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BUILDING SERVICES [BLD60903] CASE STUDY AND DOCUMENTATION OF BUILDING SERVICES SYSTEM

PERTUBUHAN AKITEK MALAYSIA (PAM CENTER) MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS JALAN TANDOK, BANGSAR

Thareen Nujjoo Aidan Ho Wei Suan Allen Tan Hoang Yeap Vincentia Mutiara Kartika Sukeshshef Ramachandram Nik Ahmad Munawwar Nik Din

0324886 0326021 0329159 0303496 0327162 0325167


Building Services | Project I: Case Study of Building Services in a Public Building

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

Abstract Acknowledgement Introduction to the New PAM Centre Methodology Limitation of Study Fire Protection System 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Literature Review 6.2.1 Active Fire Protection System 6.2.1.1 Fire Detection And Alarm Systems 6.2.1.2 Fire Control System 6.2.2 Passive Fire Protection System 6.3 Active Fire Protection System (in PAM Building) 6.3.1 Fire Detection System 6.3.1.1 Optical Heat Detectors 6.3.2 Fire Alarm System (Automatic and Manual) 6.3.2.1 Fire Alarm Bell 6.3.2.2 Fire Emergency Light 6.3.2.3 Manual Call Point 6.3.2.4 Fire Alarm Control Panel 6.3.2.5 Fireman Intercom System 6.3.2.6 Fireman Switch 6.3.3 Fire Fighting System 6.3.3.1 Fire Extinguisher 6.3.3.2 Dry Riser and Dry Hydrant 6.3.3.3 Hose Reel System 6.4 Passive fire protection system (in PAM Building) 6.4.1 Fire Doors 6.4.2 Fire Rated Building Material 6.4.2.1 Precast Concrete 6.4.2.2 Masonry 6.4.3 Compartmentalization

5 6 7 8 9 ​10

7.0

Mechanical Ventilation System 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Literature Review 7.2.1 Basic Ventilation System 7.2.2 Types of Mechanical Ventilation Systems 7.2.2.1 Spot Ventilation System 7.2.2.2 Heat Recovery System 7.2.3 Components in Mechanical Ventilation Systems 7.2.3.1 Fan 7.2.3.2 Filter 7.2.3.3 Ductwork 7.2.3.4 Fire Damper

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7.2.3.5 Grille and Diffuser 7.3 Mechanical Ventilation System (in PAM Building) 7.3.1 Spot Ventilation System 7.3.2 Air Handling Unit 7.3.3 Types of Fan (in PAM Building) 7.3.3.1 Propeller Fan 7.3.3.2 Centrifugal Fan 7.3.4 Ductwork 7.4 Conclusion 8.0

Air Conditioning System 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Literature Review 8.2.1 Operation Principle of Air Cooling 8.2.1.1 Refrigeration Cycle 8.2.1.2 Air Cycle 8.2.2 Types of Air Conditioning Systems 8.2.2.1 Window Air Conditioning System 8.2.2.2 Split Air Conditioning System 8.2.2.3 Multi-split Air Conditioning System 8.2.2.4 Variable Refrigerant Flow System 8.2.3 Considerations to UBBL 8.3 Types of Air Conditioning System in PAM Building 8.3.1 Benefits of VRF in the New Pam Centre 8.3.1.1 Comfort 8.3.1.2 Environmental 8.3.1.3 Flexibility 8.3.1.4 Reduced Noise 8.3.2 Components of VRF 8.3.2.1 Outdoor Unit 8.3.2.2. Indoor Unit 8.3.3 Implementation of VRF 8.3.4 AHU 8.3.4.1 Components of AHU 8.3.4.2 Connection of VRF and AHU 8.4 Conclusion

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9.0

Mechanical Transportation System 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Literature Review 9.3 Standard Elevator Components 9.3.1 Machine room 9.3.2 Car 9.3.3 Hoistway/ Shaft

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9.3.4 Counterweight 9.3.5 Guardrail 9.3.6 Buffer 9.4

9.5 10.0

11.0 12.0

Types of Elevator (in PAM Building) ​9.4.1 Machine Room-less Elevator 9.4.2 Single speed center opening 9.4.3 Buttons 9.4.3.1 Floor Selection Buttons 9.4.3.2 Operation and Emergency Buttons 9.4.3.3 Braille 9.4.4 Floor Indicator 9.4.5 Safety Features 9.4.5.1 Handrail 9.4.5.2 Fireproof Padding 9.4.5.3 CCTV Uniform Building By-Laws

Mechanical Parking System 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Literature Review 10.3 Types of Mechanical Parking System (in PAM Building) ​10.3.1 Lift Box Type 10.3.1.1 Operation and Maintenance 10.4 Safety System 10.4.1 Mechanic Lock 10.4.2 Overload Device 10.4.3 Emergency Operation Conclusion References

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107 108

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1.0

Abstract

This assignment requires students to analyse the services in a public building of our choice. Each group is to perform an observational study and analysis of the following service systems, and report them in response to the requirements of the UBBL 1984:

a. Fire protection (active and passive fire protection system) b. Mechanical ventilation c. Air-conditioning system d. Mechanical transportation system (lift)

With the report, we were able to focus on the details and gain a better understanding of how services function and are implemented in a public building. The New PAM building is a great example of a modern building with services that comply with environmental policies as it was granted the platinum certification by the Green Building Index.

In-depth study via literature review (publications and online resources) was carried out to aid in the research and observation process. A deeper understanding of local regulations such as the UBBL and MS1525 would greatly help in subsequent endeavours as students and practicing architects in the future. It is hoped that this research and report would serve as a basis for further understanding the intricacies of the Malaysian regulatory environment.

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2.0

Acknowledgement

The group would like to extend its utmost appreciation to the following individuals who have actively assisted throughout the group’s journey in completing this project.

First and foremost, our gratitude goes out to our tutor, Mr. Azim, who had provided the group with immense support, including having the patience to put up with our antics, all the way from day one up until the completion of the project.

Our appreciation also goes out to Ar. Sateerah Hassan for carefully designing the module to be as beneficial as it is to our learning development. We have indeed gained a lot from the experience over the short period of time.

Finally, we would like to extend our appreciation towards Persatuan Arkitek Malaysia, Mr. Adi and other officers for allowing us to conduct research activities at the New PAM Centre, and for providing us with significant amount of information to ease the research process.

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3.0

Introduction to the New PAM Centre

The New PAM Centre, located on Jalan Tandok in Bangsar is the current head office of Persatuan Arkitek Malaysia. It was designed by Mohd Heikal Hasan of HMA & Associates and completed in 2016. The building is striking in its liberal use of raw finishes and clever spatial organisation on a limited land area. Noted for its Platinum certification for Green Building Index, the New PAM Centre’s minimalist, grid design promotes passive strategies in fulfilling the requirements of fire safety and ventilation. Some of the features that afforded the building its Platinum certification include a rainwater harvesting system that is used for irrigation and flushing purposes, a 25 kWp photovoltaic system to make use of solar energy, and a vertical greenery to maximise use of the limited space. The interior is industrial, constructed of exposed brick walls, flat concrete slabs and hidden steel columns. The exposed mechanical and electrical routes provide clear indication of the services within the building, facilitating an easy investigation of the types of services employed in the design.

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4.0

Methodology

The group embarked on the project with the intention of conducting a thorough study of the services implemented at the New PAM Centre building in Bangsar. The project was carried out in multiple phases, namely literature review, site visit and observation as well as data recording and reporting throughout a period of 4 weeks.

Literature review includes research gathered from publications, journals as well as online sources on the four topics covered; fire protection systems, mechanical ventilation, air-conditioning and mechanical transportation systems.

The group was then divided to work on the respective topics, in preparation for the site visit. The group visited the site on two occasions, with more thorough research done during the second visit. We were assisted by Mr. Adi, the Facilities Manager on the intricacies of the systems in place.

With data collection done, the group then compiled all data on cloud storage for ease of access. The data was analysed and shared amongst group members during the drafting and writing of the report.

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5.0

Limitation of Study

The group encountered some minor issues during the research process which may have slightly delayed the preparation of the report.

During the initial visit to the site, the tour guide that was supposed to give us the tour of the services in the building was double-booked, and attended to students from another university. Our group was forced to conduct our own observation without the guidance of an experienced facilities manager. However we managed to accumulate photos that were eventually used in the preparation of the report.

It is interesting to note that we also had some difficulties covering a number of topics, due to the design of the building. The building was designed with excellent passive ventilation, hence requiring minimal active ventilation systems. This limits the number of topics that we were able to cover, especially in terms of active ventilation techniques.

Another limitation would be the lack of published drawings (plans and sections) of the PAM Centre, possibly due to the fact that it is a relatively new building. This issue forced us to manually trace the photo of the fire-escape plan in the building to produce the floor plans.

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6.0

Fire Protection System

6.1 Introduction

Fire Protection refers to the safety measures and precautions conducted to prevent or delay the aftermath of a potentially destructive fire, reducing the impact of uncontrolled fire which safeguards the safety and property of people. It is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially catastrophic fires. It involves the study of the investigation and suppression of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production and testing.

In structures, the owner and operators are responsible for the maintenance of their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that is rooted in laws, including the local building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is made. Building inspectors check on the compliance of a building under construction with the building code. Upon the completion of construction, a building must be maintained in accordance with the current fire code, which is enforced by the fire prevention officers of a local fire department. In the event of fire emergencies, firefighters, fire investigators, and other fire prevention personnel are called to mitigate, investigate and learn from the damages of a fire. The purpose of fire protection is to prevent building occupants and properties from coming in the line of casualty by the result of a fire breakout. It aims to avoid the fire spread from one building to another. The two types of fire protection systems are active and passive fire protection systems. 6.2 Literature Review Fire is the result of the chemical reaction called combustion. For this reaction to occur a fuel is heated to its ignition temperature in the presence of oxygen in the air. The reaction will last as long as there is sufficient heat, fuel and oxygen. The fire triangle demonstrates the relationship and conditions for combustion to occur and thus creating fire.

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Figure 6.2.1 The fire triangle.

Influence of fire triangle in terms of building design. 1. Fuel: This represents the building’s structure and materials. An architect can choose the type of material finish that is suitable for the design as well as for fire retardment purposes. 2. Heat: The heat generated by fire cannot be controlled by a building’s cooling system, for this purpose, special water systems are installed to put out the heat needed for it to combust. 3. Oxygen: There are many ways to deprive a fire from oxygen such a limitations in ventilation, use of fire suppression systems and replacement by CO​2​. 6.2.1 Active Fire Protection

This refers to fire protection systems that are on a full-time duty and hands-on approach to extinguishing or controlling the spread of fire. They can be operated either manually or automatically. Other systems are designed for early fire detection and evacuation of the building, alerting the necessary authorities in the event of a fire or even the suppression and control of the smoke and fire rather than fighting it.

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6.2.1.1 Fire Detection and Alarm Systems

Smoke Detector

A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke particles, as an indicator of fire. Commercial security devices send a signal to a fire alarm control panel which is part of a fire alarm system.

Heat Detector

A heat detector is a fire alarm device designed to respond when the heat produced

by

a

fire

increases the

temperature of a heat sensitive element. The heat detector is triggered when temperature increases. Flame Detector

A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire by sounding an alarm, deactivating a fuel line, and activating a fire suppression system.

Fire Alarm Call Point

A manual fire alarm activation which sounds the evacuation alarm for the relevant building or zone. Call points can also be used in conjunction with automatic detection as part of an overall fire detection and alarm system.

