnel policy was changed. The socio-political changes and democratization of our society caused new conditions which, in a basic framework, were given by the new university law no. 172/1990 coming into force from 1st July 1990. In comparison with the past, this law provided universities with a considerably greater autonomy and authority to decide on their management and all their activities which were embodied in the statute of every university. At the VŠLD, changes were also carried out in the sphere of curricula – a comeback to the 5-year study and increase in quality of study as well as in the sphere of study organization and measurements to raise educational and professional level. The Academic Senate elected Assoc. Prof. Ing. Vilém Štefka, CSc. as rector of the VŠLD, Assoc. Prof. Ing. Štefan Žíhlavník, CSc. became the dean of the Faculty of Forestry, RNDr. Marián Babiak, CSc. became the dean of the Faculty of Wood Technology, and Prof. Ing. Štefan Šmelko, DrSc. was elected as chairman of the Academic Senate of the VŠLD. After 1989, the University went through several organizational changes. On 1st October 1991, the separate Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, from 1998

48

based in Banská Štiavnica, was established. It is pleasing that our Alma mater, corresponding to the worldwide trend of building the ecological education, noticed as the first one in Slovakia this positive trend contributing to more intensive interest in the environment and its protection and also in the contribution of a reliable conception of further development of life technization. By the decision of the National Council of the Slovak Republic, on 17th December 1992 was approved the law no. 26/1992 Coll. on the change of the name of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology in Zvolen to the Technical University in Zvolen. The aspect of integrating our universities into the European system and their transformation led to the establishment of the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology which came into force on 1st October 1996. The Faculty filled up a gap in the education of university experts in providing ecologically acceptable technology in correspondence with the world trends and ecological norms of the European Union. The year 2002 brought significant changes to the history of the Technical University in Zvolen (TUZVO). Since 1st April 2002, new laws relating to university education in Slovakia took effect, especially University Law no. 131/2002 Coll. While the preceding University Law no. 172/1990 Coll. brought back mainly academic freedoms, the new University Law continued in reforms by the compulsory introduction of the 3-stage university education and the European Credit Transfer System – ECTS, and also the economic independence of universities, among others. On 31st March 2002, the TUZVO finished its existence as a state budgetary organization and since 1st April 2002, it has been a public university. It is also necessary to mention the Longterm Scheme of the Technical University in Zvolen for the years 2003–2010 approved by the Academic Council, the Board of Directors and the Academic Senate of the TUZVO


Historical Roots

in March 2003. This material sets the strategic plan of the TUZVO to become a research university while fulfilling its mission to develop creative research and, on its basis, to provide university education in the European research and educational area, including all three stages of university education, especially in the sphere of forestry, wood technology, ecology, environmental sciences, economics, management, engineering, information technologies, design, personal and property protection, industrial engineering, and related boundary and interdisciplinary spheres. The year 2003 is a year of culminating preparations and a process of accreditation of study programmes as well as the complex accreditation of the University as amended by the University Law No. 131/2002 Coll. Most submitted proposals were successfully accredited. In 2004, the TUZVO continued in implementing the Long-term Scheme of the TUZVO for the years 2003–2010 including the ongoing transformation of the social and economic life of university education in the Slovak Republic. The TUZVO continued in its efforts in further differentiation, versality and individualization of study and its mutual interlinking within and also among faculties. Developing an integral system of more study branches and sufficiently wide flexible choice of study programmes kept carrying on. It facilitated the fast adaptation of the graduate profile to changing needs of our society, labour market, and to a certain degree, also a personal interest of students themselves. The two-way mobility of PhD students, teachers and researchers with foreign institutions was supported, too. To use effectively the creative potential of employees, the synergic effect of the interdisciplinary focus of the main workplaces and relatively well-equipped specialized facilities of the Technical University in Zvolen, we have increased our participation in solving significant scientific and technological projects on the home as well as international scale, mutual

cooperation with related research workplaces and with the manufacturing and entrepreneurial sphere. On 1st May 2004, Slovakia became a member of the European Union and it gained all advantages, however, also risks and responsibilities resulting from that fact. Thus, severe competition in the sphere of research, education, and the development and operating the University became everyday reality. In Slovakia was culminating the reform of the university education system influencing more economic aspects of university activities. The government decreased subsidies for universities. The demand for joint financing, mobilization of our own reserves and energy saving have had a strong impact upon the University. In this way, all life of the University has been marked by carrying out of the obtained measurements to pay back the internal debt of the University. Taking these relations into consideration, on 16th March 2006, the Academic Senate of the Technical University in Zvolen decided on moving the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences from Banská Štiavnica to Zvolen by the autumn 2006. The relocation of the Faculty significantly affected not only university economy, but it has also revived the interest in study at the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. References http://www.flickr.com

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Rectors and Vice-rectors 2007—2012 2007–2012 Rector Prof. Ing. Ján Tuček, CSc. until 17th February 2012

2012 Rector Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc. from 18th February 2012

Vice-rectors for Educational Work Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Scheer, CSc. until 16th February 2011 Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Javorek, CSc. from 17th February 2011

Vice-rectors for Educational Work Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Javorek, CSc. until 30th April 2012 RNDr. Andrej Jankech, PhD. from 1st May 2012

Vice-rector for Scientific Research Activities Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Anna Danihelová, PhD.

Vice-rector for Scientific Research Activities Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Anna Danihelová, PhD. until 31st March 2012 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Jaroslav Šálka from 1st April 2012

Vice-rectors for Development Assoc. Prof. Ing. Josef Drábek, CSc. until 31st March 2009 Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Danica Kačíková, PhD. from 1st April 2009

Vice-rectors for Development Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Danica Kačíková, PhD.

Vice-rectors for External Relationships Prof. Ing. Jozef Víglaský, CSc. until 30th June 2007 Assoc. Prof. Ing. Rastislav Šulek, PhD. from 1st March 2008

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Vice-rectors for External Relationships Assoc. Prof. Ing. Mgr. Rastislav Šulek, PhD.


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Technical University in Zvolen in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Education at the University Introduction The period of years 2007–2012 was in the university environment characterised by many legislative changes that significantly influenced pedagogical, scientific, research and economic activities. The higher education was regulated according to Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on Higher Education and by its further amendments adopted in the following years. Funding and operation of universities adapted to the changes in the state budget financing which mirrored the performance parameters to a great extent. Calculated number of students, amount of obtained funding resources from domestic and foreign grants, qualitatively structured outputs in publication and art activities, etc. were the most significant performance parameters. The Slovak Republic had, in the field of higher education, the intention to develop an effective system enabling an access to a quality higher education for all citizens who will show an interest and demonstrate necessary abilities and skills. Education is a process consisting of not only continual monitoring and verification of known procedures and activities but also a process of searching for new

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innovative activities or adaptation to current modern trends mirroring the needs of practice and society. The intention is to increase the efficiency of education and fruitfulness of graduates on job market in a period of constantly higher competition. Given facts resulted in a situation when many universities were focused on recruiting as many students as they could by creating new study programmes which were the most interesting in Slovakia. These were mainly study programmes in the field of economics, law, social field, mass media and communication. Such a situation meant a beginning of a fight of universities for students and the students’ interest in technology oriented study programmes showed a downward trend. Study at the Technical University in Zvolen in Years 2007–2012 The Technical University in Zvolen recorded these changes in gradual increase of number of newly enrolled students for a full-time study mainly in the most interesting study programmes. During the assessed period the number of students of the TU in Zvolen in the 1st and 2nd degree of study increased from 4,656 in the academic year 2007/08 to the highest number of students – 5,216 in the academic year 2010/11. In the current academic year


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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

2011/12 – 4,879 students in total; 3,378 students in the fulltime study and 1,501 in the part-time study studied at the Technical University in Zvolen. One of the causes of the decrease of students in the part-time study is the tuition they have to pay, according to the Amendment to the Act on Higher Education that have made this form of study less attractive. The Technical University as educational institution was chosen annually by approximately 150 foreign students on average, what accounted for 3 % of the total number of students. The majority of foreign students studied at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology. This faculty provided a study programme in the 1st degree of study at a detached workplace in Volyně in the Czech Republic. The study in the 3rd degree of study is also a part of the educational process. In the academic year 2007/08 330 students in total studied in the PhD study in both forms of study. In the following years a decrease in interest in the part-time study was recorded; the development of the interest in the full-time study was steady. In the academic year 2008/09 the original structure of scientific branches of PhD study was finished whereas a significant increase in the graduates of this type of study, mainly in the part-time study, was recorded. The number of students in the 3rd degree of study was significantly influenced also by the introduction of quotas for acceptation of students for the whole Technical University defined by the Ministry

of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR. In the academic year 2007/08 the number of students reached 40, in the academic year 2008/09 48; the highest number of students in the 3rd degree of study was in 2009/10 – 61, and in the academic year 2010/11 the number of students was only 33. The development of the number of students in all three degrees of study in full-time and part-time study at the Technical University in Zvolen in the previous five years is illustrated in Table 1. The increased number of students influenced significantly the pedagogical workload of employees of individual faculties. Since 2011 the calculation of pedagogical performance of faculties has been performed in a similar way as allotment of state budget resources for universities from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR. According to the calculated number of students, coefficient of the financial demands of the study branch and the number of compulsory and optional subjects guaranteed by the department, a variety of classification of all-university purpose departments at faculties or institutes was considered. The work of pedagogical staff itself was significantly influenced by a gradual transformation of a number of pedagogical activities via the University Information System, which was implemented at the Technical University in Zvolen in 2006. The system is applied at the University thanks to hard and long-term work

Table 1    The number of students enrolled in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree of study in the full-time and part-time study in years 2007/08 – 2011/12

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

3,278

3,221

3,300

3,502

3,378

Part-time students

1,378

1,526

1,636

1,714

1,501

Total

4,656

4,747

4,936

5,216

4,879

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Technical University in Zvolen

of many people. Modules – Study System, E-Learning, Science and Research, Management System or Personal Management were gradually introduced. The topic of study is dealt in this system in a complex way beginning with the first contact of applicants for study, as well as the presentation of information about university and its study programmes, acceptance of application forms for study including electronic application forms, everyday study tasks as schedules, exams, topics of final theses, submission of theses, evidence of the study ending with the completion of the study and issuing of certificates, diplomas and diploma annexes. The information system deals also with the tuition, scholarship payment or the originality verification of final theses that are compared with the Central Register of Theses and Dissertations at the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR. The information system provides more than 600 applications for students, pedagogical staff, officials for educational activities, head of departments and institutes, management of faculties and university and system integrators which simplify everyday routine operation of uniform study system within the Technical University in Zvolen. The Technical University provides, beside its professional focus of individual study branches, also many subjects of scientific nature and subjects guaranteeing language skills of students. Each year the students take a language test at the beginning of the 1st year of study and consequently, according to the test results, they are divided into groups with different level of language skills. To improve the education in the field of foreign languages at the TU in Zvolen a new system of education of foreign languages was elaborated and implemented. According to this system, since the academic year 2009/10, students of all study programmes have to pass an exam from the foreign language for specific purposes before the end of the bachelor’s degree of study.

Fulfilment of the Long-term Scheme 2003–2010 of the TU in Zvolen in the Field of Education The process of education at the TU in Zvolen in years 2007–2012 was in accordance with the fulfilment of the Long-term Scheme of the TU 2003–2010 and was managed by the results of complex accreditation from the year 2007. Within the complex accreditation the TU in Zvolen submitted 126 applications for accreditation of study programmes in the full-time and parttime study. At four faculties and Special The period of accreditation began Purpose Study with the application for complex Programme 107 study accreditation submitted on 20th programmes were June 2007 and ended officially accredited. In the 1st by announcing and giving degree of study 40 the accreditation decree to the Technical study programmes University confirming the enlistment were accredited; 39 of the TU among universities at the were accredited in the nd opening ceremony of the academic year 2 degree of study 2009/10 on 29th September in the and 28 in the 3rd presence of the Minister of Education, degree of study. Study programmes were Science, Research and Sport of the SR. accredited either with or without time limit, either due to the age of supervisor of the study programme or in the case of new study programmes only for standard length of the study. 19 study programmes were evaluated as insufficient by the accreditation At present the Technical University committee due to the in Zvolen provides education in the

full-time and part-time study in 40 study programmes of the 1st degree of study, in  8 study programmes in the 2nd degree of study and in 25 study programmes in the 3rd degree of study. 59


failure in some prescribed criteria. The structure of study programmes modified gradually and it was showed that the number of study programmes in the 1st degree of study was too high at some faculties. This brought about the reduction of the number of opened study programmes in the following periods. The Slovak system of education has experienced radical changes, after the adoption of the Bologna Declaration, since the academic year 2005/06; first graduates in the new system of education were awarded bachelor’s degree in the academic year 2007/08. Besides opening of new study

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programmes, this period was marked also by completing education in the finishing 3- and 5-year study. This required higher demands on organisational part of the education process and also higher work load of pedagogical staff. At the same time the TU in Zvolen opened a special purpose study programme “Economics and Management of Renewable Natural Resources”, which represents a new modern chapter from the point of view of the content of study and also organisation of study at our University. The study programme is distinctive in its content that goes through the dominant areas of education and research and integrates


Technical University in Zvolen

rich experience and traditions of the university faculties. The number of graduates at the TU in Zvolen increased dramatically due to the aforementioned three-stage system of higher education. An overview of the number of graduates in the finishing study programmes in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree of study is illustrated in Table 2.

Student Support Scheme Social support system for students is provided by different kinds of scholarships in accordance with the valid legislation and internal regulations of the TU. Students have the possibility to get student allowance, incentive

Table 2    The number of graduates in the finishing study programmes in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree of study in the academic year 2007/08 – 2010/11

Academic year

Form of study

Finishing Ing.

Bc.

Ing.

PhD.

Total

2007/08

Full-time

397

463

18

878

Part-time

115

106

10

23

254

Total

512

569

10

41

1,132

Full-time

391

567

56

30

1 044

Part-time

104

215

23

342

Total

495

782

56

53

1,386

Full-time

1

509

389

53

952

Part-time

43

214

113

32

402

Total

44

723

502

85

1,354

Full-time

448

504

52

1 004

Part-time

182

225

48

455

Total

630

729

100

1,459

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

grant and extra scholarship. Student allowance is a form of financial support from the state for university students from families with low incomes. Students of the 1st or 2nd degree of study are awarded incentive grants according to achieved study results in completed subjects. Students with excellent results in study, professional, scientific or research field or in sport or students successfully representing the University or faculties at important national or international events can be awarded an extra scholarship. In a similar way also other students were awarded for achieved results in the field of fire-fighting, table tennis, shooting sport, powerlifting, ski alpinism, Athletes representing the Slovak knowledge quizzes and other Republic Filip Polášek (tennis) and activities. Further Alžbeta Pavlendová (track cycling) scholarships are belong to the most significant figures paid to the students awarded the extra scholarship at the of the 3rd degree Technical University in Zvolen. in the full-time study according to relevant job classes. Extra scholarship for the students of the 3rd degree of study for achieved It is necessary to mention also result is in the an important success of student competence of the of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and faculties.

Technology Lukáš Priečko in the field of design in international competition International Design Award 2009, who, in the competition of 1,600 designs, won the first prize for his interactive armchair Transformachair (category of intelligent furniture). It is possible to change the design of the armchair on the basis of electric field and it is possible to control it with voice.

Tuition for Exceeding the Standard Length of Study According to the Act on Higher Education, passed in the assessed period, students are liable to pay the tuition for exceeding the standard length of study. Students had to pay this tuition in the academic year 2005/06 for the first time. Many students used the chance to ask for decreasing or forgiving the tuition according to the internal regulations of the TU in Zvolen. In the current academic year 2011/12 approximately 94 % of students, with this liability, settled the tuition. This is a significant improvement in comparison to previous years. Aims of the Long-term Scheme 2011–2016 in the Field of Education The ability to change the working position in a flexible way, either between different companies or branches, or in connection to moving to different regions or countries, is considered to be a key ability while solving European problems with employment. Mobility of work force does not require only the readiness of the employees but also specifically adapted forms of education. One of the most important aims of the Long-term Scheme of the TU in Zvolen is the internationalisation of the study. To support the above mentioned type of study a project within the Operational Programme Education “Creation of Study Programmes in a World Language at the TU in Zvolen” is being solved at the TU in Zvolen. The project is aimed at the preparation and following creation of study programmes in the 2nd degree of study: Furniture and Interior Design, Production and Utilisation of Wood Products, both at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, Forestry and Wildlife Management


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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

at the Faculty of Forestry and study programme in the 3rd degree of study Adaptive Forestry and Wildlife Management at the Faculty of Forestry. These are new study programmes and they will have to meet criteria necessary for the accreditation of study programmes of higher education. One part of the project is also the creation of a self-access centre aimed at self-study of foreign languages. The centre will be provided with language textbooks, professional dictionaries, foreign language magazines and e-learning programmes for teaching professional communication in the English and German language. The target groups of the study programmes will be students, graduates of corresponding degrees of university study, Slovak and foreign applicants meeting the basic criteria for the study according to the legislative and the TU in Zvolen. Reactions from the partner universities as BOKU Wien, Georg August Universität Göttingen, University of Forestry in Sofia, Sveučilište u Zagrebu (University of Zagreb), Transilvania University of Brasov, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes Madrid and others, which we have official and informal contacts and cooperation with, indicate that study programmes prepared this way could be of interest and could revive cooperation also in connection to student mobilities. One of the most frequent words used nowadays, not only in the sphere of education of adults in developed countries of the world, is quality and innovation. The condition for guaranteeing permanent innovation of products and services with increasing quality is a quality education. Quality is ambiguous, complex idea having many meanings. Under the term quality, e.g. quality teacher or quality school, a good teacher or good school, school having a high standard is understood. In 2010 Slovak Rectors’ Conference accepted and supported Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area issued by the European Association for Quality Assurance in Higher

64

Education in 2009. These standards introduce principles, mechanisms, procedures and sources of information to assure and assess the quality in the area of higher education in a way to enable the assessment and analysis of the level of education and to adopt effective measures rapidly enough. The Amendment of the Act on Higher Education from 2009 imposed a duty to the universities to evaluate the quality of provided education gradually, and universities have to elaborate evaluation report on the quality of education and submit it to the accreditation committee at least once per two academic years. Not only university officials, pedagogical staff but also students should be engaged into the mentioned process. Since the academic year 2010/11 a system of student opinion polls has been launched via the University Information System after the pilot testing of the quality of educational process at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology. The polls are used to express students’ opinions on the quality of education during lectures and seminars, opinion on the content of study programmes, and they have also the possibility to evaluate individual subjects and teachers. This system includes also a questionnaire for evaluation of university, faculties and overall satisfaction of students with the course of study or the activities of departments of study issues. TU in Zvolen can be satisfied as students are, according to answers, mainly satisfied. Similar survey in the testing of universities was conducted also by the Academic Ranking and Rating Agency, which conducted a survey on quality assessment of universities in 2009. University teachers and graduates took part in this survey; one of the results was also graduates’ answers on question whether they would have decided again to study at the faculty they graduated from or whether they would recommend that faculty to their friends. The Technical University had the best results, in comparison to other Slovak universities, with loyalty index 73.9. Education


Technical University in Zvolen

quality assessment is of great importance for universities not only from the point of view of future applicants for higher education but it will influence also the assessment of study programme accreditation by the accreditation committee. Continuing Education of the TU in Zvolen The management of the Technical University did not forget to support continuing education of employees, including compulsory training resulting from corresponding legal regulations. Continuing education comprises a part of lifelong education. It enables to complete, broaden and enhance acquired education, retrain or satisfy one’s needs. Since the academic year 2007/08 more than 400 employees of the TU in Zvolen have taken part in professional training and retraining. Last century was connected with huge changes in lifestyle of industrial countries citizens. Introduction of technologies caused a decrease in the share of physical work and an increased demand on human psychic. Ageing people need to preserve a reasonable amount of activity to feel useful and active. The Technical University in Zvolen respects the generation of people who gave their best years to the society; many of them are retired, nevertheless they are still active and keep themselves in a good physical and mental condition. Education courses known as the University of the Third Age are designed exactly for these people. Interest in this form of education is steady; and during five previous years more than 200 students graduated from the University of the Third Age in study programmes Psychology, English Language, Ornamental and Medical Plants, Computer Techniques and Their Utilisation, Art History in Slovakia, Law and Selfcognition and Self-actualisation. To improve the position of graduates the Technical University in Zvolen cooperates

65


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

with the Matej Bel University in Banská Bystrica and organises additional pedagogical education. Since the academic year 2007/08 128 students have graduated in this study. We must not forget to mention also regular Children Forestry University; this university is attended by chosen pupils of the 6th grade of primary schools and they have the possibility to take part in many interesting lectures. Lectures from the professional field are supplemented with various games and forest pedagogy activities with foresters during trips to forests. Each student of the Children Forestry University received a record book and after attending all prescribed courses they were certificated graduates of Children Forestry University. Conclusion The Technical University in Zvolen enters the future with clearly set tendency in the form of Long-term Scheme for the period of years 2011–2016. In the nearest period the Technical University in Zvolen will undergo a new complex accreditation where the results of the work in the previous period of years 2007–2012 will be assessed. The vision of the University is to remain a university providing education in all three stages. Therefore the most important guarantee of reaching this aim is initiative, self-sacrifice, interest and determination of all members of academia.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Science and Research at the University Introduction The Technical University in Zvolen (TUZVO) declares its support for implementing the strategies of both the European Union and the Slovak Republic; these also being described as knowledge society. Knowledge, achievments and their application in practice, above all in the form of innovations, have always played a significant part that influenced the social and economic development in a crucial way. The TUZVO is engaged in the common European effort to coordinate the national science and technology policies in accordance with the policy of the European Research Area. The objectives and priorities of the ERA are set in the Lisbon Strategy. The implementation of science and technology policy is being increasingly understood within the wider context of cohesion towards the spheres of education, international scientific research and knowledge transfer into practice by means of innovations. Through its long-term objectives, the Technical University also declares its support for implementation of these strategic aims. It is necessary to understand the sigificance of the Technical University

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in Zvolen as a scientific institution especially in the context of economic and social development of the particular regions as well as the development of the country. The University is predestined to be an important element within the regional development due to its specialisation in forestry, wood processing industry, ecology and environment. Through the media of science and research in connection with the practice, the TUZVO surely is a substantial institution participating in the increasing economic growth, creation of new jobs as well as raising the living standard and quality of life especially in the country regions. One of the main objectives within the European science and technology policy is to improve the conditions for research and development. The main target of this  attitude is to increase the total level of public and private investments within this field up to 3 % of GDP generated in the European Union. Even though the expenditure of money on research and development has been rising slightly in Slovakia, the financing of the Slovak science and research is still very disadvantageous when compared to other European countries. In addition to the increased financing and investments into science, research and innovationts, it is also necessary to support the potential of scientific researchers intellectually. Despite the insufficient financing of science and research activities, there are some


Technical University in Zvolen

teams at the Technical University in Zvolen whose scientific results have reached the top level on an international scale.

projects as well as in projects financed by national agencies and from the share of the TUZVO in published and applied outputs. The chief research streams include forestry, wood sciences, ecology and environment, as already mentioned Scientific and Research Activities in the Period above. of 2007–2012 Principal research themes at the Faculty of Forestry (LF) were represented by “Sustainable Forest Management When evaluating the scientific and research activities at the in Slovakia”. The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology (DF) was intent on “Development and Innovations of Effective TUZVO in the period of 2007–2012, it is necessary to issue from the scientific specialisation of this institution, i.e. from and Ecological Utilisation of Wood Raw Material” according principal research themes at the particular Faculties of the to the approved principal theme of scientific and research University, from the share of the TUZVO in international activity. At the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences (FEE) the emphasis within scientific and research activities was EVOLTREE – EVOLution of TREEs as drivers of terrestrial biodiversity, laid mainly on the issues of landscape ecology, landscape project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, CSc.; formation, waste management, TREEBREEDEX – A working model network of tree improvement technologies aimed at the for competitive, multifunctional and sustainable European forestry, utilisation of sewage from the project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, CSc.; mining industry and processing of waste from particular EFORWOOD – Tools for Sustainability Impact Assesment branches of metallurgy. of Forestry – Wood Chain, The primary scientific and project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc.; research profile of the Faculty of Environmental and INT-ER-LINK – Promoting INTernational Cooperation Manufacturing Technology for Environment Research Through Dissemination (FEVT) was determined by and Networking Activities, the tasks such as reduction project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc.; of material and exacting energy character of production, INNOVAWOOD – An Innovation Strategy to integrate industry needs utilisation of new energy

and research capability in the European Forestry Wood Chain, project co-ordinator: Prof. h. c. prof. Ing. Mikuláš Šupín, CSc.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

resources, effective utilisation of domestic raw materials and exercitation of principles making the production more ecological and human. Solutions how to minimise the negative impacts of engineering and technology on the living and working environment were also included. Creative employees at the TUZVO have been engaged in cooperation with foreign partners in the recent five years. This cooperation is of great significance to the TUZVO as it led into the success of the Faculty of Forestry and the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology. Both of them succeeded in getting foreign grants within the 6th and 7th Framework Programmes that are financed by the European Commission. Moreover, the University employees have also worked in the international scientific networks through the COST actions or bilateral projects supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic (MŠ SR) and the Slovak Research and Development Agency as well as by the European Forest Institute.

