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Biome Project

May 2013    



Biology HL  11  Pd  2  |  Min  A  Kim  


1. 2. 3. 4. 5.


a tree stratum, 60 -100 feet high a small tree or sapling layer a shrub layer an herb layer of perennial forbs a ground layer of lichens and true mosses


Average annual temperature: 50° F

-Relationship between rainfall (mm) and temperature (°C)

Average annual rainfall: 20 to 60 inches or 0.5 to 1.5 meters Average monthly precipitation ranges between 7.6cm and 9.1 cm.

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LOCATION IN  THE  WORLD   Can be found in: • Eastern half of North America • Middle of Europe • Australia • New Zealand []    

Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year

Vegetation: Broadleaf trees, oaks, maples, beeches, shrubs, perennial herbs, and mosses Animal Characteristics:

-Most animals are camouflaged -Adapt to seasonal changes by: Mammals hibernating during winter and being active during other three seasons Birds migrating to warmer places during winter -Use trees as shelter and as food and water supply

Energy Web:

Important Notes:  

-­‐ Energy  transformation  is   never  100%  efficient   -­‐  Usually  energy  is  only   10%  to  20%  efficient   because  not  everything  is   consumed   -­‐  More  than  80%  of  energy   is  used  for  metabolism   thorough  heat  &   respiration    

Relationships in  TDF:    

( Energy Pyramid:  

Mutualism-­‐Bees &   Flowers   As  bees  travel  from   flowers  and  collect   nectar,  they  pick  up   pollen  grains  with  their   legs.  The  pollen  grains   are  transferred  onto   stigma  which  pollinates   plants  and  permit  them   to  reproduce.   Commensalism-­‐Tree  &   Squirrels   Squirrels  live  in  existing   cavities  in  trees  so  they   are  provided  with   shelter  and  do  not  harm   the  tree.   Parasitism-­‐Fungi  &  Tree   Fungus  called  L.   Cincinnatus  grows  on   trees  and  breaks  them   down  for  nutrients,   making  trees  weak  and   vulnerable.   Competition-­‐Cougar  &   Bear   They  both  hunt  for  fish   and  deer.  

Human Influences  &  Consequences   Deforestation -Less than ¼ of the original size is left -Only regions where farming is impractical are left untouched Urbanization -More land is being used for houses and farms -Disrupts habitats of organisms -Humans try to prevent forest fires which are vital for natural succession of a forest Water Pollution -Water from Great Lakes was polluted (US and Canada) -Environment’s health and wildlife’s health are affected Air Pollution -Pollutants from soil poison the soil

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Increased levels of acid rain -Damages leaves and inhibits production of fruits and flowers -Reduces trees’ ability to resist frost, fungi, and deadly diseases and pests Mining -The entire region is destroyed to get to the rock underneath -Plants do not re-grow due to destroyed and depleted soil -Reduces forest’s ability to regenerate Global warming -Temperature rise reduces amount of rainfall -Reduces forest’s ability to regenerate Consequences: -Constant reduction of habitat of organisms -Less regeneration of plants -Species in danger of extinction -Disrupted food chain and food web


"Deciduous Forest  Biome."  Blue   Planet  Biomes.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   < orest.htm>.    

"Deciduous Woodlands."  BBC  News.   BBC,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   < graphy/ecosystems/deciduous_woodlands_rev1. shtml>.    

"Earth Floor:  Biomes."  Exploring  the   Environment.  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  24  May  2013.   < sysflr/dforest.html>.    

"Temperate Deciduous  Forest  :   Biomes."  Earth  Observatory.  NASA,  n.d.   Web.  24  May  2013.   < Biome/biotemperate.php>.    

"Temperate Deciduous  Forest."   Marietta  College.  Marietta  College,  n.d.   Web.  24  May  2013.   < ed.htm>.    


Shrubland Se Young Lee

Shrubland Around The World

What is Shrubland? Shrubland is a biome in which where the plants are mostly characterized by shrubs, grasses and herbs. They are mostly located in West coastal regions and are usually surrounded by grasslands or desserts.

Temperature/ Precipitation (Climograph) The temperature in Shrubland is temperate and it rains about 200mm to 1000mm per year. During most of the day times, it goes up to 100 Fâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or above and during night times, it cools down until 30 Fâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

Climograph of Shrubland per Year Temperature ('C)/ Precipitation (mm)

70 60 50




30 Series1



10 0 Jan








Months of the Year







Vegetation Shrubland contains mostly short trees or bush-like plants. This is because there is not enough precipitation for the tall trees to grow. Since it is an open area, there are grasses growing in between the short plants. Because there is little rain in this area, the plants have mostly needle-like leaves to save water. Some plants have an ability to resist fire and survive from fires that occur frequently during the dry season. There are generally aromatic herbs, shrubs and grasses.

