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Biome Project  


Tropical Rainforest

Biome project Jeronimo Davalos jeronimo

Rain forest definition: a dense evergreen forest with an annual rainfall of at least 406 centimeters (160 inches). Rainforests are often, but not always located in tropical regions

In the map bellow we can see the locations of the regions in which tropical rain forests are located in the world, we can see that there is a big amount of the rain forest regions in south America in countries such as Peru or Ecuador.

Tropical rainforest biome • Tropical rainforests cover around 6% of the entire land surface in the world. It is located normally in the belt of the equator. • The climate in the rainforests is normally warm but it rains almost all the year. This climate is perfect for some animal’s species and most of the plant growth. • Although that the rainforest cover 6% of land surface in the world scientist state that it can hold almost 90% of animals and plant species in earth

Tropical rainforest location • As mentioned before the location of rain forest is near the equator belt, but the largest space of tropical rainforest is the amazon. • The amazon is located in South America in countries such as Brazil Peru and Ecuador. • It states that has about 3000 species of fish, more than all of the northern American continent has.

Tropical rainforest climate and precipitation • Climate in tropical rainforest is very warm, as average it has a grater temperature than 20 degree Celsius. • There is a very little seasonal variation in temperature that is god for plant growth. • The tropical rainforest's temperature ranges from 20 to 25 degrees Celsius and they have more than 250 centimeters of annual rainfall. • The main climate control of the tropical rainforests is latitude. • The tropical rain forest is a forest of tall trees in a region of year-round warmth. It is from 90 to 450 of inches.

The graphs bellow show the amount of precipitation in an annual base, the first graph shows the precipitation of all of the world’s rain forest and the second graph is a more specific graph of an annual precipitation in Manaus in Brazil that is the largest rain forest in the world.

Animals and plants in tropical rainforests Animals in rainforests:

The rainforest is home to more than half of the world's animals. Colorful and unusual animals dwell in all four layers of the forest. All types of creatures are represented, from tiny insects to large mammals. Most common animals in tropical rainforest:

• Anaconda:

o • Jaguar:


• . Leucomelas


Plants in tropical rainforest:

Because there is generally no unfavorable growing periods in the rain forest, the trees are evergreen, meaning they have leaves all year long. Most rain forest trees are broadleaf, meaning their leaves are broad and flat. Most common plants in tropical rainforest: • The giant kapok tree


• The creeping aroids


Animals relationships in tropical rainforests Types of relationships




Symbiosis that is beneficial to both Organisms involved.


An association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither Benefit nor harm. It is a non- mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism benefits at the expense of the other.

The ants actively nurture and defend the fungi. the fungi provides nutrients for the ants and both the fungi and the ants benefit The insect receives shelter for its eggs while there is no effect on the larger animal at all.



Relationship between members of the same or different species in which those having the same living requirements, such as food or space, affect Individuals.

The Pearl fish live in the Sea Cucumber's cloaca which they enter through the anus. The Pearl fish then breaks through the respiratory membrane and situates its home. Humans tearing down parts of the rainforest vs. all the animals that make their homes in the trees

Food web and energy pyramid of animals in tropical rainforests

Food web:

Energy pyramid:

Human impact in tropical rainforest Rainforests are disappearing at about 80 acres per minute, day and night. The rainforest is home to over half of all of the species known in the world. There are many undiscovered species that are being destroyed. Many of these species are possible cures for cancer and AIDS etc. Much of the destruction is done by Forest Alliance of British Columbia. Also as the population of earth grows, the need for forest products is increased and causes them to destroy even more rainforests to meet the demands. If this destruction continues, major climatic changes will occur. This will happen because when the forests are destroyed carbon dioxide is released which, in turn, causes the greenhouse effect. Ranching and logging for materials for houses, furniture, and paper products are also major destroyers of the rainforest. The tropical rainforest once covered more than 16% of the earth's total land surface, but now covers less than 6% of the earth's total land surface. Boycotts are the most effective ways of stopping destruction of the rainforest. Boycotting fast food restaurants who use hamburger from cows who grazed on rainforest land, for example. Tourism also adds to the prevention. People seeing how the forest looks and all of the living going on in it causes them to want to make changes so that the rainforest can continue to grow, if there has to be a change in the ways human are damaging all the rainforests in the world it has to be now. If not many animals that are currently living in that areas of the world would disappear and something beautiful of our country would disappear as well.

BIOME: TUNDRA                                                   TUNDRA                 As can be seen in the map above, the artic tundra biome is spread across the   northern   hemisphere. It covers around one fifth of the Earth’s surface and the reason why it is restricted to this part of the world is because there is no     compatible or comparable land mass in the southern hemisphere. The artic   tundra is characterized by having land that remains frozen throughout the   whole year and extremely cold temperatures so therefore, this also causes a   restriction   as to where it can be located. These conditions are clearly only found in   the northern hemisphere, which mainly includes large amounts of   Greenland, some of Alaska and northern parts of countries such as Russia and   Canada. However, it is also important to know that other a second type of   tundra, the alpine tundra, which can be found in regions all around the world   with high   elevations. This type of tundra is different from the artic tundra because   even though they are not frozen all year long, they are almost always covered   in snow and have similar characteristics to the artic tundra.  

By: Adriana Lassus


Rainfall and Temperature Temperature:   There are   two main seasons in the   artic tundra: winter and summer.   During summer the sun is present 24   hours a   day. However, the temperatures are so cold that the     summer is only able to sun during   warm up the temperatures to   about 3°C   to 12°C. During winter, the tundra region has opposite     conditions. There may be days   were the sun never rises and   temperatures can drop significantly   to around   -28°C to -70°C.


  Rainfall:       Precipitation in the Tundra region usually doesn’t exceed 10 inches. However,     areas closer to oceans or large bodies of water can measure up to 20 inches.   As can be seen in the Climograph, most precipitation occurs during summer in   months such as July and August. The reason why the precipitation in the tundra   biomes   is so low is because the temperatures are far too low to cause significant   amounts of evaporation.             Vegetation:       permafrost (frozen soil) layer Due to the found in  the artic tundra and the lack   of nutrients, trees are not able to grow.   Vegetation   is limited to small, dark and   hairy plants and these are the   characteristics which allow the plants to   grow under very cold temperature   conditions   since they make it easier for the plants   to maintain heat and therefore  grow.    

Vegetation and Animal Characteristics

Animals:                                 Plants:     • Grasses   • Lichens   • Sedges   • Artic   Willows • Lady   Fern  

Tundra animals have very specific natural protection elements, which take many different forms in order to protect themselves and be able to survive in such cold and dry climate. Most animals have a significant layer of fur in order to be able to trap the heat. Also most of the larger animals are characterized by a thick mass due to heavy layers of insulating fat.

Plants and Animals Animals: • Lemmings • Musk Ox • Caribou • Artic Fox • Artic Wolf

• Polar Bear

Energy Pyramid Heat      


T3- Secondary Consumer Artic Wolf T2- Primary Consumer Musk Ox T1- Producer Sedges




100,000KJ m2/yr

    Energy used   within an ecosystem always comes from the sun. It is first absorbed by producers, which in this  case are the sedges. These convert solar energy into ATP energy through the process   of photosynthesis. Finally it is passed on to consumers as they feed from producers or other   consumers. However, as can be seen in the Energy Pyramid, due to the fact that significant   amounts of energy are lost through heat and respiration, only about 10% of energy is transferred in   each trophic level.               Mutualism: Green Alga and Fungal   Lichen is one of the most common plants in the tundra biome and it is a composite organism that is   up of a fungus and a green alga. The alga is photosynthetic in nature and so, usually made   reduces carbon dioxide into sugars that feeds the fungus. The fungal helps provide protection to   the alga by retaining water and helping in obtaining minerals from substrate. Therefore, both the   green alga benefit from this relationship. fungus and the       Parasitism: Liver Tapeworm and Caribou/ Moose/ Wolves   The liver tapeworms tend to stay and grow in the body of various animals like moose, caribou and   even wolves. Then what these tapeworms do is feed on the food that is eaten by these animals,   which leads to malnutrition in the host body. So   therefore one animal is benefiting from the relationship while the other is at a loss.       Commensalism: Caribou and Artic Fox   When the caribou is searching for food, the arctic fox follows it. Then, the caribou digs the ground   snow in order   to try and find food, it digs up the soil and slightly exposes it or at least brings closer to the surface.  Once the caribou is done with its hunting, the arctic fox then follows and digs further deep and gets its food. Therefore, this is a great example of commensalism in the tundra biome   because the   artic fox benefits from the caribou while the caribou remains unaffected.     Competitive:     A musk ox's diet consists of plants such as sedges and grasses, while a caribou's is made of berries,   grass and sedge. Clearly their diets are very similar therefore when food is hard to find, due to the   very harsh climate conditions, the musk ox and caribou might have some competition trying to find   something to eat.    

Relationships in Biome

Human Impact Impacts on Biome

      Throughout   history, human activity has had and still has   huge negative impacts   on the   tundra biome and here are just a couple of   examples.   HUNTING:     endangered species in the Overhunting   for food and clothing almost early 1900’s resulted in  the extinction of animals such as   the musk oxen in the tundra regions.     OVERDEVELPMENT:   Building roads and the immigration of   humans to areas near the tundra biome in   order to work at mines and oil industry also   leads to many problems. Firs of all, many of   the animal   migrations and feeding patters are interrupted due to this development.   Also, it destroys plants in the biome, which   are a very   important food source for many animals, and   therefore threatens to destroy the entire biome.               If these unethical and dangerous activities   continue the   tundra biome could potentially be destroyed and this could also have   negative impacts for humans in the future.   First of all, the melting of glaciers would give   rise to sea   levels, which would flood many   around the world and could costal areas potentially   completely cover islands. Also,   the increase in global temperatures and   climate change could have a significant   effect on certain industries and could lead to poverty   for many people. Moreover, a   rise in temperatures could affect food   production and lead to famine in certain   regions around the world. Lastly, higher   global temperatures will increase the spread   of vector-borne diseases.  

GLOBAL WARMING: Due to the increase in the levels of carbon dioxide in the world caused by humans through industrialization and deforestation, the greenhouse effect has increased and it has caused global warming. Global warming is specifically dangerous to the tundra regions because this biome has a very fragile environment, which depends on very specific and cold temperatures. As glaciers and permafrost melt this causes floods, kills delicate plant species and limits the land available for the animals living in this biome. OIL DRILLLING: One of the main reasons why oil drilling is a very big problem in the tundra regions is because it pollutes water, land and air surroundings. This can have significant negative effects on the habitat of many animals and plants in the area, which may die due to the pollution caused.