The employees of the University have been granted financial means to support their scientific and research activities carried out on the national level from the following organisations: the Slovak Research and Development Agency (APVV), the Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education (VEGA), the Cultural and Educational Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education (KEGA) and the Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic for the Structural Funds of EU. In cooperation with the institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the National Forest Centre and other Slovak universities, the University has gradually succeeded in creating a system of unique centres of excellence within the Operational Programme: “Research and Development” that is governed by the Agency of the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic for the Structural Funds of EU. The centres of excellence were built predominantly at the LF in cooperation with particular workplaces at FEE and DF.

Centre of Excellence: Adaptive Forest Ecosystems, project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc. Centre of Excellence (Accomplishment): Adaptive Forest Ecosystems, project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc. Centre of Excellence for Decision Support in Forest and Landscape, project co-ordinator: Prof. Ing. Ján Tuček, CSc. Centre of Excellence for Integrated Research of the Earth´s Geosphere, project co-ordinator: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Juraj Bebej, CSc. Centre of Excellence: Utilisation of Wood Ash in the Forestry, project co-ordinator: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Juraj Gregor, CSc. Centre of Excellence for Integrated River Basin Management in the Changing Environmental Conditions, project co-ordinator: Assoc. Prof. Katarína Střelcová, CSc. 72


Technical University in Zvolen

A measurable result of the projects within scientific and research activities are high-quality publications. At the Technical University in Zvolen, the published works are divided into 4 groups  – A1, A2, B and C – in line with the data recorded in the central register of the publications. The group A1 represents book publications having the character of scientific monographs, the group A2 stands for the authorship of other book publications such as university textbooks, specialised book publications, lecture notes, etc. Publications in ISI-indexed journals, authorised certificates, patents and discoveries are included in the group B. The group C includes other peer reviewed publications as well as chapters in specialised books and textbooks, scientific works in non peer reviewed journals or peer reviewed proceedings. In regard to book publications, the creative employees of the University were very productive and published the results of their research activities within plenty of international and domestic scientific conferences. The productive employees of the University were particularly successful in the field of natural sciences and their results were published in prestigious international journals. It is also necessary to attach high value to results achieved in the applied research – project outputs brought quite a number of patents and user templates. In the period of the past five years, the Industrial Property Office of the Slovak Republic granted 7 patent rights to employees of the Faculty of Forestry. The majority of these patent rights ensued from solving the issues of recuperative cableway systems. The authors, i.e. Assoc. Prof. Štollmann, Ing. Ilčík and Assoc. Prof. Suchomel were granted 6 patent rights, Dr. Ďurkovič was granted one. In the category Universities and Research Centres, the owner of the patent, the Technical University in Zvolen, was awarded Ján Bahýľ Award for the patent named “Mechanic recuperative cableway system with a flywheel” in 2010. At the Faculty

of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology, 2 patent rights have been granted so far (the author of the first patent being Assoc. Prof. Tuhársky, the second one belonging to Prof. Šuriansky, Ing. Peter Spodniak and Ing. Pavol Spodniak). The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology was granted rights to 8 user templates and 4 patents abroad (Assoc. Prof. Sedliačik). The Industrial Property Office of the Slovak Republic acknowledged the rights to 1 user template (Ing. Jochim). A broad spectrum of creative outputs was completed by art activities at the Department of Furniture Design and Wood Products. The Department employees were granted several design certificates (Ing. Arch. Teplanová).

73


74


Technical University in Zvolen

Long-term Plan and Principal Research Themes The Technical University in Zvolen has been working on the status of the Research University for a long time. This fact was acknowledged by results of the complex accreditation in 2009 – when the University was given the status of the Research University and was awarded the certificate of competence to execute research and development. The effort to preserve a good position in the field of research among other Slovak universities is mirrored in the Development Programme: Science, Research and Art Activities within the bounds of Long-term Plan of the Technical University for the Period of 2011–2016. The strategic objective of the TUZVO is to achieve internationally accepted results within research and art activities. To accomplish the strategic objective of the University, the research status, it is necessary to meet the following requirements: • identification of new appeals for research and development in the practice and definition of principal research themes, • high-quality integration between scientific and research activities and the pedagogical process, • internalisation of scientific and research activities, • integration between research activities and the practice by means of applied research. The new approved principal research themes at the Technical University in Zvolen should secure continuity within scientific and research activities. The approved direction of research at this Research University also should innovate priorities of the scientific and research activity in regard to new appeals within international and national research, society and economy. Integration between Scientific and Research Activities and the Pedagogical Process

on research projects also by means of the Student Scientific and Professional Activity (ŠVOČ). Encouraging young employees to submit scientific and research projects through the Internal Project Agency is another important factor. The Student Scientific and Professional Activity at the TUZVO has become an integral part of the policy supporting scientific and professional activities of students and it also has become a tradition at the University.

The Faculty of Forestry •  adaptive managment of forest ecosystems, the principal direction of research activity includes all forestry activities ranging from the forest ecology, silviculture and forest protection, harvesting and transport of wood up to economics and policy of forestry The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology •  transformation of wood raw material into products of new generation, design and furniture design, construction of wood-framed buildings, fire protection and integrated safety, energy use of wood, economic and marketing aspects of effective utilisation of wood The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences •  biodiversity, ecological principles of  landscape creation and protection, protection managment and quality monitoring of the environment, ecologisation of  technology processes and waste management The Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology •  development and quality assessment of forest and wood processing machinery, reduction of  material and energy demands, use of new sustainable energy resources

A first-rate integration between scientific and research activities and the pedagogical process can be achieved through engaging students and PhD students into working

75


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

The ŠVOČ personifies a significant support of the general scientific and research work at the TUZVO. At the same time, it is a great contribution for students themselves because, based on the positive experience, it develops their scientific and research creativity and self-confidence in the particular branch. A lot of students and PhD students are in command of excellent inventive thinking and very often they themselves address their teachers in order to jointly search for possibilities of how to implement their ideas. On the other hand, the pedagogical staff can offer them the opportunity to be involved in the process of research that could be interesting for them and fully show their creative potential and skills. The priority objective of the Internal Project Agency (IPA) is to support young productive employees and PhD students in acquiring practical skills and experience as far as the setting up of research projects and coordination of project cycles are concerned. The Project Agency assists the research activities of the young pedagogical staff, researchers as well as full-time PhD students up to the age of 40. From a longterm view, we can assume that the experience gained from the cooperation with the IPA will be a stimulation for getting new projects from national and international agencies. Although quite common abroad, it is not usual in Slovakia to use new forms of co-opting new researchers, e.g. by means of postdoctoral working positions. This kind of integrating science with the pedagogical process would strengthen both fields and create the opportunity to win first-rate young researchers, at the same time. International Cooperation in Basic Research In the field of research, several workplaces at our University cooperate with foreign institutions on the

76

international level. However, there are only a few international projects within the Framework Programmes this kind of cooperation has resulted in. Within the Framework Programmes of the EU, the TUZVO usually plays the part of a partner. The number of projects carried out in the period of 2007–2012 stayed on the same level (ranging from 5 up to 7 projects) and this surely can not be understood as satisfying. The cooperation of the TUZVO with other institutions in terms of the COST actions is a little bit better. The originally low participation in the COST projects has been increasing gradually. In 2010, the TUZVO set up projects in order to join the international scientific activities of the 7th Framework Programme: CCDATA, ALEGRO, INTEGRAL or activities of the European Forest Institute: RO EFI CEEC. Some of the project aims were not successful. However, they were a great experience for our researches and surely can be used in the future. It is necessary to improve our scientific infrastructure in terms of laboratories, devices and equipment so that the TUZVO is able to successfully participate in the international basic research. This procedure is being accomplished through the projects financed by the Structural Funds in the Operational Programme Science and Research. The particular Faculties of the Technical University in Zvolen undertake significant activities to strenghten the scientific infrastructure. However, this does not always guarantee success. Human resources play a key part in this process and that is why they should not be forgotten. Language competences are inevitable and they already should be emphasised in the PhD study, when new scientists are being trained. The participation in international scientific networks, even through organisations that have not been supported by scientific and research projects yet, also is an essential


Technical University in Zvolen

precondition for the internalisation of research activities at the Technical University in Zvolen. The support of larger cross-sectional research teams at the TUZVO is necessary if we wish to achieve interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity of scientific and research activities on an international level. Only teams like this are able to be engaged in the international research. Although the potential of the Technical University in Zvolen is great, systemic measures will have to be introduced to support these scientific and research activities. Applied Research and Intergration with the Practice The Technical University in Zvolen has been making every endeavour to create optimum conditions that could improve the commercialization of inventions resulting from scientific and development efforts. That being so, a project aimed at building up a Science and Technology Park (STP) in the region of Central Slovakia was set up. All the Faculties of the University as well as the Banská Bystrica SelfGoverning Region participated in the project preparations. The task of the Science and Technology Park resided in the opportunity of commercial materialization, implementation of the latest research results as well as in the development of companies, or small and medium-sized enterprises, as the case may be. Moreover, the University was hoping to receive an appropriate feedback from this transformation. The goal of the STP was to improve the innovative potential in the region and to increase competitivness in the entrepreneurial sphere of the region. Unfortunately, this purpose was not accomplished in the end because of the unconcern of the then chairman of the Banská Bystrica Self-Governing Region. Together with the Banská Bystrica Self-Governing Region, the University took part in preparations of the

project aim to build the Regional Innovation Centre – RIC BBSK. The project aim issued from presuming the potential partnership of the TUZVO in research themes such as forestry, wood processing industry, ecology and environmental technology, renewable energy resources, machinery and equipment. In regard to the RIC, these thematic areas count as areas of innovation development with a nationwide influence. As the interests and aims of the corresponding ministries were changing, the declared support for creation of the RIC was stuck firmly, as far as the particular Self-Governing Regions are concerned. Despite the facts mentioned above, the University has not waived its efforts to establish closer contact with the entrepreneurial sphere, i.e. to address potential users of results achieved within the applied research at the TUZVO. The endeavour of the Banská Bystrica SelfGoverning Region, the TUZVO and the engineering industry within the Banská Bystrica Region to strenghten competitivness of engineering companies by means of research activities, finally led into the establishment of the 1st Slovak Enginnering Cluster in 2008. The Technical University is one of the founding members and it is represented by the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology. In 2011, the “Informative Day to Support Innovations in the Banská Bystrica Region” took place at the FEVT in cooperation with the Banská Bystrica SelfGoverning Region. The intention of this event was to offer a better acquaintance with research activities at the FEVT to the members of the Cluster and at the same time, to make the cooperation with the Cluster members more effective. This meeting was attended by delegates from the Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Ladomerská Vieska as well as by the leading representatives of companies that operate in the production and development of various technologies in the

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region of Central Slovakia. The professional cooperation with institutions based at the Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic (such as the State Institute for Nature Protection and the Slovak Environmental Agency), The special Werner Siemens the Ministry Excellence Award commission of Agriculture evaluated the project coordinated by and Rural Assoc. Prof. Marek Fabrika, PhD. Development and from the Faculty of Forestry to be the with the particular best research work. The name of the institues of the project – SIBYLA – is the acronym Slovak Academy of Sciences has formed from the Slovak translation of been in progress “Simulator of forest biodynamics” and at the Faculty the project itself deals with conception, of Ecology and construction and programme solution. Environmental The author aimed at creating a strategy Scienes and the game simulating the behaviour of Faculty of Forestry. forest biotops and subsequently at Being received putting the game on the internet so that into the “Cluster students can access it in order to learn of Czech Furniture how to understand forest as a complex Makers” in 2011, system. “Based on our own experience, the TU in Zvolen laid a foundation we can not learn to have the right for a better approach to a forest as it can grow supranational hundred years or even longer. However, cooperation. we can simulate this process on the The University computer,” M. Fabrika explained. has become the This particular growth simulator was first foreign created after analysing the data about member of the 170,000 trees and using the results biggest cluster

of measurements taken on 5,507 experimental and monitoring areas as well as 522 meteorological stations. The computer model reacts to various climatic and soil data, interferences in the forest, economic environments and technological processes.

within the furniture and wood processing industry in the Czech Republic and gained all the benefits accruing from this membership. One of the benefits is the fact that through the Cluster, the University can join projects financed by the Structural Funds of EU or the Virtual Education Programme for Furniture Branch – LEONARDO. Having in mind the support of activities aimed at the entrepreneurial sphere, the TU has also become a member of the Banská Bystrica Regional Chamber of the Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry. In 2011, these two instutions together with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Nográd County as well as the Hungarian Investment and Trade Agency organised their first joint activity. Slovak and Hungarian entrepreneurs in the wood processing industry and forestry met with the representatives of the Faculty of Forestry and the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, calling this event “Entrepreneurial Innovation Phorum in Forestry and Wood Processing Industry”. The Technical University in Zvolen has also achieved a considerable success in applying research results. The project carried out with the supervision of Assoc. Prof. Ing. Marek Fabrika, PhD. was presented with the prestigeous Werner von Siemens Excellence Award. The Siemens company hands this award out in several European countries to honour exceptional research and study results achieved at universities in the field of energy production and distribution, informatics and communications, transport engineering, automation, building technology, technology used in hospitals and environmental sciences. Anyway, the Technical University in Zvolen still can improve a lot as far as its participation in international application projects is concerned and that is why the University management has had the initiative to do so. The TUZVO has been involved in the preparation of setting


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up the project EIT-ENERGY KIC. This project set-up has been coordinated by the Technical University Graz (Austria), this being a strategic partner of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology. The endeavour of the TU Graz has been to create a knowledge and innovation centre integrating the existing institutions into groups and networks. Moreover, the centre should be responsible for integration of research and educational activities in order to increase the innovation capacity of the European economy. In regard to its professional specialisation, the Technical University in Zvolen has been undertaking actions within expert and concept activities in the field of forestry, wood sciences and technologies, ecology and environment, renewable energy resources, wood processing and forest machinery and equipment, as well as protection of people and property.

and applied research and to its engineering, technology as well as technical use. In regard to the significance of continual research and science activities that has been emphasised on a long-term basis, we can say that the research and scientific activities are being understood not merely in their traditional sense but they also have acquired a new dimension. The University is trying to respond to new visions that are connected with the implementation of the Long-term Plan of the State Science Policy of the Slovak Republic 2015 as well as to implement the Lisbon Process. Obtaining financial means from various sources is an important factor concerning the competitivness on both national and international level. These sources significantly help to win recognition for all workplaces of the Technical University in Zvolen in the international and European research area, in particular. Consequently, they also play an important part in the innovation efforts of the Slovak national economy.

Conclusion From the strategic point of view, the University has been trying to increase the share of financial means obtained through projects, to more efficiently make use of the projects that are already running and to concentrate them into bigger research units. The University has also been supporting the competitive environment, mainly through dividing the means according to the evaluation carried out, based on detached performance parameters. The TUZVO has been attempting to lay emphasis on the practical implementation of results achieved within research and scientific activities and to reflect the contemporary trend this way. Moreover, this institution has the ambition to guarantee a well-balanced combination of scientific and research, educational and occupative activities. These efforts relate to the science spectrum being developed both in basic

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International Relations at the University The international activities of each university are nowadays becoming more and more important within the European educational and research area. Many requirements and challenges, which cannot be ignored, result from the Slovak Republic membership of the EU, but also from the membership of universities, including our University, in European University Association (EUA). The focus on not only home students, but also on fee-paying students from Asia, America or Africa and mobilities of students and academic staff within the EU requires the need to pay attention to the learning of foreign languages and international publicity. The integration of research capacities into international research networks is connected with active international research contacts and the publishing of research results within projects in internationally-accepted journals, too. In the years 2007–2012, the Technical University in Zvolen (the TUZVO) was completing its mission in the area of international relations by the developing of international cooperation based on the projects carried out with foreign academic and professional institutions and also within academic mobilities. The accessibility of our University for foreigners, which is correlative with adequate language skills of students and academic staff, can

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be considered an important step in the internationalization of the University. Considering the initial state of the University in this area, the work of the International Relations Office in the period 2007–2012 was demanding because the University had to face several problems within its international activities. Despite this fact, we can consider the period from 2008 as the period of stabilization and subsequent development of the International Relations Office connected to extending a contractual cooperation also outside Europe, with the renewal and development of activities within academic mobilities and with intensification of cooperation with home and foreign strategic partners. Bilateral Cooperation In the area of bilateral cooperation which is the basis for development of activities in all areas of international relations, there are priorities and strategy of the international cooperation of the TUZVO in agreement with the longterm goal of the University and priorities connected to the focus of the University. Currently, there are 51 bilateral Erasmus contracts in force, within universities of 20 countries of Europe, 35 contracts with foreign universities and organisations


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from 17 countries of the world and 22 signed contracts and agreements of cooperation with the institutions in Slovakia. The most of the contracts mentioned above are permanent ones. The stabilisation of the contractual collaboration in the area of the Balkans and Eastern Europe can be assessed positively. The current situation shows that the University is capable to participate in academic activities not only in the member states of the EU, but also in wider European and international area (e.g. the bilateral cooperation with partners in Canada, China, Kazakhstan, or effort to set up a closer cooperation with the institutes and universities in the Near East or in Africa). In the area of bilateral cooperation, a long-term goal is not to raise the number of contracts, but to complete them effectively. Regarding this fact and the requirement of an effective usage of finances supporting this kind of international activities, the University is aimed at identifying strategic partners to develop cooperation on the basis of bilateral agreements. The strategic partnerships were set up with the organisations having very good contacts with the University and in the relation to the potential for the development of further intensive cooperation with all faculties of the TUZVO. Mobility programmes The aim of the University within mobility programmes is to guarantee the increase in the number of all students, teacher and other staff mobilities to be in accordance with qualitative requirements for participating institutions and their organisational parts considering the professional focus of the University, its faculties and other organisational parts. Erasmus programme is the main programme of the EU for mobility and cooperation in the area of university

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education in Europe. The aim of the TUZVO is to contribute to reaching the goal set by the European Commission, i.e. to send at least 3 million students within mobilities by the end of 2012. Nowadays, the TUZVO is a holder of so called Extended Erasmus University Charter applied for in November 2007 and approved by the selection committee (The Executive Agency ERASMUS University Charter Team) in Brussels in May 2008 for the period 2008–2013. In practice, it means more mobilities for students and staff of the University as there are internships for students in enterprises and training courses for university staff included. Nowadays, it can be stated that the Erasmus programme was successfully established on the grounds of the University and the number of students leaving for mobilities increases proportionally to the increase of programme publicity. Compared to the past, when mobilities were just a source for achieving or improving their language skills, currently students are coming with bright ideas about the content of their specialized study abroad. Student mobilities for the purpose of internship in an enterprise are sought-after by PhD students, because there is higher probability that they will use experience of the internship practice when writing their thesis. The main task of university staff and teacher mobilities is to help acquire knowledge and specific know-how through practical skills from abroad. The acquirement of practical skills connected to career move for individual positions. The relations which help set up cooperation between the TUZVO and a foreign enterprise or university are also established. Mobility cooperation on the basis of intensive Erasmus programmes can be assessed as an appropriate and successful form of cooperation from the viewpoint of the TUZVO. In this respect, the TUZVO belongs to the most successful


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universities in Slovakia. It has been a coordinator of six intensive programmes and participated in next two intensive programmes recently. The results of the competition “Erasmus student of 2010” announced by the National Agency of the Lifelong Learning The great success of the University Programme within Erasmus programme was the in November 2010, nomination of the student Jozef Maják can be considered Bc. to the international conference the positive ones in Sweden which took place at Lund from the viewpoint University in October 2009. Jozef of the University. A condition of the Maják Bc. was nominated on the competition basis of his essay “Self-discovery in an was to send Oslo Kaleidoscope” from among an essay about more than twenty applicants from an educational Slovakia. Representing the Slovak exchange or Republic he was awarded the prize internship in the “2 millionth ERASMUS student” academic year by the European commissioner Maroš 2009/10 to the Šefčovič. National Agency together with the study contract, work schedule of the stay and the records of study results acquired by the student abroad. 97 students from Slovak colleges and universities applied for the competition, only 85 of them met the conditions and were assessed in two rounds – in the first round essays were assessed by foreign members of the SAAIC and in the second round they were assessed by independent experts. It is very pleasing that the student of the TUZVO

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Martin Mikoláš Bc. took 2nd place in this competition with the essay describing his educational exchange at Universitatea Transylvania Brasov in Romania named “La revedere”. Apart from Erasmus programme, the TUZVO is involved in other international programmes, mainly in the programme CEEPUS (i.e. European university educational exchange programme with 15 countries participating). The National Scholarship Programme as the programme which supports mobilities of students, PhD students, educational staff and researchers is also the important opportunity for getting an individual scholarship for foreign mobilities. To increase the number of academic mobilities, the TUZVO has intensified the cooperation with the SAIA, the SAAIC and other partners. Students, pedagogical staff and researchers can participate in informative seminars and presentations how to get scholarship within the programmes of CEEPUS, NŠP, ERASMUS and the like. Applicants for educational exchange abroad or internships in foreign enterprises are registered in the International Relations Office. The Office provides information about possibilities for mobilities individually by the means of e-mail messages, via the university information system (UIS) and using a web site of the University. The database of applicants – students and academic staff – is continuously updated in cooperation with the Bureau of Education and Research and University’s Development Office. Important part of the database is updated contacts between domestic and foreign students and academic staff in international mobilities.


Technical University in Zvolen

Membership in International Organisations For the TUZVO, membership in academic and professional international organisations is basic precondition to achieve international recognition. It is a key to creating conditions for getting involved into international projects, gaining new information about new trends in education, research and the whole development of universities, and last but not least, it is also a way to make new contacts and promote the university itself. The TUZVO is a full member of the European

Universities Association, a long-time member of the International Union of Forest Research Organization and a member organisation of the European Forest Institute. The TUZVO has its representatives, academic staff, in many other academic and professional international organisations, for example, the International Academy of Wood Science, the International Association of Wood Anatomists, the European Union of Foresters PRO SILVA, the European Biomass Association, the International Association for Landscape Ecology, the Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and many others.

In 2009, the TUZVO gained representation within the IUFRO International Council where its delegate is an official representative of the Slovak Republic – this position was reoccupied also in the newly established International Council originated immediately after XXIII IUFRO World Congress taking place in Seoul, South Korea in August 2010. The University is represented also within UNESCO World Heritage as a member in the evaluation panel. At the end of 2009, the TUZVO as a founder member, started to participate in creation of the Regional Network for Central and South Eastern Europe (CASEE) within the Association for European Life Science Universities (ICA), which resulted in the active participation of the TUZVO in discussions of its general assembly. The TUZVO became so-called key partner of the newly established regional office of the Central-East European Regional Office of the European Forest Institute (EFICEEC) located in Vienna and has been continuing in this activity since 2009.

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Foreign Languages Teaching and Bilingual Education Active knowledge of foreign languages with the emphasis on the English language is a basic precondition of a successful international cooperation in a European educational and research area. This requirement is primary for students and academic staff, too. To support the internationalisation of teaching in 2009 was prepared and submitted the project within the operational programme “Education” called Development of Study Programmes in a World Language and Support of Foreign Language Teaching at the Technical University in Zvolen. It was approved for funding by the non-repayable financial support of € 1, 052, 000 from the EU structural funds. Important part of the project is the development of Selfaccess Centre focused on an individual study of foreign languages providing language textbooks, encyclopaedias, specialized dictionaries, and professional journals in foreign languages. Adopting a new approach to foreign language teaching based on the three-pillar system, is considered a decisive step ahead in this area in academic year 2011/12: 1st main pillar includes the following compulsory subjects: a  at the bachelor’s level – Specialized Conversation in a Foreign Language I; the 1st Foreign Language for Managers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 b  at the PhD level – Foreign Language for PhD Students, nd 2 additional pillar includes optional subjects: a  at the bachelor’s level – Grammar of Specialized Texts b  at the master’s level – Specialized Conversation in a Foreign Language II; Academic Foreign Language; 2nd Foreign Language for Managers 1, 2, 3

3rd pillar includes paid and supporting courses, respectively specialised paid courses aimed at the preparation for foreign language certificates. The form of examinations in compulsory and optional subjects is similar to standardised certificated examinations in foreign languages. During their study students are offered a possibility to enrol and successfully complete certificated and internationally recognized examinations in foreign languages – City & Guilds and ÖSD. The TUZVO, namely the Institute of Foreign Languages, has the accreditation to prepare for and do examinations in English language City & Guilds and this year it is going to gain the licence for ÖSD (i.e. Austrian Language Diploma). The accessibility of University to foreigners which is based on teaching in a foreign language and thus conditioned by adequate language competence of academic staff is another important aspect of the internationalisation of the TUZVO. The above mentioned project within the operational programme “Education” called the Development of Study Programmes in a World Language and Support of Foreign Language Teaching at the Technical University in Zvolen is focused on the preparation of new study programmes in foreign languages, namely: • master’s study programme l at the Faculty of Forestry (the LF) – Forestry and Wildlife Management, • one PhD study programme at the LF – Adaptive Forestry and Wildlife Management, • two master’s study programmes at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology (the DF) – Furniture and Interior Design; Production and Utilisation of Wood Products.