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Fire Bell

Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall mountable sounders, horns or speaker strobes which sound an alarm, followed

by

a

voice

evacuation

message. The sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low, medium and high.

6.2.1.2 Fire Control System

Sprinkler System

A fire sprinkler system consists of a water

supply

system,

providing

adequate pressure and flowrate to a water distribution piping system, onto which fire sprinklers are connected. Wet Riser System

Wet risers are permanently charged with water so that firefighters do not need to create their own distribution system in order to fight a fire and avoids

the

breaching

of

fire

compartments by running hose lines between them. Dry Riser System

A dry riser is a normally empty pipe that can be externally connected to a pressurized

water

source

by

firefighters. It is a vertical pipe intended to distribute water to multiple levels of

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a building or structure as a component of the fire suppression systems.

Hose Reel System

A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardant to extinguish a fire. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's

standpipe

or

plumbing

system. Fire Hydrant System

A fire hydrant, is a high pressure water pump designed to increase the fire fighting capacity of a building it has a connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply by boosting the pressure in the hydrant service when mains is not enough, or when tank fed.

Fire Extinguishers

A fire extinguisher is used to extinguish or

control

small

fires,

often

in

emergency situations. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to

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extinguish a fire.

6.2.2 Passive Fire Protection System (PFP)

In accordance to the law, every building needs to have a passive fire protection system. It is the first line of defence in a building which provides safety for the users during an evacuation from a building during a fire emergency. Passive fire protection measures are intended to contain a fire in the fire compartment of origin, thus limiting the spread of fire and smoke for a limited period of time, as determined the local building code and fire code. Passive fire protection measures, such as fire stops, fire walls, and fire doors, are tested to determine the fire-resistance rating of the final assembly, usually expressed in terms of hours of fire resistance (e.g., ⅓, ž, 1, 1½, 2, 3, 4 hour). A certification listing provides the limitations of the rating.

As the name suggests, passive fire protection remains inactive in the coating system until a fire occurs. There are mainly two types of PFP: intumescent fire protection and vermiculite fire protection. In vermiculite fire protection, the structural steel members are covered with vermiculite materials, mostly a very thick layer. This is a cheaper option as compared to an intumescent one, but is very crude and aesthetically unpleasant. Moreover, if the environment is corrosive in nature, then the vermiculite option is not advisable, as there is the possibility of water seeping into it (because of the porous nature of vermiculite), and there it is difficult to monitor for corrosion. Intumescent fireproofing is a layer of paint which is

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applied along with the coating system on the structural steel members. The thickness of this intumescent coating is dependent on the steel section used. For calculation of DFT (dry film thickness) a factor called Hp/A (heated perimeter divided by cross sectional area), referred to as "section factor" and expressed in m−1, is used. Intumescent coatings are applied as an intermediate coat in a coating system (primer, intermediate, and top/finish coat). Because of the relatively low thickness of this intumescent coating (usually in the 350- to 700-micrometer range), nice finish, and anti-corrosive nature, intumescent coatings are preferred on the basis of aesthetics and performance.

It should be noted that in the eventuality of a fire, the steel structure will eventually collapse once the steel attains the critical core temperature (around 550 degrees Celsius or 850 degrees Fahrenheit). The PFP system will only delay this by creating a layer of char between the steel and fire. Depending upon the requirement, PFP systems can provide fire ratings in excess of 120 minutes. PFP systems are highly recommended in infrastructure projects as they can save lives and property.

PFP in a building can be described as a group of systems within systems. An installed firestop, for instance, is a system that is based upon a product certification listing. It forms part of a fire-resistance rated wall or floor, and this wall or floor forms part of a fire compartment which forms an integral part of the overall fire safety plan of the building. The building itself, as a whole, can also be seen as a system.

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6.3 Active Fire Protection Measures in PAM Building

6.3.1 Fire Detection Systems 6.3.1.1 Optical Heat Detectors

Figure 6.3.1.1.1 Optical heat detector.

Fig. 6.3.1.1.2. Optical heat detector in PAM centre.

The fire detection system used in the PAM building, combines an optical smoke detector and a heat detector. Optical smoke alarms (or photoelectric smoke alarms) are able to visually detect smoke and respond rapidly to visibly smouldering fires. They are more effective at detecting larger particles of smoke produced by slow-burning fires and marginally less sensitive to fast flaming fires as compared to ionisation detectors. Heat detectors, on the other hand, can sense the increase in temperature from a fire but are insensitive to smoke. Combinations of optical and heat alarms in one unit, such as the ones installed in the new PAM centre, are able to reduce false alarms while increasing the speed of detection. They are located at the hallways, offices and lift lobbies. Each room contains at least one detector and the distance between each detector is approximately 5m, with a minimum distance of 0.5m from walls and partitions. The detectors are also installed with emergency lights but no sprinklers. Smoking inside the building is prohibited so as not to trigger any of the smoke alarms.

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Reference to UBBL 2013: Part VII, Clause 153: Smoke detectors for lift lobbies. 1. All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors. 2. Lift not opening into smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a preset time.

6.3.2 Fire Alarm System (Automatic and Manual) 6.3.2.1 Fire Alarm Bell

centre.

​Figure 6.3.2.1.1. A fire alarm bell.

Figure 6.3.2.1.2 Alarm bell in PAM

The alarm bell is a device that creates loud alert sounds. It functions by means of an electromagnet, consisting of coils of insulated wire wound round iron rods. Once electricity is applied, the current will flow through the coils causing the rods to become magnetised and attract a piece of iron that is attached to a clapper. When the clapper hits the bell, it will create a repetitive loud ringing sound to alert the occupants of an emergency. The main alarm bell in the PAM building is located at the car park area, right above the fire department connection and the post indicator valve. When the fire alarm bell sounds, it quickly directs firefighters to the right location for connecting their hose to the hydrant.

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Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VIII, Clause 237: Fire alarms. 1. Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance to the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws. 2. Provision shall be made for the general evacuation of the premises by action of a master control.

6.3.2.2 Fire Emergency Light

Figure 6.3.2.2.1. Open area emergency lighting. Figure 6.3.2.2.2. Emergency light in PAM centre.

The PAM building is also equipped with emergency lighting, like mentioned previously. Emergency lights automatically switch on when the power supply to the normal lighting provision fails as a result of a fire or a power cut. These lights are required to operate fully automatically and give illumination of a sufficiently high level to enable all occupants to evacuate the premises safely. Wordings on any emergency lights should be legible from a distance of at least 30m under normal lighting and emergency conditions. The two types of emergency lights used in the PAM centre are: -

Open area lighting – provided to minimise panic and ensure sufficient illumination to allow the occupants of a building to reach a place where an escape route can be identified.

-

Escape route lighting – provided to easily identify escape routes.

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The emergency lightings in the PAM building can be found in: -

Open areas

-

Emergency exits and escape routes

-

External areas in immediate vicinity of exits

-

Lift cars

-

Stairways and walkways

-

Toilets

-

Switch rooms and plant rooms

-

Car park

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VII, Clause 172: Emergency Exit Signs 1. Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not be obscured by any decoration, furnishings or other equipment. 2. A sign reading “KELUAR” with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every location where the direction of travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent. 3. Every exit sign shall have the word “KELUAR” in plainly legible letters not less than 150 millimetres high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than 18 millimetres wide. The lettering shall be in red against a black background. 4. All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy. 5. Illuminated signs shall be provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts each.

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6.3.2.3 Manual Call Point

Figure 6.3.2.3.1. A manual call point.

The new PAM building is also equipped with manual alarm call points. These are designed for the purpose of raising an alarm manually once verification of a fire or emergency condition exists, by operating the push button or breaking the glass. Since it is manual, it requires human intervention for its activation. In this case study, the call points are located on all storey exits and all exits to open air with travel distance to a call point not more than 45m within the building and positioned approximately 1.4 m above the floor.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VII, Clause 155: Fire mode of operation. 1. The fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually.

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6.3.2.4 Fire Alarm Control Panel

Figure 6.3.2.4.1. Addressable fire alarm control panel.

The fire alarm control panel in the PAM building is located in the security/ control room. It is an addressable panel which is usually more advanced and has greater information capacity and control flexibility. Its purpose is to monitor and control the input devices found in the PAM centre such as: -

Detectors and sensors.

-

Manual call points.

-

Notification Appliances.

-

Switches.

And it also has the ability to: -

Switch fans on or off.

-

Close and open doors.

-

Activate fire suppression systems.

-

Activate notification appliances.

-

Shut down industrial equipment.

-

Recall elevators to a safe exit floor.

-

Activate another fire alarm panel or communicator.

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Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VII, Clause 155: Fire mode of operation. 1. The fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually. 2. If mains power is available all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts, without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency or safety devices, and park with doors open. 3. The fire lifts shall then be available for use by the fire brigade on operation of the fireman's switch. 4. Under this mode of operation, the fire lifts shall only operate in response to car calls but not to landing calls in a mode of operation in accordance with by-law 154. 5. In the event of mains power failure, all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor and operate under emergency power as described under paragraphs (2) to (4).

Part VIII, Clause 238: Command and control centre. Every large premises or buildings exceeding 30.5 metres in height shall be provided with a command and control centre located on the designated floor and shall contain a panel to monitor the public address, fire brigade communication, sprinkler, waterflow detectors, fire detection and alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by-passing the switchboard.

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6.3.2.5 Fireman Intercom System

Figure 6.3.2.5.1. Fireman Intercom System

Fireman intercom system used in the PAM centre is a two way emergency voice communication system. It provides a reliable communication between the master console (Fire Command Centre) and the remote handset stations. The master control panel which is installed at the ground floor level in the security/ control room. The intercom handset stations are located at the staircases of every level. At the master control panel, a call alert lamp shall flash with audible signal when there is incoming call. Upon lifting the handset, the audible signal will be silenced. The master control panel is also equipped with a fault indicator unit to indicate the type of fault.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VIII, Clause 239: Voice communication system. There shall be two separate approved continuously electrically supervised voice communications systems, one a fire brigade communications system and the other a public address system between the central control station and the following areas: a) lifts, lift lobbies, corridors and staircases; b) in every office area exceeding 92.9 square metres in area; c) in each dwelling unit and hotel guest room where the fire brigade system may be combined with the public address system.

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6.3.2.6 Fireman Switch

Figure 6.3.2.6.1. A fireman’s switch.

A fireman's switch is a specialized switch that allows firefighters to quickly disconnect power from high voltage devices that may pose a danger in the event of an emergency. The fireman’s switch for the PAM centre is clearly location and the ground floor, right below the alarm bell and the fire control panel. Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): 1. Every floor or zone of any floor with a net area exceeding 929 square metres shall be provided with an electrical isolation switch located within a staircase enclosure to permit the disconnection of electrical power supply to the relevant floor or zone served. 2. The switch shall be of a type similar to the fireman's switch specified in the Institution of Electrical Engineers Regulations then in force.

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6.3.3 Fire Fighting System 6.3.3.1 Fire Extinguisher

Figure 6.3.3.1.1. A fire extinguisher.

 The PAM centre is well equipped with ABC Fire Extinguishers. This type of extinguisher is often the most ideal as it is very versatile, due to its ability to put out many different types of fires. It uses monoammonium phosphate which is a dry chemical that is able to quickly put out the fire. It is a pale yellow powder that is able to put out all three classes of fire; Class A for trash, wood and paper, Class B for liquids and gases, and Class C for energized electrical sources. Most of the fire extinguishers are strategically located in the hallways and also at the fire staircases, other rooms such as the auditorium and the exhibition room.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Part VIII, Clause 227: Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exit routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

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6.3.3.2 Dry Riser and Dry Hydrant

Figure 6.3.3.2.1. A dry riser system

Figure 6.3.3.2.2. A dry standpipe and fire hose.