Future Impacts on Humans

Conclusion As can be seen, just as all the other biomes, the tundra biome is essential to this world. Without it, there would only be negative outcomes and therefore we must do what we can to preserve it while we still can.

Karla  Kaplan   Rachelle  Ruebe   IBD  Biology  HL   Period  5   May  21,  2013  

Biome  Project:  Boreal  Forest  (Taiga)       Represented   left   is   the   world’s   largest   land   biome,   the   Taiga.   This   biome   covers   most   of   Canada  and  Alaska  and  also  some  parts  of  the   continental   United   States.   Many   European   countries   are   also   included   such   as   Sweden,   Finland,  Norway,   Iceland   and   Russia.   Parts   of   Siberia,   Kazakhstan   and   Japan   also   consist   of   coniferous  forests.   As   can  be   seen  in  this   map,   this   biome   exists   only   in   the   northern   hemisphere.          

Average  Monthly  Temperatures  (°C)   Jan   -­‐14.4  


Feb   -­‐10.9  

March   -­‐5.6  

April   3.6  

May   10.3  

June   14.1  

July   15.9  

Aug   14.9  

Sep   9.8  

Oct   4.6  

Nov   -­‐5.8  

Dec   12.0  

May   49.7  

June   89.4  

July   86.8  

Aug   90.6  

Sep   49.3  

Oct   12.8  

Nov   15.5  

Dec   25.1  

Average  Monthly  Rainfall  (mm)   Jan   22.8  

Feb   15.7  

March   17.3  

April   21.3  



20   10  


0   -­‐10  



Jan      Feb    Mar  April  May  June    July    Aug      Sep    Oct      Nov    Dec  

Temperature  (°C)  

Precipitation  (mm)  

Average  Monthly  Temperatures   and  Precipitation  in  Edmonton,   Canada   Precipitation   Temperature  


During   the   summer,   the   average   temperature   in   this   biome   during   the  day  is  15°C  and  during  the  night   it   is   8°C.   In   the   winter,   the   average   high   temperature   in   the   daytime   is   7°C,   the   average   low   being   1°C.   The   climograph   on   the   left   shows   the   average   monthly   temperatures   and   precipitation   in   Edmonton,   Canada   (a   city   located   in   the   Taiga   biome)   and  the  relationship  between  them.      

Vegetation  and  Animals     Coniferous   trees   such   as   the   Jack   Pine   Tree   are   the   most   abundant   plant   in   the   Taiga   (explaining   why   these   areas   are   also  known  as  coniferous  forests).  Conifer   plants   can   be   identified   by   their   cones   which  contain  the  plants’  seeds.  The  thick   waxy   needles   on   these   trees   as   well   as   their  small  surface  area  allow  the  trees  to   withstand   the   cold   (partly   because   snow   easily   falls   off   of   them)   and   decreases   water   loss   so   the   trees   can   survive   the   winter.  Boreal  forests  also  consist  greatly   of   swamp   areas   which   can   freeze   over   in   the   winter   making   water   retention   essential  for  the  survival  of  the  coniferous   trees.    

Brrr!  Boreal   forests  are   covered  in   snow  most  of  the  year,   making   uncomfortable   living   conditions   for   humans,   but   they  make  for  beautiful  photos  like  this  o ne!    

A  complication  for  plants  in  boreal  forests  is  the  low  amount  of  nutrients  in  the  soil.  This  is  due  to  the  low   temperatures   as   well   as   the   fallen   conifer   needles   which   increase   the   pH   of   the   soil.   This   results   in   competition   among   plants   for   nutrients   in  the  soil.  Another  issue  is  that  the  soil  of  boreal   forests   often   turns   into   swampland   during   the   short   summers   in   this   climate-­‐zone.   The   plants,   which   as   explained   previously,  are  adapted  to  cold  and  snow,  are  not  particularly  fit  for  living  in  bogs.   The   main   carnivores   of   the   Taiga   are   wild   cats   (such   as   the   Siberian   Tiger).   Other   carnivores   include   wolves,   foxes   and   grizzly   bears   as   well   as   birds   such   as   eagles,   owls   and   hawks.   Herbivores   in   this   biome   include   elk   and   smaller   animals   such   as   the   Snowshoe   Hare   and   Porcupine.   Just   like   the   plants   in   this   biome,   the   animals   are   adapted   to   the   cold.   For   example,   the   Snowshoe   Hare’s   coat   of   fur   turns   brown   in   the  fall  and  white  in  the  winter  to  match  its  surroundings  (sticks  and  leaves  in  the  fall  and  snow  in  the   winter).  This  camouflage  helps  the  hare  to  hide  from  predators.    

Mutualism   Algae  in  the  Taiga  create  photosynthesized  ‘food’  which  is  consumed  by  fungi,  allowing  fungi  to  grow  and   be  strong.  This  allows  the  fungi  to  continue  its  task  of  decomposing  dead  organic  matter  into  nutrients  for   the  soil  which  allow  plants  (such  as  algae)  to  grow  and  be  healthy.  In  simpler  words,  the  algae  feed  the   fungi  so  it  can  grow  and  continue  providing  the  algae  with  nutrients  via  the  earth.  Both  species  benefit   from  this  mutual  relationship.    

Commensalism   Trees  in  the  Taiga  provide  bark  for  squirrels  so  that  they  can  protect  themselves  from  possible  predators.   This  is  a  big  benefit  to  squirrels  who  have  many  large  carnivorous  predators  in  the  boreal  forest  biome,   however,  the  trees  are  unaffected  entirely  by  this  relationship,  making  it  an  example  of  commensalism.    

Parasitism   The  Forest  Tent  Caterpillar,  native  to  the  boreal  forest  biome,  is  a  parasite  to  many  of  the  trees  and  plants   and   these   areas.   This   caterpillar   devours   the   foliage   of   a   wide   variety   of   plants   in   coniferous   forests.   Because  trees  and  plants  are  so  abundant  in  these  areas,  the  Forest  Tent  Caterpillars  are  reproducing  and   growing   at   remarkable   rates.   However,   in   doing   this,   the   trees   in   boreal   forests   are   losing   their   leaves,   which   they   need   for   water   retention   and   protection   from   the   cold,   among   other   things.   The   plants   and  

trees   are   being   destroyed   at   the   expense   of   the   caterpillars   which   are   thriving   on   this   parasitic   relationship.    

Competitive  Relationship   An   example   of   competition   within   one   species   in   the   Taiga   biome   is   squirrels   competing   for   pine   nuts.   During  the  winter  (which  dominates  much  of  the  year  in  boreal  forests),  the  great  amounts  of  snow  force   the   trees   into   a   period   of   water   retention   and   attempting   to   survive   the   low   temperatures   (this   means   that   they   are   not   producing   much   or   any   food).   Even   if   they   are   producing   food,   it   is   difficult   to   find   because  of  all  the  snow.  For  these  reasons,  any  pine  nuts  which  can  be  found  during  this  time  are  very   valuable  to  squirrels  that  will  rely  heavily  on  these  nuts  for  survival  in  the  winter.  There  are  certainly  not   enough   pine   nuts   available   in   the   winter   for   all   the   squirrels   in   a   coniferous   forest   to   satisfy   all   of   the   squirrels  so  competition  among  the  individuals  of  this  species  is  high.    

Human  Impact   Because  of  the  vast  amount  of  trees  in  boreal  forests  and  the  fact  that  this  biome  is  rarely  inhabited  by   large  populations  of  humans  due  to  the  cold  temperatures  and  snow,  the  Taiga  is  an  ideal  place  to  find   lumber   (which   is   then   used   to   produce   toilet   paper,   copy   paper,   newspaper,   etc.).   People   have   been   abusing  the  trees  in  coniferous  forests  for  wood  for  decades  and  Siberia  is  a  good  example  of  the  negative   effects   of   this.   Huge   amounts   of   Siberia’s   Taiga   have   been   depleted.   The   use   of   machinery   to   cut   down   trees  in  the  Taiga  is  catastrophic  for  the  soil  in  these  forests  because  it  disrupts  the  balance  of  nutrients   and   chemicals   which   benefit   the   plants   and   animals   there.   This   deforestation   is   also,   obviously,   habit   destruction   which   can   lead   to   the   extinction   of   animals.   Erosion   and   even   natural   disasters   such   as   avalanches   are   more   likely   in   areas   where   deforestation   occurs.   Avalanches   occur   because   the   roots   of   trees  have  loosened  their  grip  in  the  soil  making  it  loose.      

Energy  Pyramid       T4  

Tertiary  Consumer:  Lynx  

1  KJ/m 2/yr  


Secondary  Consumer:  W easel  

10  KJ/m2/yr  


Primary  Consumer:  Squirrel  


100   KJ/m 2/yr  

1,000  KJ/m2/yr   Producer:  Pine  tree  


10,000  KJ/m2/yr  

Energy  lost  due  to   heat,  cell   respiration,  death,   excretion,  etc.  