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Public Relations The long-time attention has been paid to establishment and development of public relations along with the building of the TUZVO reputation and its successful management of main activities connected to the TUZVO mission which influence the perception of  the TUZVO as a top educational and research institution among general non-specialist public but also the experts, constantly contributing to development of loyalty and the sense of pride for their alma mater among students and employees, and to the development of relations with civil service, local administration and other academic institutions. Ongoing purposeful and active development of public relations belongs to strategic aims of the Technical University in Zvolen and currently it is an organic part of the complex of management processes. Effective public relations (PR) contribute to creating of a positive image and to the coverage of a preferential area of target groups in agreement with the mission and goals of the University. Fulfilling the tasks set in the long-term scheme in this area brought a rapid expansion and at the same time also stabilization of PR activities. Nowadays, the attention is paid to enhancement of PR activities management as purposefully coordinated activity focused on target groups of the public. Since 2008, mainly modern information and communication technologies (web site of the TUZVO and University Information System) as well as University Newspaper together with the complex of publishing activities and publicity managed by Media Relations and Event Management have been the tools of PR within internal and external communication. Considering the internal focus on employees and students of the University and the general public, web site of the TUZVO and University Newspaper are the most frequently used information channels. On the basis

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of modern publishing system enabling workplaces of the University to administrate and update their web pages independently the web site of the TUZVO has more than 1,500 directories in Slovak and English version. Since its launch in 2005, there has been almost 6,300 pages created and published and where the statistical system recorded more than 12 million page views automatically. The survey results showed that web pages are at the same time the most important communicative tool in relation to the applicants for study at the Technical University in Zvolen. Moreover, the system to watch and assess communication within a contact form of the TUZVO web site was implied and the new contact electronic addresses were created to provide information to the general public from Slovakia and mainly from abroad. The important shift was made also within the publishing


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activity. Since 2006 the Annual Report has been published – a report about activities of the Technical University in English language. The calendars of events for the nonspecialist public and experts have been regularly published since 2007. The new print media, the University Newspaper, was extended continuously – new sections were added and the emphasis was put on up-to-date topics. Its layout was innovated many times and since 2008 it has been regularly published in a larger newspaper format and full-colour printing in the increasing number of copies. In 2008 socalled “Commemorative Letter” was given to graduates for the first time. Is has been transformed into “Graduate Yearbook” later. Its unified and graphically valued image received positive response. The information manual of study at the Technical University called “The Technical University is Future” is the main part of it. Due to the supporting the

goal of the improvement of the TUZVO students language competence since 2009 the distribution of weekly newspaper Slovak Spectator has been secured. To create relations with experts and the non-specialist public and to promote the University, the TUZVO regularly participates in several events and exhibitions home and abroad. We are promoted in the following exhibitions AKADEMIA & Vapac, Nábytok (i.e. Furniture), Les a drevo (i.e. Forest and Timber) and many others. The TUZVO has fostered active cooperation with national and regional media and it can be stated that communication with media was intensified and stabilised. Since 2006, regular press conferences of the rector and university management have taken place at the beginning of the academic year. Media are invited to all important events and the materials and latest news are prepared for them. The same way are

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prepared the materials required by the newspaper itself (e.g. for newspaper SME, Pravda, Hospodárske noviny, Trend) concerning mainly the problems of study. It is reflected in raised positive publicity supported by visits of significant and interesting people on the grounds of the University, who are then paid attention by media. Recently, the TUZVO has been visited for example by the president Ivan Gašparovič, prime ministers of the Slovak Republic Robert Fico and Iveta Radičová, many government members of the Slovak Republic and the other main representatives of civil service

and local administration. Ambassadors of many European countries came to see the university, too. Within Event Management, to the most successful events belong last-year (2009 and 2011) international festivals of university folk groups called “Academic Zvolen“ which received a positive response in mass media and among inhabitants of Zvolen and its surroundings. The interest in the University is increased by “Doors Open Day” regularly organised within faculties every year. Within cooperation with the regional municipality, the TUZVO has been co-working on the security of several activities and The Chronicle The significant events for the University were the following: laying down of Zvolen since 2008.

the corner stone for the memorial Park of Generous Souls attended by the Prime Minister of the Slovak Republic Robert Fico, an unveiling ceremony of the Glass Memorial in 2009 where the Prime Minister Robert Fico was accompanied by an ambassador of Israel, 9 ministers of government and 12 ambassadors and representatives of foreign embassies in Slovakia, and also an unveiling ceremony of Journey of Submission as a final part of  the Memorial Park of Generous Souls. Since 2009, the memorial Park of Generous Souls has been included into the project The Slovak Jewish Heritage Route within The European Routes of Jewish Heritage and the whole project is called “Major Cultural Route of the Council of Europe”.

Activities of the University management and International Relations Office resulted in the decision of the Municipal Council of Zvolen to award the Technical University by the Mayor Prize in 2009.

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When scientific events representing an important platform of PR mainly in relation to experts are held the University is successful in promoting itself as a socially and environmentally responsible partaker in the national and international educational and research area. It is important to mention the certification of the Publishing House of the TUZVO in the PEFC certification scheme. Within improvement of in-house oriented PR, were supported many student’s activities, e.g. activity of the student radio INRO which belongs to the best ones in Slovakia, activity of the folk group Poľana, World Club and many other interest groups and clubs. Due to completion of projects supported by the EU structural funds, it was possible to update communication The success of a student of the Faculty channels of the of Wood Sciences and Technologies, University by Lukáš Priečko Bc., can be considered applying the the important contribution of the resources of virtual TUZVO students into development communication. In 2009, new of PR. Lukáš Priečko Bc. is a winner web kiosks and of a prestigious international communication competition International Design portals were Award and his success was noticed by installed in the the national and regional media. area of the University and the Student Halls of Residents. The original internal television information circle was modernised and completed with the new digital data system of projection (DSP) which can be used when transmitting information in different formats, including video recorded

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or watched online from lecture theatres and other academic or other institutions in Slovakia and abroad. When using modern technologies to promote and spread information about the TUZVO, DSP supports also web kiosks with the access to the University Information System, web sites and the other databases and Internet terminals.


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Developing Activities and Economy at the University Background and Funding Resources of Investment Development Successful operation of the institution is possible only through the continuous investment development. Our University is not an exception. The investment development of the Technical University (TUZVO) in years 2007–2011 was carried out in accordance to the Long-term scheme of the TUZVO for years 2003–2010 and following Longterm scheme of the TUZVO for years 2011–2016. The background for assessing the investment development of each university is the evidence of intangible property and fixed assets, buildings and constructions, equipment and laboratory equipment, infrastructure of the University, meeting conditions and requirements of preferred development programmes of the Long-term scheme. With reference to our University we can speak about university education, science, research and art, foreign relations and international cooperation. It is possible to register the development of the long-term assets of the University on the basis of registered acquisition

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value which was € 42,270,618 as per 31st December 2007. This growth is caused also by investment activities carried out successfully. Ensuring the investment development including reconstructions and modernisation of buildings and buying of new techniques are dependent on the amount of achieved funding resources. The state budget resources for capital expenditures supplied from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic and the state budget reached the following development in years 2007–2011: € 1,082,354 in 2007, € 1,039,475 in 2008, € 1,241,920 in 2009, € 557,833 in 2010, € 355,404 in 2011. During the years 2010–2011 there was a decrease of the state budget resources for capital expenditures in comparison to the previous year. Aforementioned funds were supplemented by funding resources from the European Union Structural Fund including their cofinancing by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. In 2008 the University achieved capital expenditures from European Union Structural Fund in the amount of € 558,347, € 3,038,956 in 2009, € 2,308,603 in 2010, € 1,890,646 in 2011.


!

Evaluation of Investment Development from Capital Expenditures The major tasks of investment development of the University is to ensure optimal state of buildings and structures, modernization of equipments and laboratory technique as well as development of information and communication technologies in accordance with applying market equipment of financing and rationalisation of spending funding resources. The Graph 1 illustrates the volume of capital investments from all resources in years 2007–2011. The growth of reinvested resources at the TUZVO was ensured in 2009

by funding resources from the European Union Structural Fund which were successfully influencing the reconstruction and modernisation of buildings and constructions, purchase of machines, devices and equipment.

€ 5,000,000€ 5 000 000 € 4,000,000€ 4 000 000 € 3,000,000€ 3 000 000 € 2,000,000€ 2 000 000 € 1,000,000€ 1 000 000

Graph 1 The volume of investments at the TUZVO in years 2007–2011

0€

2007

2007

2008

2008

2009

2009

2010

2010

2011

2011


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

When evaluating the investment development of the University it is necessary to divide the capital expenditures for acquisition and technical valuation of long-term assets (Graph 1) according to individual expenditures. The Table 3 illustrates the structure of investments used for individual years. In the 1st line there are included: purchases, software which presented the whole reinvested amount in years 2007, 2010 and 2011. It is connected with the development

of informatisation while ensuring the main activities of the University. These notable amounts, within the purchases of machines etc. (line 3), were invested into the computer and telecommunication technology. However, the main focus was on the acquisition of special machines, devices and technique. Increasing of savings of all kinds of energy in operation of the TUZVO and ensuring its main tasks through more detailed analysis of carried investments, which should

Table 3    Structure of investments in years 2007–2011

Investment

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Purchase of premises, intangible property

17,213

290,711

105,110

228,585

71,504

3,808

5,226

Purchase of machines, devices, equipment, technique and instruments

467,179

638,844

3,385,095

1,955,465

1,291,836

Purchase of means of transport

34,034

104,320

35,688

27,478

283,341

Preparatory and project documentation

2,716

39,817

39,343

Building of structures and their technical valuation

10,155

2,299,694

1,068,759

145,823

940,907

Reconstruction and modernisation of machines and devices

649,616

1,501,770

1,180,913

3,337,376

4,639,695

3,898,461

2,587,587

Purchase of buildings and structures

Purchase of other long-lasting assets Expenditures for acquisition and technical valuation of property in total

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Technical University in Zvolen

positively influence the operation of the TUZVO and to ensure its main tasks, was the primary focus. Project “The Heating of the TUZVO” focused on decreasing the energy intensity of the TUZVO areas with the costs approximately € 398,330 was worked out in the evaluated period. Within the reconstruction of buildings and equipment there were carried out windows replacement, insulation of envelopes and building roofs: Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library including the Centre of Information Technologies and the Centre for Continuing Education,

to carrying out of building activities but also with the real height of assigned funding resources for individual years and with progressive decreasing of state budget resources for capital expenditures from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of The Slovak Republic. Reconstructions and valuation of buildings in total amount of € 4,955,612 and reconstructions, building and projects of new buildings in the amount of € 402,533 (university car park enlargement € 235,545 optical network € 163,852) are considered the most significant investments carried out in the evaluated period. Capital investments put the buildings of individual faculties presented: € 752,829 into the building of FEVT, € 205,958 into the building of FEE, The total amount of capital investments for the acquisition € 1,481,271 into the University main building, and technical valuation of property of the TUZVO was € 37,583 into the Students Hall of Residence € 15,644,032 in years 2007–2011. Záhonok, € 317,280 into the Students Hall of Residence of Ľ. Štúr, € 344,323 into the Students Hall of Residence Bariny, € 247,478 into the additional building of the gym, the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing € 36,088 into the building of Arboretum Borová Hora, Technology, the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental € 1,532,793 into the building of Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences, the Institute of Physical Education and Sport, Science Library. the Residence Hall Ľ. Štúr including a congress hall, From the development of the amount of funding the Residence Hall Bariny ŠD Bariny) – Dining hall, resources for capital expenditures we can see reconstruction of roofs of the TUZVO and the University that in the previous 3 years the most significant sources were Forest Enterprise (Zvolen, Budča, Lieskovec). Within the the investments from the European Union Structural Fund projects from the Structural Fund of the European Union and therefore it is necessary to deal with investment activities “ITMS 26250120005 Reconstructions of Facilities of the which are financed from the European Union Structural TUZVO in Zvolen Aimed at Creating the Communication Fund in more detail. and Information Technologies (ICT) and Technical Technical University in Zvolen and its parts participate Valuation” the replacement of doors and windows of the successfully in the challenges for obtaining of non-recurring main building was carried out in the amount of € 172,000. financial grant from the European Union Structural Fund. Many reconstructions and modernisation of building 11 contracts were signed at the Technical structures were divided into several phases, what was related University in Zvolen to provide the non-recurring

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

financial grant from the European Union Structural Fund (8 as a coordinator and 3 as a partner) within the Operational Programme (OP) “Research and Development”, 1 contract to provide non-recurring financial grant from

University-wide Development Projects Financed from the European Union Structural Funds

3 university-wide projects were implemented at the TU in Zvolen within the Operational Programme “Research and Development”, Project “ITMS 26250120005  The project “ITMS 26250120026 with the priority Modernisation and Reconstruction Reconstruction of Facilities of the TU axis 5 – Infrastructure of Facilities of the TU in Zvolen in Zvolen Aimed at Creating the of Universities, measure Aimed at Creating the Information Information and Communication 5.1 Building University and Communication Technologies technologies and Technical Equipment Infrastructure and and technical Valuation of the – Stage II”started to be implemented Modernisation of Their Equipment for the Purpose Facilities” started to be implemented on 31st January 2009 and was finished th th of Creating Conditions on 10 December 2008 and was on 30 April 2011. From the total for Improving the quality administratively finished on 31st approved expenses of € 2,032,723 of Education, in the total August 2010. From the total planned the real amount of € 1,954,589 was approved amount of nonexpenses € 4,808,565 the real amount drawn down with coofinancing by the recurring financial grant € 4,435,025 was drawn down; TU in Zvolen € 111,411. € 10,916,358. and the cofinancing provided by the The following specific TUZVO represented € 276,477. goals of the project were accomplished: the improvement of the the European Union Structural Fund for OP “Education”, conditions for the educational process by modernisation 2 contracts in “Programme of the Overseas Cooperation of the internal information and communication technologies, Hungary – Slovak Republic”. Projects from the OP technical and technological equipment of laboratories and “Rural Development” are coordinated by the Ministry classrooms and the reconstruction of the building facility of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak for the purpose of the energy intensity reduction. Republic. Within the University 4 projects are coordinated An increase in the quality of education was achieved by the Centre of Continuing Education; 3 are coordinated by through teh reconstruction and equipement of largethe University Forest Enterprise and 4 are coordinated by the capacity classrooms. Static nature of lectures was Faculty of Forestry. changed to a dynamic place where the interaction between the lecturer and students dominates. The output

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

of this project is 11 large-capacity classrooms classrooms which were completely equipped and 2 videoconferencing rooms. The educational process was improved by the reconstruction of equipment and modernisation of 55 classrooms in 7 building structures. The quality of educational The project “ITMS 26250120026 conditions Reconstruction of Facilities of the TU in laboratories in Zvolen Aimed at Creating the for needs Information and Communication of practical technologies and Technical Equipment teaching was – Stage III” started to be implemented improved by on 27th May 2010 and is planned to reconstruction st of equipment and be finished on 31 October 2012. The modernisation project budget according to the Contract of 36 laboratories about the Non Recurring Financial in 4 building Grant is € 4,075,070, planned own structures. financial resources of the TU in Zvolen The connection are € 203,753 € 13,933,124 from the to high-speed budget is planned to be used for capital Internet for all investments. students accommodated in all 3 Students Halls of Residence became more accessible due to the improving of the quality of ICT with the total number of 3,024 connected buildings. Students can communicate directly with their teachers from their rooms, to work at their tasks and assignments with the possibility to use the information resources and services which are free available on the Internet and in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library. Giving information about the situation of the University and the access to the

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University Information System (UIS) in campus area were improved. Information and communication system consists of information panels, information kiosks and webkiosk. The quality, reliability and safety of provided data, information and net services at the TU in Zvolen as well as providing for the speed, safe recieving and transmission of audio information were increased. The energy intensity for thermal heating was decreased and quality educational space for students in the main building was created. The result of the project is that large-capacity classrooms were equipped with new flooring, interior equipment. Conference rooms were equipped with data, audio and video wiring and interior equipment. Student Congress Centre was equipped with interpreting and sound system, mixing desk, connecting video and audio wiring and further interior equipment. The university hall was equipped with camera control system, turntable intelligent cameras, connecting video wiring, microphones, mixing desks, sound control unit and amplifiers. Arboretum Borová Hora (specialised workplace of the TU in Zvolen used for teaching and research of dendrology, botany and pedology) was connected to the computer network of the University by optical cable in total length of more than 3.5 km. New connection replaced inconvenient microwave connection with slow speed and frequent blacouts. Implementation of the last activity resulted in enlarging of data infrastructure for ensuring the high-speed Internet connection in 7 building structures of the University. Wireless network coverage in buildings and campus and identification and communication terminal for students in the entrance hall of the main building were established. Network services were improved by modernisation of the server room which has at present more than 30 servers connected to central data storage with the capacity of 20 TB.


Technical University in Zvolen

HelpDesk, which is a part of the information system for evidence of requirements of users and remote manager of computers, was established as a new workplace at the Centre of Information Technologies. The role of HelpDesk is to ensure effective utilisation of ICT. The building of the hall of scientific and experimental workplaces (HVEP) and the reconstruction of the Development Workshops and Laboratories (VDL) can be considered as a significant task.

thermal insulation of entry gates, reconstruction of wiring, airconditioning and lightning and interior equipment will be carried out. The aim of the modernisation of the ICT within this project is to improve the accessibility of the highspeed Internet from the main building to farther workplaces as (Students Halls of Residence Bariny, Ľ. Štúr, Záhonok, Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library), to increase the number of network connection points of the TUZVOnet, to improve central network services by supporting the central servers, to implement central management of PCs, Development projects financed from the European Union Structural to use the power supplies in the Funds and the Ministry of Education, Science research and Sport of the server room in the Slovak Slovak Republic had significant impact on building and modernisation Forestry and Wood Science of infrastructure of the University in the sphere of the ICT and libraryLibrary and data fuseboxes information services. of the Centre of Informtaion Technology, to provide for the ICT and devices using ICT in new hall HVEP in connected A modern area for building of the centre of three3D laboratory and laboratory of virtual reality (virtual cave). dimensional technologies will be established. The building of the hall includes removal of the envelope and roof, maintenance of supporting structure, reroofing, thermal Support of the Main Activities of the University by insulation of the envelope with lightning and hall entries, the Information and Communication Technologies building of electrical network and piping system, building of infrastructure for 3D technology and particular It is important to have reliable, accessible and modern laboratories and classrooms which will serve for all faculties technologies with high capacity and good transmission of the University. and quality specialised information services for successful The aim of further activity of the project is the implementation of the main activities of the University. reconstruction and equipment of clasrooms of the area of the In 2009 the technical support in using of ICT was Development Laboratories and Workshops. The removal improved by providing the access into UIS through of present skylights and their replacement, thermal insulation university webkiosks which are placed in campus. System of the hall envelope, wall and ceiling surface finishing, of information panels showing information about the

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

University was established. These panels are located in all buildings of the University except the Arboretum Borová Hora and Students Hall of Residence Záhonok. Modernisation of the server room was an important step. At present this room provides airconditioned space for almost 100 servers with individual backup source of the UPS and diesel generator which provides for electricity supply. UIS data are stored in backup disk array with the capacity of 10 TB. Applied system of multifunction cards for students and employees of the University enabled the connection with the information systems at the TUZVO. The programme recieves data about a new cardholder from the UIS and sends the chip number into the is at the University in which the card is used, i.e. into the UIS, Work Attendance, Credit, e-mail and for bus operators of the SR and ZSSK out of the University. The card is necessary for using of student terminals/webkiosks. It can be used as an admission card in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library and in other libraries: Slovak Centre of Scientific and Technical Information (SCSTI), Slovak Agriculture Library in Slovak University of Agriculture at Nitra, University Library in Bratislava, Central Library of SAS, the State Scientific Library in Banská Bystrica, Košice and Prešov. The card is possible to use commercially in companies such as FaxCopy and Ticketportal. ISIC and ITIC holders can use all advantages of CKM SYTS. Another application established for the support of management activities of the University is the electronic registry – Registration book. In 2010 the central HelpDesk system, enabling the users of the ICK to enter and monitor processing of applications for help with the ICT, was put into operation. In 2005 Library and Information System Advanced Rapid Library (ARL) was established in the Slovak Forestry

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and Wood Science Library from funding resources gained within development projects from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. Within the national project of the EU the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library got € 199,000 for technical and technological equipment in 2008. The funding resources were used for equipment of a new Information and Scientific Centre and a study hall by computer technique, graphic softwares (application of CAD, ProENGINEER, Adobe CS3, CorelDRAW), special device for weak-eyed, installation of multifunctional devices for self-service print, copying and scanning of documents, installation of security system RFID for protection of free available library collection in the Library Centre in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library. Since 2007 the ARL has been integrated with the UIS by a web service which enables common database sharing and it enables the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library to use database of chip cards in transmission of personal data or users of the library and a control of their validity. The dadabase of publication activity and document catalogue of Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library can be used via UIS. In the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library there were the original modules of the system ARL (Cataloguing and Authority, Borrowings, Management of magazines, Evidence of Publication Activity, Imposing, Outputs and Statistics, IPAC – publicly accessible online catalogue, Management of system) and in 2008 they were extended with modules which enabled to implement effective radio frequency protection of available collection and to access self-service reprographic services. In 2009 the RFID station, which serves to users for viewing of their account in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library with the possibility of prolongation, borrowing and returning documents from the free choice, was established in the Library Centre.


Technical University in Zvolen

Self-service reprographic services are ensured in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library via two multifunctional devices which enable printing, copying and scanning of documents. Integration of the software TK Control into the ARL using multifunctional cards of the TU accessed the printing of documents to users during the year

workshop CEF (Czech Republic) and others were also a part of promotion. Information and communication technologies were used also for the supporting commercial and business activities especially in the field of education – ECDL courses and testing or in organising of different events in the School room, congress halls and lecture halls. The level of technical equipment of these rooms is very high when compared Building and extending of the collection of professional domestic and foreign with similar equipment not literature in the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library, formation and only in Slovakia but also abroad. access of technical database of the Slovak Forestry and Wood Science Library The access of the high-speed (Database of documents, Database of the evidence of Publication activities Internet, audiovisual technique, equipment for interpreting with citation index, Database of authorities), access of external electronic in large capacity lecture halls information resources with using of further access to electronic information enabled to organise events also resources by searching NAVIGA tool were the contribution for employees, on international level. students and public. All these activities were outputs of the national project The aim into the future of the EU and the project NIZPEZ (“National Information System of the is further integration Research and Development Support in Slovakia”) in years 2009–2010. of individual information systems and the increase of protection, authorisation, authentication, mobility 2010 from all public places in the Slovak Forestry and Wood user support, increase of levels of using new multimedial Sciences Library. technologies and support of the ICT skills improvement. There were carried out many steps aimed at promoting In the sphere of the library-information system ARL there the university activities in the area of the ICT and supporting will be necessary to supplement functionalities in order of running activities (TV reports of multifunctional cards to offer services which will contribute to improve the and ECDL, articles in press, meetings about cooperation main activities of the University. with Central Office of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, Academy of Education, town hall of Zvolen and others). Active participation in many national and foreign events, such as the session of Trans-European Research and Education Networking Association TERENA (Poland),

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Table 4    Grants for running costs from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR for the TU in Zvolen in years 2008–2011 in EUR

Grant / programme structure

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Grant for accredited study programmes

8,190,202

8,688,180

9,356,653

7,345,963

6,589,878

Grant for research, development or art activity

1,221,671

1,232,761

1,223,048

3,033,016

3,311,994

16,830

Grant for social support of students

1,542,788

1,605,447

1,489,197

1,503,140

1,498,175

Grants in total

10,971,491

11,526,388

12,068,898

11,882,119

11,400,047

2008

2009

2010

2011

400,385

39,662

139,572

203,680

Grant for the University development

Table 5    Economic results of the TU in Zvolen in years 2008–2011 in EUR

Economic result of the TUZVO Annual economic result

Other Development Activities at the University

Financing and Economy of the University

How about future? Further tasks of the investment development will be met in compliance with accredited Long-term scheme of the TU in Zvolen for years 2011–2016 with regard to ensure the stability, position, competitiveness and sustainable development of the University.