5 common plants •





Grass tree

Animals Since it is an open space in Shrubland and is very easily visible any moving organisms, many animals in Shrubland are adapted to live and survive in this area. Therefore, there are various animals that live on the low-lying floral landscapes.

5 common animals



Grey Fox

Ground squirrel





Food Web

Energy Pyramid

Heat energy gets lost to the environment through cell respiration and energy is also loss because of not consumed materials, deaths and excretion. 3



Species Relationships/Interactions Parasitism


Parasitism is a relationship between individuals of different species where one individual benefits and the other is harmed. Cuterebrid parasitism interacts with Shrubland mice. The cuterebrid parasitism benefits from hosts because they live inside the mouse and grow and reproduce while the mouse gets harmed and die due to the controlled vital organs by the parasitism.

Competition is a species interaction that occurs when two or more organisms attempt to exploit the same limited resource. A competition exists everywhere, including Shrubland. One example of this interaction is between grass (Stipagrostis brevifolia) and succulent shrub (Ruschia robusta). Because both of the roots of these plants shared similar kind of potential soil, there is always a competition going on, to offspring as much as they can.

Commensalism Commensalism is a relationship between two organisms where one benefits without harming the other. This is found between the Red-winged Blackbird and Torrey Pine because the Red-winged Blackbird feeds from the seeds of Torrey Pine but does not harm nor help the Torrey Pine at all.

Mutualism Mutualism is a relationship between individuals of different species where both work together and benefit. This occurs between the Blue Oak and Sagebrush since they both work together to produce oxygen and help the vegetation growth without harming or overpowering each other.

How humans affect Shrubland Many of Shrublands turn into commercial property or place to grow grains because Shrublands have a good area to make good agricultural farm and croplands. Because of this, many Shrublands disappear and the overall size of this biome shrinks, reducing the habitats where the animals can live and where the plants can grow and disrupts the growth and offspring of many organisms in this area. Many urban growths lead to the interruption of the habitats of many organisms and as a result it accelerates extinction of various species, including plants and animals. The extinction also occurs because of humans hunting the species to extinction or near to extinction and removes many species from the food chain and this also weakens the environmental response of the biome and makes it more susceptible to disasters. If this continues to happen, there will no be enough Shrublands for plants, animals and even humans. People who depend their living on any of the activities like growing crops or hunting will eventually arrive to the end where no organisms are available and loose their jobs. Also because of the interruption of food chains, there will be more competition and many animals will disrupt human habitats and may harm humans for them to survive. 4


SPRING 2016 Works Cited

"Competitive Interactions between Grass and Succulent Shrubs at the Ecotone between an Arid Grassland and Succulent Shrubland in the Karoo." EBSCO Host. N.p., n.d. Web. "Flickriver: Most Interesting Photos Tagged with Jackrabbit." Flickriver: Most Interesting Photos Tagged with Jackrabbit. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. Lacoma, Tyler. "What Are Environmental Problems in Temperate Shrublands? | EHow." EHow. Demand Media, 27 Oct. 2010. Web. 23 May 2013. "Lloyd’s Blog." : Lessons from the Grey Fox. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "Result Filters." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "Semidesert Shrublands Life Zones Through the Seasons." Semidesert Shrublands Life Zones Through the Seasons. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "Shrubland (관목지)." 본바탕으로돌아가라. N.p., n.d. Web. "Shrubland : Mission: Biomes." Shrubland : Mission: Biomes. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "The Shrubland Biome." Smore. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. "Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand." 1. New Zealand's Shrublands and Scrub – Shrublands –. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013.


Danika Cuglievan


The Tropical Rainforest The tropical rainforests is a region located close to the equator, where tall green trees grow and there is a high temperature every day of the year. A bit more than half rainforests are located in Latin America (Brazil having 1/3 of it). Map showing where the biome is located in the world: Key: Distribution of rainforest in the world

Rainfall and temperature: • The average monthly rainfall in the rainforest varies between 166mm (high) and 145mm as a low rainfall. • The average temperature in the tropical rainforest during the day varies normally between 20 °C and 34°C, however at nigh, the temperature decreases between 16°C and 28°C. Climograph showing the relationship between rainfall and temperature in Costa Rica