Common  plants  


Polytrichum  Moss   (Polytrichum   juniperinum)  

  North  American  Fir   Tree  (Abies  balsamea)  

    Jack  Pine  Tree   (Pinus  banksiana)  


Giant  Sequoia   (Sequoiadendron   giganteum)  

British   Soldiers  (Cladonia     cristatella)  


Common  animals  


Bobcat                           (Lynx  rufus)  

Snowshoe  Hare             (Lepus  americanus)  

Porcupine     (Erethizon  dorsatum)  


Elk  (Cervus  Canadensis)  

Siberian  Tiger                 (Panthera  tigris  altaica)  

The   food   web   (shown   left)   shows   T1   through   T3   plants   and   animals   in   the   boreal   forest   biome.   The   arrows   indicate   the   flow   of   energy   from   one   organism   to   the   organism  that  consumes  it.  It   includes   the   common   Taiga   animals  shown  above                  

Nicole AragonĂŠs Ms. Ruebe Biology Pd 5 24 may 2013 Biome Project: Sahara Desert

1. Map showing the Sahara desert:

2. Average temperatures and precipitation over the months of the year Month

January February MArch April May June July August September October November December

High temperature (degrees Celsius) 22 25 29 33 38 44 45 44 40 34 27 22

Low temperature (degrees celsius) 7 10 13 17 22 28 29 29 26 20 13 8

Precipitation (mm) 3.7 3.5 1.2 1.6 0.5 0.1 1.6 0.5 0.2 1.2 0.5 2.7

3. 4. The Sahara desert requires that wild life and its vegetation adapt to very arid conditions, intense heat, violent winds and wide temperatures. In the Sahara desert most mammals are small, which then helps to minimize water loss, they will get the water they need from their diet. They will hunt at night when temperatures are lower. These small animals have developed anatomical adaptations that help them survive in such conditions. The Sahara provides life for 70 species of mammals, about 90 species of birds, 100 species of outstanding reptiles and many more. A few examples of these extraordinary animals are the Oryx, the spotter hyena, the sand fox, cobras, chameleons, lizards, sinks, scorpions. The wild life is mostly focused on the northern and southern margins that have near water sources. The Sahara’s most famous animal is the camel, it has been domesticated over thousands of years, it has mostly been used by desert nomads. The camel relys on its fat humps and other physicological adaptations, they can travel for dats with no food or water. It can feed on thorny plants and dry grasses. With its thick footpads, it can step on sandy and rocky areas. Because of its nostrils and big eyebrows and lashes, it can protect his nose and eyes from

sandstorms. It may also consume more than 30 gallons of water in just a matter of minutes to prepare themselves for other long journeys. In the Sahara desert you may also find species of wild plants life date palms, tamarisks and acacia, they are adapted in such way that its roots are so long they can get to water sources. In the most severe and arid areas like in Algeria`s Tanezrouft Basin there are many sand dunes, sandstones and mosaic of salt flats which are known as the “land of Terror� many plants have been able to establish. 5. Common plants: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Cactai Thorn acacias Creosote bushes Sage bushes Flowering annuals

Common animals: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Hawk Kit fox Lizards Scorpions Kangaroo rats

Food chain:

Kit fox









Kangaroo rats

Cactai Thorn acacias creosote bushes Sage bushes Flowering annuals

6. dPvHn7ujR3ROsM&tbnid=JN9OmK9f4q8mtM:&ved=& ote%2Fn%2Fbiology-5c-midterm-1%2Fdeck%2F6357090&ei=EEhUb25E87_4AP6wYCYDg&bvm=bv.47008514,d.dmg&psig=AFQjCNHbc9ITwm5Myg7VSSxQHVMbah_N7Q&u st=1369612432865723

Paratism: Fleas on a kangaroo rat. The fleas benefit by drinking the blood of the kangaroo rat. The kangaroo rats does not benefit from this, if it looses too much blood it will die. Commensalism: the cactus, a bird might Guild up a nest in the cactus and this will then help him provide shelter and Project himself of predator with the cactus remains unaffected by the bird’s benefit. Mutualism: Phainopepla feeds on mystical berries while the phainopela helps the mystical plant grow in its surroundings. Competitive: Hawks and rattlesnakes compete for birds and foods and birds and Worms compete for their diet meaning, plants and fruit of the prickly pear. 8. The change in climatic temperatures and features over the past 5000 years and human hunting over the last 100 years has distorted and reduces most of the Sahara`s flora and fauna. Now there are vast parts of the Sahara, merely rock sand and vegetation are

found. The mammals that inhabit this wonderful biome are highly threatened by the ongoing intense over-hunting of species. When talking from a conservational perspective, the Sahara desert is not well protected and this may be due to the fact that the population is so low. There are fewer than 2 million inhabitants that reside throughout the whole Sahara desert. The majority are nomads and people that live in Tribus, these communities survive from hunting and trading. Humans are harming this ecosystem by drilling for oil, military testing, taking the land from animals and overall pollution. Another issue is that in the last past years there have been projects developed in Algeria and Tunisia that have started using irrigates water pumped from underground aquifers. These leads to soil salinization and degradation because of “ drainage” problems.    

Desert  Biome  (Savanna)          This  is  a  world  map  of  where  my  biome  is  located  which  is  mainly  in   central  and  South  Africa,  some  parts  of  South  America  and  other   countries  i.e.  Australia,  Europe  and  parts  of  South  Western  North   America.  It  can  be  found  in  every  continent  in  some  more  than  others   excluding  Antarctica.  



In  the  Savanna  it  can  either  be  really  wet  one  season  or  it  could  be  a  very  hot  season.   This  biome  falls  between  a  forest  and  grassland.  The  Savanna  biome  usually  borders   rainforests.  The  problem  in  this  biome  is  that  some  animals  can’t  survive  until  the   wet  season  begins  because  the  dryness  hinders  them  form  getting  their  water  intake   to  survive.  The  supply  of  food  could  be  rather  high  during  the  wet  season  where   plants  are  allowed  the  time  to  grow  and  get  a  good  amount  of  sunlight.  The  annual   rainfall  is  59  inches  and  during  the  dry  season  the  average  daily  temperature  is  93  

degrees  Fahrenheit.  During  the  rainy  season  the  temperature  drops  to  about  61   degrees  Fahrenheit.  Plants  and  animals  have  adapted  so  much  to  the  wild  fires  in   savanna  biomes  that  only  10%  of  the  plants  will  die  from  it.  Some  plants  are  made  of   inflammable  material.    



    In  these  two  climographs  we  can  compare  that  both  have  high  temperatures  during   the  middle  of  the  year,  average  rainfall  and  shows  the  relationship  of  Temperature   and  Precipitation  throughout  the  cycle  of  a  year.          Harsh  environments  can  be  found  in  savanna  biomes,  but  plants  and  animals  have   adapted  to  the  weather  of  it  and  are  able  to  survive.  There  are  very  large  animals   that  live  in  the  Savanna  biome  like  elephants,  zebras,  and  lions.  The  people  that  live   in  Savanna  biomes  require  the  help  of  cattle  and  the  grasslands  for  the  cattle  to   graze  on  as  their  source  of  food  supply.  The  plants  in  Savanna  biomes  have  2  unique   uses,  food  and  shade  for  animals  to  be  under  due  to  the  heat  temperature  in   Savanna  Biomes.    


Plants   Baobab   Elephant  Grass   Kangaroo  paw   Whistling  Thorn   Manketti  Tree            





Animals   Lion   Koala  Bear   Emu     Black  Mamba   African  Elephants    

1  KJ/m^2/yr  


10   KJ/m^2/yr  





100   KJ/M^2/yr  

1,000   KJ/m^2/yr  

Tertiary  Consumer  

Secondary   Consumer  

Primary   Consumer  



Elephant  Grass    


10,000  KJ/m^2/yr  


Mutualism  –  The  acacia  tree  has  long  sharp  thorns  that  share  a  relationship  with   stinging  ants.  The  ants  live  in  acacia  thorns  that  they  have  hollowed  out  and  the   stinging  ants  feed  on  the  nectar  of  the  tree.  Once  an  animal  bites  a  thorn  they  also   are  bringing  or  eating  stinging  ants  into  their  mouth.  The  ants  also  protect  the  tree   from  any  invading  insects.       Commensalism  –  The  relationship  between  the  lion  and  a  hyena.  The  lion  will   always  actively  hunt  prey  while  the  hyena  eats  the  lion’s  left  overs  without  hunting   on  its  own.  By  this  method  the  lion  is  not  affected.       Parasitism  –  Ticks/fleas  on  animals.  A  good  example  would  be  when  a  tick  takes   blood  from  an  elephant.  The  tick  is  basically  taking  advantage  of  its  host.       Competitive  Relationship  –  When  two  species  could  occupy  related  but  distinct   niches  that  can  overlap  a  set  of  resources.  This  puts  the  two  species  into  competition   for  shared  resources.  For  example  a  lion  chasing  a  hyena  from  a  kill  is  competing  by   interfering  and  taking  resources.  The  lion  is  cutting  the  hyena  off  from  its  access  to   food.      




 Poaching  is  very  bad  and  has  a  heavy  impact  on  Savanna  biomes.  In  Africa  they  do  

guided  hunts,  which  are  meant  for  the  elephants,  and  lions,  which  could  cause  the   biome  to  have  less  of  this  animal  and  could  disrupt  the  food  chain.  This  breaks  up   the  balance  between  predators  and  animals.  This  can  result  in  overgrazing  which   makes  it  harder  for  the  grasses  to  be  replenished  because  lions  are  the  top   predators  and  if  there  are  fewer  lions  that  mean  that  there  will  be  more  deer,  zebra,   and  other  grass-­‐eating  animals  that  would  lead  to  overgrazing.    


Tulio    Dasso  

Shrubland   Description: Shrublands (also known as prairie) include regions such as chaparral, woodland and savanna. Shrublands are the areas that are located in west coastal regions between 30° and 40° North and South latitude. Some of the places would include southern California, Chile, Mexico, areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and Southwest parts of Africa and Australia. These regions are usually found surrounding deserts and grasslands.

Image  of  regions  in  the  world   with  Shrubland  biomes                    


Weather  and  Climate:       • Temperature:  Shrubland  biome  can  be   described  as  being  temperate.  Summers  are  hot  to   warm  and  winters  are  cool  to  cold.   • Precipitation:  Shrubland  usually  get  more   rain  than  deserts  and  grasslands  but  less  than   forested  areas.  Shrublands  typically  receive   between  200  to  1,000  millimeters  of  rain  a  year.   This  rain  is  unpredictable,  varying  from  month  to   month.  There  is  a  noticeable  dry  season  and  wet   season.    

2   Tulio  Dasso     Below is a table and two graphs displaying information regarding monthly precipitation or temperature for Middleburg, South Africa, which has a shrubland biome.

  The  average  rainfall  for  shrublands  is  about  27  inches  per  year,  which  is  700   millimeters    


    Landforms:       • Mountains:  There  are  no  mountains  due  to  shrublands  being  flat.     • Bodies  of  water:  The  shrublands  are  pretty  much  desert  like  so  bodies  of   water  are  pretty  much  out  of  the  picture.   • Canyons:  There  are  small  canyon  like  landforms  on  the  shrublands  but  there   are  not  extreme  canyons,  like  the  Grand  Canyon.           Animals:       Shrubland  mammals  are  dominated  by  smaller  burrowing  herbivores  such  as   prairie  dogs,  jackrabbits,  ground  squirrels,  and  gophers  and  larger  running   herbivores  such  as  bison,  pronghorn  antelope,  and  elk.  Some  carnivores  include   badgers,  coyotes,  ferrets,  wolves,  and  cougars.  The  populations  of  many  of  these   organisms  have  been  drastically  reduced  because  of  the  conversion  of  their  natural   habitat  into  cropland  and  some  of  these  species  are  on  the  edge  of  extinction.      