Economy of the TU in Zvolen was influenced by many changes in the sphere of funding resources of universities and methodics of allotment of state budget resources in the period of years 2008–2011. Activities of universities were according to the Act No. 131/2002 Coll. on Higher

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Technical University in Zvolen

Education and on Amendment and Supplementation of Certain Laws as Amended by Subsequent Regulations which was amended many times. The Technical University in Zvolen completed its internal regulations in accordance with § 15 of Act on Higher Education which went through the process of synchronising with amendments of Act on Higher Education – especially with Acts No. 332/2005

Coll. and No. 363/2007 Coll. in 2008. Financing of public universities (PU) was according to the Act No. 303/1995 Coll. on Budgetary Rules together with other Accounting Acts, Employee Rewarding Acts etc. Relatively significant change is the enforcement of financing of universities from many sources, while the income from other main activities (non-state budget resources) and business activity,

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

which the universities achieved by their own activity, remain as non-state budget resource to the University. Table 4 shows the grant development for the TU in Zvolen from which we can see some positive as well as negative trends, which influence the activity and possibilities of financing of necessary activities as well as the next development of the University. Grant for running costs of the accredited study programmes was increasing in years 2008–2010 positively and in years 2011–2012 we can see a drop which resulted in the process of searching for internal funds not only in the expenses but also in identification of possibilities in increasing of the TU performance. The acquisition of the aforementioned funding resources from the state budget for scientific and research activity by means of competition in grant agencies shows evidence of performance growth of the employees at the TU in Zvolen. Since 2009 the finances for development of universities has been acquired by financing of the needs for development from the European Union Structural Funds projects. These projects are very demanding not only from the point of view of preparation but mainly in the process of financing, monitoring of expected results (project indicators).

equipment and devices, € 1,715,274 for means of transport, € 463,126 for low cost assets, € 326,506 for other long-term assets, € 4,345,206 for acquisition of long-term assets. Economy of the University The economic result of the TU in Zvolen after paying taxes in the year 2011 was a profit € 203,679,69. The profit in the main activity was € 10,477,03, in the business activity it was € 193,202,66. Total economic result in years 2008–2011 is shown in Table 5. Investment Development of the University As it was mentioned before, we can positively evaluate the amount of capital expenses for the investment activities in years 2007–2012. Technical as well as technological quality of individual workplaces of the TU in Zvolen, with the positive influence on the growth of performance, was increased by projects implementation. Of course we can not forget about the problematic investments which are generated due to non-productive costs and their solving will result in the university effectiveness growth.

Property of the University The Technical University in Zvolen is the owner of the property which involves enough financials for providing for its operational efficiency. The value of fixed assets as per 31st December 2011 was € 52,881,323 in the cost of acquisition and € 34,297,415 in carrying value. Longterm assets have the following structure: € 915,042 for software, € 3,177,916 for grounds, € 5,369 for works of art, € 28,112,636 for buildings, € 13,820,248 for machines,

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Structure of investments of the University was in 2011 as follows: 1   from state budget resources: a  Building investments: • € 8,226 for reconstruction of the main building; • € 110,902 for reconstruction of the gymnasium; • € 76,225 for reconstruction of the canteen;


Technical University in Zvolen

• € 25,166 for reconstruction of the Development Workshops and Laboratories; • € 11,460 for maintenance and hydro-isolation of the School hall; The topic of energy intensity of the university buildings and the decrease of costs for energy was solved by these investments. b  Machinery investments: • € 47,770 for computer technology • € 134,194 for operational and specialised machines and devices; • € 19,967 for means of transport; c  € 3,597 for software; 2   from own resources: a  € 38,820 for construction investments – reconstruction and modernisation of the university buildings; b  € 141,034 for means of transport; c  Machinery investments: • € 5,251 for computer technology; • € 111,297 for machines and devices; • € 3,065 for telecommunication technology; • € 2,297 for interior equipment; d  € 9,264 for software and licences; e  € 7,539 for new constructions; 3   Investments financed from the resources of the EU with the financing of the Ministry of Education, Science,

Research and Sport of the SR: a  € 674,234 for reconstructions and modernisation; b  Machinery investments: • € 61,730 for computer and telecommunication technology; • € 938,877 for operational machines, devices and equipment; • € 90,546 for specialised machines and devices; c  € 61,730 for software and licences. Strategy of Financing and Investment of the University

Forming the financing and investment strategy for years 2013 –2017 is not simple and it will be influenced especially by many following factors are involved: We can formulate the strategy as a combined strategy – so on one hand there is a growth in the effectiveness of financing and investing (growth of annual profits), on the other hand there will be a growth in the property of the University which will be included into total value of the property of the TU in Zvolen. Combination of maximisation of annual profits and the growth of the property value will not be simple but this combination ensures further successful development of the University. All carried investments whether of building, technical or technological nature or other investments must be in accordance with the given 1 The way of allotment of the state budget resources for public universities strategy of financing including and finances obtained for the TU in Zvolen the resources ensuring their financing what should be the 2 The success of the TU in Zvolen in acquiring funding resources from the task of each manager of the TU grant agencies (domestic and foreign) in Zvolen.

3 Possibilities of acquiring the resources from the European Union Structural Funds in years 2013–2017

4 The amount of the resources acquired from the business activity of the TU in Zvolen 5 The amount of the resources from the process of restructuralisation and growth of the performance of the TU in Zvolen

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Faculty of Forestry in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Introduction and Mission of the Faculty The Faculty of Forestry (the LF) with its orientation holds a unique position in the system of Slovak university studies. As the only faculty it provides university education in the fields of study Forestry and Wildlife Management, as well as develops scientific research and implements the research results into forestry practice. The faculty awards academic degrees bachelor (Bc.) and master (Ing.) on its graduates. Research and development orientation of the faculty follows the trends of world forestry science and the requirements for the profile of a graduate. Contemporary main direction of the faculty research focuses on the adaptive management of forest ecosystems with the aim of continuation in scientific and research activities. In connection with scientific research the faculty organizes doctoral studies in several fields of study and awards the academic and scientific degree of “Philosophiae Doctor” (PhD.). The faculty is authorized to conduct habilitation and to award the academic and scientific degree of Associate Professor (doc) and conduct proceedings for Professors’ appointments in the accredited fields of study. During its 60-year of existence, the Faculty of Forestry in Zvolen went through a gradual development. At present it is divided into 8 departments (in parentheses are given current Heads of Departments): the Department of Forest Economics and Administration (Prof. Ing. Iveta Hajdúchová,

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PhD.), the Department of Phytology (Prof. Ing. Ladislav Paule, PhD.), the Department of Forest Management and Geodesy (Assoc. Prof. Ing. Marek Fabrika, PhD.), the Department of Forest Exploitation and Mechanization (Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Suchomel, CSc.) the Department of Forest Structures and Amelioration (Prof. Ing. Matúš Jakubis, PhD.), the Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management (Prof. Ing. Peter Garaj, CSc), the Department of Silviculture (Prof. Ing. Milan Saniga, DrSc), the Department of Natural Environment (Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Škvarenina, CSc.). The qualification structure of the LF staff has been stable; in 2012 at the LF have been working 13 professors, 26 associate professors, 35 assistant professors, 36 research and development workers and 31 other employees. A number of employees in the categories of research and development workers and other workers have fluctuated recently also in dependence on the amount of finances from the EU structural funds and these posts are planned for the period of project solution. Since 2007, six members of the faculty acquired the scientific and academic degree “Associate Professor” and one member acquired scientific degree “Doctor of Science” and 2 members are in the proceedings for professor inauguration.


Faculty of Forestry

The greatest achievements of the LF in the recent period are as follows: • successfulness of the faculty in Slovak grant schemes and projects from the EU structural funds, for example obtaining and implementation of five projects of the Centres of Excellence in the seat of the Faculty of Forestry, • foremost position of the LF in evaluation of the universities by independent Academic Ranking and Rating Agency (ARRA) in the years 2008–2011, • awarding of the Prize of the Minister for contribution in the field of environment and Ján Bahýľ Prize for the system of patents in the field of recuperative cableways, for extraordinary valuable legal industrial and technical solutions of the team of workers from the Faculty of Forestry. The function of the Dean of the Faculty of Forestry was held by several people. In the period 2008–2012 the office of the Dean was held by Prof. Ing. Rudolf Kropil, CSc., the offices of Vice-Deans were held by Prof. Ing. Matúš Jakubis, PhD., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Dr. Viliam Pichler and since 2009 by Prof. Ing. Valéria Messingerová, CSc. At present, the senior officers at the Faculty of Forestry are as follows: the Dean – Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ing. Viliam Pichler, the Vice-Dean for Educational Activities Prof. Ing. Valéria Messingerová, CSc., the Vice-Dean for Scientific and Research Work

– Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jaroslav Kmeť, PhD., Vice- Dean for Development and Foreign Relations Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Scheer, CSc., the Secretary of the faculty – Ing. Helena Gibasová. The long-term chairman of the Academic Senate of the LF was Prof. Ing. Milan Saniga, DrSc., since 2012 this function has been held by Assoc. Prof. Ing. Katarína Střelcová, PhD. Educational Activities of the Faculty In the past, the university forestry study was framed mainly as a one-field study programme – Forestry. Following the Bologna process, with the aim to build up the common European university space and harmonization of academic degrees, since the Academic Year 2005/06 the LF provides the there-stage higher education system (bachelor – master – PhD.). The study follows the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). The study programmes take place in fulltime and part-time forms. The bachelor study programme lasts three years, the master study programme lasts two years. The doctoral study programmes in full time form last three years and in part-time form five years. Teachers of the faculty provide education also in two university study programmes – Economic and Management of Renewable Resources (bachelor degree), Management and Financing of Forest Enterprises (master degree). The study programme Forestry is the basic field of study

Study programmes and fields of study at the Faculty of Forestry Bachelor study

Master study

PhD study

• Forestry (L) • Applied Zoology and Wildlife Management (AZP)

• • • •

• Mechanization of Agricultural and Forest Production (MPLV) • Silviculture (PL) • Forest Management (HÚL) • Forest Phytology (LFYT) • Wildlife Management (POĽ) • Forest Amelioration (HYDRM)

Forestry (L) Applied Zoology and Wildlife Management (AZP) Geoinformatics and Mapping Technologies in Forestry (GMTL) • Forest Ecology (EL)

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at the Faculty of Forestry. Students obtain necessary theoretical and practical knowledge from biological, technical and economic disciplines of general and forestry character. In the 2nd stage of study they obtain deeper knowledge and also further practical knowledge from special forestry disciplines and fields, with the emphasis on specific methods of silviculture, protection and forest management, forest valuation and its functions, administration, financing and management of natural resources, elaboration of the projects and structures in forest management. The study programme of Applied Zoology and Wildlife Management belongs among the recently designed study programmes. Students obtain knowledge of applied zoology, wildlife management, forestry, creation and use of agricultural landscape, management and protection of wildlife population, creation and conservation of forest and field environment of the wildlife. The study in the 2nd stage is focused on deepening the knowledge from adaptive wildlife management under condition of free-market economy with application to modern ecological and protective functions of hunting, protection and management of wildlife and higher animals. The study programme Geoinformatics and Mapping

Technologies belongs among newly outlined master study programmes. Students obtain better command of forestry disciplines and along with them also special knowledge from the field of applied informatics, geographic information and geographic informative systems, land register of immovable, database systems, remote sensing of the Earth, geodesy, photogrammetry, cartography and mappIng.  The study programme Forest Ecology enables students on the basis of forestry disciplines to enhance their knowledge in the field of forest ecology and natural environments with the stress on forest and environmental pedology, forest ecology and landscape, biogeography, abiotic and biotic monitoring, eco-toxicology, landscape engineering, conservation of nature and landscape, environmental and ecological legislation and policy. Development of the number of students at the faculty during recent 5 years is illustrated in Table 6. Due to the demographic trend in Slovakia and charging students for part-time form of study has come to a decrease in number of the LF students in the recent period. This problem is of nation wide dimension and is also connected with a growing supply of study programmes at Slovak universities. In this period 1,004 students in average were

Table 6    Development of number of students at the faculty

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

742

777

734

733

676

Part-time students

227

284

312

281

256

Total

969

1,061

1,046

1,014

932

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studying at the LF yearly, out of which 26 % in part-time form of study. For a longer time, the number of students in doctoral study programme has fluctuated on the level of 80 students per an academic year. In this period an overall number of 1,183 students were graduated from bachelor and master study programmes and 111 ones graduated from doctoral study programme. Graduates from the LF faculty can fill in positions in all sections of forestry in the operations of state forest enterprises and legal entities of non-state forest, research institutes and enterprises of primary wood processIng. They also work as teachers at forestry schools, as administrative workers of protected landscape areas and national parks, at the agencies of environmental protection, as entrepreneurs in the field of forestry and in other industries related to forestry. Scientific and Research Activities of the Faculty Scientific and research activity of the LF is focused on solution of topical theoretical and practical issues of forestry. Research problems and topics of the research aim at the development of scientific theories as well as at particular solutions in the field of applied research. The new trend in the LF research for the years 2011–2020 is focused on adaptive management of forest ecosystems with the aim to ensure the continuity of the recent and present scientific and research activities and innovation of the priorities of scientific and research activities with regard to new challenges in international and national forestry research, society and economy. In the framework of main trend of the LF research, the focusing of the research at the departments of the faculty is as follows:

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• economic and social aspects of adaptive management of forest ecosystems • research into structure and function of forest ecosystems on broader natural science bases • planning and control tools of adaptive management of forest ecosystems • analysis and processing of theoretical and practical knowledge from the field of logging, hauling and manufacturing technique, forestry mechanization, ergonomics and safety of labour, complex utilization of biomass • aspects of forest structures, amelioration and torrent control in connexion with adaptive management of forest ecosystems • adaptive management of forest ecosystems and wildlife population under the influence of distribution processes in changing ecological conditions in the interest of sustainable forest management and maintaining of biodiversity • research into structure and ongoing processes in primeval forest of Slovakia, development, verification and optimization of silvicultural models in the forest with various functions with regard to changing climatic situation, research into form and growth changeability of the rare tree species • condition and changes of natural environment of forest ecosystems in Slovakia in the process of implementation of adaptive management of forest ecosystems The solved research projects have been supported by grants from various national and foreign schemes, mainly by funds of the Scientific Grand Agency (VEGA) of the Ministry of Education SR and the Slovak Academy of Sciences, the Cultural and Educational Grant Agency (KEGA), and the Research and Development Agency


Faculty of Forestry

(APVV). In the recent period the significant part of research funding resources are also the EU international programmes and the EU Structural Funds, which support the international research consortiums, establishment of the Centres of Excellence in the framework of operating programme Research and Development, the COST project, but also institutional funds of the LF and the TU. The survey concerning the structure and number of solved projects is illustrated in Table 7. From the international projects solved in the recent period within the framework of the 6th RP EU, it is necessary to mention the projects EFORWOOD (2005–2011) “Tools for Sustainability Impacts Assessment of Forestry – Wood Chain”, EVOLTREE (2006–2010) “Evolution of trees as

drivers of terrestrial biodiversity” and the supporting project TREEBREEDEX (2006–2010) “A working model network of tree improvement for competitive, multifunctional and sustainable European forestry”. In 2011, in the framework of the 7th RP EU, began the solving of the project INTEGRAL (2011–2014) „Future-oriented integrated management of European forest landscapes”. Extraordinary activity of the LF staff manifested itself also in acquiring finance from the EU Structural Funds for establishing and research activities within the Centre of Excellence called “Adaptive forest ecosystems” (2009– 2012) and in completion of the Centre of Excellence “Adaptive forest ecosystems” (2010–2013), the Excellence Centre for the support of decision making in forest and

Table 7    Number of projects solved at the faculty

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

VEGA

22

26

23

21

20

KEGA

3

5

6

4

2

APVV

5

8

9

5

8

Bilateral projects APVV

1

4

5

6th Framework Programme

5

5

3

3

1

COST

4

4

4

5

4

International projects from other sources

5

2

3

1

1

IPA

6

5

6

7

4

Total

50

55

55

50

45

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landscape (2011–2014), the Centre of Excellence for integrated research into the Earth geosphere (2010–2013), the Centre of Excellence “Utilization of wood ash in forest management” (2010–2012), the Centre of Excellence for integrated management of watershed basin in changing conditions (2010–2012) and projects supported by the EU structural funds RELAZ The research, aimed at I a RELAZ II with interaction of meteorological, concentration on applied climatological, hydrological, research and development and biological processes of the of special cableway atmosphere and the Earth

surface, is an important challenge at present. It is focused on clearing up the whole spectrum of problems, which are connected with climatic changes and extreme weather, and their influence on forest ecosystems and various economic sectors. The authors of entries into this publication come from prestigious research institutions and universities, whose in their research solve the problems aimed at climatic changes, interaction soil – plant – atmosphere, and hydrological cycle, ecosystems, biosphere, and nature risks.

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installations. The LF members published yearly many books, textbooks, teaching manuals, monographies, original scientific books, and proceedings from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops. Basic survey of publication activity is illustrated in Table 8. Despite the fact that the publication activities of the LF for longer time belong among the best, it is necessary to increase mainly the portion of original scientific works in international ISI-indexed journals that are decisive from the viewpoint of acquiring funds in the framework of grant schemes, state subsidies as well as the accreditation of all activities of the faculty. Since 1958, the faculty has been publishing a yearly compendium of scientific work “Acta Facultatis Forestalis Zvolen”, now it is a journal, in which the original scientific Changing climate and the changes works of research workers from in landscape management are possible the Faculty of Forestry as well as from other institutions in risks for adequate supply of water in forest Slovakia and from abroad, are ecosystems of Europe, its quality and being published. subsequent ensuring of water-protection Significant part of scientific function of the forests. Supply of water and research activity of the in the forest depends highly on its structure faculty is organising scientific and climatic conditions. This book is and professional events, a significant contribution of continuing conferences, symposia and dialogue of scientists, who deals with seminars for dissemination interaction forest – water on various of research results in scientific levels. Contributions of the authors cover community, but also for geographic and climatic gradient from Island professional public on national and international level. to Israel and from south Spain to Estonia The LF has a long-term and Finland. tradition in organising the Student Scientific and Research


Faculty of Forestry

Table 8    Survey of publication activities of the faculty according to categories

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

A1

8

13

20

9

45

A2

29

24

33

34

25

B

21

11

21

26

18

C

319

410

351

449

418

Table of contents: A1 –  Scientific monograph publications A2 –  Other book publications B   –  Publications in ISI-indexed journals and autorship certificates, patents and inventions C   –  Other reviewed publications

Activity (ŠVOČ). In 2012 the 52nd year of the faculty conference was already held. In this year 73 entries were enrolled in one bachelor section, three master sections and two doctoral sections. In recent five years as well as at present, the Faculty of Forestry has had its representation in the VEGA and KEGA committees and the APVV councils, where many scientific personalities from the members of the faculty participated not only in selection of the best quality projects assigned for funding, but also for outlining the state scientific policy.

Development Activities of the Faculty In the recent five years it has come to a significant development of material and technical equipment and the overall infrastructure of the faculty. This trend has continued also at present and is connected mainly with drawing of funds from the university and faculty projects from the EU structural funds. In the framework of the projects – Reconstruction of Objects of the TU in Zvolen with the aim of building IKT and technical equipment the – 1st and the 2nd construction phase, it came to a technical valorisation and modernization of existing premises of lecture-halls, laboratories and conference room of the faculty. The lecture halls were equipped with modern didactic technology, in the conference room of the faculty new data cabling was laid,

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and it was also significantly modernized. The total amount of investments into refurbishment of the objects of the LF in the period 2008–2011 represented almost 700 thousand EUR. At present the 3rd phase of this project has been carried out which should be completed by the end of 2012.

In the framework of the 3rd phase of the project Reconstruction of Objects of the TU in Zvolen, a unique workplace of the LF is under reconstruction, aiming at utilization of virtual reality of the forest in teaching process. It is an equipment, called “virtual cave” (quadrant 3 x 3 x 2.5 m). On the wall of the quadrant will be projected a stereoscopic picture of a virtual forest, where a student will – move- and will realize interventions into forest and will forecast its development. It is a unique solution in the field of modeling a virtual reality and in European forestry education.

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The projects based on the EU structural funds designed for building the Centres of Excellences decisively contributed to the development of scientific and research infrastructure of the LF in the recent period. Fluorescent microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray analyser, broadband spectrophotometer, MasterCycler, laminar flow box, autoclave, - these are only a few from the apparatus, which were purchased from the structural funds to modernize the Atomic force microscope instrumentation of the faculty and for solving MultiMode 8 (manufacturer the topical problems of the research. Bruker Nano Surfaces, Terrestrial laser scanner, special software Santa Barbara, CA, USA), applications, and ample map shot material in which was purchased for various scale and quality from the test flying more than € 217,000, is of unique research object of the faculty – a unique apparatus for the University Forest Enterprise, will serve measuring and display for the research and applications in the field the surfaces of cell walls of of geoinformatics and precise forestry. It biological samples, mainly serves as an experimental base for basic and cross-sections of stalks, applied research of the faculty, for building of demo objects and practical teaching leaves, roots and wood of students. on micrometer and even

manometer level by means of scanning the sample surface by silicone point with the radius of several nanometre. Apart from this, the microscope can measure magnetic, electric and resonance properties of biological materials. It is the microscope of new generation, which is very rare in Slovakia.

International Relations of the Faculty The Faculty of Forestry, individual workplaces and their members maintain productive relations and activities with Slovak and foreign partners. Cooperation with foreign partners is based on the principle of bilateral and multilateral agreements, which is the base for elaboration of agreements for particular activities, reciprocal mobility of students and teachers.


Faculty of Forestry

Mobility of students and creative faculty members has been conducted mainly within the Erasmus, CEEPUS and COST schemes. They enable study stays, lecture stays and short-term science missions lasting from several days and weeks to months. Mobility of students within the Erasmus scheme is designed to spend a part of study at the faculties abroad. Mobility of students, language courses and shortterm attachments is based on bilateral agreements. In 2011, the LF was involved in such agreements with 17 foreign faculties and universities. Mobility of creative members of the LF has been conducted also within international schemes and projects by participation in scientific and, professional events abroad and of course, on the basis of informal contacts with the colleagues at foreign workplaces. An example of excellent and long-term cooperation are the relations and collaboration of the LF with institutes of the Faculty of Forestry and Forest Ecology, Georg-August-Universität in Göttingen, which has already 20 year history. Since 2008 there has been a cooperation within the project DAAD „Ostpartnerschaften“, focused on applied informatics, spatial information systems, geoinformatics, growth simulators, genetic diversity of forest tree species and implementation of e-learning into teachIng. Within this project much bilateral mobility of students, doctoral students and teachers took place. Within this common bilateral project two summer schools, one called “Spatial modelling and information system in forestry and e-learning aspects” (2008) and the second one in Göttingen called “Modelling and Simulation with GroIMP” (2010) were also carried out. The projects in promotion of education science and research and arrangement of study programmes in foreign language are also important for creation of international cooperation of the faculty. The LF is elaborating the study programmes in English language for foreign students within the operational programme Education called

“Creation of study programme in international language and promotion of teaching of foreign languages at the TU in Zvolen” (2010–2013). It concerns the master study programme “Forestry and Wildlife Management” and PhD study programme “Adaptive Forestry and Wildlife Management”. A part of the project is also creation of selfeducational centre focused on autonomous study of foreign languages with participation of the Institute of Foreign Languages and the Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences Library. Further projects CEEPUS, Erasmus and APVV also belong to the same group of projects. Cooperation with external partners in Slovakia is an important part of public relation of the faculty and at strategic level leads to formation of national forest policy and strategy. They are also manifested in participation of the representatives of the Forest of the SR, state-owned company, and the National Forest Centre in Zvolen in the committees for State Exams and Defences of Thesis of at the LF, in participation of Slovak partners and institutions in the joint projects in the Centres of Excellence and the events focused on promotion of forestry and university forestry education. Collaboration with national partners has also a practical dimension, mainly in the form of expert opinions for organizations of state administration and enterprises in the Department of Agriculture and Environment, cooperation with the Office of Public Health, the Criminological and Expertise Institute of the Police Force SR etc. The LF is a collective member of non-governmental organizations IUFRO (International Union of Forest Research Organization) and PRO SILVA (Union Európeen des Forestiers aux Concepcions de Gestion Proche de la Nature) and from 2010 has also its representation in the international Committee IUFRO. By means of the university membership it has also a membership in EFI (European Forestry Institute). The faculty fellows are also members

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of many international organisations and executive boards of the following programmes: (UNECE/FAO Forest Communicators Network, UNESCO World Heritage Committee, IUFRO – Division 4 Inventory, Growth, Yield, Quantitative and Management Sciences, Division 6.13.00 Social, Economic, Information, and Policy Sciences, Division 8, WP 06 Wildlife conservation & management, Division 1.10.0 Breeding and Cultivation of Beech, S2.04.01 Population Genetics, Regional research centre EFI “Towards a Sustainable Forest Sector in Europe: Fostering Innovation and Entrepreneurship”, European Committee PRO SILVA, International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation etc.). The Faculty of Forestry is a significant and intrinsic part of the University, successor of modern university forestry education whose origin is connected with the establishment of the Forest Institute at the Higher Mining School – the Academy in Banská Štiavnica in 1807. The forests were always an inherent part of the life of man. The forest is used and changed by man and at the same time it changes him. Forests cover nearly 41  % of the territory of Slovakia. They are said to be one of the greatest natural wealth and a renewable natural resource. Their proper management therefore requires specialists with various stage of education, who will approach them globally with all their parts and ongoing processes in them. The Faculty of Forestry has therefore a significant and well justified place in the system of university studies in Slovakia.