A dry riser is an empty vertical pipe that firefighters use to connect to a pressurized water source to distribute water to multiple levels of a building or structure as a component of the fire suppression systems. Dry risers have to allow access to a fire engine within 18 m of the dry riser inlet box and have to be within a fire-resistant shaft. In the case of the PAM building, the term "dry riser" may also refer to a standpipe, which is intended to provide water to fire hose connections. The dry standpipe comprises of a fire department connection, which is an external access point at ground level through which water can be pumped from the fire department's fire engine pump to the fire hose attachments on each floor. The dry hydrants and fire hoses are found at the emergency staircases of each level as well as in the car park which is a semi-open area. Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Installation and testing of dry rising system. 1. Dry rising systems shall be provided in every building in which the topmost floor is more than 18.3 metres but less than 30.5 metres above fire appliance access level. 2. A hose connection shall be provided in each fire fighting access lobby.

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3. Dry risers shall be of minimum "Class C" pipes with fittings and connections of sufficient strength to withstand 21 bars water pressure. 4. Dry risers shall be tested hydrostatically to withstand not less than 14 bars of pressure for two hours in the presence of the Fire Authority before acceptance. 5. All horizontal runs of the dry rising systems shall be pitched at the rate of 6.35 millimetres in 3.05 metres. 6. The dry riser shall be not less than 102 millimetres in diameter in buildings in which the highest outlet is 22.875 metres or less above the fire brigade pumping inlet and not less than 152.4 millimetres diameter where the highest outlet is higher than 22.875 metres above the pumping inlet. 7. 102 millimetres diameter dry risers shall be equipped with a two-way pumping inlet and 152.4 millimetres dry risers shall equipped with a four-way pumping inlet.

6.3.3.3 Hose Reel System

Figure 6.3.3.3.1. A fire hose reel.

A fire hose is a high-pressure hose that carries water or other fire retardants to extinguish a fire. Outdoors, it attaches either to a fire engine or a fire hydrant. Indoors, it can permanently attach to a building's standpipe, such as in the PAM

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building. The fire hose reels used in our case study consist of pumps, pipes, water supply and hose reels. This whole system is placed at strategic areas in the centre in order to ensure proper coverage of water supply throughout the entire building in case of fire. To operate the hose, a valve is opened that allows water to flow through the hose with a jet stream of approximately 10m from the nozzle. The length of the hose is 45m maximum and made of reinforced rubber. These type of hose reels are also found mainly at each floor of the emergency staircases and also a few other strategic points in the building.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Marking on wet riser, etc. 1. Wet riser, dry riser, sprinkler and other fire installation pipes and fittings shall be painted red. 2. All cabinets and areas recessed in walls for location of fire installations and extinguishers shall be clearly identified to the satisfaction of the Fire Authority or otherwise clearly identified.

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6.4 Passive Fire Protection Measures in PAM Building 6.4.1 Fire Doors

Figure 6.4.1.1 Fire Door at Lift Lobby in the PAM Centre

A fire door is a door with a fire-resistance rating used to reduce the spread of fire and smoke between separate compartments of a structure and to enable safe egress from a building. All fire doors must be installed with the appropriate fire resistant fittings, such as the frame and door hardware, for it to fully comply with any fire regulations.

Fire doors may be made of a combination of materials, such as glass sections, gypsum (as an endothermic fill), steel, timber vermiculite-boards and aluminium. Both the door leaf and the frame are required to meet the guidelines of the testing agency which provides the product listing. The door frame includes the fire or smoke seals, door hardware, and the structure that holds the fire door assembly in

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place. Together, these components form an assembly, typically called a "doorset" which holds a numerical rating, quantified in hours of resistance to a test fire.

All of the components of the fire door assembly must bear a listing agencies label to ensure the components have been tested to meet the fire rating requirements with the exception of ball-bearing hinges which meet the basic build requirements of ANSI 156.2 and NFPA 80. The door hardware includes, but is not limited to:

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Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Fire doors in compartment walls and separating walls. Part VII, Clause 162 1. Fire doors of the appropriate FRP shall be provided. 2. Openings in compartment walls and separating walls shall be protected by a fire door having a FRP in accordance with the requirements for that wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws. 3. Openings in protecting structures shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of not less than half the requirement for the surrounding wall specified in the Ninth Schedule to these By-laws but in no case less than half hour. 4. Openings in partitions enclosing a protected corridor or lobby shall be protected by fire doors having FRP of half-hour. 5. Fire doors including frames shall be constructed to a specification which can be shown to meet the requirements for the relevant FRP when tested in accordance with section 3 of BS 476: 1951.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Door closers for fire doors. Part VII, Clause 164 1. All fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers of the hydraulically spring operated type in the case of swing doors and of wire rope and weight type in the case of sliding doors. 2. Double doors with rabbeted meeting stiles shall be provided with coordinating device to ensure that leafs close in the proper sequence. 3. Fire doors may be held open provided the hold open device incorporates a heat actuated device to release the door. Heat actuated devices shall not be permitted on fire doors protecting openings to protected corridors or protected staircases.

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Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): External staircase. Part VII, Clause 190 Any permanently installed external staircase is acceptable as a required exit under the same condition as an internal staircase: Provided that such staircase shall comply with all the requirements for internal staircases. External staircases shall be separated from the interior of the building by walls and fire door of the same fire resistance rating as required for internal staircases. 6.4.2 Fire Rated Building Material

Fire-retardant materials are often confused with fire-resistant materials. Whilst fire-retardant materials are designed to burn slowly, a fire resistant material is one that is designed to resist burning and withstand heat. Differences in fire performance between different materials can be evaluated by comparing flame spread ratings (Class A is the greatest resistance, followed by B and C) and heat release rate.

Non-combustible materials are either defined as such in the building code, or have met the requirements of a standard test.

Ignition resistant materials have passed a 30-minute flame spread test after being subjected to an accelerated weathering cycle that consists of 12 weeks of alternate wetting and drying exposures. Ignition resistant materials are combustible.

Fire resistance is typically associated with an assembly construction, and therefore considers the performance of a number of materials that would be incorporated in

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a wall, floor or roof. The exterior material exposed to the fire can be combustible, ignition resistant, or noncombustible since the entire assembly contributes to the rating. Although the fire ratings are in gauged with time (e.g., 20-minute, one-hour, two-hour), they only represent a relative performance (i.e., a two-hour wall is better than a one-hour wall, but they may or may not resist a given fire exposure for those time periods). A nominal “one-hour” wall has been used as one way for a wall having combustible siding to be used in wildfire prone area. Whereas fire resistance information can be used to judge the ability to resist flame penetration into the building, it does not necessarily provide information regarding flame spread. This is especially true since this type of construction is only used when combustible siding is used as the outermost material.

Given the use of these terms, you can rank the expected performance of construction materials as follows: 1. Non-combustible – Best performance for both flame spread and penetration. 2. Fire resistance – Fire Resistant construction – Rely on assembly rating for resistance to fire penetration, and the exterior material (i.e., the one that would be exposed to the fire) for information regarding flame spread. 3. Ignition Resistant – Provides information regarding flame spread. Materials with this classification can be expected to perform better than combustible materials but not as well as non-combustible. 4. Combustible – Materials with this classification will not perform as well as the others discussed in this article, given a comparable fire exposure.

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6.4.2.1 Precast Concrete

The degree of fire resistance required depends on the type of occupancy, the size of the building, its location (proximity to property lines and within established fire zones), and in some cases, the amount and type of fire detection and extinguishing equipment available in the structure. Precast concrete members are inherently noncombustible and can be designed to meet any degree of fire resistance that may be required by building codes, insurance companies, and other authorities. The floors, exterior walls, columns, beams and roof in the PAM Centre are made up of four hour fire rated precast concrete members. The change in concrete properties due to high temperature depends on the type of coarse aggregate used. Aggregate used in concrete can be classified into three types: carbonate, siliceous and lightweight. Carbonate aggregates include limestone and dolomite. Siliceous aggregate includes materials consisting of silica and include granite and

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sandstone. Lightweight aggregates are usually manufactured by heating shale, slate, or clay.

Table 6.4.2.1.1 Fire Endurances for Single-Mixture Concrete Panel

Figure 6.4.2.1.2 Effect of high temperature on the compressive strength of concrete

Figure 6.4.2.1.1 shows the effect of high temperature on the compressive strength of concrete. The specimens represented in the figure were stressed to 40% of their compressive strength during the heating period. After the designated test temperature was reached, the load was increased gradually until the specimen failed. The figure shows that the strength of concrete containing siliceous aggregate begins to drop off at about 800 °F and is reduced to about 55% at 1200°F. Concrete containing lightweight aggregates and carbonate aggregates retain most of their compressive strength up to about 1200°F. Lightweight concrete The New PAM Centre

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has insulating properties, and transmits heat at a slower rate than normal weight concrete with the same thickness, and therefore generally provides increased fire resistance.

Figure 6.4.2.1.2 Effect of high temperature on the modulus of elasticity of concrete

Figure 6.4.2.1.2 shows the effect of high temperature on the modulus of elasticity of concrete. The figure shows that the modulus of elasticity for concretes manufactured of all three types of aggregates are reduced with the increase in temperature. Also, at high temperatures, creep and relaxation for concrete increase significantly

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6.4.2.2 Masonry

Masonry walls have an endothermic effect of its hydrates, as in chemically bound water, as well as unbound moisture from the concrete block, as well as the poured concrete if the hollow cores inside the blocks are filed. Masonry is non-combustible product that can protect the building from fire as it is able to increase the thermal mass of a building. As bricks are made in a fire kiln, they're already highly resistant to fire. However, it's true that individual bricks are much more fire-resistant than a brick wall. A brick wall is held together with mortar, which is less effective. Nevertheless, brick is commonly cited as one of the best building materials for fire protection. Depending on the construction and thickness of the wall, a brick wall can achieve a 1-hour to 4-hour fire-resistance rating. Masonry has high compressive strength under vertical loads but has low tensile strength against twisting or stretching unless reinforced. The tensile strength of masonry walls can be increased by thickening the wall, or by building masonry piers at intervals.

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6.4.2.3 Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel

​Figure 6.4.2.3.1 Stairs made out of hot-dip galvanized steel in PAM Centre

​Figure 6.4.2.3.2 Hot-dip galvanized steel used as conduits in PAM Centre The New PAM Centre

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There are two types of fireproofing can be successfully used on hot-dip galvanized steel; cement-bonded concrete and fire-retardant coatings Cement-bonded concrete can be of either the dense or lightweight varieties. The dense version is most commonly used on outdoor structural members that may be subjected to impact, such as by vehicle bumpers. Lightweight cement-bonded concrete is most commonly used when weight is a consideration or for areas where impact is not likely. Moisture can penetrate lightweight fireproofing material easier than dense material, so it is important lightweight material completely covers the area it is applied to, and in the thicknesses recommended by the manufacturer. Fire-retardant coatings are reactive materials and begin foaming once a certain temperature threshold is exceeded. The foam reduces the heat transfer to the steel, and ceramic binders further protect the steel from excessive heat. The use of hot-dip galvanized steel is seen in the material of stairs and conduits that run through the entire building.

6.4.3 Compartmentalization Compartmentation is basically the division of a building into cells, using construction materials that will prevent the passage of fire from one cell to another for a given period of time. The most common feature of compartmentation that we use and see on a day to day basis is a fire door. However, most building users forget that the surrounding construction will also be fire rated. Compartmentation is referred to in many different means: fire walls (and floors); fire separation; protected corridors / stairs etc. All these terms carry the same meaning.