Tulio    Dasso          

Jack  Rabbit     (Lepus)  

Grey  Fox     (Urocyon cinereoargenteu s)

Skunk     (Mephitidae)  

Grasshopper     (Caelifera)  

Puma     (Felis concolor)


Broad  leaf     (Griselinia         littoralis)    

Cabbage  Tree   (Cordyline  australis)      

  Manuka     (Leptospermum scoparium)                          

Narrow-­‐leaved   Mahoe   (Melicytus   lanceolatus)    

Flax   (Phormium  tenax)    

4   Tulio  Dasso     Plants:   The  shrublands  are  made  up  of  shrubs  or  short  trees.  Many  shrubs  live  on  steep,   rocky  slopes.  There  is  usually  not  enough  rain  to  support  tall  trees.  In  the  areas  with   little  rainfall,  plants  have  adapted  to  drought-­‐like-­‐conditions.  Many  plants  have   small,  needle-­‐like  leaves  that  help  to  conserve  water.  Some  have  leaves  with  waxy   coatings  and  leaves  that  reflect  sunlight.  Several  plants  have  developed  fire  resistant   adaptations  to  survive  the  frequent  fires  that  occur   during  the  dry  season.           Parasitism:  An  example  of  parasitism  would  be  the   Cowbird.  This  is  a  unique  bird  that  lives  in  the   temperate  woodlands  and  shrublands.  It  acts  as  a   parasite  because  it  lays  its  eggs  in  the  nest  of  other  birds.  This  proves  to  be  harmful   because  Cowbird chicks often hatch earlier and grow faster outcompeting the resident chicks.     Commensalism:  Squirrels  and  other  rodents  benefit  from  eating   the  shed  antlers  of  White  Tailed  Deer  for  calcium  enrichment  while   the  Deer  has  no  apparent  affect.       Mutualism:  The  bee  and  the  flower.  Bees  fly  from  flower   to  flower  gathering  nectar,  which  they  make  into  food,   benefiting  the  bees.  When  they  land  in  a  flower,  the  bees   get  some  pollen  on  their  hairy  bodies,  and  when  they   land  in  the  next  flower,  some  of  the  pollen  from  the  first  one   rubs  off,  pollinating  the  plant.  This  benefits  the  plants.  In  this   mutualistic  relationship,  the  bees  get  to  eat,  and  the  flowering   plants  get  to  reproduce.       Competitive:     In  example  of  competition  for  the  shrubland  biome  would  be  that  of  a   bear  and  a  cougar.  Both  of  these  animals  compete  for  the  same  prey,  which  is  fish   and  deer.       Human  Impact:       • Dry  conditions  create  the  danger  of  fire,  which  can  spread  quickly  through   shrublands  because  they  tend  to  have  long,  running  fields  of  shrubs  and   grasses  that  are  very  susceptible  to  wildfire  and  wind.    

Tulio    Dasso   •

Temperate  shrublands  often  border  areas  that  make  good  pasture  or   croplands.  As  a  result,  eventually  shrublands  are  turned  into  commercial   property  for  raising  livestock  or  growing  grains  and  other  types  of  plants.   This  shrinks  the  overall  size  of  the  shrublands  and  the  room  that  shrubland   species  have  to  expand.     Species  loss  in  shrublands  typically  occurs  when  humans  hunt  a  species  to   extinction  or  near  extinction,  as  happened  with  the  American  buffalo.     Removing  one  species  from  the  food  chain  in  a  shrubland  has  huge  negative   effects,  weakening  the  environmental  response  of  the  biome  and  making  it   more  susceptible  to  disasters  and  even  failure.    





Temperate  deciduous  forests  are  found  specifically  between  the  tropical  regions  and  the   polar   regions,  located   for  the  most  part  in   mid   and  northern-­‐latitude   areas.  They   can   be   found   abundantly   in   the   eastern   half   of   North   America   and   Asia,   and   the   western   part   of   Europe.  However  they  can  also  be  located  in  the  south  of  South  America  and  Australasia   in  a  smaller  scale,  as  can  be  seen  in  the  diagram  above.      

  Climate:       The   temperature   and   precipitation   levels   of   the   temperate   deciduous   forest   varies   among   its   four   different   seasons   that   include:   winter,   spring,   summer   and   fall.   The   average   annual   temperature   of   the   temperate   deciduous   forest   is   of   10   degrees   Celsius.   During   the   winter   period   there   is   little   sunlight   and   days   do   not   last   much,   they   start   in   December   and   the   temperature   in   average   is   a   little   below   the   freezing   point.   Summer   starts   in   early   June   and   ends   in   late   August   being   a   period   of   time   in   which   sunlight   is   abundant   and   days   are   extremely   long.   During   summer   the   average   temperature   is   of   21   degrees   Celsius.   During   fall   temperatures   start   to   lower   and   consequently   plant   leafs   start   to   fall   in   preparation   for   the   winter.   During   spring   temperatures   rise   and   trees   and   plants   start   to   grow   leafs   once   again   in   order   to   be   able   to  be  prepared  for  the  summer.  In  general  the  temperate   deciduous   forest   ranges   from  -­‐ 3   degrees   Celsius   to   30   degrees   Celsius   throughout   the   year.   At   night   the   temperature   lowers   greatly   reaching   temperatures   close   to   0   degrees   Celsius,   while   in   the   day   it   is   much  warmer  reaching  temperatures  of  32  degrees  Celsius,  however  it  depends  on  the   time  of  season.  

Precipitation  in  the  Temperate   Deciduous  Forest    

The   average   precipitation   of   the   temperate   deciduous   forest   is   of   76cm   to   152cm   per   year.  During  winter,  there  is  an  average  of  36cm  of  precipitation,  while  in  summer  time  

there   is   an   average   of   46cm   of   precipitation.   Some   precipitation   especially   in   winter   comes   as   snow,   therefore   covering   the   whole   ground   floor.   Varying   from   the   summer   in   which  precipitation  comes  as  rainfall  for  the  most  part,  due  to  the  hot  climate.  



Characteristics  of  Animals  and  Vegetation:      

The   temperate   deciduous   forest   has   a   very   hot   summer   and   cold   winter,   therefore   animals  that  live  in  the  biome  must  be  able  to  adapt,  in  order  to  survive.  During  winter   periods  it  is  characteristic  of  the  animals  to  hibernate  and  or  migrate.  A  great  variety  of   birds,   usually   migrate   to   warmer   place,   where   food   is   more   available.   Mammals   are   mainly  those  who  hibernate  in  order  to  combat  the  cold  temperature  and  reduce  their   need   for   nutrients,   therefore   they   can   survive   with   stored   fat,   important   reason   for   which   mammals   must   store   fat.   Nevertheless,   animal’s   specially   hibernating   mammals   store  food,  which  is  conserved  by  the  cold  temperature  and  allows  these  to  feed  during   this  period  of  time.  However  it  is  also  important  to  mention  that  animals  have  to  adapt   to  leaves  falling,  making  it  harder  to  hide  from  predation  and  easier  for  predators.       The   plants   in   the   temperate   deciduous   forest   have   to   drop   their   leaves,   in   order   to   withstand   the   cold   weathers   and   low   precipitation   levels   in   winter.   In   summer   trees   practice  photosynthesis  and  for  that  reason  most  of  them  have  broad  leaves,  capturing   the   sun   more   effectively.   In   the   absence   of   abundant   sunlight   and   water,   plants   stop   producing   chlorophyll,   reason   why   the   leaves   and   plants   obtain   their   red,   orange   and   yellow  beautiful  colors.  Furthermore  plants  are  capable  of  closing  the  area  between  the   leaf  stem  and  the  trunk,  when  temperature  drops.  In  winter-­‐  time  as  mentioned  before   plants  lose  their  leaves  and  the  reason  being  that  they  must  conserve  water,  and  water   loss  mostly  comes  from  transpiration  through  leaves.  Finally  plants  regrow  their  leaves   in  spring  when  temperatures  and  precipitation  levels  rise.    

  Common  plants  and  animals:       Salamander        








Brown  Bear    

    Berry  Bushes  





    Eastern  Black  Walnut  

Food  web:        




             Oak  Trees    



Bald  Eagle  



                   Sugar  Maple  Trees  



                   Castanea  sativa  



Food  (Energy)  Pyramid:    




Animal  Relationship:     Types  of  relationships   Mutualism  








Symbiosis  that  is  beneficial  to   both  organisms  involved.  

An  example  would  be  the   relationship  between  bees  and   flowers,  which  consists  of  bees   obtaining  nectar  and   consequently  being  able  to   produce  honey.  However  while   extracting  nectar  from  flowers,   pollen  gets  attached  in  the   dense  hair  of  the  bee’s  legs,   which  pollinate  while  flying   from  flower  to  flower.     An  association  between  two   An  example  would  be  the   organisms  in  which  one   relationship  between  squirrels   benefits  and  the  other  derives   and  trees.  Basically  squirrels   neither  benefit  nor  harm.   live  inside  the  cavities  of  the   tree  providing  them  with  a   shelter  that  aids  them  with   protection.  However  the   squirrel  does  not  affect  the  tree   since  the  cavities  occur   naturally.     It  is  a  non-­‐  mutual  relationship   The  fungus  species  Laetiporus   between  organisms  of  different   Cincinnatus  grows  on  trees   species  where  one  organism   especially  oak  trees  and   benefits  at  the  expense  of  the   basically  they  break  down  the   other.     nutrients  of  the  tree.  This   means  the  fungus  takes  away   nutrients  from  the  Oak  tree  and   as  a  result  the  Oak  tree  becomes   vulnerable  and  weak.     Relationship  between  members   Bears  and  wolves  hunt  for  the   of  the  same  or  different  species   same  type  of  prey.  Therefore  in   in  which  those  having  the  same   times  of  scarce  prey  they  must   living  requirements,  such  as   compete  for  food,  even  though   food  or  space,  affect  individuals.     they  normally  avoid  each  other.    

  Human  Impact:     The  introduction  of  alien  species  by  humans  has  been  a  factor  that  greatly  affected  the   temperate   deciduous   forest.   Specifically   the   Mayans   in   the   Yucatan   region   imported   aggressive   African   Honeybees   who   are   marvelous   honey   producers,   however   ever   since   they   entered   the   environment   they   have   ended   with   the   majority   of   the   population   of   native   bees.   Therefore   by   having   those   who   invest   on   the   honey   market   benefit,   the   temperate  deciduous  forest  faces  a  great  diversity  loss.  This  is  true  considering  that  the   aggressive  African  Honeybees  have  distorted  the  natural  food  web  and  reproduction  in   the   temperate   deciduous   forest   having   a   great   loss   of   biodiversity.   The   consequences   this   will   have   in   the   future   for   human   beings   is   that   many   resources   that   could   have   been   utilized   for   human   progress   will   be   depleted.   Another   important   problem   is   that   aggressive   African   Honeybees   may   be   able   to   grow   exponentially   in   size,   having   no   natural   predator,   therefore   infesting   the   entire   Yucatan   region,   which   may   bring   some   serious  economical  and  medical  consequences.      