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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Introduction and the Faculty Profile The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology (hereafter the DF) at the Technical University in Zvolen belongs to the top educational and scientific-research organisations in the higher education system of the Slovak Republic. The main Faculty mission is to provide higher education, to develop scientific research and creative activity of art. Educational process is based on the latest world knowledge of science, technology, economics and on the basic and applied research of the Faculty, on the cooperation with other universities, scientific-research institutes, wood-processing and wood-working industries. It educates highly educated specialists – Bachelors, Masters of Science, Doctors for the whole field of wood and wood products, not only wood technologists but also designers and interior consultants, managers, economists, as well as specialists in fire protection services for needs of Slovakia but also foreign countries. Fulltime as well as part-time study is offered at the Faculty. The scientific and research activity of the Faculty is aimed at global utilisation of wood as a raw material, technology and techniques, fire safety and economics. Main attention is focused on wood valuation by its transformation into products of new generation creating an entire interior – the human microenvironment. The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology has been

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developing gradually during its 60-year-long existence. At the present time it is divided into 11 departments (presentday head of departments are mentioned in brackets): Department of Wood Science (Dr. h. c. Prof. RNDr. Marián Babiak, PhD.), Department of Woodworking (Prof. Ing. Ladislav Dzurenda, PhD.) Department of Mechanical Wood Technology (Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ivan Klement, CSc.), Department of Furniture Design and Wood Products (René Baďur, M.F.A.), Department of Furniture and Wood Products (Assoc. Prof. Ing. Pavol Joščák, CSc.), Department of Enterprise Management (Prof. Ing. Anna Šatanová, CSc.), Department of Marketing, Trade and World Forestry (Prof. h. c. Prof. Ing. Mikuláš Šupín, CSc.), Department of Mathematics and Descriptive Geometry (Assoc. Prof. Ing. Milan Matejdes, CSc.), Department of Physics, Electrotechnics and Applied Mechanics (Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Milada Gajtanská, CSc.), Department of Fire Protection (PaedDr. Peter Polakovič, PhD.), Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies (Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Marta Laurová, PhD.). At present pedagogical, scientific and research and other activities are provided by 155 employees. 14 professors, 27 associate professors, 62 assistant professors, 19 researchers and 33 technical and economic employees work at the Faculty. The aim of the Faculty is to adapt education of new specialists to changing requirements for the professional


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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

practice. Universality and individualisation are the main features of the programme. The management of the Faculty in years 2007–2009 consisted of following members: Prof. Ing. Igor Čunderlík, CSc. – the dean, Assoc. Prof. Ing. Anton Geffert, CSc. – the vice dean for scientific and research activity, Assoc. Prof. Danica Kačíková, CSc. – the vice dean for educational activity and Prof. Ing. Jozef Štefko,CSc. – the vice dean for international relations of the Faculty. The management of the Faculty since 2009 has consisted of following members: Prof. Ing. Mikuláš Siklienka, PhD. – the dean, RNDr. Andrej Jankech, PhD. – the vice dean for educational activities, Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ján Sedliačik, PhD. – the vice dean for scientific and research activity and continuing education, Assoc. Prof. Ing. Hubert Paluš, PhD. – the vice dean for international relations and development of the Faculty and Ing. Alena Macoszková – the secretary of the DF .

In years 2007–2011 Assoc. Prof. Ing. Iveta Marková, PhD. performed a function of the chair of the Academic Senate and Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Drábek, PhD. has performed mentioned function since 2011. Educational Activity of the Faculty in Years 2007–2011

The study at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology was carried out according to the Longterm Scheme of the Faculty and the results of complex accreditation of the Technical University in Zvolen in the evaluated period 2002–2007. New study programme proposals in four study branches and in three degrees of study were submitted for the assessment within the accreditation process. All proposed study programmes were accredited mostly without time limit, in some cases with time limit. Introducing of new study programmes together with teaching in finishing study branches required high demands to ensure the organizing of educational The victory of the student of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology process and already high Lukáš Priečko in the prestigious international competition International workload of pedagogical staff Design Award 2009, organised by the firm Hettich, is considered to be at many departments increased an extraordinary achievement. His winning work the interactive voice at the same time. Until 2009/10 controlled armchair Transformer, which he designed under the supervision students of several programmes of Assoc. Prof. Mgr. Art. Marián Ihring, ArtD., was awarded the first prize of finishing branches Wood in the competition of 1,600 works of participants of all over the world. Engineering, Wood Processing Technologies, Protection of Persons and Property against Fire, Enterprise Management, Furniture Design and Interior Design gradually completed their study. PhD study was

Creative activity of Prof. Ing. Štefan Schneider, PhD., who gained 13 certifications about the registration of design by Industrial Property Office of the Slovak Republic in 2011, makes a significant contribution.

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completed by students in finishing study branches 33-01-9 Wood Processing Technology, 33-38-9 Wood Structure and Properties, 33-39-9 Construction and Processes of Wood Products Production and 62-03-9 Branch and Cross-sectional Economies. The study was provided also at the detached workplace of the DF in Volyně in the Czech Republic, where students of the Higher Professional School in Volyně attended individually accredited Bachelor’s study programme Construction of Timber Structures and Furniture. After its completion students were awarded the title of Bachelor and they could continue in the Master’s study programme at the DF in Zvolen. Except the detached workplace in Volyně education was provided at the consultancy division of the The Faculty of Wood Sciences and DF in Vranov Technology established the detached nad Topľou in the workplace at the Higher Professional part-time study School in Volyně. Since 1st January in Bachelor’s study 2007, after changes approved by the programme Wood accreditation committee, the study in Technologies.

the branch “Furniture Creation and Timber Structures” has been closely connected to the Bachelor’s study programme “Construction of Timber Structures and Furniture”. The study at the Higher Professional School lasts for four years, whereby self-activity and practical preparation of students are features which are insisted on.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Study programmes – 1st degree of study (Bc.) In the branch of study: 5.2.42 Wood Technology study was provided in following study programmes in full-time and in part-time study • Construction of Timber Structures and Furniture (part-time form of study was offered also at the detached workplace of the DF in Volyně, Czech Republic) (KDSN) • Operation of Machines and Equipment (PSZ) • Furniture Production (VN) • Chemical Processing of Wood (CHSD) • Biomass Processing Technologies TSB) • Wood Processing Technologies (part-time study was offered also at the consultancy division in Vranov nad Topľou) (DT) • Management of Wood Processing and Furniture Production (MDNV) Interbranch study 5.2.42 Wood Science and 6.2.1 Forestry • Technical Production and Primary Processing of Wood (TPPSD)

In the branch of study 3.3.16 Economics and Enterprise Management study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in the study programme • Enterprise Management in the Wood Processing Industry (PM DSP) In the branch of study 8.3.1 Protection of Persons and Property study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in the study programme • Protection of Persons and Property against Fire (OSPM) and in the branch of study 2.2.6 Design study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in the study programme • Furniture Design (DN) • Interior Design (ID)


Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

Study programmes – 2nd degree of study (MSc., Mgr. Art.) In the branch of study 5.2.42 Wood Technology study was provided in study programmes in full-time and in parttime study • Construction of Wood Products (KDV) • Material Engineering (MI) • Wood Processing Technologies (TSD) • Furniture and Wood Products (NVD) • Wood Engineering (DI) • Biomass Processing Technologies (TSB) In the branch of study 3.3.16 Economics and Enterprise Management study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in the study programme • Enterprise Management in the Wood Processing Industry (PM DSP) In the branch of study 8.3.1 Protection of Persons and Property study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in two study programmes • Fire and Rescue Services (HZS) • Protection of Persons and Property against Fire (TBOM) and in the branch of study 2.2.6 Design study was provided in full-time and in part-time study in the study programme • Furniture Design (DN)

Study programmes – 3rd degree of study (PhD.) • In the branch of study 5.2.43 Technology of Wood Processing the study programme Wood Processing Technology (full-time and part-time study) • In the branch of study 5.2.44 Wood Structure and Properties the study programme Wood Structure and Properties (full-time and part-time study) • In the branch of study 5.2.45 Construction and Technology of Wood Products the study programme Construction and Processes of Wood Products Production (full-time and part-time study) • In the branch of study 8.3.1 Protection of Persons and Property the study programme Fire Protection and Safety (full-time and part-time study)

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Implementation of the University Information System influenced significantly activities associated with education in 2006. Almost all operations of educational activity started to be gradually a part of several modules of Information System that made work of teachers as well as departments of study issues more effective. Number of students in full-time and part-time study was in the ratio 62  % of full-time students and 38  % of part-time students, whereby the number of students in particular degrees of study was as follows: 66  % of students attended the 1st degree of study, 29  % of students attended the 2nd degree of study and 5  % of students were in the 3rd degree of study. The development of number of students in years 2007–2012 is illustrated in following table. The decrease in the number of students in part-time study in the academic year 2011/12 is caused by liability to pay tuition fees for part-

time study in accordance with the Amendment of the Act on Higher Education. At the present time the DF is preparing new complex accreditation and within results of the Operational Programme Education two new study programmes in the 2nd degree of study in the English language are being prepared. Mentioned solved tasks of the DF are in accordance with the Long-term Scheme of the DF for years 2011–2016 whose main aims in the field of education are utilisation of intellectual potential of young generation, preparation of new quality and attractive study programmes, improving the access to the university education, regular quality assessment of the educational activity, internationalisation of the study and keeping the university approach in the educational activity.

Table 9    The development of number of students at the Faculty

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

1,200

1,130

1,201

1,237

1,347

Part-time students

750

771

775

801

583

1,950

1,901

1,976

2,038

1,930

Total

136


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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

Scientific and Research Activity of the Faculty Scientific and research activity at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology runs in accordance with fulfiling the aims of the development programme “Science and Research at the Technical University in Zvolen as a Tool for Development, Keeping and Enhancing the Knowledge” in following scientific and research trends: • quality of wood and other lignocelluloses materials as natural resources in relation to processes of their effective utilisation and processing, • deaggregation, disintegration, improvement and reconstitution of existing assortment of wood (forest and industrial residues, recycled wood of old products) to products with utility properties, • wood interaction with solid substances and with different mechanical load, chemical and other substances and different forms of energy, • chemical composition of wood and its chemical processing, • energy valuation of wood and industrial processing of nonutilisable residues, • design and creation of furniture, final products of wood and timber constructions, • fire protection and integrated safety, • economic and marketing aspects of effective valuation of wood and manufacturing processes and innovation management.

Fulfiling of research intentions of the Faculty is carried out through the projects which are financed by the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the SR through Scientific Grant Agency (VEGA), Cultural and Educational Grant Agency (KEGA), Agency for Support of Research and Development (APVV) and also other state budget resources supported by the European Union. At the present time 22 VEGA projects and 6 KEGA projects are being solved at the Faculty. 1 project in the grant scheme Programme for Human Potential Support and 7 projects in the scheme of Bilateral Cooperation are financed by the agency APVV. Employees of the Faculty participated in solving the international project within the 7th Framework Programme of the European Union entitled “Ecological Application of Nanosorbents on the Base of Natural and Synthetic Ionites and Carbons” which is focused on problems of utilisation of nanosorbents added to polycondensation adhesives used to bond composite wood materials together. Several employees of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology are members of working teams of the programme COST, the most significant of them are: “Quality Control for Wood and Wood Products” and “Wood Science for Conservation of Cultural Heritage”. Other employees of the Faculty participate in projects within the EU programme LEONARDO da VINCI, TEMPUS and ERASMUS. Scientific and research workload of employees of the Faculty represents approximately 180,000 hours per year. PhD students, a part of technical employees and also employees of other workplaces of the TU participate in solving research works. A significant part of outputs of scientific and research work of employees of the Faculty is publication and art activity. The Ministry of Education, Science, Research and

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Sport of the SR released a guideline about bibliography registration and categorisation of publication activity, art works and responses. On the basis of this guideline principles of biography registration, categorisation criteria and procedures during registration of published documents and art works were determined. In years 2007–2012 up to 20 publications in a form of monograph, 40 university textbooks and other specialised study literature are

published annually and the number of publications in ISI – Indexed journals and author’s certificates grow significantly. Employees of the Faculty are authors and coauthors of about 150 scientific papers in foreign as well as Slovak non-ISI journals, of about 200 papers and abstracts in proceedings from scientific conferences and several tens of scientific papers, abstracts, posters and final reports. Important form of presentation of research results of the

Table 10    Number of solved projects at the Faculty

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

VEGA

30

33

28

31

22

KEGA

8

6

6

8

6

APVV

3

3

5

3

1

Bilateral projects APVV

2

2

5

7

Projects of applied research (AV)

1

1

1

5th Framework Programme

6th Framework Programme

1

1

7th Framework Programme

1

COST

3

1

2

International projects from other sources

1

2

4

3

IPA

4

4

1

3

Total

42

53

49

54

45

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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology to professional public is a discussion and comparison of its own results with results of other authors at conferences. In addition

to participation of employees of the Faculty in these events the DF organises approximately 20 scientific and professional events each year. From the number of significant scientific and research events it is necessary to highlight the oldest one. In the year 2011 the 20th international Ing. Rastislav Lagaňa, PhD. was given a significant international award symposium “Progress “2012 Markwardt Wood Engineering Award” and “2012 First Place George in Manufacturing and Marra Award for excellence in Writing” for the publication “Moment-curvature Utilisation of Adhesives Analysis of Coupled Bending and Mechanosorptive Response of Red Spruce in Wood Processing Beam” published in a magazine “Wood and Fiber Science”. Industry” was organised. It has been held regularly since the year 1967. Important form of presentation of scientific and research results of the DF is editing a scientific journal Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen. The 54th A journal Acta Facultatis Xylologiae Zvolen (AFXY) is a continuer of a volume was edited in 2012. periodical “Proceeding of Scientific Papers” of the Faculty of Wood Technology In the year 2012 the of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology, whose first issue was 53rd Student Scientific and published in the year 1958. It publishes peer-reviewed theoretical and Professional Activity was experimental papers in the branch of wood sciences focused on structure and held under the auspices of the dean of the DF. wood properties, wood processing, cutting, seasoning, modifications and wood Approximately 50 students preservation, furniture design, construction of timber structures, economics usually take part in this and management in wood processing industry. In addition to scientific papers international conference also records and reviews are published in the journal. It is available on the with their works. Students’ webpage of the TU in Zvolen (www.tuzvo.sk/df/afx) and through the Slovak works are divided into Forestry and Wood Sciences Library it is sent to more than 23 countries all over following sections: the world. AFXZ is indexed in a citation database SCOPUS with assigned technological and technical, international standard number ISSN 1336-3824. protection of persons and property against fire,

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Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

Table 11    The overview of publication activity of the Faculty according to groups of categories

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

A1

4

19

13

20

19

A2

45

45

42

62

31

B

6

10

18

17

38

C

335

433

359

541

395

Table of contents: A1 –  Scientific monograph publications A2 –  Other book publications B   –  Publications in ISI-indexed journals and autorship certificates, patents and inventions C   –  Other reviewed publications

economics and enterprise management, marketing, trade and innovation management, art and design. In addition to students of our University students from foreign and other Slovak universities, e.g. Tomas Bata University in Zlín, West Hungarian University Sopron, Masaryk University in Brno, Moscow State Forest university, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Technical University in Košice, Faculty of Special Engineering University of Žilina, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava, Matej Bel University Banská Bystrica, take part in it.

In the previous period students of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology took part in several conferences of students, PhD students and young scientific workers abroad. In the year 2011 PhD students of the DF Ing. Tomáš Novák and Ing. Miroslav Holý won the 1st and 2nd place in technological section at the conference at the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Development Activity of the Faculty The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology is a partner in projects within the Operational Programme Research and Development, which are coordinated by the Faculty of Forestry and participates also in building Centres of Excellence: “Adaptive Forest Ecosystems” and “Finishing of the Centre of Excellence – Adaptive Forest Ecosystems”, “Centre of Excellence for Support Decision – making in a Forest and in a Land” and “Centre of Excellence for Integrated Research of Geosphere of the Earth”. The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology has a modern technical infrastructure to ensure planned aims and scientific and research activities. From the newest devices we can mention devices at the Department of Wood Science, e.g. scanning electron microscope TESCAN used for microscopic analysis of materials and atomic force microscope AFM Multimode 8 to analyse surface topography, mechanical and adhesive properties at the nanolevel. To measure contact angle, determine surface energy and wetting of a surface the Surface Energy Analyser is used. The Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technologies has analytical devices, e.g. gas chromatograph with weight detector GC-MS to analyse wood components, products of wood conversion and test samples of the environment, liquid chromatograph to analyse main parts of lignocellulosic materials, their degradation products as well as to observe molar mass distribution of lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses. FTIR spectrophotometer is used to analyse wood components, cellulose and paper. The Department of Fire Protection has oxygen bomb calorimeter IKA C 5000 to calculate the Gross Calorific Value (GCV) of a solid or liquid or explosion chamber VK 100 to determine the peak explosion overpressure and rate of pressure. Tensile testing machine LaborTech 4.050 is used at the Department

144

of Furniture and Wood Products to test the strength of small test samples of glued wood and wood composites. Other departments have many other devices and measuring devices for mechanical, moisture and acoustic properties of wood and timber structures or equipment to measure thermo physical properties of materials SM100 to discover specific capacity and coefficients of heat and thermal conductivity. International Relations of the Faculty Activities in the area of international relations and establishment of international cooperation of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology at the TU in Zvolen are aimed at making new contacts and broadening the cooperation of the Faculty with foreign and Slovak partners and workplaces, activities in international scientific, art, university organisations, participating of employees in international projects of science, education, research and development. In accordance with the Long-term Scheme of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology at the TU in Zvolen the main aim in the area of international relations and international cooperation is willingness to cooperate at international level. Achievement of stated aim is carried out through fulfiling the following tasks: 1   Student and staff mobility support, 2   Orientation of international contracts and memberships in international organisations, 3   Public relations development. Previous years can be considered as the period of continuing development of student mobilities, broadening the cooperation with Slovak and foreign institutions, promoting and carrying out activities associated with preparation of study programmes in the foreign language.


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

The cooperation between the DF and foreign partners in the area of student and staff mobilities is carried out on the basis of accomplished contracts and cooperation programmes. Currently 26 bilateral contracts for student and staff mobilities are valid within the programme ERASMUS with partner institutions in 13 European countries. The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology is a part of the TU in Zvolen which uses the possibility of mobilities of the programme ERASMUS most actively. In the academic year 2010/11 9 teachers, 3 employees took part in mobilities and within 20 incoming mobilities at the TU in Zvolen 13 were carried out at the DF. At the same time the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology accepts more than 100 people per year from abroad and approximately the same number of employees of the Faculty is sent abroad in order to participate actively in staff mobilities and international events. Activities of international cooperation are developed at the Faculty for a long time. In addition to relations with traditional partner organisations the development of relations with countries outside Europe is carried out on the basis of cooperation in projects resulting from bilateral intergovernmental contracts with countries of the third world. These projects are carried out through bilateral cooperation of APVV and through European mobility and educational programmes. The DF cooperates with educational institutions with similar specialisation in the Czech Republic, Poland, Austria, Russia, Serbia, Croatia, Bulgaria, China, Ukraine, Lithuania, Macedonia, Slovenia, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Italy and Finland. Orientation on domestic institutions and making contacts aimed at the development of cooperation to support pedagogical activities, participation in research tasks and presenting results are a part of building international

146

relations. The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology at the TU in Zvolen has contract-based cooperation with significant wood processing companies such as Rettenmeier Tatra Timber, Ltd. Liptovský Hrádok, Mondi SCP, Inc. Ružomberok, Smrečina Hofatex, Inc. Banská Bystrica a Ekoltech, Ltd. Lučenec, Bučina DDD, Ltd., Zvolen, Nefab Packaging Slovakia, Ltd., Levice., The Institute of Special Healthcare and Training of Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic Lešť. The DF is represented by its employees in editorial boards of domestic as well as foreign scientific journals, international organisations, councils and committees located in the SR and abroad such as: IAWS – International Academy of Wood Sciences, SWST – Society of Wood Sciences and Technology, IUFRO – International Union of Forest Research Organisations, EPS – European Physical Society, EAA – European Acoustics Association, WoodEMA, i.a. – International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing, American Chemical Society, FPS – Forest Products Society, ALCA – The American Leather Chemists Association, IRG – The International Research Group on Wood Preservation, UEA – European Furniture Manufacturers Federation, IBPSA – International Building Performance Simulation Association, Slovak Office of Standards, Metrology and Testing, Slovak Development and Research Agency, Slovak Society for Quality, etc. Carrying out other educational and mobility projects within the programme ERASMUS (Intensive Programme), TEMPUS and LEONARDO da VINCI is important part to support the development of international relations. At the present time the DF prepares new study programmes in the 2nd degree of study in the English language “Furniture and Interior Design” and “Production and Utilisation of Wood Products” within the Operational programme Education.


Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology

The Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology has been, since its origin in the year 1952, an essential organisational part of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology and since the year 1992 of the Technical University in Zvolen. The Faculty can be ranked, because of its unique educational and scientific and research focus as well as its tendency in domestic and international relations, among significant educational and research institution in our country and abroad.

147


Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences in 2007­­—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Introduction, Orientation and Profile of the Faculty The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences at the Technical University in Zvolen is the only Slovak university faculty in the area of ecological and environmetal sciences in the Slovak higher education system. Its priority is the field of General and Applied Ecology, Landscape creation and utilization, as well as the problems of the environment protection and is globally dealing with environmental issues. The main mission of the Faculty is to educate graduates and specialists with a wide range of knowledge in the area of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, who can apply with confidence for positions in the state administration, professional organisations of the state administration of the Ministry of Environment of the Slovac Republic, production enterprises but also in non-state environmental organisations. Graduates can use their knowledge also in counselling in the areas – waste economy, waste gases, waste water, environmetal monitoring and other related areas. During the last year, the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences commemorated the 20th anniversary of its foundation. Its existence was especially influenced by so-called “Banská Štiavnica period” during the years 1998– 2006. On one hand, this period solved at the time problems with the premises and seat of the Faculty and helped the intentions of revitalisation of this historical site. On the other

150

hand, the geographical distance from the main seat of the University and high rents caused unbearable growth of fixed operating costs but at the same time the integrity of the Technical University of Zvolen was weakened. Therefore, with effect from 1 September 2006 the seat of the Faculty was moved back from Banská Štiavnica to Zvolen. With this event a new period of developement started. The promissing situation for the future is above all the fact, that the FEE was fully succesful in obtaining complex accreditation in 2009. Great credit for successful managing and handling of a difficult period of the last years has especially former representatives of the Faculty administration with Dean Assoc. Prof. Ing. Karol Kočík, PhD. in the period of years 2005–2009. Among other academic representatives, who were active at the FEE over the last past years are former Vice-deans for pedagogical activity Prof. Ing. Tibor Benčať, CSc. (until 2007) and Assoc. Prof. Ing. Dagmar Samešová, PhD. (until 2011), former Vice-deans for science and research Prof. RNDr. Oľga Kontrišová, CSc. (until 2008) and Assoc. Prof. Branko Slobodník, PhD. (until 2009) as well as former Vice-dean for development and external relations (until 2009) Assoc. Prof. Ing. Branislav Olah, PhD. On the 1 May 2009 was elected a new FEE Dean Assoc. Prof. Branko Slobodník, PhD. At present are active as Vice-deans Ing. Magdaléna Pichlerová, PhD. (development


151


The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

and external relations), Ing. Juraj Modranský, PhD. (pedagogical activity) and Ing. Michal Wiezik, PhD. (science, research and PhD study). During more than 20 years of its existence, the FEE has undergone continual developmental process that has resulted to the present division of the six following departments: the Department of Applied Ecology, the Department of Biology and General Ecology, the Department of Environmental Engineering, the Department of Landscape Planning and Design, the Department of Social Sciences and the UNESCO Department for Ecological Knowledge and Sustainable Development. The last of these was established as the part of the UNITWIN-UNESCO Chairs Programme which forms an international network of workplaces focusing on similar issues and is functioning and sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. At present (dating to 15 July 2012) there are active at the FEE altogether 7 professors, 10 associate professors, 26 assistant professors, 7 scientific-research workers, 10 technical workers and 4 members of administrative staff.