Danika Cuglievan Â


There are 5 different layers in the rainforest vegetation: 5. Emergent layer: Isolated trees, higher than canopy trees. 4. Canopy layer: The predominant trees found in this biome. 3. Understory: Medium height trees 2. Shrub layer: It is the densest plant growth. 1. Forest floor: Lowest layer which receives 2% of sunlight. Common plants: Banana tree, bamboo, seeds, coconut trees and orchids. Animals found in the tropical rainforest: Most animals in the tropical rainforest are mammals and birds, however there are also reptiles, insects and amphibians. Lots of these animals have a tail, such as monkeys that use their tail to hold or grasp from the trees, they also have bright colors and have sharp patterns and eat a variety of fruits. Common animals: Monkeys, insects, macaws, parrots and python. Food web found in the tropical rainforest: Python Parrots


Banana tree




Coconut trees



Danika Cuglievan

  Energy pyramid:

T3- secondary consumer T1- producer

T2- primary consumer


Energy is lost as heat to the environment


Coconut trees *Note: When the trophic level changes to a higher trophic level, 10-20% of energy is only available as food. Mutualism: They are very common in this biome. An example is a hummingbird pollinating a flower, therefore the flower benefits and the hummingbird receives nectar in return. This relationship happens so both organisms benefit. Commensalism: Ecitoninae (New World army ants) inhabiting the rainforest floor and antbirds is one of the best examples in this biome. These ants tend to take anything that comes in their path while marching in the floor, however when they are done, the antbirds feed on what is left of the ants share. The antbirds get benefited but the army ants don’t. Parasitism: The best example for this biome is the dependence of phorid fly on leaf-cutter ants. When the ants collect the leaves, the flies attack them laying their eggs in the cervices of the working ant’s head. After the egg hatches, the larvae gets into the ants body and feeds on and this way killing the ant. Here one can see how the flies are benefited from the leaf cutter ants, but the ants have to put up with their dependence. Competitive: Mostly mammals such as monkeys compete for food in the tropical rainforest biome. Gorillas and the lar gibbons are leave, fruit and bark eaters, however the orangutan and spider monkey can live by eating fruits, nuts, seeds and insects.


Danika Cuglievan Â

Pollution in the tropical rainforest: There are many different factors contributing to having a polluted tropical rainforest. Among these factors, the water and air from this biome is being polluted. Water and air are two essential elements, which maintain humans alive, because without these resources people would not exist. So what are we doing to our biome? Water is being polluted in different ways, either by industrial waste, sewage, man made contaminates among others. This kills vegetation and animals having as a consequence extinction of animals and also food chains broken down. In the future, the tropical rainforest will come to and end; vegetation and animals will be killed because of our lack of taking care of our different biomes. Air pollution is also causing an impact in the tropical rainforest. Acid rain has increased in this biome due to the fact that during these last decades, industrialization has increased therefore affecting the tropical rainforest environment. In the future, illnesses will increase and the death rate in this biome will definitely affect people living near that area. Plants will also suffer consequences because of this human impact.

Danika Cuglievan

Works Cited: Bonintik. Tropical Rainforest Distribution in the World. 2009. Photograph. N.p. "Where Are Rainforests Located?" Where Are Rainforests Located? Missouri Botanical Garden, 2002. Web. 20 May 2013. "Tropical Rainforests :: Close to Mother Nature." Tropical Rainforests :: Close to Mother Nature. N.p., 2006. Web. 22 May 2013. Alvaro Davila Oviedo. "Costa Rica Tropical Rainforest." Costs Rica 21. Costa Rica 21 S.A, 2011. Web. Charles Welch. Earthly Issues. 2013. Photograph. N.p. Michael G. "Rainforest Biomes." Rainforest Biomes. N.p., 2001. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. Khan, Dr. Sumaiya. "Symbiotic Relationships in the Rainforest.", 30 Nov. 2010. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. "Role of Water in the Rainforest - | All About Water | What Is Water | Water Quality | Water Pollution." Role of Water in the Rainforest | All About Water | What Is Water | Water Quality | Water Pollution. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. <>.

Boreal Forest (Taiga)

Temperature & Rainfall

Because of earth's tilt, the taiga is turned away from the sun in the winter. Less of the sun's radiation reaches the ground to warm it up therefore the temperature in the Boreal Forest ( Taiga) for the most part is dominates by cold arctic air from the Arctic Circle: the temperatures fall even more on clear nights when there is no cloud cover. Temperature range : -54 to 21째 C, winter last for around six o seven months while summer is rainy hot and short season in the taiga, fall is the shortest season and spring brings flowers and the frozen ponds melt, animals also come out of hibernation.In winter it may reach up to - 50 C, In summer to around 50째 F while autumn and spring pass rapidly. Fewer than 4 months have an average temperature over 10째 C. The taiga climate has an average annual rainfall of 12 - 33 inches (30 - 84 cm), most of it falls in the summer as rain.