Tropical Rainforest Biome Tropical Rainforest

The Tropical Rainforest is a vital biome, out of an exhaustive list. This biome is located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, placing it roughly within 28 degrees latitude north and south of the equator.

Michelle Fitzpatrick | May 2013 Rainfall & Climate: Rainfall

Tropical rainforests have an average of 50 to 260 inches of rainfall a year, with a monthly average of 4 inches as there tends to exist a brief season of less rain.

Climate Rainforests belong to the tropical wet climate group, with an average daily temperature of 30ºC - 35ºC, which may then drop 25ºC as forests are Humidity These night falls. unique for their high humidity levels, which range between 77 and 88%.

Flora & Fauna Flora As a result of this biome’s abundant rain, it is filled with lush green vegetation. Typically, trees of this biome have straight trunks that don’t branch out for more than 100 ft as because below the canopy, there is very little light for these branches to receive. Their bark is smooth and thin, making it difficult for epiphytes and plant parasites to latch on to their trunks. Jambu: A fruit producing plant that grows in the form of a tree or shrub in the regions between southern India to eastern Malaya.

Biome’s Lush Vegetation

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Issue | Date

The Fruit of a Jambu Strangler Fig & Its Host

The Durian Tree

The Kapok Tree

Strangler Fig: One of the most essential species in its ecosystem, feeding a great deals of animals with its sweet fruit, which it bares several times a year. Kapok: Characterized by its towering height, this tree can grow up to 150 feet or more. Originally a native to South America, it now has spread to the primary rainforests of West Africa, the Southeast Asian rainforests of the Malay Peninsula, and the Indonesian archipelago. Tualang: A majestic tree, which due to its impressive height of up to 250 feet, towers over its surroundings and can be found in areas of Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and Palawan. They can be seen growing in damp location, such as valleys, lower slopes of hills and along rivers. Durian: A fruiting tree most commonly found in Southeast Asia, which grows in lowland rainforests and is native to Borneo, Indonesia and Malaysia. Dolor Sit Amet

The Tualang Tree


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Fauna Commonly, adaptations to a life in the rainforest can be seen in the animals that live there. For example, bright colors, sharp patterns and loud vocalizations can be seen, which serve to scare of predators, while a diet heavy on fruit is common due to the vast variety provided by the biome’s vegetation.

Bengal Tiger: Lives in the Sundarban regions of India, Bangladesh, China, Siberia and Indonesia.

Harpy Eagle: Known as one of the most powerful and largest species of eagles, the Harpy Eagle is a ferocious predator that hunts a variety of medium to large size mammals that live in trees.

Hourglass Tree Frog: These nocturnal creatures don’t tend to grow over 4cm and live in the high canopies of the rainforest almost year-round, typically found in Central America.

Leaf Cutter Ants: This species of tropical, fungus-growing ants, use fresh vegetation to feed their fungal cultivars, which tend to be found in areas from South to Central America, Mexico and southern parts of the United States. Dolor Sit Amet

Silvery Gibbon: Known for the calls of the female, the silvery gibbon lives high in the rainforest’s treetops, on the western side of the Indonesian island of Java.


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Relationships A Leaf Cutter on Fungus

Issue | Date Commensalism: between frogs and the bromeliad Bromeliads are plants that live on other trees, providing shelter and water for frogs without receiving any actual benefit in doing so. ,

Mutualism: between leaf cutter ants & fungus Leaf cutter ants live in the undergrounds of the rainforest, who cut chunks of leaves from trees, though they are not actually able to digest the plant matter. They then bring this plant matter back to their nests, where it cultivates a fungus. The ant’s plant matter feeds the fungus, which in turn it provides food for the ants.

Frog sheltered by a bromeliad

Competitive and Parasitic Relationship: between a strangler fig and its host tree Strangler figs have aggressive growth habits, needed for their survival in the rainforest. They grow near their host, slowly at first, getting it nutrients from the sun, rain and whatever else has collected upon the bark of its host. As it grows, it sends out many thin roots, which snake down the trunk of its host. When the roots reach the ground they dig in commencing a growth spurt, competing with its host for water and nutrients. They also send out a network of roots that encircle the host tree allowing it to latch on. As the roots grow thicker they squeeze the trunk of its host and cut off its flow of nutrients. In the canopy the strangler fig puts out lots of leaves that soon grow thicker than the host tree and rob it of sunlight. Eventually the host dies from strangulation, insufficient sunlight and root competition, and the strangler fig stands on its own, having defeated its host, making this relationship a parasitic one.

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A strangler fig latched on to its host


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Food Chain & Energy Flow The Bengal Tiger

Harpy Eagle

Silvery Gibbon

Hourglass Tree Frog Leaf Cutter Ant


Kapok Durian


Strangler Fig

Energy Pyramid The flow of energy through trophic levels is only 10% efficient, as energy is lost through heat, excretion and respiration, among other factors.

Trophic Levels

He at

Tertiary Consumers 1 kJ/m2/y

Primary Consumers

n tio Re sp ira

10 kJ/m2/y


Secondary Consumers

cr et

io n

T4 T3 T2

100 kJ/m2/y Producers – 1,000 kJ/m2/y Dolor Sit Amet

T1 5

Human Impact How are we harming this biome and how will this impact our future? Deforestation: Tropical rainforests are very much susceptible to human impact, and though they used to cover about 14% of the Earth, only 6% is left. The root cause of their destruction can be attributed to deforestation. Today Brazil houses about 30% of the world’s rainforest, though this number is rapidly diminishing, as for example, during the years 2000 and 2005, Brazil lost 50,000 square miles of rain forest to deforestation. The loss of tropical rainforests can have many devastating impacts on the environment, some of which are already being seen today.

• •

Impacts of Deforestation: Many species and populations that live in this biome face extinction due to the loss of their habitat. o Currently, we lose 130+ species a day due to deforestation. o Habitat loss also leads to territorial conflicts and the depletion of food supplies. o Extinction also lessens the biome’s biodiversity, as less and less species are seen each day. The removal of plants through deforestation also results in soil erosion, which then results in rain washing away the nutrients in the soil. Tropical rainforests become susceptible to climate change, as they no longer have trees to provide shade, thus increasing the amount of sunlight received by the biome. In turn, deforestation causes an increase in carbon dioxide levels, only adding to the already existing problem.

Mining: Mining for gold, copper, even diamonds and other precious metals is a common activity affecting rainforests all over the world. The extraction of these natural resources can be a destructive activity, not only disrupting the rainforest’s ecosystem, but also causing problems for those living nearby. Impacts of Mining: • Mining causes large-scale pollution, affecting the biome’s ground, air and water supplies. o Mercury used to extract minerals can end up in the water, disrupting food chains. § Statistically, 2.91 lbs. of mercury are released into waterways, for every 2.2 lbs. of gold produced. Future Impacts: The loss of tropical rainforests all over the world adds to the already occurring climate change as the depletion of trees making up this biome increases carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. An intense climate change results in more intense heat waves, the more regular occurrence of wildfires, and longer periods of drought in particular regions as well as an increase in the frequency, intensity and duration of tropical storms. Glaciers will continue to melt, resulting in a rise in sea levels, impacting various species of fish, changing their migratory patterns. Birds will also have to adapt to changing wind patterns, and in turn adjust their migration patterns as well. Gradual replacement of this biome by a dry savannah will also cause changes in water availability for human consumption, agriculture and energy generation.

Oliver  Jurgensen  

Introduction:     Temperate  Deciduous  Forests  are  located  generally  on  the  northern  hemisphere  because  it  is  there   where  they  receive  the  necessary  temperature  and  annual  rainfall  in  order  to  grow  and  survive.  First  of   all,  deciduous  means  that  the  leaves  of  the  trees  fall  over  a  time  period  and  this  is  done  because  the   trees  as  well  as  animals  have  to  rest.  When  the  plants  fall  to  the  ground,  it  provides  the  soil  with   nutrients  so  the  ground  is  always  fertile  and  used  for  agricultural  regions.                               Location:  The  image  above  that  has  a  world  map  indicates   the  places  for  temperate  deciduous  forests  and  as  it  was   mentioned  early,  they  located  generally  in  the  northern   hemisphere  and  more  exactly  between  22o  North  and  53o  North.  These  forests  are  very  big  in  Eastern   United  States,  Western  Europe  and  in  some  parts  of  Russia  and  China.  There  are  also  some  temperate   deciduous  forests  in  South  America  and  in  New  Zealand.       The  other  picture  represents  the  deciduous  part  of  these  forests  and  how  the  plant  trees  change  color   from  green  to  orange  and  end  up  falling  to  the  ground  and  provide  nutrients  for  the  soil.       Climate     Temperate  deciduous  forests  have  four  distinct  seasons:  spring,  summer,  autumn  and  winter.  The   forests  have  mild  summers,  which  average  to  about  21  o  C,  and  the  months  usually  begin  in  July  and  end   at  the  beginning  days  of  September.  On  the  other  hand,  winter  months  do  not  start  until  December.  The   temperature  during  winter  months  is  a  little  bit  below  freezing  and  this  constant  changes  are  due  to  the   location  they  have  because  most  deciduous  forests  are  located  near  oceans.  Generally,  temperate   deciduous  forests  have  36  centimeters  of  rain  during  winter  months  and  46  centimeters  during   summer  months.  During  the  summer  months  the  precipitation  is  rain  while  on  the  winter  months  it  is   snow.                                