This fire precaution is used to achieve a number of goals, although its primary consideration is usually the protection of the means of escape. The occupancy also has a significant impact on requirements and reliance on fire

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separation, with the key risk profile being that occupants may be asleep, therefore at greater risk. Compartmentation falls into the passive category as it doesn't typically react or change in a fire condition and this is one of its many advantages, as a feature, it is effectively a capital cost and can have little maintenance requirements, i.e. once a masonry wall is in place little will change throughout its 'life', it does not need a weekly test or a quarterly service, however, its integrity must be maintained. The most common problem with fire separation is that it frequently needs passing through, whether it is people (passing through fire doors) or building services, these create openings and therefore weaknesses within the separation. Specialist attention needs to be given to these breaches.

Firestopping is the generic term given to various components that are used to seal openings in fire compartmentation. The method adopted will differ greatly, depending on the type and size of the opening as well as the material that is passing through. Other systems, such as fire dampers are used where ductwork passes through fire walls. Technology and industry advances mean that fire separation (if installed properly) can have an enviable success rate, however, it is the weaknesses that must be continually considered, particularly with the constant changing environment in buildings requiring service alterations.

Experience indicates a number of areas that are mismanaged in terms of fire separation. Cavity barriers are a form of fire separation, placed in areas where fire and smoke spread could occur and go undetected, commonly this is not adequately achieved within roof voids, increasing the risk of fire spread within the building. Similarly, deficiencies have been identified within both ceiling and floor voids. The level of deficiencies normally depends on the time of construction, newer buildings, built to current regulations, using modern building systems tend to have less problems, however, where refurbishments have been undertaken in

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existing

buildings,

large

un-separated

areas have been observed. Fire

compartmentation should be included as a significant consideration of your existing fire risk assessment and is an area where competency is critical.

​Figure 6.4.3.1 Ground floor plan of the PAM Centre indicating the compartments, fire staircases and exits

​Figure 6.4.3.2 First floor plan of the PAM Centre indicating the compartments, fire staircases and exits

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Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Designation of purpose groups Part VII, Clause 134 For the purpose of this Part every building or compartment shall be regarded according to its use or intended use as falling within one of the purpose groups set out in the Fifth Schedule to these By-laws and, where a building is divided into compartments, used or intended to be used for different purposes, the purpose group of each compartment shall be determined separately: Provided that where the whole or part of a building or compartment, as the case may be, is used or intended to be used for more than one purpose, only the main purpose of use of that building or compartment shall be taken into account in determining into which purpose group it falls.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Provision of compartment walls and compartment floors. Part VII, Clause 136 Any building, other than a single storey building, of a purpose group specified in the Fifth Schedule to these By-laws and which hasa. any storey the floor area of which exceeds that specified as relevant to a building of that purpose group and height; or b. a cubic capacity which exceeds that specified as so relevant shall be so divided into compartments, by means of compartment walls or compartment floors or both, thati.

no such compartment has any storey the floor area of which exceeds the area specified as relevant to that building; and

ii.

no such compartment has a cubic capacity which exceeds that specified as so relevant to that building:

Provided that if any building is provided with an automatic sprinkler installation which complies with the relevant recommendations of the F.O.C. Rules for

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Automatic Sprinkler Installation, 29th edition, this by-law has effect in relation to that building as if the limits of dimensions specified are doubled.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Special requirements as to compartment walls and compartment floors. Part VII, Clause 148

1. No opening shall be made in any compartment wall or compartment floor with the exception of any one or more of the following: a. an opening fitted with a door which complies with the requirements of by-law 162 and has FRP which is not less thani.

in the case of a wall separating a flat or maisonette from any space in common use giving access to that flat or maisonette, half hour; or

ii.

in any other case, the FRP required by the provisions of these By-laws in respect of the wall or floor;

b. an opening for a protected shaft; c. an opening for a ventilation duct, other than a duct in, or consisting of, a protected shaft, if any space surrounding the duct is firestopped and the duct is fitted with an automatic fire damper in accordance with Australian Standard 1682 and 1668 Part I 1974 or its equivalent where it passes through the wall or floor which fire damper shall have not less than the required FRP of the material of the compartment wall or floor through which it passes; d. an opening for a pipe which complies with the requirements of paragraph (2) of by-law 141;" e. an opening for a refuse chute having a FRP of at least one hour and having a close-fitting door situated in an external wall of the chamber having a FRP of half-hour.

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2. Where a compartment wall or compartment floor forms a junction with any structure comprising any other compartment walls, or any external wall, separating wall or structure enclosing a protected shaft, such structures shall be bonded together at the junction or the junction shall be fire-stopped. 3. Where any compartment wall forms a junction with a roof, such wall shall be carried to the under surface of the roof covering.

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7.0 Mechanical Ventilation System 7.1 Introduction Ventilation is an important

aspect of design consideration as its main

purpose is to remove stale air in buildings and replace it with fresh clean air, moderate internal temperature and humidity, reduce moisture, odors, bacteria, dust, carbon dioxide, smoke and other unwanted substances. This process requires the creation of air movements that are needed to improve the indoor air quality and achieve a state of thermal comfort for the occupants of the building.

Ventilation can be classified into passive and mechanical ventilation. Natural ventilation can be achieved by differing the pressure between one part of building and another, or between the interior and exterior. Mechanical ventilation functions by the use of electricity which drives fans and other mechanical equipments. It also incurs installation, operational and maintenance cost. In some situations, natural ventilation may not be adequate for the needs of occupants, therefore mechanical ventilation is needed as a means to support the movement of air within the building. For example, should the air quality deteriorate due to haze, passive ventilation options should be avoided, and mechanical ventilation would kick in. Issues pertaining to passive ventilation can also be avoided by a carefully designed mechanical ventilation.

7.2 Literature Review Mechanical ventilation is defined as a system that extracts stale air from a building and replaces it with fresh air from the outside with the use of mechanical appliances. This can be achieved with the use of various mechanical ventilation devices such as fans and air conditioners. Other than the output and input of air, mechanical ventilation also distributes or circulates the air through targeted spaces in a building.

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7.2.1 Basic Ventilation System Basic ventilation system consists of two elements; a fan and a makeup supply. The function of the fan is to pull the stale or unwanted air out of the building. This can generally be found in kitchens, utility rooms and bathrooms. The makeup supply is the element that delivers outside air to interior spaces of the building. The suction by the exhaust fan creates a negative pressure that pulls air through the building from the supply point (exterior) to the pickup point (interior). a. Fan

Figure 7.2.1.1. The fan is used to extract stale air. https://www.indiamart.com/vidishaelectricals/

b. Makeup Supply

Figure 7.2.1.2.​ ​The makeup supply delivers the outside air around the house. https://www.indiamart.com/vidishaelectricals/

There are pros and cons of passive and mechanical ventilation. Passive ventilation is natural, does not incur any cost to operate or maintain. However, passive

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ventilation does not filter allergens and dust. It is also unpredictable and limited in terms of control. Mechanical ventilation incurs installation, operation and maintenance cost based on the complexity of the setup. It can be controlled and ensures good ventilation at all times. It can also filter unwanted substances in the air such as bacteria, dust, smoke or gases.

7.2.2 Types of Mechanical Ventilation System 7.2.2.1 Spot Ventilation Spot ventilation consists of a supply, extract and balance system which can control the times and speed of ventilation through the indoor air quality sensors and humidistats. -

Supply ventilation uses a mechanical inlet and natural outlet, whereby outside air is provided by mechanical means in order to maintain positive pressure. This system can be found mostly in factories and plants.

-

Extract system, in comparison to the supply system, uses a natural inlet and a mechanical outlet. A negative pressure is created on the inlet side with the use of a mechanical component such as a fan, this causes air inside the space to move towards the fan which causes it to be displaced by fresh air from the outside. The extract system is recommended in large buildings as it enables the extraction of smoke for fire protection purposes.

-

The Balance System, is a combination of the extract and supply system. Both the inlet and outlet are mechanical, which makes the system more efficient at controlling indoor air.

7.2.2.2 Heat Recovery System The energy recovery ventilation system is widely used in countries with four seasons. This system includes a heat exchanger, one or more fans to push air through the machine, and some controls. During winter, the heat exchanger will retain the heat to counter the effects of the cold incoming air.

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Figure 7.2.2.2.1. Supply ventilation http://www.house-energy.com/House/SupplyVsExhaust.html

Figure 7.2.2.2.2.. Extract ventilation https://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/ventilation-systems-exhaust.html

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Figure 7.2.2.2.3. Balanced ventilation http://greencomplianceplus.markenglisharchitects.com/blog/2011/01/31/new-ventilation-systems-to days-airtight-homes/

Figure 7.2.2.2.4. Heat recovery ventilation. http://www.plusaire.on.ca/comparison/

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7.2.3 Components in Mechanical Ventilation Systems There are 5 components that can be found in a complete mechanical ventilation system: a. Fan b. Filter c. Ductwork d. Fire damper e. Diffusers 7.2.3.1 Fan A fan is the main component in a mechanical ventilation system, without it, the extraction and supply process will not work. The fan drives air through an inlet duct and supplies it to all the spaces in the building. There are three types of fans: a. Propeller Fan b. Axial Fan c. Centrifugal Fan The main function of the propeller fan is to allow for air discharge. This type of fan usually does not require ducting or mounting on the wall. It can remove large volumes of air, but not enough to drive the air along a duct. Propeller fans are cheaper to install and do not produce a lot of noise. They can be found frequently in washrooms, kitchens, or utility rooms. The fan extracts the unwanted air out of the space for a short distance. An axial fan consists of an impeller with a fan blade of aero foil section rotating inside a cylindrical casing. This type of fan can usually be found in the engine of a jet airplane. The axial fan drives the air towards a parallel direction within a shaft. This type of system can be found in basements and tunnels. Additionally, axial fans can also be found in a ducting system to improve the speed of air travelling The New PAM Centre

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along the shaft. The centrifugal fan is the most powerful and efficient of all types. It can move large and small quantities of air over a wide range of pressures. It consists of an impeller that revolves inside a scroll-shaped casing. The air driven by the centrifugal fan through the inlet is positioned at 90°. This fan requires a base to stand, and is usually used in basements and rooftops of large buildings that require air supply to larger spaces.

Figure 7.2.3.1.1. Propeller Fan http://www.topaire.com.my/Propeller-Fan-Plastic-18-%E2%80%9C4-Blade/q?pid=82&doit=order

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Figure 7.2.3.1.2. Axial Fan http://www.bobstevenson.com/axial-fans.shtml

Figure 7.2.3.1.3. Centrifugal Fan http://www.fanblower.com.au/special-project-fans/very-large-centrifugal-fan/

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7.2.3.2 Filter Filters are the alternative component in mechanical ventilation system. The function of the filter is to sift the external air before releasing into the building or spaces. Filters trap dust, smoke, bacteria, and other unwanted substances from entering the building. There are different types and grades of filter, each with its own application and it is usually installed at the inlet grill.

Figure 7.2.3.2.1. Filter https://www.comfort-pro.com/2014/05/why-does-my-air-conditioner-smell/\

7.2.3.3 Ductwork The ductwork is the shaft that channels exterior air into the building, or vice versa. Ductworks are usually round or rectangular depending on its configuration.