*Climograph showing the relationship between rainfall and temperature in the boreal forest (taiga)

Vegetation & Characteristics of Animals •

Conical shape - Promotes shedding of snow and prevents loss of branches.

Needleleafs - Narrow leaves decrease surface area reducing the amount of water loss through transpiration (in winter especially since water is frozen). The needles of boreal conifers also have thick waxy coating which prevents dehydration of plant leaves.

Evergreen habit - Retention of foliage allows plants to photosynthesize as soon as temperatures permit in spring, rather than having to waste time in the short growing season merely growing leaves. Evergreens in the taiga tend to be thin and grow close together. This gives them protection from the cold and wind.

Dark color - the dark green of spruce and fir needles helps the foliage absorb maximum heat from the sun and begin photosynthesis as early as possible.

Soil - Podzolization occurs as a result of the acid soil solution produced under needleleaf trees. The main soil order associated with the taiga is spodosol.

Animals - Tend to be predators like the lynx and members of the weasel family like wolverines, bobcat, minks and ermine. They hunt herbivores like snowshoe rabbits, red squirrels and voles. Red deer, elk, and moose can be found in regions of the taiga where more deciduous trees grow.

5 common plants: • Balsam Fir • Genus: Abies • Species: balsamea • Needleleaf • Coniferous (gymnosperm) trees. • Tree Lichens • Tree seeds ( Black Spruce seeds) • Berries

*Information taken from: http://www.blueplanetbiom m

5 common animals: • Red Squirrels • Owls • American Black Bear • Genus: Ursus • Specie: Americanus Snow shoe Rabbit • • Genus: Lepus • Specie: Americanus • Bobcat • Genus: felis • Specie: rufus • Red Fox • Genus: Vulpes • Specie: Vulpes

Food web

Tree seeds (Black Spruce)


Tree Sedges (Plants) Producer Black Bear Tertiary Consumers: Humans, American Bear


3 • Red Squirrels

Secondary Consumers: Owls, Red Fox, Bobcat, Fishers SnowFishers shoe Rabbit T4 -2

10 kJ m yr


10 kJ m-2 yr-1

Primary Consumers: Red Squirrel, Snowshoe Rabbit 3° Consumers T1 • American Black Rabbit Bear Producers: Berries, Lichens Consumers Bobcat Red Fox

-2 -1 Owls 0 kJ m yr

kJ m-2 yr-1 kJ m-2 yr-1 J m-2 yr-1 m-2 yr-1

energy m yr -2





3° Consumers



100 kJ m-2 yr-1


T3 2° Consumers

yr-1 yr-1

1° Consumers Producer


100 kJ m-2 yr-1 -2


1000 kJ m-2 yr-1 10000 kJ m-2 yr-1



r-1 -1

10 kJ m-2 yr-1


1째 C

Tertiary Consumers: Humans, American Black Bear Secondary Consumers: Owls, Red Fox, Bobcat, Fishers Primary Consumers: Red Squirrel, Snowshoe Rabbit Producers: Berries, Lichens

Mutualism: Lichens, composed of fungi and algae. The fungi uses its spongy threads that protect the algae which has chlorophyll which produces the food. Commensalism: Lichens and coniferous tree, Lichens do not harm trees but receive its nutrients from the air and rainfall, they are able of receiving more sunlight by growing on the branches. Parasitism: Bald Eagles and coniferous trees, with the broken branches of trees the bald eagle builds its nests. Competative: Bear, tries to catch as many prays as it can so that it can go into hibernation. ANother example could be in winter when food becomes scarce wolves, lynx and bobcats who have similar diets compete with one to catch their preys.