PhD.

Qualification structure of professor and associate professors can be since 2007 considered as stabilized. Striking increase at the Faculty was recorded in the qualification growth of assistant professors. Out of 26 assistant professors there is only one without the academic title “PhD.”. Educational And Training Activities At present, the FEE provides and is approved to provide university education in four bachelor and four master study programmes that are Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, Ecology and Landscape Utilization, Environmental Engineering and Environmental Management. The last is provided and taught not only in full-time study programme, but also in part-time combined study programme.Third, Postgraduate ( PhD Programme) is organized in the study programmes of Ecology and Protection of Biodiversity and Environmental Engineering, in both cases in full-time and part-time form of study.

eob

ei

Ing.

evk

eob

ei

em

Bc.

evk

eob

ei

em

Figure 1 The schema of the present structure of the study programmes at the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences Table of contents: EVK – Ecology and Landscape Utilization EOB – Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation EI – Environmental Engineering EM – Environmental Management

153


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

The above indicated structure of the study programmes corresponds with present personal structure of guarrantees and co-referees and is approaching in reality the reachable aim, that is balanced representation of the study programmes in all three degrees of the three-stage higher education system. Such a condition with regard to real capacities of the Faculty in an optimal measure reflects a wide range of possibilities where to apply ecological and environmental knowledge in practice and science. For its upkeeping or achievement of the given balanced structure, it will be necessary to work intensely on providing guarantees of personnel. It is of great importance to put also a maximum emphasis on securing the possibilities for habilitation procedures and appointive procedures of professors. At present, the FEE has got these rights

acknowledged in programmes 4.3.2. Environmental Engineering and 4.3.4. General Ecology and Ecology of Individuals and Population. Present number of students at the FEE corresponds with its real personnel and premises availibilities. Therefore further increase of number of students in the near future (also according to decreasing number of secondary school graduates that is connected with unfavourable trend in demographic situation in Slovakia) is not considered. During 21 years of its existence, the FEE has managed to educate 1856 graduates of bachelor, master and PhD study programmes. The wish for the future remains, that year by year the number of graduates increases and many of them will be known and respected specialists in the field of nature and environmental protection.

Table 12    The number of students of the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences since the Academic Year 2007/08.

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

558

567

553

626

631

Part-time students

67

79

92

110

129

Total

625

646

645

736

760

154


The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

The Scientific and Research Activities Research areas and activities, that are presently developping at the FEE are: 1  characteristics of ecosystems and evaluation of biodiversity 2  applied ecology, nature conservation 3  landscape and ecology processes, landscape development, its utilization and landscape changes 4  state of individual landscape components and identification of antropic effects and their influence on them 5  landscape structure rate and its characteristic features, landscape design 6  optimalization of waste recycling and waste management 7  technological steps in industrial sphere and lowering of environmental loads 8  operating, legislative and economical aspects of the relation between man, nature and the environment (landscape, natural and urbanized environment included) 9  cultural, philosophical and social aspects of relationship with people, nature and the environment. Research activities of the FEE are in principle divided into two major branches, Ecology and Environmental science. Ecology – oriented research deals with relatively wide and varied scale of ecological issues. Relatively long tradition has basic research of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, in which employess of the Faculty reach major accomplishments. Among the FEE creative pesonnel are specialists in various animal species, fytology and recently has been formed also strong group focusing on the research into fungi. Rich traditions in ecology-oriented scientificresearch activities of the Faculty have got also the research

in the area of landscape ecology in which were and still are active several prestigous specialists. Here, the research is mostly aimed at landscape utilization, landscape and nature protection, study of abiotic characteristics of the landscape, evaluation of landscape structure and landscape plannig. Inseparable part of scientific focus of the faculty is the study and exploration of different philosophical, sociological and legislative aspects of the nature protection and the relationship of man and nature. Second main scientific platform is a wide range of the environmental scientific disciplines owing to which the Faculty is creating its profile especially in the field of recycling and of waste, research of manufacturing technologies, possibilities of environmetal load reductions, innovations and planning of technological steps in industry, management of old environmental loads and so forth. Results of scientific-research activities of the FEE have direct or indirect influence on majority of its further activities including educational process, international cooperation, material development and cooperation with practice. They have also significant importance in results of external evaluation. The main aim that comes from long-term planning of the development of the FEE for years 2011–2016 is therefore the improvement and better effectivity in programme for Science and Research development improvement and better effectivity of scientific-research activities of the Faculty with special emphasis on achievements of internationally recognized results and better posititon of the FEE in obtaining and solving of research projects and programmes of national or international character. It will therefore be necessary to devote our interest to the participation of the FEE employees at international scientific-research activities and research activities of bigger importance such as centres of exellence or projecs financed from EU structural funds.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

In international projects the Faculty has been active mostly as hosting institution whose individual employees are members of international research teams. For the period of the past years, many important specialists from the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences were active as copartners in bilateral research projects with Hungary (2009–2010) and the Czech Republic (2010–2011). Also this type of cooperation has been continually successfully developing. The FEE has a long tradition in obtaining and successful solving of national agency projects. These projects are mainly financed by the Scientific Grant Agency (VEGA). Over the last period, the creative employees of the FEE are more and more frequently successful in solving of the Cultural and Educational Agency (KEGA) projects. In particular

grant projects dealing with the environmental issues were and are financed as the part of the APVV grant schemes. In the period of the last five years, the FEE gained from the grant tasks financial resources of more than € 696, 000. From that, more than 86 % was allocated in the form of common means which serve as the financing of the research project activities. The biggest amount of allocated means goes to the Scientific Grant Agency (VEGA) projects and a very special place in financing of the research activites have means allocated to the solving of APVV projects. There are also regular other financial contributions which form the part of the internal grant agency of the Technical University of Zvolen. In the years 2007–2011, the employees of the FEE published more than 1,200 scientific and specialized

Table 13    The number of solved projects at the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences in the years 2007–2011.

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

VEGA

8

7

4

4

8

KEGA

1

1

4

4

APVV

1

3

1

2

3

International projects from other sources

1

1

IPA

3

1

4

3

Total

9

14

8

15

18

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The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

publications. Out of these, there were 44 publications of scientific character and chapters in monographs, 111 had a character of specialized books and textbooks, 31 presented scientific works published in the most prestigious scientific periodicals or were of scientific patents character. We can declare with pleasure, that in comparison to previous periods, the publication activity of the FEE is more and more oriented towards the best quality and in the year 2011, the Faculty reached the best achievement of its existence in key cathegories of publication activity. Short, but quite successful history has at the FEE Student Scientific and Specialized Activity (SSSA – ŠVOČ).

In the year 2012, already the 9th Student Scientific Conference was held at the FEE. In the last five years, 148 students (8 of them from abroad) attended and participated in the Student Scientific Conferences at the FEE. Student works are traditionally presented in three sections and (year-books, memorial volumes, text-books) of abstracts are standardly published as well as reviewed textbooks, which are presented as the part of PhD study section. The best quality works are awarded finacially or by gifts.

Table 14    The publication activity of the Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences according to cathegory groups in the years 2007–2011. 2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

A1

5

7

5

14

13

A2

15

23

20

20

33

B

6

3

4

4

14

C

187

226

195

254

188

Table of contents: A1 –  Scientific monograph publications A2 –  Other book publications B   –  Publications in ISI-indexed journals and autorship certificates, patents and inventions C   –  Other reviewed publications

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The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

Faculty Development Activity The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences has been over the last five years active in two projects realization of the Structural Funds of EU Agency (ASFEU) which are: 1  Improvement of the support of PhD study at the FEE of the TUZVO in the period from 1 January 2007 until 31 October 2008 under the leadership of Ing. Juraj Modranský (ITMS code: 11230100453) and 2  Improvement of the secondary school students education focusing on the environment, solved during the period of time from 1 January 2007 until 31 October 2008 under the leadership of Ing. Ján Pavlík (ITMS code: 11230100297). In the Faculty’s pedagogical process it is of significant consideration the classrooms equipment within the scope of IKT projects (computer equipped classroom, new microscopes and laboratory apparatus, every classroom beeing equipped by data projector and PC). At the present time, the Faculty is planning to create a new classroom for the needs of interactive learning of selected subjects as well as atelier classroom. As the part of the science and research infrastructure, the Faculty managed to establish a number of specialized workplaces and laboratories (e.g. Accelerator Mass Spectometry Laboratory, Microbiology Laboratory, Emissions Measurement Laboratory, Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Technological Laboratories and Laboratory of water, waste and atmosphere (environment, air analysis). For this purpose finances comming from the project agencies of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic were used or from the project aimed at the development of infrastructure and modernizing of educational and scientific-research activity supported by the European Regional Development Fund. The Faculty also managed

to establish ecological stationary which is located in Budiná village and serves as terrain and excursional center not only for the needs of the educational process but also it is the place where are organised conferences and events of national and international improtance. Faculty External Relations Development of the FEE relations with the public is seen through endless number of activities, which was attended by the FEE teachers as well as students. Annualy takes place for example organization of Earth Day which popularity increases from year to year and is well received. Through the subject of Environmental education as well as through the cooperation with network of organizations centred on the environmental education Špirála, students are involved in various activities. Long term cooperation is also developing with the Center of the Environmental and Ethical Education Živica (CEEV-Živica) through which is the FEE engaged in the international progamme Eco-school.The Faculty students participate in this project as voluntary consultants, coordinators and lectors of Eco-schools educational programmes. Worth of attention is also organisation of the Ecological Agriculture Day, cooperation and preparation of programmes for nursery and primary schools in the central Slovakia region and so forth. The Faculty also became a part of the international programme Young Reporters for the environment. Since September 2011, several students of the FEE have been working as reporters and their works have already been published on the web page of the project (www.mladireporteri.sk). In the Faculty premises take place regularly Doors Open Days, which are becoming more and more popular. It can be stated from the feedback, that approximately 90 % of the

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Faculty students were influenced by this activity while choosing the university. Since 2006 competition called the FEE Student Lenses is being organized and since 2009 student magazine “Stromček” is being issued. Thanks to its departments, the Faculty can present very rich cooperation with national institutions. It has a wide cooperation not only with organisations that are active in so-called third sector but also with enterprise and industrial sphere. In 2010 the Faculty entered negotiation with the Central Slovak Water Service Association, a. s.Veolia. The result of the cooperation is also regular competition for the Faculty students of the best final thesis in the field of ecology and biodiversity protection. Long term cooperation exists with project companies, especially with the company Esprit, s. r. o., Banská Štiavnica in scientific research, educational and publishing spheres. Within other activities connected with pedagogical and scientific-research process and development are worth to mention individual activities of the Faculty departments as national and international conferences, workshops, seminars, excursions and terrain courses as well as interdisciplinary symposiums. Some of the departments elaborate expertises for industrial and non-industrial operations and communal sphere on atmosphere protection, waste industry, waste water and effects on the environment. They carry out technological measurements and provide proposals on lowering the negative influence of human activity. Landscape designs are also elaborated directly for practice as the result of direct impulse of local and city councils. The FEE has a long-term international cooperation with the European Environmental Agency, EEA with its seat in Copenhagen, with several institutions in the Czech Republic ( the Institute of Botany ČAV, the Institute

160

of Botany and Zoology of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at Masaryk University, the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry ČAV, the Institute of Soil Biology, the Biology Centre ČAV in České Budějovice, the Faculty of Natural Sciences at Palacký University) but also with the Ministry of Environment of Israel. Cooperation contracts are made with the following universities, faculties and istitutions from abroad: the Faculty of Horticulture at Mendel University in Brno, the Czech Republic, the Faculty of Environment at Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, the Czech Republic, the Faculty of Forestry and Environment ČZU in Prague, the Czech Republic, the Faculty of Mining and Geology at VŠBTechnical University in Ostrava, the Czech Republic, Vrije Universiteit, Brussels, Belgium, the University of Cyprus, Cyprus, the European Environmental Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark, Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem (the University of Technology and Economics) in Budapest, Hungary, Szent István Egyetem, Mezőgazdaság- és Környezettudományi Kar (the Faculty of Agriculture and Environment at St. Stephan University in Gödöllő, Hungary, Kossuth Lajos Tudományegyetem, Természettudományi és Technológiai Kar, Biológiai és Ökológiai Intézet (the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Technologies, Department of Biology and Ecology at Kosssuth Lajos University) in Debrecen, Hungary, Fachhochschule Weihenstephan (the Univesity of Applied Sciences) in Freising, Germany, Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt, Germany, Polytechnika Krakowska, Instytut krajobrazowy i krajarchitektury, (the University of Technology), Cracow, Poland, Instytut technologii drewna (the Institute of Wood Technology) Poznan, Poland, the Faculty of Biology at Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine.


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Through individual participation, the employees of the FEE became active also in project solution called “Research and Maintaining of Biodiversity in Historical Structures of Agricultural Landscape of Slovakia”, supported as the part of the EEA Financial Mechanism (Norweigian Financial Mechanism) in the years 2009–2010 as well as in the project “Limits of the Protection of Biodiversity in Fragmented Landscape” which was financed by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic in the years 2007–2011. Significant is also cooperation on the project INTERREG with the Research Center in Tulln in Austria. As the part of academic mobilities for creative employees and students, the Faculty is active especially in the programme of the European Union for mobility and cooperation in the area of higher school education in Europe, in the Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) ERASMUS. In the last years, mobilities of the programme CEEPUS often take place as well as grants allocation by the National Scholarship Programme. As a result of permanent advertising about the possibilites to study abroad (web, noticeboards, meetings), the FEE students are constantly motivated to participate in the international mobility programmes. This is also supported by setting clear conditions for appreciation of sudy subjects studied abroad (e.g. concerning the credit system and their carrying over from the prospective of teachers, subjects as well as students). In the mobility projects of students and also teachers of the FEE overweight activities within the study programmes ERASMUS, IP ERASMUS (InnoNatour: Innovation in Nature Based Tourism Services, University of Suceava, Romania), LEONARDO DA VINCI, SOCRATES COMENIUS (partnership of the FEE in an international educational project ROOT, 2007). Our employees are also successful in realisation of foreign

162

stays using the finances of National Scholarship Programme of the Slovak Republic. The FEE employees and researches regularly attend conferences, research or expedition stays abroad (Venezuela, Italy, Poland, Greece, etc.). There has been an interest to study at the Faculty from students from the Czech Republic, (especially as so called CEEPUS freemovers), Slovenia, Germany, Kazakhstan, Soudan and Serbia with the use of government stipendia. At present, the employees of the individual departments of the FEE are members of these selected international scientific organisations: Centre International Myriapodologie (the International Society of Myriapodology and Onychophorology), Centre International de Documentation Arachnologique (the International Society of Arachnology), the Czech Society for Ecology, the Czech Society of Chemical Engineering,the Czech Scientific Society for Mycology, the Czechoslovak Society for Microbiology, the European Pond Conservation Network, the International Society for Fungal Conservation, Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Köztestülete (the Hungarian Academy of Sciences). From January 2011 the FEE is a member of UNISCAPE- the European Network of Universities for the Implementation of the European Landscape Convention. Thanks to the FEE membership in UNISCAPE, the intensive communication with workplaces which focuse on the landscape and landscape structures research has started. The faculty is building on the traditions of ecological and environmental education which it started as one of the few faculties already in 1991. Through the students education and research activities results provided by creative employees of the FEE, the message of ecological thinking is publicly spread. Promising aspect of the Faculty´s activity is a serious interest not only in the study but also in ecological and environmetal problematics cooperation.


The Faculty of Ecology and Environmental Sciences

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Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Introduction and the Faculty Profile The Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology (the FEVT) is the youngest of the four faculties at the Technical University in Zvolen. Since its origin which was determined by the decision of the Academic Senate of the Technical University in Zvolen on 27 March 1996 the Faculty was set to be specific and special by its own mission as well as its bounds to the structure and profile of the Technical University in Zvolen. The main reason for its establishment was to set up an institution which completes the focus of other earlier established university faculties and the overall profile of the Technical University in Zvolen in the area of Forest – Wood – Ecology – Living and Working Environment. The Faculty is a significant educational and scientific-research university institution which represents an important and special part of university education system in the Slovak Republic. By its specialisation it reflects the need to stabilize the growing imbalance between nature and men, especially by monitoring, identifying and minimising of negative effects of manufacturing processes on people, their working and living environment and nature itself. The main mission of the Faculty is to develop activities in the major areas of its profile in science, research and development as well as in the education of specialists

168

for constantly changing labour market needs. Educational programme of the Faculty is based on versatility and individual approach to study which enables the credit system of study and so makes the fixed study plans more flexible. That means that students can make up their compulsory disciplines by subjects of their own choice and so cooperate and partly create own study plans and also own professional profile. The scientific-research activity corresponds with the latest world-wide knowledge of science, mechanics and technology, from own basic and applied research, cooperation with other universities and colleges, scientific-research institutions, industry and corporate practice within our country and abroad. The Faculty is active in university competitive environment as an institution preparing university educated specialists in bachelor, master and PhD study form of technical orientation in the areas of machines and machinery for wood mass complex processing, techniques for full processing of manufacturing process output, techniques and technology for protection of environment, people, life and property in manufacturing systems of industry practice, for the techniques and technology of non-conventional and renewable energy sources and manufacturing equipment enabling machine and production management and its individual phases by modern computer technology.


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Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology

The Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology provides a university technical education and graduates who are able to perform work as well trained operating personnel highly skilled in  the area of forestry harvesting, manipulating and transporting techniques, environmental equipment and manufacturing processes, engineering of analyses and risk management, management and design of manufacturing systems and processes. To support cooperation and integration of basic and applied research of the Faculty and the professional environment including production sphere, an Information Day supporting innovations in the Banská Bystrica region took place on 29 September 2011. It was supported by VÚC, engineering enterprises of the Banská Bystrica region and the TUZVO namely the FEVT. The event was attended by the members of the Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics in Bratislava, company INOVAL Ladomerská Vieska, prominent members of the First Slovak Engineering Craftsmanship as well as company representatives functioning in the area of technology manufacturing and development in the central Slovakia region. In 2010 the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology supported the attendance of 2 PhD students at international conference of young scientists with the title Problems of Argo and Forestry Engineering, held by Szkoła Glówna Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego in Warsaw, where one of our students was awarded first place of all 40 attending students from Hungary, Czech Republic and Poland. The posts of deans were held by Prof. Ing. Milan Mikleš, DrSc., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Marián Kučera, PhD. The posts of vice-deans were held by Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ján Marko, CSc., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Javorek, CSc., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Pavel Beňo, PhD.,

Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Naščák, CSc., Ing. Erika Sujová, PhD., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Branislav Danko, PhD. The head of the Department of Woodworking Machines and Equipment were Prof. Ing. Ivan Makovíny, CSc., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ján Svoreň, CSc., head the Department of Environmental Technology was Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Černecký, CSc., head of the Department of Informatics and Automation Technology were Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľudovít Šipoš, CSc., Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ľubomír Naščák, CSc., the head of the Department of Forest and Mobile Technology were Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ján Holík, CSc., Prof. Ing. Milan Mikleš, DrSc., the head of the Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering was Assoc. Prof. Ing. Ferdinand Bodnár, CSc., the head of the Department of Technical Management were Prof. Ing. Ján Zelený, CSc., Prof. Ing. Jozef Viglaský, CSc., the head of the Department of Manufacturing Technology and Substances were Assoc. Prof. Ing. Peter Šugár, CSc., Ing. Daniela Kalincová, PhD. The function of the head of Academic Senate was Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Černecký, CSc. and the Faculty secretary was Ing. Magdaléna Klacková. At present the FEVT TUZVO is managed by – Dean: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Marián Kučera, PhD., Vicedean for pedagogical activities and the Faculty publicity: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Branislav Danko, PhD., Vice-dean for development, foreign affairs and economic activities: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Pavel Beňo, PhD., Vice-dean for science, development and PhD studies: Ing. Ján Kováč, PhD., the Faculty secretary: Ing. Magdaléna Klacková, the head of the Academic Senate: Assoc. Prof. Ing. Jozef Černecký, CSc.

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Faculty Personnel Pedagogical, scientific development and other activities of the Faculty are at present managed by 50 employees. There work 3 professors, 10 associate-professors, 22 assistant professors, 2 science and research workers and 13 technical economic employees. From the point of view of pedagogical activities the Faculty is one of the most overloaded. Stabilization of pedagogical and scientific employees is closely tight with their remuneration. The Faculty has been according to its performance in scientific-research and publication activities financially underestimated for a long period of time and this causes the lack of means for necessary staff motivation. Habilitation procedures of associated professors and appointive procedures of professors at the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology at the Technical University in Zvolen are realised in accordance to the Act of NR SR No. 131/2002 of the Code on Universities its amendments and supplements

as amended, in accordance to valid edict of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic No. 6/2005 Code of Laws about the obtaining procedure of scientificpedagogical degrees associated professor and professor on the basis of “Executive regulations of the Technical University in Zvolen No. 11285/2011/RVVČ” corresponding the edict of the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic No. 6/2005 Book of Codes about the obtaining procedure of scientific-pedagogical titles of associated professor and professor. In the period 2007–2012 there were at the FEVT appointed two professors and seven associated professors were habilitated. Pedagogical Activity of the Faculty Sentence of Isaac Newton: “I am big since I’m standing upon the shoulders of giants” reflects that the increase of the knowledge can be supported by long term generational continuity.

vt

PhD.

Ing.

Bc.

dmt

etch

vt

etch

vt

pi

Figure 2 The scheme of the present study programmes at the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology Table of contents: DMT – Transportation and Manipulation Technology VT – Manufacturing Technology PI – Industry Engineering ETCH – Ecotechnics


Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology

Students – Study Education in full-time and part-time study form at the Faculty is provided by specialists in the area of specialised technical sciences (Mathematics, Physic, Mechanics and Informatics) and profile areas of the study programmes. During their studies, the undergraduates assist in scientific research projects in form of student scientific specialised activity, take part in projects with the academic staff of the Faculty within the grant agencies such as VEGA, KEGA, APVV and other projects from the European Union structural funds. Students can work in computer equipped

classrooms equipped by efficient computer and wireless network not just at the Faculty premises but also in the University library, dormitories and study rooms. During their studies, students have an opportunity to improve the knowledge of foreign languages (English, German, Russian, and French). Except that the Faculty also supports students sport activities who take active part in academic sporting events and competitions, tournaments and such. We were proud to educate graduates who were successful sport figures of the Slovak Republic. The Faculty priority is its multidiscipline character. Importance of the Faculty reflects the fact that its graduates

Table 15    Development of the number of students at the Faculty

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

528

449

460

514

417

Part-time students

151

157

196

241

188

Total

679

606

656

755

605

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Full-time students

18

16

21

20

19

Part-time students

13

9

12

12

12

Total

31

25

32

32

31

Table 16    Development of the number of students at the Faculty – PhD Students

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

are technically capable and have no serious problems on the labour market and we also try to adjust our study programmes to these needs. Educational policy of the Faculty is so that every single FEVT TUZVO graduate has not only good knowledge in his/her specialisation but is also able to use these in practice, be maximum flexible, able to quickly orientate in inter branch problems and be able to work in a team, use measuring and computer technology at professional level with an active command of foreign language. As an example can be many of the Faculty graduates who had no problem to find their work e.g. at an American car producer in Detroit, Czech and European manufacturing and research and development companies and they also hold important posts at the mentioned companies. During the last 6 years 32 FEVT students were awarded the special Rector’s Award. Scientific-Research Activity of the Faculty Basic platform of the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology profile in the area of science and research represent activities within the complex of FOREST – WOOD – ENVIRONMENT which correspond also with the long-term plan of the Faculty. Another substantial basis conditioning the scientific-research focus of the FEVT profile is its know-how, its personnel and material-technical base. Content focus of the Faculty research activity orientates on major research trends in the area of development and quality assurance of forestry and woodworking machines, decreasing of material and energy costs, and use of new energy sources (sustainable renewable energy sources, biomass) and quality management of manufacturing companies.