Figure 7.2.3.3.1 http://www.aseeltd.com/ventilation-and-ductwork

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7.2.3.4 Fire Damper Fire damper is a component that is installed at the compartment wall of the room. Its function is to avoid the fire from spreading from one room to another. Fire dampers consist of folded metal plates or louvres that will seal the ductwork automatically in the event of a fire spread into the ductwork.

Figure 7.2.3.4.1 http://www.advancedair.co.uk/products/fire-fire-smoke-dampers

7.2.3.5 Grille and Diffuser The grille or diffuser is located at the edge of the ductwork where the air is released into the room.

Figure 7.2.3.5.1 http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-hvac-diffusers.htm

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7.3 Mechanical Ventilation in the New PAM Centre The mechanical ventilation in the above literature review consists of various types of systems depending on the type and size of the building. The New PAM Centre in Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur, is a low energy building which does not require large mechanical ventilation system to achieve thermal comfort. It uses passive ventilation design to reduce the dependence on mechanical ventilation and has thus been rated Platinum by the Green Building Index (GBI). However, some spaces still require mechanical ventilation systems for the comfort and safety of its occupants. The mechanical ventilation system used in this building are propeller fans and the spot ventilation system. 7.3.1 Spot Ventilation System The PAM Centre uses extract spot ventilation in the washing area inside the prayer room. This is due to its location which is in the basement level of the building, meaning that it is enclosed and lacks of good airflow. This may cause a foul smell within the enclosed space should the area remain wet. As mentioned above, this building does not have other mechanical ventilation system, except a multi-split, VRF air-conditioning system in the office area, meeting rooms, and halls. The corridor of the building is ventilated passively by cross ventilation and stack effect through the wall openings and stairwell.

Figure 7.3.1.1.1 The extract ventilation system in the washing area behind the praying room.

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7.3.2 Air Handling Unit (AHU) The Air Handling Unit (AHU) functions to circulate clean air within a building. The function may also include cooling and heating (in countries with cold climate). AHUs are placed on every floor. Each AHU distributes fresh, cool air to the floor level where it is placed. All ducts that distribute and extract air are connected to this room. Air handling unit consists of number of elements inside, such as fan, cooler coil, pre filter, final filter and a motor.

The most important component is the blower.

The blower is a centrifugal fan driven by a motor that pushes air from the condenser to the ducting to distribute to all ceiling vents.

Figure 7.4.1.1 Air Handling Unit (AHU)

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Figure 7.4.1.2 Component in AHU http://www.freudenberg-filter.com/air-filtration/applications/food-and-beverages/air-quality-control/

7.3 Types of Fan (in PAM Centre) The PAM Centre uses big ceiling propeller fans located above any open spaces of the building. The propeller fan helps to create wind to make the surrounding air cooler, through a concept known as the wind chill effect. The fan runs counter-clockwise, this will force the room air down to make the user feel cooler.

Figure 7.5.1 Wind chill effect http://site.lightingandlocks.com/blog1/green-lighting/ceiling-fan-directional-switch

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7.3.3.1 Propeller fan The giant propeller fan in the foyer of PAM Centre helps to cool the surrounding air in the open spaces of the building. It also aids in natural ventilation. The fan circulates the air inside the building for a comfortable atmosphere.

Figure 7.5.1.1 Propeller fan

7.3.3.2 Centrifugal fan The PAM Centre uses a centrifugal fan to extract and drive the air in the ductwork. The system uses a square diffuser.

Figure 7.5.2.1. Centrifugal fan https://www.krugerfan.com/index.php/en/inline/2017/02-05/61.html

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7.3.4 Ductwork The PAM Centre uses a square ductwork in the extract ventilation system as it is more efficient to carry the air along the building with help of the centrifugal fan near the diffuser. This will help to increase the speed of the air extraction.

Figure 7.5.3.1 Air Extraction ducting

7.4 Conclusion According to UBBL requirements, each mechanical ventilation system (supply and/or exhaust) shall be equipped with a readily accessible switch or other means for shut-off or volume reduction when ventilation is not required. Example of such devices would include timer switch control, thermostat control, duty cycle programming and CO/CO​2​ sensor control. PAM Centre uses methods of natural ventilation such as stack effect and cross ventilation, and is efficient due to the ideal building orientation and strategic design. The office in PAM Centre has an open concept, which only needs a regular centralized air-conditioning and condenser to distribute the cool air. For the open spaces, the propeller fan are used to circulate the air flow in this building. For the basement space, extraction system used to remove heat that trapped.

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8.0

Air Conditioning System

8.1 Introduction The air conditioning system is an integral component in any building, especially in tropical countries like Malaysia that are perpetually hot and humid. Air conditioning is the process of controlling and adjusting the properties of air to a more desirable state. The temperature and the humidity levels of the air are maintained in order to achieve more comfortable conditions for the occupants of the space with thermal comfort in a building being temperatures of 20-28 degrees Celsius and a relative humidity of 55-70%. Air regulation is also carried out in order to accommodate specific requirements needed for industrial processes, that cannot be normally carried out in natural external climatic conditions. Air cleanliness is another consideration, where the movement of air, removal of dirty stale air and bringing in fresh clean air occurs. There are several different kinds of air conditioning systems that can be utilised within a building depending on the building size, and function. Choosing a proper type of air conditioning is important to ensure energy efficiency and saving costs. An unsuitable design or improper installation of the HVAC system can cause dire consequences and have unfavourable effects on user comfort, health and cost, and lower the quality of air in a space. In Malaysia, and many other countries with similar conditions, The heating element of the HVAC (Heating, ventilation, & air conditioning) system is not required as environmental conditions are already high in temperature and humidity. Focus would then be redirected toward cooling down and removing humidity within the interior of the space. The Air conditioning system is tied to other building services, namely the electrical supply and, for larger more complex systems, a water supply. We have done extensive research to study the air conditioning systems within the PAM Building, which is a brilliant example of integration between natural and mechanical systems.

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8.2 Literature Review 8.2.1 Operating Principles of Air Cooling When a gas undergoes compression it will turn into a liquid at a certain ​point. As this occurs, a large amount of latent heat is discharged from within the gas. And the opposite is true when you decrease the pressure on a liquid, as it vaporizes back into gas and a large amount of latent heat is absorbed into the liquid. Air conditioning systems work on a simple basic principle, where heat is removed from from air inside a room, and the heat collected will be expelled into the exterior surrounding air. Regardless of air conditioner type being utilised, be it a split system, windowed, or VRF system, this basic principles will hold true, and remain applicable. The systems involved are the ​Refrigerant cycle​, and the ​Air cycle. 8.2.1.1

Refrigeration Cycle

The refrigeration cycle is basically a process to remove heat from a room. It is comprised of 4 main components which are the Evaporator, the Condenser, the Compressor, and the Expansion valve. As mentioned earlier: - Gases dispel heat when changed from liquid to gas under high pressure - Liquids take in heat when changed from gas to liquid under decreased pressure. The liquid used within this system is called the refrigerant.

Diagram 8.2.1.1.1 illustrating the refrigeration cycle (Source: ​https://www.swtc.edu/ag_power/air_conditioning/lecture/basic_cycle.htm​)

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Components in the Refrigeration Cycle: Evaporator The evaporator is a coil of pipe that has low pressure liquid refrigerant inside of it. It provides a heat absorbing surface as the refrigerant is vaporizing and absorbing heat. Air blown onto the surface of this pipe is cooled.

Compressor Refrigerant is compressed, and vapor from the evaporator is pumped to the condenser. Refrigerator vapor is condensed so that it will readily change state during the next process. When compressed, the vapor becomes very warm, as high as 200°F, and is pumped to the condenser

Condensor In the condenser, high pressure refrigerant vapor releases and dispels heat through the condenser coils. This happens as the vapor changes to a liquid. A great deal of heat is expelled while this state change takes place.

Expansion Valve It is a valve that meter liquid refrigerant into the evaporator, It removes pressure from the liquid to allow expansion.

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Refrigerant Cycle Process: Air conditioners all the same cycle of Compression, Condensation, Expansion, and Evaporation in a closed circuit, in order to reuse the refrigeration within the system. The cycle flow is as follows. 1. It Begins at the compressor, the refrigerant comes into the compressor as a low-pressure gas, it is then compressed and moves out of the compressor as a high-pressure gas. 2. The gas then flows to the condenser where it is condenses to a liquid. This state change produces heat which is expelled to the external ai​r. 3. The liquid then moves from the condenser to the expansion valve under high pressure. This valve restricts the flow of the fluid, and removes pressure as it leaves the expansion valve. 4. Low pressure liquid refrigerant moves to the evaporator. Here heat from the air in the room is absorbed and this causes the liquid to turn into a gas. 5. The low-pressure, high temperature gas from the evaporator moves to the compressor, at which the cycle ends and then begins again in a repeated way.

Diagram 8.2.1.1.2.1 Illustration of the process of the refrigeration cycle. Source: https://refrigerant.wordpress.com/tag/refrigeration-cycle/

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8.2.1.2 Air cycle The Air cycle is a process in which air is the working fluid/medium. It is the process of distributing treated air into a space that requires conditioning. Returned air is absorbed into the evaporator, and in doing so, latent heat inside the room is removed. Despite being called the Air system, water can also be used to absorb heat. Distribution takes places through ducts or chilled water pipes.As heat inside the room is removed, the temperature inside starts to cool down. The benefits of using the air cycle are that it does not deteriorate as much as a vapour-compression unit and is more reliable, reducing system costs. The Air cycle works by having air compressed and then removing its heat. Then the air is expanded to a lower temperature than before compression.

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Other components in the Air Cycle: Air Handling Unit (AHU)

Controls flow of air. Used for heating, cooling, humidifying, dehumidifying, and filtration & distribution of air. It also recycles some return air from the room.

Air Filter

Cleans air and filters out dust or chemical particles. Reduces quantity of dust and pollutants released into a space.

Blower Fan

Propels air for distribution. 2 kinds; A commonly used fan is the centrifugal ventilation fan, as it can move large amounts of air efficiently. The other kind is a propeller fan used especially to remove heat from the condenser unit.

Ductwork & diffusers

Carries circulating air to be distributed into air conditioned rooms. Diffuser allow air out of the ducts. These components are usually hidden in a false suspended ceiling.

Fresh Air Intake

To bring in clean fresh air to be distributed. Distributed air that is heated or dirty will be removed to the outside, while new fresh air will be mixed into existing air.

Humidifier/ Dehumidifier

Required in areas where humidity is an issue such as areas with bad ventilation or that are consistently wet.

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8.2.2 Types of Air Conditioning Systems There are many different kinds of Air Conditioning units that can be utilised in a building. These designs vary in order to fit the function and size of a variety of buildings. Building users can choose according to whichever they see fit and whichever meet their needs. Here are 4 Examples of air conditioning Systems: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Window Air Conditioning System Split Air Conditioning System Multi-Split Air Conditioning System Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System

8.2.2.1 Window Air Conditioning System The Window air conditioner is the simplest and basic form of air conditioning system. It is the cheapest alternative, and is a single unit, assembled within a casing. This casing house all the components of the system. This type of unit will have a double shaft fan motor with fans mounted on either end of a motor. Window conditioning systems are the most commonly used type of system used in smaller or single rooms and are mounted in a slot made for it in a wall of the room, or as the name implies, in a window sill. These units are low cost and reliable as they avoid the need to construct a centralized air system, and are removable and portable as well.