Exploration of oil and the development of natural gas reserves is one of the major threats which we can find in the Taiga region, Deforestation and global warming is included in this. We can clearly see this in places such as in Russia and Canada where just in a century there have been increases of temperature of about 5 to 10째 C, in the boreal forest (taiga) regions. All of this is due to logging, burning of fossil fuels, the greenhouse effect and industrial production without any filters increases global warming, if theses things continue to have such a great effect on the forest then over the next century many trees will begin to die and this will cause the extinction of many animals Sources:

World Climate Organization

Tundra Janice Macarachvili

Location • • • •

The tundra is the world's coldest and driest biome Almost all tundra’s are located in the Northern Hemisphere The tundra covers about 20% of the Earth's surface Tundra has two variations: -Arctic Tundra: which can be found near or north of the Arctic Circle around the North Pole as well as the Northern portions of Canada, Alaska, Greenland and the United States -Alpine tundra: can be found at high altitudes on mountains where trees don’t grow

Climate • • •

The tundra has a cold and dry climate The main seasons are winter and summer In the fall, the arctic tundra's sun disappears below the horizon and does not rise for 66 days The average annual temperature is -12° C and -6° C

Winter: • • •

In the tundra, winters are long, cold and dark Nights can last for weeks when the sun barely rises Average annual temperatures range between -57° C and -6° C

Summer: • •

During the summer, the sun shines almost 24 hours a day Temperatures range between 3° C up to 10° C



Rainfall • • • •

The tundra is like a dessert when involving precipitation Only about 6 - 10 inches of precipitation (mostly snow) fall each year. Precipitation is concentrated in the summer months July receives the most precipitation for inland stations and August for most coastal stations The Alpine tundra gets more rain than the Arctic tundra

Vegetation • • •

Animals • • •

• •

There is a low biodiversity of species in the tundra There are only 48 species of land mammals are found on the tundra The most common species found in the tundra are polar bears, grizzly bear, arctic fox, snow owls, musk ox, and caribou These animals have a thick fur coat, which serve as protection from cold temperatures and have broad and furry feet, which makes it easier for them to walk on the frozen snow. Most of the animal species either hibernate or migrate during the period of freezing winters Mosquitoes can keep themselves from freezing by replacing the water in their bodies with glycerol which works like an antifreeze and allows them to survive under the snow Some animals have the ability to accumulate thick deposits of fat during the short growing season, which acts as insulation and as a store of energy for use during the winter Birds have a thick insulating cover of feathers or fur and pelage and plumage that turns white in winter, brown in summer Alpine tundra animals also have to be specially 5

• •

There is barely any vegetation in the tundra: about 1,700 different species There are mostly shrubs, sedges, mosses, lichens and grasses There are no trees and about 400 varieties of flowers Tundra plants can grow at temperatures of 15ºC to 20ºC Plants have adapted to survive the extreme cold weather Most plants are small and low because of the lack of nutrients in the soil, and also being close to the dark, warmth, absorbent soil helps to keep them from freezing Some plants are dark which help them absorb solar heat, and also have hairs, which help trap the heat and keep it close to their surface Several plant species have red color pigmentation that helps them in absorbing more sunlight Some plants grow in clumps in order to break harsh winds



5 common plants and 5 common animals found in the Tundra Plants Lichen Liverwort Caribou moss Grasses Arctic Willow

Food Web


Animals Lemming Caribou Pika Arctic Fox Polar Bear



Energy Pyramid T= Trophic Level Polar Bear T4

Tertiary consumer- 1 kJ/m2/yr2

Energy lost as heat through respiration

Arctic Fox T3

Secondary consumer- 10 kJ/m2/yr2 Lemming


Primary consumer- 100 kJ/m2/yr2

Lichen T1

Producer- 1000 kJ/m2/yr2

Arctic Tundra Climograph:

"Arctic Climate." Climate, Vegetation and Scenery. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2013. <>. 5

Relationships in the Tundra Mutualism Lichen plants Lichen plants are composed of fungus and alga. The alga lives within the hyphae of the fungus and photosynthesize. This way it provides the plant with sugars and oxygen. The fungus provides protection to the alga and collects water and salts for their cells. This way, both organisms rely on one another by providing resources beneficial to each other.

Commensalism Arctic fox and Caribou


The caribou and arctic fox are an example of this type of relationship. The Arctic fox follows the Caribou when searching for food. When the Caribou digs the ground snow to find food, it digs up the soil and exposes some subnivean mammals which whom the Arctic fox eats. This way both organisms benefit, without affecting each other.

Tapeworm and Caribou The liver tapeworm cysts stay and grow in the body of animals such as the Caribou. When the tapeworm is in the larval stage, it lives within the Caribou, feeding on its liver, causing scars and malnutrition in the body of the Caribou. This way, the tapeworm receives benefits from the Caribou, causing damage to it.

Competition Caribou and Musk Ox The Caribou and Musk Ox typically obtain energy from the same source since both feed on lichen, berries, sedges and grasses. If food is scarce, the Musk Ox may begin to compete for food with the caribou. There may also be occasions where both fight for territory.