174

The FEVT development trend approach comes from goals of technology development concerning worldwide trends and society needs. The aim is also to manage balanced and steady development of all the Faculty accredited study programmes and specialised disciplines guaranteed by the Faculty departments. The main areas and focus of scientific-research activity of each department come from the Long-term Faculty Development Plan and orientate especially on: • machine, work piece, instrument for woodworking – woodworking processes from the point of view of energy costs, force bearing in working process, dependence of worked surface quality and work hygiene on technological and technical conditions of the process itself, • items and construction nodes of working mechanisms of woodworking machines and manipulation systems, • obtaining, change and effective use of energy with the emphases on alternative energy sources, • minimising the negative impacts of industrial technologies on the environment, • sensor-based networks and their use in manufacturing machinery, • numerical processing of 3D pictures and optimalisation of trajectory generation both in plane and space, • non-traditional energy sources for microelectronic systems feed, • mathematical modelling of the behaviour of bodies from hygroscopic anisotropic materials under the impact of outside load, temperature and humidity changes, • theoretical and experimental validation of operating, strength and firmness characteristics of machine parts,


• analyses of toughness and deformation of hygroscopic anisotropic materials under static and dynamic stress, • analyses of tribology characteristics of sliding and rolling bearings in machines and machinery, • research of dynamic characteristics, traction and rolling-resistance force of tires of mobile energy vehicles, • research of machine energy consumption for dendromass processing and hauling, • research of mobile machinery, movement dynamics and monitoring of the interaction of forest environment – mobile machines,

• research in the area of forestry mobile machinery optimalisation with the use of PRO/ENGINEER, MSC.ADAMS and SolidWorks, • research of lifetime tests on operating liquids with low environmental impact, • research of the operating liquids on degrading processes of working elements, • research in the area of cross section wood sawing as well as monitoring technical parameters of crosscut knot with the application on handling and packing stocks and harvesting machines, • research of power-saws with the focus on minimising

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

of negative impacts on maintenance and forest environment, • study of properties and possibilities of traditional and specialised usage of technical materials in the area of engineering industry, • increase of instrument quality and service life, • analyses of material properties and increasing of product utility characteristics quality, • introduction of new materials and standardisation of manufacturing technological practices, • design and operation of complex manufacturing systems with the emphases on assurance of their environmental acceptance, security and humanization of work. In the basic and applied research the Faculty focused on minimising of material and energy sources and tasks which substantially lead to minimising of negative aspects of techniques and technology on working and living environment. Major part of the research

capacity focuses on the development of new machines and machinery for forestry industry, woodworking industry and environmental technology. At the Faculty there were during the monitored period solved the APVV and applied research projects and their results were fully used in practice. As one of the most important can be mentioned an APVV project titled Applied Research of Wood-fixing Tables for Electromagnetic Field Shading and for Fire Safety Increase. The head of the project was Prof. Ing. Ivan Makovíny, CSc. from the Department of Woodworking Machines and Equipment. The Faculty also participated at project solving of international scientific and scientific-technical cooperation COACH BioEnergy, financed from European Structural Funds. Furthermore projects of VEGA and KEGA grant agencies are frequently solved at the Faculty while within the projects there were submitted and approved patent applications namely by Assoc. Prof. Ing. Juraj Tuhársky, CSc., who was successful in the research area  of cableway wood assembly. The Faculty

Table 17    Number of projects solved at the Faculty

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

VEGA

18

17

17

17

8

KEGA

4

5

6

7

5

APVV

4

1

1

1

1

Bilateral projects APVV

5th Framework Programme

6th Framework Programme

COST

International projects from other sources

1

1

1

IPA

2

5

7

6

5

Total

29

29

32

31

19


Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology

employees were also very active in project activities of internal IPA agency. The overall overview of the successful Faculty projects is given in Table 17. Financial support for the research of grant projects in the period from 2007 to 2011 reached € 70,000. Other projects can be represented by similar financial means necessary for their realisation. Publication activities of the university teachers, scientificresearch workers and PhD students belong among

significant criteria for university and also the Faculty evaluation. It represents basic form of research work presentation and publication of knowledge from scientificresearch activities in specialised and research periodicals or direct presentation and comparison of own research outcomes and results with those of scientists of similar specialisation at scientific conferences, symposiums and seminars. Assessment of publication activities at the Faculty is not to be meant as self-sufficient but because it is one of the most important conditions for financial means

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Table 18    Publication activity review of the Faculty according to groups and categories

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

A1

7

7

9

14

9*

A2

28

36

49

38

11*

B

3

5

2*

C

316

441

506

424

178*

Table of contents: A1 –  Scientific monograph publications A2 –  Other book publications B   –  Publications in ISI-indexed journals and autorship certificates, patents and inventions C   –  Other reviewed publications * – year 2012 has not been completed

allocation to universities it also became the most important task. Lists of publications are necessary for accreditation procedures, project management, grants, qualification growth and in the past years also for the allocation of budget grants for public universities from the Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. An important factor of research activities at the Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology is participation of students of all study forms in solving of current tasks. Annually organised student scientific conferences are the show of the best works. It is positive that in the last years there was an increased interest of students from our country but also from abroad and so the conferences are becoming international, the competition is growing as well as the quality of the presented works and theses. Student scientific and specialised activity (SSSA)

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is for students an opportunity to take part in the University research activities. It is an opportunity how to shape ones specialisation and interest, develop talent and creative thinking. Within the SSSA students solve current problems which are closely tight with the scientific-research focus of the University. The acquired knowledge and experience can be further used when focusing on bachelor and diploma theses, and it is also a good start to scientific work in form of further PhD study. SSSA represents for students the opportunity to verify their abilities to analyse and solve the set tasks individually, to present the obtained results and defend these to specialists. All the mentioned scientific-research activities help to promote the TUZVO within Slovakia as well as abroad and so lead to improvement of its position in national and European environment. Regularly, our students take part at SSSA conferences


Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology

at the Alexander Dubček University in Trenčín and the Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra where they are very successful. Development Activities and Faculty External Relations Development activities of the Faculty are carried out on the bases of the FEVT Longterm Development Plan for the given period. Within the programme, basic steps are set concerning the pedagogical process, scientific-research activities and external relationships of the Faculty which have been already listed in the monograph text. The overall level and frequency of international relationships of the Faculty in the period of 2007–2012 was based, similarly as it was in the previous period, from already arranged contacts in the past years as well as from new Faculty initiatives. More intensive development is conditioned by financial possibilities, number of solved grant projects, individual teachers and scientific workers activity, also the technical equipment of the Faculty which all determine the possibilities of active search for partner cooperation. Serious obstacle of more intensive cooperation development is the lack of financial means and teachers limited time for the activities, lack of students’ language competence in the daily form of study as well as their insufficient individual pretentious in acquiring education, experience and knowledge from abroad.

Cooperation with Significant Institutions in the Slovak Republic Inseparable part of building the relationship is also the orientation on institutions in Slovakia and building relationships focusing on the relationship development supporting pedagogical activities, participation in research tasks and presentation of results. The FEVT has contracts for cooperation with outstanding engineering companies such as PPS Group a. s. Detva, Leader, n. o. Zvolen, Pištej, s. r. o. Zvolen, Zvolenská teplárenská, a. s. Zvolen, Dalkia a. s., PPS Vývoj s. r. o., Hriňovské strojárne a. s. Hriňová, Institute of Materials Research Košice, Continental, Automotive Systems Slovakia s. r. o., ŽOS Zvolen, Kremnica Mint š. p., Illichmann Castalloy s. r. o. Žarnovica, Mikromat s. r. o. Zvolen, Fagor Ederlan Slovensko a. s. Žiar nad Hronom. Except the listed companies the Faculty cooperates also with the following companies focusing on specific projects: KHT s. r. o., Poprad, VVICB EU Kapušany, Energy Centre Bratislava, Bioenergy Bardejov s. r. o., QEL s. r. o. v Bardejov, BIOMASS Centre Banská Bystrica, BIOMASS o. z. Levice, Forests of the Slovak Republic Banská Bystrica š. p. HIVUS, s. r. o Žilina, KWD s. r. o. Zvolen, Vývoj Martin a. s., IDOS Project Banská Bystrica, IQM s. r. o., Zvolenská Teplárenská, a.  s., PHS Strojárne a. s., Hliník nad Hronom, ESSEL a. s. Slovenská Lupča. Cooperation of the Faculty with other Universities and Scientific-Research Institutions from Abroad Contract cooperation of the Faculty orientates mainly on institutions from practice which have similar scope of activities similar with its scientific-research and pedagogical specialisation. Except relations with traditional partner

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

organisations has its development of relations with nonEuropean countries realised on the bases of projects resulting from bilateral government contracts of the Slovak Republic and third countries realised on the bases of European mobility and educational project calls. The FEVT is active in cooperation with educational institutions of similar scope in the Czech Republic, Croatia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Finland, Serbia, Ukraine, Russia and Germany.

Mobilities and Mobility Projects The most of the Faculty employees and its student’s mobilities are realised within European programmes of LLP/ERASMUS and CEEPUS. Programme ERASMUS is the EU flag-ship in the area of the education and scientific preparation programmes. It focuses on mobility and cooperation in university education in Europe. ERASMUS also supports cooperation of university institutions via intensive programmes, multilateral networks and projects. The Faculty has also participated in the listed period within the CEEPUS programme in the following projects:

Table 19    Development of number of mobilities at the Faculty

Students

Teachers

2007/08

2008/09

2009/10

2010/11

2011/12

Study

1

–**

Internship

1

1

1

1

1**

From abroad

4

5

7

6

3**

Conference

6

8

13

17

9**

Internship

2

–**

From abroad

14

23

31

30

8**

Table of contents: ** – year 2012 has not been completed

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Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology

CEEPUS CII-PL-0033-02-0607, Development of Mechanical Engineering (design, technology and production management) as an essential base for progress in the area of small and medium companies’ logisticsresearch, preparation and implementation of joint programs of study CEEPUS CII-BG-0203-01-0708, CII-BG-0203-2-0910, Unconventional and hybrid unconventional processes and production technologies-integration of the study and research in the universities of Eastern and Central Europe CEEPUS CII-SK-0310-03-1011, CII-SK-0310-02-0910, CII-SK-0310-01-0809, Non- traditional processes in production technologies and integration of the study and research in the Eastern and Central Europe universities.

Why to keep and support the technical specialisations? The market place is asking for more and more specialists with technical education (without a technician there is no economy). Therefore there is a long-term stable trend in the interest in the study at the Faculty. We hope that the FEVT will in future provide fully competitive technical education in the European space which will stem from scientific-research activity of good quality. Its part has to be of course our students themselves.

National and International Membership in Organisations The Faculty of Environmental and Manufacturing Technology is represented by its employees in advisory boards, national and international periodicals, international organisations, boards, committees and commissions with the seat in the Slovak Republic and abroad such as: Czech Society for Coating, AEBIOM, AEE – Association of Energy Engineers, AGRONOMY RESEARCH, CEBC, SPRINGER. The Faculty as it is considered an inseparable part of the University is top spiritual institution of the society. The health of society is tightly connected with the health of the University and its parts. The accomplishments of our generation depend on the skills to identify and motivate young people and therefore we are trying to support and enforce the best of our graduates into leading positions in the academic sphere.

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Other Organizational Parts of the University in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Institute of Foreign Languages The  Institute of Foreign Languages (ÚCJ) as a university workplace was established in 1999. However, its history has already begun in 1952, when the Department of Languages, as one of the departments of that period, was founded at the University of Forestry and Wood Technology in Zvolen. PhDr. Danica Dvořáková was the head of the Department of Languages at the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology since 1 September 1993 and, after organisational change, the head of the ÚCJ until 31 August 2010. The  ÚCJ has been directed by Mgr. Marek Ľupták since 1 September 2010. The  ÚCJ supervises the education of foreign language for specific purposes at the Technical University in Zvolen in bachelor and master study programme, as well as in doctoral study. A foreign language for specific purposes is taught at all four faculties and in a special-purpose study programme. At the ÚCJ, the education of foreign language for specific purposes is based on three pillars: compulsory, facultative and supportive courses. The  basic pillar is a course of compulsory foreign language for specific purposes called Technical Communication in the bachelor study programme completed by an exam. To enter this course, the students are required to master the language at the level B2 (Independent User), i.e. the level of the secondary

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school leaving examination. The model for the language competences specification at the ÚCJ is the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL). PhD students take a course of compulsory foreign language for specific purposes and they are obliged to pass the language exam before the committee and submit a terminological glossary. At present, they are mainly English and German, which are taught at the ÚCJ, but also French and Russian. However, in the future it will be possible only if the teaching of foreign languages (apart from English that has been legislated as compulsory foreign language at primary and secondary schools since September 2011) starts at the levels A2 or B1. The  compulsory courses of foreign language for specific purposes are aimed at mastering foreign language in given specialization of the students, focused on comprehension of professional text. The  main pillar is supported by the courses of facultative subjects: Grammar for Technical Purposes in the bachelor study programme, Academic Foreign Language and Professional Communication in the master study programme. In the special-purpose study programme Management and Economics of Forest Resources and in a programme Enterprise Management in Wood-Processing of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology, a complex approach to the foreign language study is supported by connected courses of foreign language


Other Organizational Parts of the Technical University in Zvolen

for specific purposes through almost entire bachelor study programme. The  philosophy of foreign language for specific purposes study at the ÚCJ is crowned by a possibility to pass the exams in English language (City and Guilds) at the Centre of Continual Education and in German language (Österreichisches Sprachdiplom Deutsch) at the ÚCJ, because we consider foreign language competence as an added value to the professional education of the graduates. In their scientific and research activities, the employees of the ÚCJ engage in their own philological topics, publishing professional articles and participating in the conferences. The ir activity is also focused on lexicographical research of the terminology connected with the University specialization. In 2012, the ÚCJ issues a two-volume explanatory Dictionary of Furniture in 6 languages. The dictionary consists of more than 2,700 entries and it is the result of meticulous lexicographical and terminological work of the authors, who, as university teachers, are in everyday touch with foreign language for specific purposes. In 2011, a nationwide scientific seminar Foreign Languages for Specific Purposes in the Context of University Studies of NonPhilological Specialization took place at the ÚCJ. At the seminar, linguists discussed methodological procedures of language for specific purposes teaching, study materials creation, professional translation and other problems of foreign language for specific purposes in the Slovak Republic. The  teachers of the ÚCJ participate in projects of other departments of the University. The  ÚCJ is involved in the project of the Operational Programme Education: Creation of Study Programmes in a World Language and a Support of Foreign Languages Teaching at the Technical University in Zvolen and coordinates the activity Creation of the Self-Access Centre Aimed at Individual Study of Foreign Languages. In 2011, the ÚCJ

and the Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences Library opened together the Self-Access Centre focused on autonomous study of foreign languages. In this centre the students have access to foreign language literature and dictionaries (also in electronic form). The  ÚCJ at the Technical University in Zvolen coordinates the activities of 15 education centres in the regions of Banská Bystrica and Trenčín within a national project Education of Primary Schools Teachers in the Field of Foreign Languages in Connection with the Conception of Teaching Foreign Languages at Primary and Secondary Schools. In this project, the teachers of primary schools have a possibility to broaden their qualification for teaching foreign languages. One of the visions of the ÚCJ for the future is to offer the students of the Technical University a possibility to study professional translation as an independent module or an independent study programme. We believe that mastering foreign languages by the graduates can help them to make use of their potential in the European labour market.

Institute of Physical Education and Sport The  Institute of Physical Education and Sport (ÚTVŠ) offers a lot of sport activities through the course Physical Education for the students of the Technical University in Zvolen (TU). The  aim of these activities is to lead professionally and methodically the students to the development and improvement of kinetic abilities. The ÚTVŠ tries to enrich these activities by new and popular sports, e.g. non-traditional sports, fitness balls

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Universitas Technica in Zvolen

exercises, fitness. The pedagogical process at the ÚTVŠ is led by university teachers, who supervise offered sport activities and, in cooperation with the Slovak University Sports Association, organize sport events and competitions within the University, region and the Slovak Republic. They also prepare the students-sportsmen for representation of our University and in many cases of Slovakia, too (e.g. the Slovak Winter Universiade – Banská Bystrica 2012: Bc. Andrej Ostrihoň – speedminton: 1st place and 2nd place – double mix; Eva Segečová – cross-country skiing: 2nd place; Gabriel Hatala – karate: 3rd place; Rudolf Michalovský – biathlon: 3rd place and cross-country skiing, 10 km free technique, individuals: 3rd place). In 2008 Tomáš Bezúr got the 1st place and in 2009 the 2nd place in the International Table Tennis Tournament for university students in Eidhoven. The  students have a possibility to choose different forms of kinetic activities and sport: 1. Accredited courses – Physical and Sport Education and Optional Sport and Health; 2. Course of physical education – winter ski courses, weekend of kinetic activities, courses of boating activities; 3. Club form – within TJ Slávia of the TU. In the sphere of scientific and research activities, the ÚTVŠ worked on international grant project KEGA with the topic of monitoring of fire brigade efficiency and several other tasks within grant agencies KEGA and VEGA. The employees submitted 4 monographs and several professional articles, publications and methodical manuals. Every year, the ÚTVŠ organizes an international scientific conference focused on physical education and sport. Professional and recreational sport at the TU comes under TJ Slávia of the TU, which associates 309 members in 13 groups. Its activity is aimed not only at the students, but also at the employees of the TU for whom different sport events are prepared continuously.

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Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences Library Nowadays the Slovak Forestry and Wood Sciences Library is an academic library of the Technical University in Zvolen. In accordance with the Act No. 183/2000 Coll. On Libraries, the SLDK also fulfils the function of specialized scientific library for the work with forestry and wood sciences literature in the Slovak Republic. Its foundation is related to the establishment of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology in Zvolen. The  library was founded on 1 September 1952 as the State Study Library in Zvolen, scientific institute for the region of Banská Bystrica and simultaneously forestry and wood sciences library for whole Slovakia, as amended by the Decree-Law No. 30/1952 Coll. and supplemented with the changes of university organisation and by the Decree of “Povereníctvo školstva, vied a umení v Bratislave” (the authorized office for education, sciences and art in Bratislava). The 60th anniversary of its establishment is commemorated in 2012. The  mission of the library is to support pedagogical, educational, research and scientific activities of the TU, lifelong learning, to mediate unrestricted access to information to pedagogical staff, researchers, students and other employees of the TU, as well as to institutions, professional public and citizens in the Slovak Republic and abroad. The  SLDK activities are focused on efficient support of education process and scientific and research activities of the TU and on performance of the tasks following from the function of specialized nationwide scientific library. The  library cooperates with other libraries, universities and professional institutions in Slovakia and abroad. The  complex reconstruction of the library interior and store with interior, technical and technological equipment


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

was carried out within the national project supported by the EU called Building the Network with Information Interconnection of Scientific, Academic and Special Libraries, including their modernization, (Information for innovation) in the years 2007–2008. This reconstruction brought significant change in providing library and information services of the SLDK. The  establishment of the Information and Scientific Centre was a contribution, too. The  library and information activities and services are fully automated. The  SLDK uses library and information system called the Advanced Rapid Library, integrated with electronic fund protection. The  library provides lending services, inter-library and international inter-library loans, electronic documents delivery service SUBITO, as well as information, advisory, consulting, reference and searching services from Slovak and foreign databases, bookbinding and reprographic services. The  library collection contains more than 360,000 library units of professional monographs, periodicals and special literature – standards, final and qualification theses, etc. from the sphere of forestry, wood sciences, ecology, environmental and manufacturing technology, natural and human sciences and from other scientific disciplines. The  SLDK replenishes its collection also by publications exchanges, thanks to the cooperation with more than 100 foreign and Slovak partners. One of the priority tasks of the library is to record the publication activity and citations and to create the Database of Publication Activity, containing citation index, of the TU employees. The  SLDK participates in database building of the Central Register of Publication Activity of the Slovak Republic, as well as Bibliography of Publication Activity of the TU employees and releases them continuously on the SLDK website. It provides creating and makes accessible professional information databases focused on forestry, wood sciences, ecology, environmental and manufacturing

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technology and other related disciplines. The database of documents, involving also the Database of Articles, is unique in the Slovak Republic. All databases, created in the SLDK, are accessible via online catalogue on the library website (http://sldk.tuzvo.sk). By the participation of the SLDK in the projects National Information System Promoting Research and Development in Slovakia – Access to Electronic Information Sources (NISPEZ) and Information for Innovation, the TU got access to electronic information sources and distant access to databases via search engine NAVIGA. The  SLDK extends constantly the access possibilities to external electronic information sources and allows online access to full-text databases. The  users can also use distant access to the electronic sources through the online library catalogue. Information meetings of SAIA about the possibilities of study visits abroad, as well as different scientific and professional events, are popular, too. Another important function of the SLDK, in accordance with the Long-term Scheme of the Technical University in Zvolen, is informational education of the users, information seminars for the students and PhD students of the TU, professional presentations and lectures in the sphere of the use of electronic information sources and library and information services. A current task, in cooperation with the Institute of Foreign Languages, within all-university project Creation of Study Programmes in a World Language and a Support of Foreign Languages Teaching at the Technical University in Zvolen is completing the SelfAccess Centre, equipped with foreign language literature for individual study of foreign languages in the SLDK. A long-term task for the SLDK is to create conditions to ensure sustainable development of library and information services for efficient support of educational, scientific and research process at the Technical University in Zvolen.


Other Organizational Parts of the Technical University in Zvolen

Arboretum Borová Hora The Arboretum Borová Hora (ABH) is a scientific and educational workplace of the Technical University in Zvolen. It has been built since 1965 and it has an area of nearly 50 ha. In 1958, the proposal for the Arboretum building was submitted by Ing. Jozef Pagan, an assistant professor at the Institute of Dendrology and Phytocenology of the then Department of Botany and Pedology. His proposal was accepted by academic representatives of the Faculty of Forestry and he was authorised to work out more detailed materials (especially professional specialization of the Arboretum, its localization, area and facilities were concerned). After the submission of the first proposal for the Arboretum building, the most important issues were the questions concerning professional orientation of collections and consequent Arboretum activity. It was obvious that the Arboretum should serve the needs of education of forest engineering students and subsequent scientific research should be focused on the needs of forestry practice. The opinions about the professional and content specialization of the collections were unified in 1964, after the arrival of Prof. Pravdomil Svoboda to the Faculty of Forestry. He proposed to build up the Arboretum on the plant system principle and, in opposition to other arboretums, the ABH “will concentrate mainly autochthonous tree species, i.e. material collected with strict knowledge of the origin that will be possible to monitor and assess and thus demonstrate its morphological and geographical variability”. Due to its content specialization, the ABH occupies a specific position not only within the Technical University. It is unique in Slovak, as well as in European scope by the fact that it concentrates especially autochthonous tree species in their inter-species and geographical variability. The  extensive tree species collection involves more

than 550 coniferous and deciduous tree species, as well as their 1,200 different forms and cultivated varieties in total amount of nearly 15,000 items. The  material planted on the area of the ABH is very precious. In most cases there are originals gained directly from natural forests of Slovakia or they were obtained from different specialised institutions. The  exact register and photo documentation are maintained, so the preconditions for the next monitoring and evaluating are created. The  most valuable purpose of the Arboretum resides in the fact that individual populations and precious forms of indigenous tree species from different parts of Slovakia are generatively and vegetative reproduced and subsequently preserved as a valuable gene pool. The  ABH also contains the largest collection of roses in the Slovak Republic. This collection includes more than 800 varieties of bed, park, climbing and miniature roses, in total number of nearly 3,500 pieces. The  collection specialization is particular, too. The  varieties of roses, bred in the Slovak and Czech Republic, are concentrated and recorded there, as well as quality and resistant varieties from the cultivators from other countries. In one part of the greenhouse, there are more than 700 species of cacti and succulents. The  majority of them has been registered in the international agreement of endangered species CITES. In 1981, as an acknowledgement of the great value of the collections, the ABH was declared a protected area “to protect the samples of genetic richness of the tree species of the Slovak Republic forests and wide variability of individual tree species, as well as for scientific, research, educational and cultural purposes”. The  most important aim of the ABH is practical education not only of students of the Technical University in Zvolen, but also of students from other universities, specialized secondary schools and pupils

191


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Other Organizational Parts of the Technical University in Zvolen

from primary schools, who can acquire new practical knowledge from the sphere of biology. In the period of 2007–2012, the use of the ABH has been intensified mainly through the direct education of different fields of dendrologic, land use and ecological orientation. The  material centralized in the ABH is evaluated through bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral theses, as well as in the sphere of research work. In this period, the collections and area of the ABH have been the base for writing 2 doctoral theses, 9 master’s theses, 14 bachelor’s theses and 21 scientific projects and research tasks. Within the Long-term Scheme of the Technical University in Zvolen, the transformation of the ABH to scientific incubator with a possibility of joining the European research space is anticipated. The  ways for closer cooperation in the sphere of scientific research with workplaces of similar specialization not only in Slovakia, but also in the EU member states, are searched for.