Oliver  Jurgensen  

Climograph:             Animals  and  Plants:   Months     Animals  that  live  in  deciduous  forests  have  adapted  different  ways  to  survive  the  various  climatic   changes  throughout  the  year  by  hibernating  or  migrate.  Migration  generally  occurs  with  birds  like   hawks  that  migrate  to  the  South  but  if  they  are  on  the  southern  hemisphere  they  will  fly  North.  This  is   because  they  can  receive  the  hot  temperatures  and  don’t  have  to  come  in  contact  with  cold   environments.  Meanwhile,  animals  like  bears  have  to  hibernate  during  the  winter  months  in  order  to   not  use  too  much  energy  and  rest.  Cold  weather  is  not  favorable  to  them  so  they  find  food  and  then  go   to  sleep  for  a  long  time.  They  take  food  so  that  they  don’t  starve  to  death  during  those  long  months  and   it  is  thanks  to  the  cold  environment  that  food  is  able  to  stay  okay.         On  the  other  hand,  plants  but  mostly  trees  grow  broad,  lightweight  leaves  but  that  can  only  work  and   use  photosynthesis  during  hot  environments  or  summer  months.  That  is  why,  during  the  winter   months,  and  because  the  leaves  occupy  a  large  surface  area  that  can  possibly  help  in  the  losing  of  water,   the  leaves  fall  to  the  ground.  This  is  done  because  the  tree  reduces  the  amount  of  chlorophyll  that  is   producing  for  each  leave  and  this  is  reflected  in  the  color  change  of  leaves  from  green  to  orange.  Once   the  leaves  fall,  trees  enter  a  dormant  stage  where  they  rest  and  wait  for  the  summer  months  in  order  to   re-­‐grow  its  leaves.    The  most  common  trees  found  are  oaks,  maples,  beeches  and  then  shrubs,  perennial   herbs  and  mosses.       Five  Examples  of  Animals  and  Plants  in  Temperate  Deciduous  Forests  with  their  Descriptions:   Plants  







These  plants  produce  fruits  that  benefit   many  of  the  animals  in  the  deciduous  forest.   They  are  small  round  fruits  with  a  blue  color   and  can  go  from  tart  to  sweet.  There  are   different  types  of  huckleberries  that  have   different  uses.     Dogwood  is  a  shrub  that  produces  fruits  that   can  be  really  toxic  to  humans  but  that  are   eaten  by  birds  in  the  deciduous  forest.  The   name  of  the  fruit  is  drupes  and  they  often   have  one  or  two  seeds.     Oak  trees  are  considered  one  of  the  best   shade  trees  and  their  fruit  is  produced  in  the   form  of  acorns.  They  reach  a  mature  height   of  15  to  21  meters.  They  adapt  regularly  to   different  soils  they  are  exposed  to  and  also   they  can  store  a  big  amount  of  water.     There  are  4  different  types  of  maple  trees   and  those  are:  Sugar  Maple  Tree,  Black   Maple  Tree,  Red  Maple  Tree  and  Silver   Maple  Tree.  They  tend  to  have  similar   characteristics  like  for  example  they  are   palmately  lobed  and  means  that  leafs  are   separate  in  different  branches  like  a  human  


This  animal  generally  lives  in  forests  where   it  can  find  its  food.  It  is  an  omnivore   animal,  which  means  it  eats  both  animals   and  plants.  Generally  they  are  in  the  middle   of  the  food  chain  and  they  are  generally   classified  as  preys  for  various  animals.     This  animal  is  omnivore,  which  means  that   it  eats  animals  smaller  than  what  they  are   and  any  kind  of  plants.  Generally  they  are   never  killed  for  food.    


Oak  Tree  

Maple  Tree  

Red  Fox  


Most  owls  eat  lemmings,  voles  and  mice   that  are  found  in  the  deciduous  forest.  The   animals  that  eat  owls  are  foxes,  coyotes  and   crows.  It  is  generally  in  the  middle  of  the   food  chain.    


Cougars  like  to  live  in  places  with  lots  of   food  and  plenty  space.  They  reside  on   caves,  high  vegetation  or  rocky  crevices   areas.  They  are  excellent  hunters  and  hunt   deer,  rodents,  birds.  They  hunt  once  a  week   but  if  there  is  any  small  cub,  then  it  is   several  times  a  week,  as  they  need  more  

Oliver  Jurgensen  

hand.  Their  fruit  is  usually  seedpods.   Chestnut  Tree  


The  nuts  are  the  fruit  produced  by  the   Chestnut  Tree  and  they  contain  spines.   These  spines  help  them  in  transportation   because  they  can  then  cling  to  the  animals   and  get  a  free  transport.    

    Food  Web:    






Black  Bear  



The  Black  Bear  is  an  omnivore,  which   means  it  can  either  eat  other  animals  or   plants.  They  can  hunt  some  fish  in  the  river   or  eat  some  of  the  berries  and  helping  in   the  spread  of  their  seeds.     Energy  Pyramid:  

        The  above  food  web  and  energy  pyramid  represent  the  relationship  between  the  animals  in  this  biome.   It  basically  talks  about  how  they  are  able  to  eat  and  help  maintain  a  balance  in  the  food  web  so  that  no   organism  is  endangered.  It  also  explains  how  the  energy  that  comes  from  the  sun  is  being  lost  and  at  the   same  time  gained  by  the  different  animals.       Species  Interactions  in  Deciduous  Forests  with  Definition  and  Examples:     Species  Interaction   Definition   Example   Mutualism  

It  is  a  long  lasting  relationship  between  individuals  of   different  species  where  both  benefit  


Commensalism  is  a  long  lasting  relationship  between   individuals  of  different  species  where  one  individual   benefits  and  the  other  in  unaffected.  

Bees  and  Flowers:  Bees  go  from   flower  to  flower  collecting  nectar   that  is  then  later  turned  into  honey.   During  this  process,  they  pick  up   pollen  grains  so  that  means  that  as   they  go  from  flower  to  flower,  the   pollen  grains  are  transferred  onto   the  stigma.  This  allows  the  flowers  to   reproduce.     Squirrel  and  Tree:    Tree  provides   shelter  as  well  as  food  for  the   squirrel  and  with  this  there  is  no   harm  to  the  tree  because  the  squirrel  

Oliver  Jurgensen   only  lives  in  the  small  whole  that  are   natural  on  the  trees.  The  squirrel  is   able  to  survive  in  a  tree  that  provides   food  and  shelter.      


Parasitism  is  a  long  lasting  relationship  between   individuals  of  different  species  where  one  individual   benefits  (parasite)  and  the  other  is  harmed  (host)  


Competition  occurs  when  two  or  more  organisms   attempt  to  exploit  the  same  limited  resources  like  food   and  shelter.    

Fungi  and  Oak  Trees:  Parasitism   starts  when  some  fungus  called   Laetiporus  Cincinnatus  grows  on   trees,  especially  oak  trees.  It  would   start  to  break  down  the  tree  into   nutrients  and  because  of  this  the  tree   starts  to  get  weak  and  decay.  With   this  the  tree  is  now  very  vulnerable.     Bear  and  Wolf:  Bear  and  wolves  are   both  top  predators  in  deciduous   forest  and  they  happen  to  share   preys  like  fish  and  deer.  Usually  they   avoid  each  other  but  if  the  food  starts   to  get  scarce  they  fight  each  other  or   face  starvation.    

  Human  Impacts:     Different  Ways  Human  have  impacted  Deciduous  Forests  with  the  Present  and  Future  Effects  of   These  Influences   Human  Impact   Present  Effects   Future  Effects   Deforestation   Deforestation  starts  because  of  the  human   Without  the  nutrients  in  the  soil  thanks  to  deforestation,   necessity  for  wood  in  order  to  create   agricultural  regions  and  areas  start  to  become  less   paper  and  meet  other  needs  as  well  as  the   productive  thus  affecting  the  agricultural  market.  Without   fertile  soil  that  lives  in  deciduous  forests.   crops,  humans  will  need  to  get  other  resources  to  receive   However,  when  deforestation  starts  in  a   the  same  amount  of  nutrients  that  agricultural  crops   place,  the  nutrients  of  the  soil  start  to   provide.  This  means  that  the  fertile  lands  start  to  become   deplete  and  this  is  due  because  there  is  no   obsolete  so  then  no  crops  will  start  to  grow.     more  leaves  falling  to  the  ground   providing  the  necessary  nutrients.     Acid  Rain   Acid  rain  contributes  to  the  bad  seasons   Because  trees  are  starting  to  get  more  diseases  and  having   of  growing  crops  because  the  leaves  of   difficulty  reproducing,  this  can  cause  a  problem  in  the   plants  are  damaged.  They  face  a  problem   number  of  trees  in  the  future.  They  will  start  to  decrease   in  reproducing  and  photosynthesizing.   and  this  will  affect  humans  as  there  will  be  no  replacement   Without  their  nutrients,  they  are  exposed   for  wood,  paper,  timber,  fruits,  etc.,  which  are  valuable   to  fungi  and  other  diseases.     resources  for  human  beings.     Global  Warming   A  global  Warming  effect  on  deciduous   With  higher  temperatures  in  this  biome,  it  can  cause   forests  is  that  it  causes  less  precipitation   animals  not  to  hibernate  or  birds  not  to  migrate,  which   to  fall  on  the  forests.  We  know  that  water   disrupts  the  cycle  of  life,  but  also  it  can  make  plant  growth   is  mandatory  for  living  organisms  and   more  erratic.  In  general,,  animals  and  plants  will  change   that  without  water;  plants  cannot   their  behavior  and  create  some  competition  between   reproduce  their  leaves.  This  also  means   species  that  didn’t  happen  before.  At  the  end,  the  biome   that  it  would  take  more  time  for  a  forest   could  change  totally  with  this  constant  rise  in  temperature.     to  come  out  winter  season.     Poaching   Animals  are  hunted  for  several  reasons   Poaching  affects  food  webs  because  if  one  animal  becomes   like  bears  are  hunted  for  their  fur,  paw  or   extinct,  it  would  disrupt  the  food  web  as  the  top  predators   even  used  as  trophies.  This  means  that  as   will  not  be  able  to  find  food  and  will  need  to  change  its   more  animals  are  captured  or  killed,  there   habits  of  preying.  This  means  that  more  changes  will  occur   are  less  of  the  species  and  so  there  are   in  the  biome  and  it  can  lead  to  more  extinction  as  animals   more  endangered  animals.       cannot  necessarily  adapt  to  all  changes  they  are  exposed  to    

Oliver  Jurgensen  

Works  Cited     "Climate:."  Temperate  Deciduous  Forest.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   <>.     "Deciduous  Forest  Biome."  Deciduous  Forest  Biome.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   <>.     "Deciduous  Forest  Climate."  Deciduous  Forest  Climate.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   <>.     "Deciduous  Forest  Image."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  <­‐ new/ehow/images/a07/he/j1/temperate-­‐deciduous-­‐forest-­‐animals-­‐800x800.jpg>.     "Deciduous  Forest  Map."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.   <>.     "Energy  Pyramid."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  <­‐07.gif>.     "Energy  Pyramid."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  <­‐07.gif>.     "Food  Web."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  <­‐­‐chain.gif>.     "Temperate  Deciduous  Forest  :  Mission:  Biomes."  Temperate  Deciduous  Forest  :  Mission:  Biomes.  N.p.,   n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   <>.     "Temperature  and  Precipitation  Graphs  :  Mission:  Biomes."  Temperature  and  Precipitation  Graphs  :   Mission:  Biomes.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   <>.  