Figure 8.2.2.1.1 Window Unit

Figure 8.2.2.1.2 Window unit installation

The unit will sit in the wall, half remaining indoors and half protruding outward. A room side, and an outdoor side. The Front panel will be the side visible to users, The New PAM Centre

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that contains the digital or, in an older model, mechanical controls. The parts of the Air conditioner are the same as any other AC unit and can be divided into 3 parts; The refrigeration components, air circulation and ventilation components, and control system components. Majority of these window units are older models, and disadvantages of these are that they are less efficient, noisier due to obsolete fans and motors, and are not aesthetic or very blocky. However, modern technology has allowed for the better and improved models. 8.2.2.2 Split Air Conditioning System The Split air conditioning system has become the most popular choice of air conditioning, and unsurprisingly so, as they are silent in operation, do not require a need for a hole in the wall in order to mount them, and have an elegant simple look. One outdoor unit, which is the condenser, will usually be connected to several indoor units connected by copper tubing.

Figure 8.2.2.2.1:Outdoor and indoor units respectively Source: http://mannix.com.au/air-conditioning/wall-splits-air-conditioning/

- Outdoor Unit The outdoor unit houses the main mechanical components of the air conditioning system such as the compressor and the condenser. In the process of the refrigerant, a high amount of excess heat is generated. Components of an outdoor unit include; the compressor, the condenser, a cooling fan, and the expansion valve.

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- Indoor Unit The indoor unit is the part of the air conditioner that most people are familiar with and see most often. It is the component that actually cools down the room and conditions the air. It contains the evaporator, blower fan, supply air louvers, air filter, return air grille, drain pipe & control panel. The blower fan sucks in air from the room which then goes through the filter and then evaporator which leads to the air losing it’s heat and this is what produces the cooling effect. 8.2.2.3 Multi-Split Air Conditioning System A Multi-split Air conditioner is similar in design to a regular split air conditioning system, however the multi split air conditioning system has a major advantage of having the option of adding up to 4 indoor air outlet unit to a single outdoor compressor, instead of just one to one. This in turn cuts cost, as well as increases efficiency of the system. Unlike a regular centralized system, ductwork is not required and each individual indoor unit can be controlled independently, allowing temperature in each room to be regulated to suit one’s needs.

Diagram 8.2.2.3.1: Multi split system showing one outdoor unit connected to 3 individual Indoor units Source: http://rsi24.in/air-conditioning-installation-repair-in-kamothe/

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8.2.2.4 Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) System The Variable Refrigerant system is a very sophisticated technological air conditioning system based on several different principle:

1. It uses only refrigerant as a cooling medium within the system, not using air or chilled water. 2. Several air handler units, AHU, (indoor unit) are use on a single shared refrigerant cycle. 3. Power consumption is lowered with partial cooling/heating loads as inverter compressors are used. 4. Modular expansion is allowed as several more units can be fit into the same refrigerant cycle, allowing the system to grow. Very useful for large scale projects.

It consists of an outdoor unit, paired with several indoor units, copper refrigerant piping, and specialized communication wiring. This system is digitized with communication wiring consisting of a two-wired cable linking outdoo to all indoor units. Each indoor unit has it’s own control panel, while remote controls or centralized controllers are also available.The VRF system is programmed by its respective manufacturer. The system gets inputs from the user (e.g. temperature preference) as well as from the natural external environment (outside ambient temperature), and according to that data it implements its logic in order to get to the desired comfort conditions, utilizing optimal power consumptions. Types of VRF: -

VRF Heat Pump System

VRF heat pump systems, also known as the two-pipe system, allow for either heating or cooling in all the indoor units but not at the same time. The indoor units

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act as evaporators in cooling mode and as condensers in heating mode. VRF heat pump systems is usually applied in open plan areas, offices and areas that require only either cooling or heating in a particular period. - Heat Recovery VRF System VRF systems with heat recovery (VRF-HR) capability can operate in heating and cooling mode for different indoor units at the same time. This allows heat from the condenser to be used rather than dissipated as it would be in traditional heat pump systems. VRF-HR systems are normally equipped with inverter drives, pulse modulating electronic expansion valves and distributed controls that allows the system to operate in net heating or net cooling mode, as needed by a particular space. Most VRF-HR uses a 3-pipe system consisting of a liquid line, a hot gas line and a suction line with their own valving arrangements, although different manufacturers may differ in its design between a 2-pipe or a 3-pipe system. Each indoor unit is branched off from the 3 pipes using solenoid valves. For the units functioning in cooling mode, an indoor unit will open its liquid line and suction line valves to function as an evaporator. On the other hand, for units running in heating mode, the indoor unit will open its hot gas and liquid line valves and will act as a condenser. Typically, extra heat exchangers in distribution boxes are used to transfer heat rejected from the superheated refrigerant exiting the cooled space to the refrigerant that is going to the zone to be heated. This system of reusing heat from the cooling process produces significant energy savings. 8.2.3 Considerations to the UBBL Third Schedule,Clause 41.: Mechanicals ventilation and air-conditioning. (1)​ Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority.

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8.3 Air Conditioning System at the New Pam Centre The New PAM Centre uses a Variable Refrigerant Flow (“VRF”) air conditioning system that allows one outdoor condensing unit to serve multiple indoor units. This is possible due to the ability of the system to control the amount of refrigerant flowing to the multiple evaporators (indoor units), enabling the use of many evaporators of differing capacities and configurations to connect via separate Air Handling Units (“AHU”) to a single condensing unit. The arrangement provides each space with its own temperature controls, allowing for variations in cooling in different zones. VRF technology is based on the simple gas compression / evaporation cycle similar to conventional split unit air conditioning system, but with the ability to continuously control and adjust the flow of refrigerant to different indoor units, depending on the cooling needs of each space inside the building. The refrigerant flow to each evaporator is adjusted precisely by using an electronic expansion valve (“EEV”) together with an inverter and multiple compressors of varying capacity, in response to changes in the cooling requirements within the specific air conditioned space. In line with PAM Centre’s sustainable design strategy, the VRF system is a more energy-efficient air conditioning solution (estimated to use 11% to 17% less energy) as compared to conventional units at a relatively higher initial cost. The higher cost is mainly due to the installation of longer refrigerant piping and multiple indoor evaporator exchanges with associated controls. The VRF system at the PAM Centre uses Panasonic’s FSV-EX system with multiple outdoor units connected to multiple indoor units allowing the temperature in each room to be controlled separately. An advantage of the FSV-EX system is its ability to provide cooling even when the outside temperature reaches 52°C, enabling reliable operation even under extreme high temperatures.

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Figure 8.3 Panasonic FSV-EX system used as the VRF for the PAM Centre

With higher efficiency and increased controllability, the VRF system has contributed to PAM Centre’s sustainable design. The design of VRF systems is more complicated and requires additional work compared to designing a conventional multi-split system.

8.3.1 Benefits of VRF in the New PAM Centre 8.3.1.1 Comfort The VRF system is capable of responding to fluctuations in space load conditions. This allows users to set the temperature of each room independent of other spaces connected to the same outdoor unit. Depending on the requirement, the system will automatically adjust the refrigerant flow to each indoor unit.

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On top of that, VRF systems can bring rooms to the desired temperature

extremely

quickly

and

minimize

temperature

fluctuations. Regardless of exterior conditions, the technology yields good dehumidification performance for optimal room humidity. This ensures that all spaces within the PAM Centre to be at the exact temperature according to the needs of the occupants at all times.

The VRF system used at the PAM Centre, the Panasonic FSV-EX uses variable speed compressors (inverter technology) with 10 to 100% capacity range, offering flexibility for zoning to save energy. The inverter technology used is able to maintain precise temperature fluctuations to be within ±1°F. This capability is especially important in terms of energy conservation in a building designed with large openings for passive ventilation such as the PAM Centre.

8.3.1.2 Environmental The inverter technology in the VRF system at the PAM Centre reacts to indoor and outdoor temperature fluctuations by adjusting power consumption and compressor speed to ensure optimal energy usage. The inverter’s energy efficiency performance smooth capacity control allows for a comfortable environment that is also eco-friendly. Based on tests, it was found that this technology can reduce the energy consumption by as much as 30 to 40% a year compared to traditional rotary or reciprocating type compressors.

This system is highly responsive and efficient. With the modular arrangement, indoor units can be switched off for spaces requiring no cooling, while the system continues its operation with high efficiency.

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8.3.1.3 Flexibility A wide range of indoor units with varying capacity can be connected to a single outdoor unit. This modularity allows the system to be easily adapted to future expansions or reconfiguration of the space, as the indoor units locations are not limited by the setup of the outdoor unit.

Another benefit of the VRF is its lightweight, space-saving features, ideal for the PAM Centre which was built on a limited land area. As mentioned earlier, the system is modular and self-contained. In the case of the PAM Centre, 9 outdoor units were installed to achieve maximum cooling capacities for the whole building. In a VRF system, ductwork is required only for the ventilation system. Hence, the ducting can be smaller than in standard ducted systems. This automatically reduces installation

the cost.

In fact, a VRF system

can

reduce installation cost

by

about

30% as compared to

conventional

systems. Figure 8.3.3.3 Outdoor units on the roof of PAM Centre

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8.3.1.4 Reduced Noise The system is also noted for its low operating noise, allowing it to be placed almost anywhere. This allows more flexibility on how indoor and outdoor spaces can be used. For example, the outdoor units for the PAM Centre is placed on the 8​th floor rooftop, which also has an open courtyard and an open discussion space. Operating sound levels of the indoor units can be as low as 27dB.

8.3.2 Components of VRF 8.3.2.1 Outdoor Unit

The outdoor unit of a VRF functions basically the same as a conventional split / multi-unit

air-conditioning

system.

However, the VRF does not require ducting work as the refrigerant is delivered to the indoor unit via piping works. For the Panasonic FSV-EX used at the PAM Centre, the outdoor unit includes a DC Inverter to power the compressor. The inverter unit will gradually increase or decrease its capacity based on the load by increasing or decreasing the rotation speed of the motor. ​Figure 8.3.2.1.1

Example of a VRF outdoor unit

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DC Inverter Compressor The function of the motor-driven compressor is to compress the R410a refrigerant, raising its temperature and pressure so that it exits the compressor as a hot, high-pressure gas.

​Figure 8.3.3.1.2 Cross-section of a compressor Condenser The condenser coils then take the pressurised R410a from the compressor to dissipate the heat through the fins, extracting the heat from the refrigerant and transferring it to the outside air.

​Figure 8.3.3.1.3 Example of a condenser showing heat dissipating unit

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Piping The piping sends the cooled-off refrigerant into the indoor units and distributed accordingly by an electronic expansion valve.

​Figure 8.3.3.1.4 Example of a separation tube portion of the piping (refer to Figure 8.3.3.2)

Control Unit The VRF outdoor unit is managed by an embedded control unit which adjusts the DC input for the inverter compressor.

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8.3.2.2 Indoor Unit Electronic Expansion Valve The electronic expansion valve is responsible for the distribution and adjustment of the refrigerant to individual indoor units to allow for independent temperature setting for each indoor space. Fan Coil Unit (FCU) The FCU’s main function is to house the control unit, the evaporator, and the blower to deliver cool air to the interior space.

​Figure 8.3.2.2.1 A Fan Coil Unit of the Cassette type installed at the PAM Centre. Remote Control Unit The remote control unit may be wired or wireless, and allows the user to set the desired temperature of the room.

Figure 8.3.2.2.2 A wired remote control unit for the air-conditioning in the control room.