How humans have influenced the environment Unwise development The tundra is a very fragile environment since plants and animals have a hard time managing the extremely cold temperatures and extra disturbances such as human development, which drastically affects the environment. People have constructed buildings and roads, which put pressure on the permafrost, causing it to melt, and the fragile soil composition to ruin, which takes decades to recover. The melting of the permafrost causes changes in species’ timing of breeding as well as prey availability, and as a consequence, some animal’s movements to feeding have been disrupted and even in some cases, animals have starved. Additionally, when animals try to pass through a town, they are often scared away or shot. Plants are also damaged from buildings and without plant cover, the tundra’s soil washes away. Without plant life to contain the soil, the tundra's land cannot support life and the entire biome will be destroyed. Present studies report the effect on building of roads in the tundra vegetation. “Vegetation data collected on the 2001 and 2002 ice road traces showed significant impacts from physical and thermal (freezing) damage to grasses, shrubs, forbs, and bryophytes, with the most significant impacts occurring to cotton grass (Eriophorum vaginatum)”

Social Impact Native people inhabit Arctic regions and depend on plants and animals to survive since they feed off of lemmings, caribou, herbs, seals, salt and freshwater fish, whales, berries, and walrus. If the food chain is disrupted, and animals suffer from starving or are killed, native people won’t have possible food sources to survive and their population will reduce. Building on permafrost can incur a significant cost for the future. This is why people will have to reduce physical disturbance to the environment by limiting road and building constructions, mining activities, and the building of pipelines. Other possible actions will be to establish protected areas to restrict human influence. Oil and natural gas are present in this biome, which is important for human development. Furthermore, the tundra plays a vital role in keeping global temperatures stable by absorbing the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This biome is a winter home for many animals and if they disappear from the food chain, other species would be greatly affected. Due to this, humans need to take consideration and protect the environment in order to have stable global temperatures in the near future and global biodiversity.

Works Cited "Alpine Biome." Alpine Biome. Blue Planet, n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <>. "Arctic Climate." Climate, Vegetation and Scenery. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 May 2013. <>. "[Biomes." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. "Food Chain on the Arctic Tundra." Food Chain on the Arctic Tundra. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <>. Glossmanz, Carrie. "Parasitism in the Tundra | EHow." EHow. Demand Media, 27 Jan. 2010. Web. 20 May 2013. <>. "Tundra Animals." Tundra Animals. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. "Tundra." Biomes of the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. <>. "Tundra Food Pyramid." N.p., n.d. Web. 20 May 2013. <>.

Biome Project – The Tropical Rainforest Map showing where the tropical rainforest biome can be found on Earth:


Rainforests occupy only 6% of the land on Earth and are located in tropical regions, namely regions close to the equator.


The average temperature found in rainforests is 26°C, although it can range from a low of 16°C (night) to a high of 34°C (day) while maintaining between 77% 88% humidity.


Rainforests experience precipitation throughout the year (over 100 inches per year) and experience very short dry seasons or seasons in which the average amount of rainfall decreases.

Average monthly temperature (째C) and rainfall (mm/month) found in rainforests: Temperature (째C) High








Rainfall (mm/month) High




Relationship between rainfall and temperature of a rainforest (Iquitos, Peru):

The flora and fauna found in this region varies greatly. Angiosperms, bryophytes, vines, fungi, buttresses and epiphytes can all be found within the rainforest, creating extremely diverse and dense vegetation. This is possible due to the abundance of water (from rain) and availability of fertile soil on which the vegetation can thrive. All of these plants are leafy and green and are those which are suitably adapted to hot and humid conditions Typically, the flora in rainforests form several layers such as the upper canopy, understory and forest floor. The different plants found at different levels are all adapted such that they can compete with other organisms for nutrients, water and sunlight. A variety of animals including various types of mammals (big cats, monkeys, etc.), reptiles (snakes, caimans, crocodiles), amphibians (frogs), arthropods (insects such as butterflies, ants, etc.) and birds can be found in the rainforest too. Much like the flora, the fauna of this biome is also well suited to warm and humid conditions.

Common plants and animals found in rainforests: Common Plants Banana Trees Papaya Trees Bamboo Coconut Trees Orchids

Common Animals Wild Boar Jaguars Millipedes Monkeys Macaws Jaguar

Wild Boar


Coconut Trees




Papaya Trees


Banana Trees

At T1, the Energy pyramid starts with a certain amount of energy, for example 2 x 103 KJ/m2/y (as shown above). As the energy moves to each consecutive tropic level, approximately 90% is lost through factors such as cell respiration and heat via feces, etc. Therefore only approximately10% is passed on through each tropic level.