TROPICAL GRASSLANDS By: Camila Ayres Location: Where are tropical grasslands located? Tropical Grasslands, also known as Savannahs, are found in almost every continent in the world. These include Africa, South America, Australia, and Southern Asia.

Climate and precipitation: Tropical Grasslands climate’s and precipitation divide into two main seasons: • Wet season – “summer season” – 6-8 months – 33ºC • Dry season – “winter season” – 4-6 months – 16ºC The average monthly temperatures and rainfall quantity over both seasons are: • Average monthly temperature: -10 to 46ºC • Average monthly rainfall: 50-127cm per year The diagram to the right illustrates climate graphs of several Savannahs throughout the world. They show the relationship between temperature and precipitation. We can see, different patterns are shown between the northern and southern hemisphere. In the northern area, rainfall is more abundant during low temperatures during cold months, which are from about May to September. On the other hand, in the southern hemisphere we see the opposite pattern; there is more precipitation during the higher temperature ranges, which is from about December to March. These relationships are what cause the shapes of all the graphs represented to the right. Characteristics of Flora and Fauna: m

While many other biomes around the world have warm and cold seasons, the Tropical Grassland has wet and dry ones. The plants and animals living there have adapted to these weather conditions in order to survive. Flora: Plants found in the tropical grasslands or Savannah’s have very specific characteristics. This biome is mostly dominated by grasses, which are most of the time from 3 to 6 feet tall. They provide food for many types of animals and without the growth of these many would starve. Apart from wild grasses, drought resistant, fire resistant trees and open shrub layers are present as well. The plants that grow there need to be resistant to dry weather conditions therefore, they store water and energy in their roots, bulbs, or trunks. Also, the roots are often long and extended to reach the low water table.

Fauna: Since the Savannah is a biome that is extremely rich in grasses and tree life, a huge amount of herbivores live in it. One of the reasons that this large variety of herbivores are able to live in the tropical grasslands is that many species have adapted to eat many different types of plants; these include different types of plants or plants at different sizes or heights. Because there is such a big quantity of herbivores of course, many predators will be present as well. There are many powerful predators in the tropical grasslands, which include mainly lions, hyenas, and cheetahs for instance. The Savannah is the biome in which there is the greatest biodiversity of hoofed mammals throughout the whole world. As mentioned before, the Savannah is extremely wet or dry throughout the year therefore, many animals have to migrate around the biome in order to find nutrients and water to survive. So, we can clearly see that there is a huge interdependence between animals and plants in the Tropical Grasslands and also individualism between their characteristics.

Common Plants and Animals: Plants: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Acacia Tree Elephant Grass Common Finger Grass Jackal Berry Tree Sickle Bush

Animals: 1. Giraffe 2. African Elephant 3. Zebra 4. Gazelle 5. Hyena 6. Lion

Tropical Grassland food web:

Here we have an example of a food web in the Savannah biome ď&#x192;&#x;

Energy Pyramid in the Tropical Grasslands:




T3 Secondary Consumer: Hyena

2,000 kj/m2/yr

T2 Primary Consumer: Zebra

20,000 kj/m2/yr

T1 Producers: Common Finger Grass

200,000 kj/m2/yr

In the Energy Pyramid above we can see the energy transfer between trophic levels in this biome. The energy is first captured by producers from the main light source, the sun, and then only 10% of this energy is passed onto the next level because the other 90% is lost as heat or respiration to the environment. Species relationships in the Tropical Grassland: Mutualism: An example of a mutualistic relationship in the Savannah biome would be the one between the Acacia tree and ants. This tree has, at the bottom of its trunk, hollow lumps; ants use these as a hive. The tree gives them protection therefore; the ants offer the tree protection as well. Ants will guard the tree from any predators that try to eat it by irritating the organism. For example, if a giraffe appeared and started to eat the tree leaves, the ants would come out f the hive and start irritating the giraffe. This will make the animal move and go look for a better and less annoying place to get a meal from. These are not the only actions that reflect mutualism in both species, there are many more. The Acacia tree produces nectar that the ants may use to feed their babies. Also, the ants will go up and down the tree destroying any alien specie that might have started growing in it. Both the tree and the ants benefit from each other and neither is harmed. Commensalism: A great example of commensalism in Tropical Grassland ‘s is the relationship between hyenas and the lion. The lion will hunt its prey to feed on it and will leave leftovers of the organism that it does not consumer. The Hyena will go after these leftovers and eat the, for their survival. However, the lion’s survival chances are not affected at all by this action- they do not gain or lose anything while hyenas benefit. Parasitism: An example of parasitism in the Savannah can be seen in the relationship between the African Elephant and the tick. The Elephant is the host of the parasite, and the tick will feed off the elephant’s blood. So, as the parasite benefits from this supply of blood, the elephant is being harmed because it is losing blood from its body and may even become infected with diseases that the tick brings with it. Competition: An example of a competitive relationship in the Savannah is one between two lions while hunting a zebra. This is an example of intraspecific competition, which is one between two organisms of the same specie competing for different factors, in this case, prey. It is a common type of competition because animals of the same species often live in great numbers in a particular area and these individuals often seek for the same sources of food, in this case, zebras.

Human Impacts on the Tropical Savannah: • Climate change: o Longer than usual droughts o Uncontrollable fires o Changes in season times • Population growth: o Habitat destruction o Foreign animals o Overuse of water resources o Deforestation • Mining o Increase in air pollution o Habitat intoxication • Tourism o Causes the loss of primary producers o Possibility of ecological collapse • Poaching o Poaching = illegal hunting of animals o Leads to danger of extinction o Rhinoceros (endangered) o Horns used for medicine in Asia o 90% of black rhino deaths due to poaching o Elephants (endangered) o Turks used for jewelry, piano keys and sculptures – Chinese market

As seen from above, it is clear that human beings have had a great impact on the tropical grasslands. All of the activities or results listed above are a result of our actions and they bringing mostly negative consequences into the beautiful biome. Even if we don’t notice it now, these impacts will have an impact on us… Impact on humans in the future: • Loss of intrinsic value • Loss of amazing species • Increase in pollution might lead to health problems in the population • Scarcity of resources in the future o No more economical benefit from poaching o Over exploitation might lead to scarcity of:  Mining  Water  Tourism

Humans are not yet conscious of the impact their activities have on the ecosystem or in our own human community. So, what should happen is that we should think before acting in order to preserve the great Tropical Grasslands… 

Tundra Location

The  Tundra  biome  is  located  at  the  top  of  the  World;  near  the  North  Pole  and   covers  aprox.  A  fifth  of  the  world’s  surface  in  the  Northern  Hemisphere.  It  is   characterized  by  extremely  cold  temperatures  and  frozen  landscapes  with  lack   of  vegetation.  As  can  be  seen  in  the  map  above  there  are  two  types  of  Tundra   in  the  World:  the  arctic  and  alpine  tundra.  The  alpine  tundra  is  located  in  high   elevations  anywhere  in  the  World,  and  although  the  land  is  not  frozen  all   year-­‐round,  it  is  covered  by  snow  most  of  the  time.  The  arctic  tundra  can  be   found  between  the  North  Pole  and  the  coniferous  forest  or  taiga  region  and  it   is  recognized  by  a  constant  frozen  land  that  remains  all  year-­‐round.  Northern   Alaska,  Canada,  Greenland,  Scandinavia  and  Siberia  give  a  place  to  the  mayor   part  of  the  arctic  tundra,  while  Alaska,  Canada,  U.S.A,  Mexico,  Finland,   Norway,  Russia,  Sweden,  Southern  Asia  and  Japan  cover  the  whole  alpine   tundra  area.  

Temperature & Precipitation The  location  of  the  Tundra  Biome  experiences  extremely  cold  temperatures  for   the  most  of  the  year  and  very  low  amounts  of  precipitation.  With  temperatures   averaging  below  -­‐30  º  Fahrenheit  in  winter,  the  arctic  tundra  will  receive  typically   less  than  10  inches  of  precipitation  per  year,  this  mostly  in  the  form  of  snow.  On   the  other  hand,  in  summer  the  temperatures  will  rise  up  to  35-­‐55º  Fahrenheit.   The  alpine  tundra  has  temperatures  averaging  below  freezing  at  night  and  it   receives  more  precipitation  throughout  the  year  in  comparison  to  the  arctic   tundra.  In  this  case,  the  average  annual  precipitation  is  aprox.  20  inches  in  the   form  of  snow  and  it  also  has  strong  winds  that  have  the  ability  of  exceeding  100   miles  per  hour.  As  can  be  seen  in  the  Climograph,  rainfall  is  mostly  found  in  the   warmer  months  of  July  and  August,  and  it  can  reach  up  to  2o  mm  of  rainfall.    

Fauna and Flora The  Tundra  is  biome  with  dry  conditions,  poor  soil  quality,  frozen  grounds  and   extremely  cold  temperatures,  which  makes  the  vegetation  in  this  region  to  be   limited.  Plants  habiting  in  the  arctic  tundra  must  adapt  to  cold  and  dark  conditions   without  sun  in  the  winter  months,  because  of  this  they  experience  brief  periods  of   growth  in  the  summer  when  warm  temperatures  are  enough  for  vegetation  to   grow.  This  vegetation  only  consists  of  short  shrubs  and  grasses  because  the  frozen   ground  doesn’t  allow  plants  with  deep  roots  like  trees  to  grow.    In  the  alpine   tundra  the  sun  remains  in  the  sky  for  the  same  amount  of  time  throughout  the   year  because  of  the  extremely  high  altitudes.  This  allows  the  vegetation  (short   shrubs,  grasses  and  rosette  perennials)  to  grow  at  a  constant  rate.  Animals  of  this   biome  also  need  to  adapt  to  the  cold  and  harsh  conditions;  small  mammals   survive  by  burrowing  and  hibernating  during  winter  while  large  mammals  migrate   to  warmer  areas  to  escape  the  cold  and  find  food.    