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8.3.3 Implementation of VRF at the New PAM Centre In a VRF setup, the outdoor unit is kept at a far-off location like the top of the building and the evaporator units are installed at various locations inside the building. The refrigerant pipe-work for liquid and suction lines is very long, sometimes running up to hundred meters in length for multi-story buildings like the PAM Centre. Naturally, the long lengths will introduce pressure losses in the suction line. Therefore, the correct diameter of pipe needs to be used to avoid insufficient cooling to the end user. The components that are most vulnerable to this issue are the main header pipe as well as the feeder pipes that feed each indoor unit.

Figure 8.3.3.1 A typical setup of a VRF system in a multi-storey building.

The outdoor units of the VRF system at the PAM building is located on the 8​th floor rooftop, together with the water supply system, rainwater harvesting unit and photovoltaic solar panels.

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Figure 8.3.3.2 Schematic showing a typical VRF connection between outdoor and indoor units.

The outdoor units are connected to each floor via an AHU room which controls and distributes the refrigerant to individual indoor units in office spaces with their own temperature controls.

Figure 8.3.3.3 R410A refrigerant label on an outdoor unit at the PAM Centre.

The Panasonic FSV-EX units at the PAM Centre uses the R410A refrigerant which is eco-friendlier than the conventional R-22, as it does not contribute to ozone depletion. On top of its environmental benefits, the refrigerant also allows for lower energy consumption which results in overall cost savings.

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Part of the challenge in implementing a VRF system is the requirement to comply with ASHRAE Standard 62-73, to achieve a minimum scale of fresh air ventilation in conjunction with recirculated, filtered and conditioned air, as stated in UBBL 1984. The standard recommends typically 0.14 to 0.28 cmm of fresh air per occupant, depending on the type of building / space (refer to extract from UBBL 1984 below). Similar to other split systems, VRF does not provide ventilation of its own. Hence, a separate ventilation system is necessary, such as the implementation of AHU in the PAM Centre.

Reference to UBBL 1984 (as at 2013): Third Schedule, Clause 11: Room, window, etc., air-conditioning units. Where room, window or wall air-conditioning units are provided as means of air-conditioning, such units shall be capable of continuously introducing fresh air. Third Schedule, Clause 12: Fresh air changes. The minimum scale of fresh air ventilation in conjunction with recirculated, filtered and conditioned · air meeting with the requirements of ASHRAE ST AND ARD 62-73 shall be as follows: Residential building

0.14 cmm per occupant

Commercial premises

0.14 cmm per occupant

Factory and Workshop

0.21 cmm per occupant

School classroom

0.14 cmm per occupant

Projection room

0.14 cmm per occupant

Theatre and Auditorium

0.14 cmm per seat

Canteen

0.28 cmm per occupant

Building of Public Resort

0.28 cmm per occupant

Offices

0.14 cmm per occupant

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Conference Room

0.28 cmm per occupant

Hospital wards

0.14 cmm per occupant

Computer Room

0.14 cmm per occupant

Hotel rooms

0.14 cmm per occupant

8.3.4 AHU The Air Handling Unit (“AHU”) is necessary in the PAM Centre in order to comply with the requirements set in UBBL 1984, Third Schedule, Clause 11 & 12 which states the minimum requirement of fresh air in indoor spaces per occupant. The AHU at the PAM Centre is designed to work with the VRF system for air-conditioning. Among the benefits of integrating the VRF into the AHU include: 1)

Immediate Cooling under any ambient or room conditions

2)

Fast and accurate response to load changes for better comfort and less energy consumption compared to water cooling/heating coils coupled with chillers.

3)

Better management of cooling load for medium size spaces

Figure 8.3.4.1 The AHU unit located in the exhibition hall.

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8.3.4.1 Components of AHU

Figure 8.3.4.1.1 A standard AHU unit setup.

1- Supply duct 2- Fan compartment 3- Vibration isolator ('flex joint') 4- Cooling coil 5- Filter compartment 6- Mixed (recirculated + outside) air duct Supply duct The supply duct is the output chamber of the AHU, where fresh air exits the AHU unit to be supplied to the spaces inside the building. Fan compartment The fan compartment houses the blower that pushes the fresh air out through the supply duct. Vibration isolator ('flex joint') Blowers can cause noisy vibration during the operation of AHU. Therefore, a rubberised flexible joint is installed between the fan

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compartment and the rest of the AHU to reduce and absorb the vibration and noise. Cooling coil This section conditions the fresh air to suit the temperature needed in the indoor spaces. This is the point where the VRF evaporator coils are integrated into the AHU to cool the fresh outside air which will be recirculated. Filter compartment Filtration is necessary to provide clean, dust free air to occupants of the PAM Centre. Filtration is the first component placed in order in the AHU to keep all the downstream components clean. Mixed (recirculated + outside) air duct

8.3.4.2 Connection of VRF and AHU Piping from the VRF system carrying the R410a refrigerant is integrated into the cooling coil section of the AHU to cool the fresh air supplied to the spaces in the PAM Centre. The temperature of the fresh air can be independently adjusted due to the design of the VRF system. The following diagram illustrates how a standard connection between VRF and AHU is done:

Figure 8.3.4.2.1 Schematic showing (in red) where VRF piping can be integrated.

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8.4

Conclusion

With an excellent passive ventilation design, the New PAM Centre is relatively cool and well ventilated especially at the entrance foyer and office corridors. However, there is still a need for an efficient cooling system, due to the tropical climate of Malaysia. The PAM Centre implemented the Panasonic FSV-EX, Variable Refrigerant Flow (FRV) system to be consistent with its green approach to design. The FSV-EX yields benefits such as the use of an eco-friendly refrigerant (R410a), ability to control individual spaces independently, low energy usage with the DC inverter drive and cost savings during installation and in the long run. The modular nature of the VRF system ensures that future expansions or modifications can be carried out with ease and at a relatively lower cost. When coupled with an AHU, the system contributes in conditioning fresh external air inside the building. Overall, the New PAM Centre has taken a smart approach to air conditioning and ventilation, which has propelled it to become one of the benchmarks in building design in recent years.

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9.0

Mechanical Transportation System

9.1

Introduction

Mechanical transport system enables people and goods to move easier and efficiently horizontally also vertically. It been used in many modern architectures especially public buildings. There are three types of mechanical transportation systems; televator, escalator and elevator.

Travelator Travelator is a mechanical transport system that helps people to move horizontally. This device can be easily found in airports, suitable for people who wants to walk faster to catch their flights.

Escalator Just like stairs but it moved by machine. This device are used in public buildings like malls because it able to move people for non-stop.

Elevator This vertical mechanical transport system that brings passengers from one level to higher or lower level of the building. It can be found in many building that are higher than 4 levels high. It also provides access for disable and elderly people to move to different levels.

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9.2

Literature Review

Elevator first built in 236 BC by Roman architect Vitruvius. Elevators were mentioned as cabs on a hemp rope and powered by hand or by animals. In this modern era, elevators knows as these two types; electric and hydraulic. Electric elevator includes traction with machine room and machine room-less.

Good system is required for users comfort; quiet equipment, smooth journey, good condition and safe at every moment. The suitable speed is between 100 to 150ft per minutes. Fast travel will result in a nervous breakdown to the user and if it is too slow it will cause lack of function. Elevators should be reachable in a maximum travel distance between 150-200ft.

​Figure 8.2.1 ​Elevator capacity and speed

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Type

Description Traction Elevators - Common type used -Motor room on top of hoistway -Use electric lift cable to lift the elevator -Used in building higher than 60ft

Motor Room-less Elevator -Headroom is not needed -Less space needed

Hydraulic Elevator -Powered by piston that travels inside a cylinder -Deep pit and headroom are not needed -Can come down in case of power cut by opening manual valve. -Can be customized -More economical -Quick installation -Noisy, slow and poor ride quality -High energy consumption -Leaking hydraulic fluid may cause environmental damage

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9.3 Standard Elevator Components 9.3.1

Machine room

Machine room is located above the lift shaft. It includes motor, gear, engines brakes and power supply.

9.3.2

Car

Car is a platform where passengers or goods are transported up and down to the desired levels.

9.3.3

Hoistway / Shaft

Hoistway is the space where car moves vertically.

It

is

constructed

with

reinforced concrete that has to be fire resistance

9.3.4

Counterweight

The function of counterweight is to balance the car. Counterweight goes down in order to pull the car up and also the other way around.

9.3.5

Guard rail

Guide rail functions are to keep the car and the counterweight. It is mounted on both sides of the hoistway which is attached to the wheel of the car.

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9.3.6

Buffer

It is placed in a room called elevator pit located at the bottom of the elevator. Its function is to absorb the impact of the car when it fell.

9.4

Types of Elevator in PAM Building

Figure 9.4.1 Ground Floor Lift Lobby

Two-car elevator that is machine room-less, which arranged side by side is the only vertical transport system that is provided at PAM building. It transports people from ground floor to 8th floor or the rooftop which makes it one system zone elevator. One is a normal passenger car and one is fire elevator.

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The control boxes are located and locked just next to the elevators on the topest level of PAM building.

Medium size elevator ables to carry up to 22 people or 1500 kg.

Figure 9.4.2 MRL control boxes

Figure 9.4.3 Location of elevator in the building

A- Fire Elevator B- Elevator

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9.4.1

Machine Room-less Elevator Components

Unlike standard elevators, machine room-less elevators do not have a fixed machine room on the top of the hoistway, instead the traction hoisting machine is installed either on the top side wall of the hoistway or on the bottom of the hoistway. Most machine room less elevators are used for low to mid-rise buildings like PAM building. Machine room less elevators in mid-rise buildings usually serves up to 20 floors.

Counterweight is placed on the side of the car.

Figure 9.4.1.1 Machine Room-less elevator

Advantages

Disadvantages

-Requires less space due to the

-More difficult and costly to service

needless of rooftop machine room

-Parts for MRLs are more expensive

-Faster car speed

and not readily available

-Reduces the initial cost of construction -Take longer time to install -Consume 30% to 80% less power

-It consumed more power on standby

while running

mode

-Requires less ons

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9.4.2

Single speed center opening

Figure 9.4.2.1 Closed elevator door

Figure 9.4.2.1 Open elevator door

Consists of two power operated panels that part simultaneously with a brisk, noiseless motion. faster passenger loading than side opening. Elevator doors are normally opened by a power unit that is located on top of the elevator car. When an elevator car is level with a floor landing, the power unit moves the car door open or closed. A pick-up arm (clutch, vane, bayonet, or cam) contacts rollers on the hoistway door which releases the door latch on the hoistway door. The power unit opens the car door which in turn opens the hoistway door. The door rollers and pick-up arm may be different on various elevators but they all work on the same principle.

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9.4.3

Button

Figure 9.4.3.1 Standard elevator

Figure 9.4.3.2 Elevator for the disable

button

9.4.3.1 Floor Selection Buttons Buttons are used to select which floors the elevator car is desired to stop.

9.4.3.2 Operation and Emergency Buttons These buttons’ purpose are to open and close elevator door as well as emergency stop. Located below or beside the floor selection buttons for the disables.

9.4.3.3 Braille Braille plates are required by national elevator codes and are recommended for all elevator applications. Braille plates allow the visually impaired to access crucial information in and outside of the elevator for safe use.

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9.4.4

Floor Indicator

Figure 9.4.4.1 Interior floor indicator

Figure 9.4.4.2 Exterior floor indicator

Indicates which floors we are heading to using led screen together with speaker in the interior. Located near the door. Floor indicator outside the elevator usually located just above the door.

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9.4.5 9.4.5.1

Safety Features Handrail

Figure 9.4.5.1.1 Handrail

It is important to have hand rail inside the lift as one of the safety features inside the lift. A handrail shall be provided on the car wall at the height of between thirty-two and thirty-five inches from the floor. The surface has to be smooth and no sharp corners. In case of emergency like lift fall, passengers have something to hold on to prevent injuries.