Relationships formed between organisms Mutualism – In the rainforest, mutualism is noticed between ants and certain species of fungi in a relationship known as Ant-Fungal mutualism. Here, ants cultivate fungus and also cut leaves from other trees and plants on which the fungi feed. In return for this protection and food provision, the fungus will provide the ants with nutrients. Parasitism – Fig trees are commonly found in rainforests. A particular species known as the strangler fig acts as a parasite upon other trees by growing on their branches. The roots of this tree penetrate deep into the ground and around the roots of the host tree, thus stealing it’s water and nutrient sources and killing the roots of the host. Commensalism – Bromeliads are angiosperms that are commonly found in rainforests. These grow and live on plants as well as on frogs. Through this, the frog receives shelter. However, this does not benefit the bromeliad. Human influence on Tropical Rainforests The rainforest has been used by humans for centuries as a habitat and for obtaining several essential resources that are used in medicines and that make cash crops. However, over time, humans have severely depleted this biome through excess use, deforestation and pollution caused by industrialism. The excess exploitation of rainforest resources has led to a fall in the availability of these resources (this is true for various herbs and tree species) such that they are not easily available anymore. Human beings have failed to sustain the environment to ensure that it is preserved and is available for future generations. With an increase in demand for these resources from the forest and in order to commercialize, much of the rainforest is being overexploited and deforestation (clearing of trees and other vegetation) had been occurring. This had negative consequences on the fauna in the biome as their natural habitat is being destroyed. Over time, various species that do not have the ability to easily adapt may become extinct or competition for living space increases, leading to the death of the weaker species. Moreover, with the destruction of plants, the carbon dioxide levels on the planet increase as there are not as many plants converting the carbon dioxide into oxygen. This, in turn, leads to an enhanced greenhouse gas effect, which once again has negative consequences on living organisms, and increases the chance of the spread of infection and disease. The increased industrialism and increase in worldwide pollution levels has also led to depletion of the nutrients available in the soil in this biome. Because of this, the flora found in the rainforest does not thrive as well as it once used to. Due to the intricate food webs that all begin with these producers; all subsequent members of the web (primary, secondary and tertiary consumers) are also negatively affected. Moreover, pollution of water (high levels of mercury and other toxins) has had a devastating effect on organisms living in the water and on humans that depend on fish for food.

Temperate grasslands Where are temperate grasslands located in the world? Temperate grasslands  are  usually  located  in  the  centers  of  continents,  30  degrees  North  and  South   from  equator.   Maps:  In  the  first  map  below  one  can   • North  America   see  where  the  temperate  grasslands   o Prairies  of  the  Central  Lowlands  and  High  Plains   are  located  in  the  world,  represented   found  in  the  United  States  and  Canada   by  the  color  yellow.  In  the  second  map   one  can  see  where  the  grasslands  are   • In  Eurasia   o Steppes  found  in  Ukraine,  Russia  and  Mongolia located  in  the  world  in  relation  to  the   other  biomes  as  well  as  where  they   • South  America are  in  regards  with  the  equator.   o Pampas  of  Argentina,  Uruguay,  and  Brazil   • Veldts  of  South  Africa   • Pustzas  of  Hungary  

              Climate… •

Temperature: o Summer   can  exceed  100  F o Winter    as  low  as  -­‐40  F Precipitation: o Average  of  20-­‐35  inches  of  rainfall  a  year   o 50  -­‐150  mm  per  month o Some  seasons  have  less  rainfall  and  thus   suffer  from  droughts  which  is  the  main     reason  for  which  grasses  remain  dominant   in  this  biome  rather  than  larger  trees.   Light:  Around  14  –  18  hours  each  day  

The map  to  the  left  shows  different   climographs  for  different   temperate  grasslands  around  the   world  showing  the  relationship   between  their  temperatures  and   rainfall.  As  can  be  seen  in  the   picture,  both  in  the  Northern  and   Southern  hemispheres,  as   temperature  rises,  so  does  the   amount  of  precipitation.  However,   the  seasons  are  opposite  in  the   Southern  hemisphere  than  in  the   Northern  hemisphere,  as  when   temperature  rises  in  the  temperate   grasslands  in  the  North,  it  drops  in  

Vegetation and animal characteristics… Plants: Since  there  are  low  levels  of  precipitation  annually  in  temperate     grasslands,  it  is  difficult  for  large  trees  o  grow  and  thus,  it  is     dominated   by  grass.  Grasses  are  dominant  since  they  have   adapted  to  the  low  levels  of  rainfall  and  can  withstand  droughts     and  fires.  Their  deep  root  systems  help  them  hold  on  to  the  soil,   reducing   erosion  and  helping  to  conserve  water.  Depending  on     the  amount  of  water  a  particular  are  may  receive,  the  vegetation     be  tall  or  short.  Areas  which  are  warmer  and  receive  more   may   precipitation   usually  have  taller  grasses  than  those  with  colder     climates  and  less  rainfall.  Examples:  buffalo  grass,  blue  gamma   grass,  fleabane,  indian  grass,  june  grass.  