Fauna and Flora: Arctic Tundra



1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


Arctic  Moss     Arctic  Willow       Cinquefoil     Arctic  Lichen   Caribou  Moss  

Fauna     1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Musk  Ox   Caribou   Arctic  Wolves   Snowy  Owl   Polar  Bear  

Fauna and Flora: Alpine Tundra





1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Alpine  Phacelia   Bear  Grass   Bristlecone  Pine   Moss  Campion   Pigmy  Bitterroot    

Food Web

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Kea  Parrot   Arctic  Hare   Mountain  goats   Pikas   Woodland  Caribou  

Energy Pyramid

T4  -­‐  Tertiary  Consumer:   Polar  Bear  

Decomposers:  Fungi   1.08x104   kJ/m2/y  

T3  –  Secondary  Consumer:   Arctic  F ox  

  1.08x104   kJ/m2/y  

 1.08x104  kJ/m2/y  

T2  –  Primary  Consumer:   Musk  Ox  

T1  –  Producers:  Lichen  

L  I  G  H  T  

Mutualism One  case  in  the  Tundra  biome  where  both  organisms  benefit  from  each     other  is  Lichens.  Lichen  is  a  composite  organism  made  up  of  a  fungus  and  a  green  alga   or  cyanobacterium.  Because  the  alga  is  photosynthetic  it  reduces  Co2  into  sugars  so   that  it  feeds  the  fungus  as  well.  On  the  other  hand,  the  fungal  also  helps  providing   protection  to  the  alga  by  retaining  water  and  obtaining  minerals  from  substrate.  As  we   can  see,  this  is  called  mutualism  because  both  the  fungus  and  the  green  alga  benefit   from  this  relation.  


Commensalism They  only  way  Caribous  can  survive  to  the  harsh  winter  in  the  Tundra  biome  is  by   eating  Lichens,  these  provide  them  with  carbohydrates  and  give  them  heat  and  energy.   When  the  Caribou  is  on  the  lookout  for  food,  the  arctic  fox  follows  it  so  that  when  the   Caribou  digs  the  ground  snow  and  soil  and  exposes  subnivean  mammals,  he  is  able  to   follow  an  dig  further  deep  and  finally  get  its  food  in  the  form  of  the  mammals.  

H   E   A   T  

Commensalism  is  shown  because  wherein  the  Caribou  remains  unaffected;  the  arctic   fox  manages  to  get  its  food  with  help.        


The  liver  tapeworm  cysts  has  a  relation  with  another  organism  where  he  gets  benefits   out  of  it,  while  the  other  one  is  at  a  loss  in  the   relation.  Liver  tapeworm  cysts  tend  to  stay  and   grow  in  the  body  of  animals  like  moose  or  caribous.   They  inclusively  feed  on  the  food  eaten  by  these   animals,  which  finally  could  lead  to  malnutrition  in   the  host  body.  


Competition In  the  Tundra  biome  not  many  species  have  to  worry  about  competition  because  the   environment  is  too  big  and   harsh  in  climate,  which  means   that  there  are  not  many  animals   that  can  actually  survive  to  this   conditions.  However,  an   example  of  competition  would   be  the  one  between  a  Caribou   and  a  Musk-­‐Ox.  In  the  winter   season,  when  food  is  hard  to   find,  the  musk  ox  and  caribou   might  have  competition  trying   to  get  something  to  feed  on,   although  they  eat  completely   different  things,  both  of  them   will  rely  on  basic  foods  to  survive  in  this  biome.    

Human induced change in the Tundra The  Tundra  biome  is  one  of  the  most   sensitive  habitats  in  the  world,  although   it  has  little  vegetation  diversity.  The   most  severe  and  important  threat   induced  in  part  by  human  activity  is   global  warming,  especially  caused  by  the   greenhouse  gases.  These  gases  may   cause  arctic  regions,  including  tundra’s   to  disappear  forever.  Another  concern   related  to  global  warming  is  that  one   third  of  the  worlds  soil-­‐bound  carbon  is   in  the  tundra  permafrost,  meaning  that  

as  the  frozen  soil  thaws,  its  organic  contents  start  to  release  Co2,  which  is  indeed  a   greenhouse  gas.  Finally,  Oils  spills  have  been  killing  wildlife  and  significantly  damaging   the  tundra  ecosystem  in  the  past  years,  leading  to  loss  of  species  and  biodiversity.  All   this  could  lead  to  various  impacts  on  humans  life  in  the  future:  the  loss  of  landscape   because  of  global  warming  would  affect  the  living  of  species  in  this  biome,  and  the   Ozone  depletion  at  the  North  and  South  Poles  would  radiate  stronger  ultraviolet  rays   that  will  not  only  harm  the  Tundra,  but  also  humans  health.    


Grasslands      Grasslands  are  large,  open  areas  with  very  few   trees   there   are   two   types   of   grasslands   the   temperate   grasslands   and   tropical   grasslands.   Temperate   grasslands   are   usually   located   between  deserts   and   temperate   forests,   in   the   mid-­‐latitudes  north  of  the  tropic  of  cancer  and   south   of   the   tropic   of   Capricorn.     Tropical   grasslands   on   the   other   hand,   are   normally   located   near   the   equator   and   are   found   in   the   interior   areas   of   continents,   between   tropical   rainforests   and   tropical   deserts.   In   this   article   we   will   be   specifically   looking   at   temperate   grassland.       The   average   rainfall   in   temperate   grasslands   ranges   anywhere   from   10-­‐30   inches   (22-­‐66cm)   per   year,   the  rain  fall  levels  are  important  to  determine  if  the  area  is  suitable  to  be  a  grassland.  The  reason  for  this   is  because  it  is  hard  for  trees  to  compete  with  the  growth  of  grass  when  only  the  upper  levels  of  the  soil   are  moist  and  the  deeper  layers  are  dry.  In  grasslands  the  rain  fall  is  enough  to  support  the  growth  of   grass  and  few  trees.       Average  rainfall  over  the  course  of  a  year  (mm)     January     February     March     April   May   June   July   August     September   October   November   December   Year/total   8.2mm  

14.0mm   28.7   52.7   59.5   71.9   50.3   38.8   31.6   31.7   13.9   9.4   411.8     Grasslands   are   notorious   for   their   cold   temperatures.   Due   to   the   lack   of   trees   or   structures   wind   can   pick   up   speeds   making   it   colder   for   all   organisms.   During   the   day   the   temperature   is   much   warmer   because  the  sun  is  up  and  during  the  night  it  gets  much  colder  due  to  the  lack  of  warmth  from  the  sun.       The  average  temperature  for  grasslands  ranges  from  -­‐4  Celsius  to  20  degrees  Celsius   Temperature  lows  in  Day   Temperature  highs  in  the   Temperature   lows   at   Temperature   highs   day     Night   at  night   7C   14C   -­‐2C   4C     Average  24  hour  Temperature  throughout  the  year  (Celsius)       January     February     March     April   May   June   July   August     September   October   November   December   Year   -­‐8.4  




14.0   19.8   23.8   22.8  






100   80   60  













Average  Temperature   (Celsius)     February    




Average  Percepita]on   (mm)  

      Mutualism     There  are  few  examples  of  mutualism  in  the  temperate  grasslands  biome.  The  most  obvious  would  be   the   bacteria   that   live   in   the   stomachs   of   large   herbivores   that   help   break   down   the   cellulose   in   the   plants.  Bacteria  live  well  in  these  conditions  and  the  herbivores  benefit  from  the  bacteria  helping  them   break  down  the  cellulose.       Commensalism   An   example   of   commensalism   is   when   the   nurseplants   protect   the   young   seedlings.   They   do   this   by   letting   the   young   seedlings   grow   under   the   nurse   plants.   This   protects   the   young   seedlings   from   herbivores  as  they  are  covered  and  hidden  and  during  the  winter  it  protects  the  young  seedlings  from   the  snowfall     Parasitism       For  example  rattle  lives  off  the  roots,  plants,  and  grasses.  It  obtains  the  nutrients  by  absorbing  the  ones     That  are  meant  for  the  plant.  This  means  that  it  takes  the  nutrients  meant  for  the  plant  for  itself.  This  in   turn  kills  the  plants  and  lets  the  rattle  thrive.       Competitive   Snakes  and  hawks  have  to  compete  for  mice  and  other  small  organisms,  since  they  are  so  sparse  in  this   biome.  They  are  constantly  competing  and  this  creates  the  balance  in  between  the  two  animals.       Flora  and  Fauna   In   the   temperate   grasslands   biome   the   main   animals   are   Herbivores   and   small   carnivores.   Herbivores   ranging  in  size  from  being  large  herbivores  such  as  bison,  deer,  and  antelopes  to  small  herbivores  like   mice.  Then  we  have  predators  such  as  hawks  and  snakes  which  prey  on  the  small  herbivores  like  mice   and   rabbits.   Larger   herbivores   such   as   bison   go   relatively   unhunted.   Except   from   the   input   of   humans   large  herbivores  went  relatively  untouched.   On  the  other  hand  the  flora  is  very  stale.  The  main  types  of  plants  are  different  types  of  grasses.  Trees   are   few   and   far   between.   This   is   due   to   the   fact   that   rainfall   is   very   sparse   and   not   in   much   quantity.  

When  it  does  come  it  is  very  little  so  it  only  moistens  the  upper  levels  of  the  soil.  This  means  that  grass   thrives  in  these  conditions  because  there  roots  are  quite  shallow.  On  the  other  hand  trees  are  rare  to   find  due  to  the  fact  that  trees  have  deep  roots.  This  means  it’s  hard  for  them  to  grow  due  to  the  deeper   layers  of  soil  not  being  moist.       Humans   Humans   have   had   a   huge   effect   on   these   biomes.   They   are   easy   to   settle   in   due   to   the   flat   land   and   few   trees.  Humans  have  been  able  to  easily  settle  and  flourish  in  these  lands.  The  reason  they  are  not  too   overly   populated   is   due   to   the   fact   that   they   are   found   in   the   interior   of   continents   and   they   are   not   easily  accessible  through  the  shore  line.  Humans  have  also  over  hunted  bison  and  other  large  animals   for  their  fur  and  pelts.  TO  create  leather  products  and  fur  coats  and  accessories                                     Swift  Fox-­‐  Velpus  velox   Dhole-­‐  Cuon  Alpinus                                                                         The   Himalayan   Tahr-­‐   Hemitragus   Vancouver  Marmot-­‐  Marmota     Jemlahicus     Vancouverensis                            

Gobi  Jerboa-­‐  Allactaga   Bullata    

Wild  Indigo-­‐  Baptisia  tinctoria                

White  Clover-­‐  Trifolium   repens    

Aster-­‐  Callistephus  chinesis       Sunflower-­‐   Helianthus  annuus      

Food  Web  representing  a  list  of   generic  animals  found  in  a  temperate   grasslands  biome  

Wild   Grass   Achnatherum hymenoides  


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