Centre of Continual Education The  Centre of Continual Education (CĎV), as an alluniversity purpose centre of the Technical University in Zvolen, is concentrated on the development and provision of continual education to the Slovak Republic citizens in accordance with the Act No. 568/2009 on Lifelong Learning. The  function of the CĎV is to organize a continual education through different courses, trainings, seminars and conferences, as well as to work on national and international projects in the sphere of further education. The main education activities are focused on forestry – wood sciences – ecology. The  main target groups are the

students and employees of the Technical University in Zvolen, as well as wide professional public. The  CĎV was established in 2004. Until nowadays, it has provided education to more than 2,000 graduates in the sphere of further professional education, to more than 500 graduates in the area of language and computer education and more than 500 graduates in other types of education. The  CĎV has become involved in the Sectoral operational programme: Agriculture and Rural Development (13 educational projects) and the Lifelong Learning Programme (2 projects). Currently, the CĎV is focused mainly on the Rural Development Programme 2007–2014 (further education in the sphere of forestry and agriculture), the Lifelong Learning Programme – GRUNDTVIG (European cooperation in the field of adult education), LEONARDO DA VINCI (professional secondary schools education and other education), CEDEFOP (professional education development), ERASMUS (mobilities and cooperation in university education). Other: SLSP Foundation, ORANGE Foundation, etc. The re is an active cooperation with non-profit organisation University Centre Zvolen (www.tuzvo.sk/ucz). The  CĎV organises the studies at the University of the Third Age (UTV) in several study specializations. The UTV of the Technical University in Zvolen has more than 270 students. Some examples of current activities: Students and employees of the university: • Language education + City and Guilds (English language certificate) • Computer education (AutoCAD, SolidWorks, 3D Studio Max, ArchiCAD, TurboCAD) • Other: Course of pedagogy for university teachers, Safety inspector course, Statistics course

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Professional public: • Forestry sector – 21. (Deciduous forests silviculture, Coniferous forests silviculture, Spruce stands reconstruction, Climate changes and forests adaptation) • Biomass and its use • Use of GIS in forestry • Rural development programme • Modelling and prognostication of the forest development • Wood – input raw material of the pulp and paper industry In the future, the CĎV will be aimed especially at the lifelong learning development of the employees and students of the Technical University in Zvolen, at the participation in lifelong learning projects of national and international consequence and at supervising further professional education in the sphere of forestry – wood sciences – environment. The  continual teachers’ education will not be omitted. The  CĎV is a member of the Slovak Academic Association for International Cooperation (SAACV – www.tuzvo.sk/saacv), the Association of Adult Education Institutions in the Slovak Republic (AIVD – www.aivd. sk) and the Association of Universities of the Third Age (ASUTV – www.uniba.sk/asociaciautv).

Developmental Workshops and Laboratories The Developmental Workshops and Laboratories (VDL) are organisational part of the Technical University (TU)

194

in Zvolen. They have performed a function of all-university purpose centre since 1971, providing space and experts for science, research and pedagogy. Nowadays the workshops halls and specialised laboratories are focused on the complex forest – wood – environment. Processing of wood, materials based on wood and metal materials into the form of products and samples is in time, quality and volume allowing education process and scientific research. For the needs of the TU and its other organisational facilities, the VDL design, do to size and install traditional, but also special interior and exterior parts. For the subjects outside the University, the VDL offer paid services of the maintenance and sharpening of woodworking tools – circular saws, band saws, paring chisels and milling cutters. After 40 years of minimal maintenance and investment in the VDL, the TU carries out the project Reconstruction of Facilities of the TU in Zvolen Aimed at Creating the Information and Communication Technologies (IKT) and Technical Evaluation of the Facilities – stage III, subsidized by the Structural Funds of the EU, aimed at top-ranking three-dimensional information and communication technologies in the education process and with secondary outcome in form of the reconstruction of two facilities of the TU: workshop hall of the VDL and dilapidated hall of the then Realisation Centre into the form of Hall of Scientific and Experimental Workplaces. In the future, there will be an attempt to profit from the European projects for the reconstruction of functional, but outdated machine equipment that is in contrast to the Exhibition Centre, equipped with the latest, fully functional CNC working and furniture machines, which are changed approximately every six months. In accordance with the Long-term Scheme of the


Other Organizational Parts of the Technical University in Zvolen

Technical University in Zvolen, the VDL provide the space for scientific incubators implementation. Following the strategic aim of the TU, the VDL link scientific and research work to pedagogical process and they allow connection between applied research and practice.

Centre of Information Technologies Brief historical overview The  history of the present Centre of Information Technologies (CIT) started on 14 April 1972, when its predecessor, the Institute of Computing Technology (ÚVT), was established by the transformation from the then Computing Centre (founded in 1969) of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology. The  ÚVT began its operation with 35 employees, engaged in software development and computer maintenance. In 1977, a training centre for professional education of programmers, analysts and designers of automated information systems was founded. The  technical equipment of the workplace was fundamentally changed after the year 1990. The  old mainframes were exchanged for modern servers with operating system UNIX. In that period, the employees of the Technical University started using new personal computers PC, as well as new software. The  ÚVT also started fulfilling new tasks, especially in the sphere of introducing new information and communication technologies and building computer networks. A node of the Slovak Academic Data Network (SANET) was created at the Technical University in Zvolen in 1992. In 1993, the first websites of the University were launched.

In the year 2004 the ÚVT was transformed into the CIT. The  period of 2009–2011 was probably the most distinctive in a short history of the CIT. During three years an optical network, connecting all University facilities in Zvolen, including the Arboretum Borová Hora, was built. All the employees and students of the Technical University had access to the Internet with minimum speed of 1 Gb/s for fixed connection and 100 Mb/s for wireless connection. All the servers and disc arrays with the capacity of 20 TB were centralized in air-conditioned central server room. The ir permanent operation is assured by 35 kVA standby supply together with 80 kVA diesel generator. LCD information boards were installed in the interior of the University to provide information from individual workplaces. Web kiosks, allowing the access to the University Information System, were made accessible to the students. Nowadays At present, there are 18 employees working in three individual departments: Department of the information system of the University provides the operation of all-university information systems, from which the most important are: UIS – the University Information System for the administration of study, science and research, IS KREDIT – information system of the canteen, attendance registration system, FIS SOFIA – financial and economic system, system of electronic filing cabinet. Except for that, the Department issues multifunction identity cards for the employees and students of the University and ensures safety of information systems.

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Department of the users service enables technical support to the employees through IS HelpDesk CIT. Department of communication networks supplies constant operation of computer network TUZVOnet that connects more than 1,400 personal computers. It also provides running of all servers and disc arrays, administrating a network ZOMES (currently connecting 16 external organisations), as well as maintaining the node of SANET network in Zvolen. Intentions for the future In the following period, the CIT will continue providing operation and maintenance of information and communication technologies at the University. Besides its ordinary activities the CIT will perform the tasks defined in the Long-term Scheme of the Technical University in Zvolen for the period of 2011–2016, e.g. expanding offered services, increasing security and quality and integrating existing information systems. Apart from these activities, the CIT will support the University workplaces in preparation and implementation of educational, scientific and research projects in the sphere of the information and communication technologies.

University Forest Enterprise The university forestry study in the area of the Slovak Republic has considered practical education as an important part of students’ preparation for future profession since 1807. The  situation was not different after the establishment of the University of Forestry and Wood Technology

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in Zvolen. Already in 1952, an independent purpose facility for practical education of students and for checking the results of scientific and research works of the University employees named Faculty Forest Management, with the total area of 5,375 ha, was used. During its existence several changes were made concerning its position, name, organisational structure and area. Nowadays it is an organisational part of the Technical University in Zvolen (TU) under the name of the University Forest Enterprise (VŠLP). Totally it has 32 technical and economic employees and it is divided into a head office, forest district Budča, forest district Sekier and service centre Lieskovec. Each forest district involves 4 forest territories; the service centre provides mainly transport and wood manipulation. The  VŠLP manages the forests of the area of 9,942 ha. This area is comprised of 9,065 ha of state forests, 27 ha belong to the TU and the rest is rented from landregister associations. The  use of natural qualities of forests, beyond a common management, allowed to incorporate state-owned forests into forests of several specification (i.e. 78 % from the total area, 13 % are protection forests and 9 % are commercial forests). Variable natural conditions in the altitude range of 250 – 1,026 m and technical equipments enable observation of different communities of flora and fauna at relatively small area, as well as performance of wide range of forest research and operational activities. The refore, there are suitable conditions for practical training of the TU students in more than 70 courses of biological and technical disciplines. The  VŠLP works at the area that covers predominantly the Kremnické vrchy mountains and the Javorie mountains, and it reaches also the Zvolenská kotlina basin and the Štiavnické vrchy mountains. The  forest communities are integrated into 5 vegetation altitude zones, from oak to fir-beech zone. The  wood composition is dominated


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by beech (nearly 52 %), the most common conifer is spruce (8 %). Totally, there are 27 species recorded (83 % hardwood and 16 % coniferous species). Various natural conditions of the area indicate rich fauna. From the viewpoint of gamekeeping the most important position is occupied by deer, roe deer and wild boar. The  protected species of permanent occurrence are bear, lynx and wildcat. In the main economic activity the forest regeneration is carried out at the area of approximately 40 ha every year, as well improvement felling at the area of 328 ha and clearings at 200 ha. Total timber harvesting accounts for approximately 45,000 m³ (9,500 m³ of softwood and 35,500 m³ of hardwood). 55 % of the area is naturally regenerated under the shelterwood system. From rich sources of forest reproduction material for all main tree species, seed material for artificial regeneration is prepared in forest nurseries. The  activities such as enterprise economic activity, management of permanent research and semi-operation sites, obtaining different technical equipment, but also special building of demonstration facilities pursue the main objective and that is to create optimal conditions to accomplish the principal mission – practical education of the TU students. The  practical education is provided through the trainings during the semester and through special after-semester trainings. According to the requirements of the courses supervisors, this education is supplemented also by technical and economic employees of the VŠLP and there are workers and external suppliers of forest works at different demonstrations, too. The  intensity of the use of the VŠLP for practical education and compulsory practice can be expressed by a number of 83,000 student-hours and it is still increasing. Every year, the area of VŠLP and a number of facilities serve to obtain information for writing bachelor’s and master’s theses, for research activities of PhD students

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and for scientific research of the University employees, as well as partnership organisations in Slovakia and abroad.

Halls of Residence and Canteen Halls of Residence and the Canteen are the workplaces of the Technical University in Zvolen (the TUZVO) which secure accommodation and meals for students, employees and guests to the TUZVO. Three separate buildings of halls of residence have the capacity of 1,524 beds. After the relocating of the Technical University to Zvolen they had great difficulties in student accommodation. In 1953–1954 and in 1956 the University built 7 buildings accommodating 240 students in the area of playground of the former grammar school. Large amount of students was accommodated in the buildings rented from the Military Administration, in a worker barrack near the university housing on Štúrova Street, and in private accommodation. Building and gradual launching the separate blocks of the Ľ. Štúr Hall of Residence at 17 Študentská Street was in progress in 1958–1962. The  planned capacity was 571 beds. The re are four blocks, the D block used as the main building of the Faculty of Wood Sciences and Technology of former University of Forestry and Wood Technology until 1993. Given bed capacity was not sufficient to cover still increasing demands for student’s accommodation and therefore in 1970 and 1978 two prefabricated halls of residence were built, one of them, P-120, with 120 bed capacity was working until 1993. In 1984, after leaving the rooms of the D block, its premises were converted into student rooms, which increased the bed capacity to 711. In 1998 the premises


of the D block were provided again for a new Department of Furniture Design and Wood Products. In 1983 the Hall of Residence Záhonok with 200 bed capacity was put into service. Now it is 208 beds. The  new Hall of Residence and the Canteen Bariny (27 Študentská Street) enabled to put the accommodation facility P-120 near the canal out of service. Its capacity was 608 beds. There are 36 beds in the Hall of Residence Bariny guestrooms available for guests and part-time students of the TUZVO during an academic year. During holidays, the Hall of Residence provides accommodation for the participants of seminars, conferences, and the other events organized by the TUZVO. The  Halls of Residence create conditions for after-school activities of the TUZVO students. The  INRO (the student radio) started in 1969 and was completely digitalized in 2005. Its broadcasting is spread via the Internet. Two fitness centres of the “Herkules” Club are in operation for students sport activity. The  members of the Aqua-Terra Club, Photo-club and Eco Club are also very active. The  premises of Halls of Residence do not provide only students with their accommodation and activities, but they are the seat of 2 departments, i.e. the Department of Furniture Design and Wood Products and the Department of Social Sciences. The  Institute of Foreign Languages has its classrooms in the Halls of Residence too. In their premises you can find also surgeries of doctors and health service. In 2008–2010 the Canteen reconstruction was completed at 17 Študentská Street Hall of Residence, its premises serve also as the Congress Centre of the TUZVO. In 2007–2012 building operations aimed at improvement in the accommodation area for students and at increase in energy saving (replacement of windows) were realised.


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Since 2008, the Internet has been accessed in all rooms of each Hall of Residence within the project “Reconstruction of the TUZVO Premises with a View to Information Communication Technology (IKT) Building and to Technical Evaluation of Premises“. The  Canteen as the part of the Halls of Residence provided meals for students and employees of the university in the Hall of Residence of Ľ. Štúr, 17 Študentská Street, in 1958–1993. Since September 1993 the new premises of canteen have been provided for students, employees but also other people interested in catering in the Hall of Residence Bariny. The  facility has a capacity of approximately 1,000 meals a day during an academic year. In 2010/11, the canteen premises were reconstructed. The  technological improvements made the preparation of meals more effective and new interior made the premises more pleasant for people eating there. During the Halls of Residence existence, there were several different people in the position of the director: Anna Šagátová (1953–1960), Mr. Milanský (1960–1961), Emil Suja (1961–1964), Pavel Šarkan (1964–1971), Juraj Mlynár (1972–1986), Pavel Duben (1986–1989), Viera Rybová (1990–1993), Martin Šiagi (1993–2011). Since 2011 Zuzana Zelemová has been working as the director of the Halls of Residence.

Publishing House The year was 1952. Zvolen was becoming a university town and the University of Forestry and Wood Technology was starting its history. These days we are commemorating its 60th anniversary. Retrospectively, we return to all foundation stones, but also foundation pebbles, which

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gradually helped to build and create this university to its present-day form. In October 1968, the permission to publish textbooks and books for needs of the University became one of those steps. This step stimulated the establishment of the Editorial Centre in January 1969 and later on the Publishing House of the Technical University (the VTU) in May 1995. The  VTU led by Eva Fekiačová PhDr. has been performing its activities since its establishment in 1969. If we analyse the activity and the role of this organisational unit in more detail, the Editorial Plan of the Technical University for a given calendar year is the main source for annual fulfilling tasks. The  process prepress – press – postpress finishes by a publication serving as the basic teaching aid to support the scientific-pedagogical process of the University and as the source of specialised information for the public. The  VTU publishes 120–140 books per year. It cooperates not only with the University workplaces, but also with external institutions in this area i.e. the Slovak National Library, ISSN National Agency and the Ministry of Culture of the Slovak Republic, which is also the inseparable part of the VTU activity. The  following titles rank among the most successful textbooks such as Wildlife Management by P. Garaj and R. Kropil, Wood Protection by L. Reinprecht, Historical Furniture by J. Veselovský and O. Janáková, Biometrics by Ľ. Scheer, The  Basics of Constructions by J. Sekereš et al., Engineering Drawing by J. Sekereš et al., Silviculture by M. Saniga, Environmental Law by E. Čerkala, the University textbooks Selected Chapters on Chemistry by L. Laurová, Typology II by L. Poštulková, the reference book Atlas of Plants by E. Križová and many others which aroused an interest of experts outside the University. Publishing the series of specialised books for external buyers from the sphere of wildlife management, health


Other Organizational Parts of the Technical University in Zvolen

food, and the books presenting personalities of the Slovak history was the huge success. We can give an example of monographs such as The Spiral of the Flight of Vladimír Dráb and The  Story of Juraj Puškár, The Pilot by M. Gajdoš. The  other activities of the VTU include the distribution and selling of published literature through the brick-andmortar shop and e-shop of specialised literature at the Technical University, the publishing of information and advertising brochures, directives, documents, printed matters, and presentation materials. The  Copy Centre as part of the activities of the VTU provides services connected In 2012 the VTU becomes the part to the activity of the VTU. of consumer chain to trace the origin

of certificated paper in accordance with the international standard PEFC ST 2002 : 2010 Chain of Custody of Forest Based Products – Requirements.

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Cultural, Social and Sports Life at the University in 2007—2012


Universitas Technica in Zvolen

Folklore Ensemble Poľana The folklore ensemble Poľana was founded by the Technical University in Zvolen in 1955. Already at its establishment at the turn of the years 1955–1956, the ensemble set the objective to develop folk traditions mainly from Podpoľanie and after majestic volcano, which dominates this region, it accepted the name “Poľana”. Similarly to the past, the ensemble members are young people, predominantly students and employees of the Technical University, but also the young from Zvolen and environs who like folk dance and songs. Nowadays the ensemble has approximately 70 members, who work in four sections: male singers, female singers, music and dance. At present, Poľana works under the direction of the ensemble director Prof. Ing. Anna Šatanová, CSc., as well as Assoc. Prof. Ing. František Chudý, CSc., who is the artistic

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leader and choreographer of the ensemble. The ensemble manager is Ing. Pavol Gejdoš, PhD., folk music is directed by Ing. Miroslav Danihel, the male singer’s section leader is Ing. Alexander Králik and the female singer’s section leader is Ing. Daniel Bebej. During many years of its existence, the folklore ensemble Poľana has done hundreds of performances at home and abroad. It attends regularly Slovak folklore festivals in Východná, Detva, Heľpa, Myjava, etc. Special place in the ensemble activities is occupied by annual participation in university folklore ensembles festivals Akademický Zvolen and Akademická Nitra. The ensemble Poľana has been applauded by the audiences in Austria, Bulgaria, Poland, France, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Serbia, Croatia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Belgium, Turkey, Syria, the USA and Mexico.


Cultural, Social and Sports Life at the University

Club and Leisure Activities of the Students Accommodated in the Student Halls of Residence The Student Halls of Residence (ŠD) support and create conditions for leisure activities of the students especially by providing space for their club and sport activities.Everyday students’ life is enriched by broadcasting of the student halls of residence radio INRO, which is very popular among the students and it has existed since 1968. Until nowadays, INRO has gone through immense technical development from modest to fully digital operation, following the latest trends of professional radios. These trends allow quality studio work, as well as programmes production outside the radio studio. The quality work of INRO is successfully presented at the competitions of the student halls of residence radios. Via the Internet, the INRO broadcasts across the world. The breeders of aquaristic and terraristic animals can join the AQUA-TERRA CLUB, which presents their activities to a public in the entrance hall of the ŠD. Relaxing and sport activities for the students accomodated in the ŠD are offered by the HERCULES Club. Fitness centres, equipped with the latest accessible devices, are at the students’ disposal in the ŠD. The students who are interested in Information and Communication Technologies can become the INTERNET Club members. The main mission of this club is to provide services for the students and to maintain the Internet connection in the ŠD. Material and technical support is also offered to falconry, kynological and gamekeeping clubs, as well as to the EKOclub.

Slávia Sports Club Sports club Slávia (TJ Slávia) has functioned at the Technical University in Zvolen since 1990. The sports activities of the TJ Slávia are methodically conducted in individual sport groups through the groups directors and coaches. Within sports and leisure activities, the TJ Slávia offers the students and employees of the Technical University a possibility of regeneration in form of physical activities. It also organises a lot of sport events in different sports. Nowadays the TJ Slávia has 309 members thanks to the formation of Sport for all, consisting of students teams of the Technical Unviersity in Zvolen, as well as due to restarting of the climbing club activities. From the beginning of its existence, the TJ Slávia has organised recreational and professional sport for people of all age groups. Currently, it has 13 sport groups (volleyball, tennis, bedminton, bodybuilding, climbing, aerobics + recreational physical education and sport, orienteering, canoeing, chess, technical sports, karate, hiking, sport for all). In the long term, the sport groups of volleyball, bedminton, canoeing and technical sports participate in competitions in Slovakia, abroad and in Slovak leagues, where they represent successfully our University, the TJ Slávia and Slovakia. Just to mention a few: Martina Repiská is 11-time champion of the Slovak Republic in bedminton, Rudolf Michalovský got twice the 3rd place in biathlon and in cross-country skiing at the Slovak Winter Universiade. At the same event, Gabriel Hatala got the bronze in karate. In karate, already for the third time, František Kačík, Ján Škoda, Juraj Nemček became the Champions of Slovakia in category of the adults-kata team. In canoeing the Slovak Republic was represented by Peter Slašťan, Jr. who participated in the World and European Championships in 2011.

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Epilogue


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Epilogue Sustainable development is such a way of the development of human society which harmonizes economic and social progress with the quality environment conservation. A main aim of the sustainable development is a preservation of the environment for further generations in the least changed form. Historical roots of the Technical University in Zvolen, especially the anniversary of the establishment of university technical and forestry education in Slovakia, inflate us with feelings of pride. Development since the establishment of university technical and forestry education has shown that taking care of the environment is not only an important priority, but also a fundamental condition for the development of human society. The unique aiming of the Technical University in Zvolen at the education and scientific research activity in the sphere of the environment protection lead us to rational approach in order to facilitate the development of the University. With their work, the employees of the University declare their support for the environment conservation in all aspects of their educational and scientific research activities and they earn sincere gratitude. In the present globalized world, sustainable development is a matter of all mankind. Only cooperation on a largest

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international scale will allow us to satisfy the aims of the environment protection. At the Technical University in Zvolen, we have recognized a need for the international cooperation in taking care of the environment and therefore our priority is the internationalization of our education and research. Such strategy lays great claims to the employees of the University. However, it is the only possible way if we want to be a significant part of efforts to preserve our planet for the coming generations. The seeds of European larch put in this monograph present a new life for future generations and symbolically refer us to the idea of sustainable development as a main priority for work of teachers and researchers at the Technical University in Zvolen. As a tree species, European larch is also exposed to long-term attacks of the environment pollution and it is a task for all of us to preserve it for our and future generations. We have decided to finish our book symbolically. As a symbol of rational approach to our environment, we would like to ask you to plant the seed of European larch and so express your interest in sustainable development of our planet and its preservation for our children.


Acknowledgements Monograph on the Technical University in Zvolen was published with financial support of the following companies: LESY Slovenskej republiky, š. p., Banská Bystrica, SLOVWOOD Ružomberok, a. s., DATALAN, a. s. Bratislava, Hewlett-Packard Slovakia, s. r. o., Bratislava, Nadácia Slovenskej sporiteľne, Bratislava. Management of the Technical University in Zvolen would like to thank the given companies for their support when publishing the monograph.


Photographs © Archives of the TU in Zvolen – pp. 8, 32, 41, 45, 57, 60, 63, 74, 83, 105, 134, 135, 137,

138, 169, 175, 177, 189, 192, 197, 199, 202–203; Jaroslav Badinka – p. 95; Stanislav Brna – p. 46; Stanislav Harvančík – pp. 69, 73, 111, 115, 117, 132–133, 151, 158, 216; Martin Holík – p. 206; Miroslav Chovan – pp. 6–7, 19, 49, 51, 81, 88–89, 91, 93, 145 *, 164–165; Lukáš Kello – p. 99; Patrik Křížek – p. 86; Tibor Pataky – pp. 14–15, 52–53, 70, 112, 118, 124–125, 129, 170, 182–183, 212–213, 214–215; Lukáš Podolec – p. 152; Monika Rusnáková – p. 161; Peter Simoník – p. 142 **;

Graphic motives and photo collages © Pavol Borodovčák – p. 1; Miroslav Chovan – pp. 2–3, 10, 16–17, 24, 54–55, 67, 90, 108– 109, 126–127, 148–149, 166–167, 184–185, 204–205, 211; Lukáš Priečko – p. 130; Zuzana Tončíková – p. 90;

Notes: * (author of the design: Ján Bahleda, supervisor: Prof. Ing. Štefan Schneider, PhD.) ** ( author of the design: Martin Holík, supervisor: Mgr. Art. Marián Laššák)


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