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9.4.5.2

Fireproof Padding

Figure 9.4.5.2.1 Elevator pad

Figure 9.4.5.2.2 Fire resistant fabric

Elevator pads are very thick and absorbed all the physical abuse from movers that will create damage to the interior wall. Fire resistant pads not only used to protect the interior of the elevator but as well as the passengers. This fabric has good performance of corrosion resistance and high temperature fire resistance. Consists of double layers fiber with silicon titanium coating with good insulation performance, permittivity is 3-3.2, breakdown voltage is 20-50KV/MM that can holds up between -70°C and 280°C. Resistance to ozone, oxygen, light, water, oil, heat, cold and can be used to 10years of service life.

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9.4.5.3

CCTV

Figure 9.4.5.3.1 CCTV

Figure 9.4.5.3.2 CCTV installation

Inside the elevator

CCTVs are installed inside elevators to ensure the security of the passengers such as to prevent robbery and public displays of affection. In order to operate, the CCTV camera is mounted to the car ceiling and wired to the transmitter using coax cable. The wireless receiver is mounted on the hoistway floor aligned and pointed upwards towards the transmitter that placed under the car. The receiver is connected to the surveillance DVR using coax cable as well as the transmitter.

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9.6

Uniform Building By-Laws

124 Lifts

For all non-residential buildings exceeding 4 storeys above or below the main access level at least one lift shall be provided.

152 Openings in Lift Shafts

(1)Every opening in a lift shaft or lift entrance shall open one into a protected lobby unless other suitable means of protection to the opening to the satisfaction of the local authority is provided. These requirements shall not apply to open type industrial and other special buildings as may be approved by the D.G.F.S.

243 Fire Lifts

(1)In a building where the top occupied floor is over 18.5 metres above the fire appliance access level fire lifts shall be provided (3) Fire lifts shall be located within a separate protected shaft if it opens into separate lobby. (4) Fire lifts shall be provided at the rate of one lift in every group of lifts which discharge into the same protected enclosure or smoke lobby containing the rising main, provided that the fire lifts are located not more than 61 meters travel distance from the furthermost point of the floor.

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10.0 10.1

Mechanical Parking System Introduction

Parking area is a space or location that is designated for vehicles to park. It can be a garage, parking lot or just on the street. In line with technological developments, we can see that many countries around the world starting to use mechanical parking system. This new system brings a lot of advantages because nowadays the percentage of car users keeps on increasing. Mechanical parking encompasses a wide range of options all designed to increase parking density and cut costs over traditional parking methods.

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10.2

Literature Review

Types

Description Lift Box Double deck parking system suitable for shops, office buildings and apartment houses.

Z-Park Multistory parking system that is similar with lift box. Suitable for shops, office buildings and apartment houses.

Elepark Elevator park or so called elepark looks like a normal high rise building from outside but it is actually fully automatic parking area inside.

Round type Just like elevator parking system but in a round plan shape. It is fully operated automatically that humans are not supposed to be inside this parking area.

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10.3

Types of Mechanical Parking System (in PAM Building) 10.3.1

Lift Box Type

Figure 10.3.1 Lift Box parking system

Figure 10.3.2 Lift Box parking system’s brand

PAM Building is a modern building with a limited space of parking area. It uses mechanical parking system so that it would fit more cars into the parking spaces. Lift Box Type of double deck parking system provides two parking levels in the space of one. This double deck system is used by PAM building parking. The dependent stacker parker do not require a pit. However, the lower vehicle needs to drive out of the parking bay before the upper deck can be lowered. Safety sensors ensure that cars are not accidentally lowered while a car is still on the ground level. The posts of the doubledeck stackers can be shared when they are installed side by side to save costs and precious land space.

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Prior to the commencement of works every person for whom the installation of a double-deck car park is to be carried out shall appoint an authorized person or a registered structural engineer. Such appointed person should submit to the building authority the proposal together with corresponding structural justification demonstrating the stability of the mechanized car parking system and structural adequacy of the building in which the system is to be installed.

Hydraulic double stage cylinder makes the doubledecker has a very fast lifting speed. When the platform moves down it is powered by gravity, so there is no electricity consumption for the hydraulic power pack. Even in case there is a complete power failure, the upper car can still be retrieved manually with the operation of a solenoid valve.

Advantages

Disadvantages

-No digging required

-Confusing for unfamiliar users

-Reliable & smooth operation

-Lower car must be moved first in order

-Requires minimum maintenance

to access or to move out the car on the top

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Figure 10.3.3 Doppeldecker components

Model

Doppeldecker DS2

Lifting Capacity

2700 kg

Lifting Height

2100 mm

Equipment Weight

1100 kg

Usable Platform Width

2100 mm

Electric Supply

220 V

Control Power

24 V

Locking Device

Dynamic

Lock Release

Electric Auto Release

Operation

Key Switch

Lifting / Lowering Time

50 / 45 sec.

Power Pack

2.2 kW Hydraulic Power Pump

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10.3.1.1

Operation and Maintenance 1.

The double-decker car park shall not be used for

lifting persons or vehicles with person. 2.

Platform can’t be use to rise oversized or

overweight vehicles 4.

The platform shall not be lowered when the

lower deck is occupied. The floor area directly beneath the platform should be clearly marked. 5.

Good maintenance is essential to safety. So

ensure the car parking system is always in good working condition by following the contractor's advice. Figure 10.3.1.1 Lift Box operation System

10.4

Safety System 10.4.1

Mechanic Lock

The platform holding the motor vehicle shall be mechanically locked automatically when it reaches the upper stop position. A visual indication or audible signal will be given, if the platform has not reached the upper or lower stop position or has not been mechanically locked every 10 cm of the post. 10.4.2

Overload Device

Unless there are other means to prevent lifting a motor vehicle exceeding the capacity of the platform/equipment, an overload device should be installed to prevent any movement of the platform and to give an alarm when the load on the elevating platform is in excess of the rated capacity. A limit switch to stop lifting mode when maximum height is reached 10.4.3

Emergency Operation

Emergency button to stop all operations immediately.

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11. Conclusion This report is the result of the hard work of everyone in the team, via good teamwork and proper communication.

The project has allowed the team to observe and appreciate small details in the implementation of building services, something we would usually take for granted. We gained immense knowledge on the mechanism of each category of service while at the same time gained a newfound appreciation towards the importance of building services in our daily lives. This project has also helped us in obtaining a first hand look at the applications of the theories we learned in the classroom.

The experience of working in a team of dedicated students will be beneficial in the future as the students move a step closer into entering the real world in the labor market, where the environment is competitive and challenging.

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12. References Aynur, T. (2010). Variable refrigerant flow systems: A review. ​Energy And Buildings​, ​42​(7), 1106-1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.01.024 Masoodi, F., Hassan, M., Ali, M., & Hasan, S. (2016). Energy analysis and design comparison of VRV system of a building with split air-conditioning system. Invertis Journal Of Renewable Energy​, ​6​(3), 137. http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/2454-7611.2016.00019.9 Masterclass: VRF Systems Part 66​. (2017). ​Acr-news.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.acr-news.com/masterclass-vrf-systems-part-66 VRF Air Handling Unit Application | Toshiba Air Conditioning​. (2017). Toshiba-aircon.co.uk​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.toshiba-aircon.co.uk/products/air-handling-unit-applications/air-han dling-unit-applications/vrf-air-handling-unit-application1 VRF system presentation !​. (2017). ​Slideshare.net​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://www.slideshare.net/Surfayoob/vrf-system-presentation What Are the Functions of Compressors on Air Conditioners?​. (2017). Homeguides.sfgate.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://homeguides.sfgate.com/functions-compressors-air-conditioners-85051.h tml ABC Fire Extinguishers | An Extinguisher For Most Fires​. (2017). Selectsafetysales.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.selectsafetysales.com/c-139-abc-fire-extinguishers.aspx Asiankom Communication - PABX/PBX Telecommunication, Software Development, Healthcare Solution​. (2017). ​Asiankom.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://asiankom.com/Fireman_Intercom_System.html Dry riser​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_riser Emergency Lighting : Firesafe.org.uk​. (2017). ​Firesafe.org.uk​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.firesafe.org.uk/emergency-lighting/ Fire Alarm Bell Mounting Height​. (2017). ​Qrfs.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.qrfs.com/56--Fire-Alarm-Bell-Mounting-Height Fire alarm control panel​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_alarm_control_panel Fire extinguisher​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_extinguisher

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Fire hydrant​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_hydrant Fire Hydrant Systems | All Pumps​. (2017). ​Allpumps.com.au​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://www.allpumps.com.au/applications/fire-hydrant-systems Fireman's switch​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireman%27s_switch How Heat Alarms Work​. (2017). ​Safelincs.co.uk​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.safelincs.co.uk/smoke-alarm-types-heat-alarms-overview/ How Optical Smoke Alarms Work​. (2017). ​Safelincs.co.uk​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.safelincs.co.uk/smoke-alarm-types-optical-alarms-overview/ JKK Technologies Pte Ltd - Fireman Intercom System​. (2017). ​Jkktech.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.jkktech.com/index.php/fireman-intercom-system Manual Call Points | Break Glass Installation | Mounting Height & Siting : Wireless Fire Alarm Systems | Fire Extinguishers | Fire Alarms​. (2017). Thesafetycentre.co.uk​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://www.thesafetycentre.co.uk/blog/siting_of_manual_call_points.php Orlight - British Architectural and LED Lighting Manufacturer​. (2017). ​Orlight.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from http://www.orlight.com Standpipe (firefighting)​. (2017). ​En.wikipedia.org​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standpipe_(firefighting) User, S. (2017). ​National Fire Protection - Emergency/Exit Light​. Nationalfireinc.com​. Retrieved 7 May 2017, from https://www.nationalfireinc.com/inspection-testing/emergency-exit-light.html Bellová, M. (2016). Fire Walls Made from Concrete and Masonry - Barriers against a Fire Spreading. ​Key Engineering Materials​, ​691​, 408-419. http://dx.doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/kem.691.408 Characteristics of Lightweight Aggregates for High-Strength Concrete. (1991). ​ACI Materials Journal​, ​88​(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.14359/1924 Harmathy, T. (1976). Fire resistance versus flame spread resistance. ​Fire Technology​, ​12​(4), 290-302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02624806 Joyeux, D. (2002). Experimental investigation of fire door behaviour during a natural fire. ​Fire Safety Journal​, ​37​(6), 605-614. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-7112(02)00003-6 Kashiwagi, T. (2001). Fire retardant materials. ​Fire Safety Journal​, ​36​(7), 711-713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-7112(01)00027-3

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Sano, T., & Nunota, K. (2005). Experimental Studies on Wheelchair Passing Through Fire Doors. ​Fire Science And Technology​, ​24​(3), 121-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.3210/fst.24.121 Six-hour fire protection. (1989). ​Construction And Building Materials​, ​3​(1), 53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0950-0618(89)80046-7 Wang, J., & Wang, G. (2014). Influences of montmorillonite on fire protection, water and corrosion resistance of waterborne intumescent fire retardant coating for steel structure. ​Surface And Coatings Technology​, ​239​, 177-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2013.11.037

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Building Services Case Study - PAM Centre, Bangsar  

This is a comprehensive report containing a compilation of information covering fire protections systems, mechanical ventilation systems, ai...

Building Services Case Study - PAM Centre, Bangsar  

This is a comprehensive report containing a compilation of information covering fire protections systems, mechanical ventilation systems, ai...

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