Food Web…

Animals:   Like  the  vegetation  in   temperate  grasslands,  its   wildlife  also  varies  depending   on  its  location.  American   grasslands  are  different  from   those  in  South  America  or   Europe.  The  wildlife  which   can  be  found  in  the   temperate  grasslands  have  a   low  diversity  compared  to   other  biomes  but  a  high   abundance.  Examples:  Black-­‐ footed  ferret,  black-­‐tailed  prairie   dog,  coyote,  bison  and  whitetail  

Energy Pyramid…

The energy  pyramid  which  is  shown  above  shows  how  energy  is  passed  from  one  trophic  level  to  the   other   in   a   food   chain.   As   can   be   seen,   it   starts   very   big   in   the   first   level   and   it   starts   to   decrease   in   size   as   you   go   up.   Energy   flows   from   the   sun   to   the   ecosystem   and   then   to   plants   which   are   the   producers   this  is  why  they  have  the  most  energy  and  therefore  are  the  largest  part  n  the  pyramid.  This  energy   then  flows  to  the  next  trophic  level  and  so  on.  However,  only  10  to  20%  of  the  energy  passes  to  the   next  trophic  level  since  the  rest  is  lost  as  heat  loss,  respiration,  excretion  and  in  some  cases  death.  As   the   trophic   level   reaches   the   top   consumers,   a   lot   of   energy   has   already   been   lost.   This   is   why   the   pyramid  is  narrower  in  the  top,  where  the  tertiary  consumer  is.    

Relationships… Type of  relationship:  

Organism example:  



Bees and  flowers  


Buffalo and  killbird  

Mutalism is  a  relationship  between   organisms  in  which  both  organisms  benefit   from  each  other.  In  this  case,  bees  help   pollinate  flowers  which  helps  the   reproduction  of  the  plant.  However,  it  also   benefits  itself  since  it  gains  energy  from   the  flower.  Here,  both  organisms  live   together  and  in  harmony.       Commensalism  is  a  type  of  relationship   between  two  organisms  in  which  one  is   benefited  from  the  other  without  causing   any  harm.  In  this  case,  the  killdeer  bird   rests  on  top  of  the  buffalo.  Here,  the   buffalo  is  not  harmed  in  any  way.   However,  the  killbird  benefits  from  the   relationship  since  it  the  buffalo  protects  it.    



Coyotes and  fleas  

Parasitism is  a  type  of  relationship   between  two  organisms  in  which  only  one   benefits  from  the  other  organism  and   causes  harm  to  it.  In  the  case  of  coyotes   and  fleas,  fleas  benefit  from  coyotes  as   they  suck  their  blood  and  live  on  their   bodies.   Bison  and  Black-­‐tailed  prairie  dog   A  competitive  relationship  between   organisms  is  one  in  which  different  species   are  competing  for  the  use  of  the  same   resources.  In  this  case,  the  bison  and  the   black  tailed  prairie  dog  have  a  competitive   relationship  since  they  both  feed  on   buffalo  grass.    

Human influence… Human activity  on  grasslands:   • Used  for  cereal  crops   • Used  by  indegineous  people  for  grazing     • Livestock  farming     • Dairy  farming     • Wheat-­‐sheep  farming     • Hunting  of  wildlife         Bison  slaughter  in  the  1800’s        In  the  1800’s  there  was   a  big  trade  for  the  fur,  skin,  and  meat  of  the  American   Bison.  The  United  States  government  started  to  encourage   the  further  slaughter  of  this  animal  as  a  way  to  remove   Native  American  p opulations  that  relied  on  the  bison  for   food.  However,  the  American  Bison  population  decreased   to  less  than  1000  by  1890,  b ecoming  an  endangered   species.  Luckily,  laws  were  then  set  to  prevent  their   extinction  and  currently  there  are  around  500,000  bison  in   America.  At  the  time  in  which  their  population  decreased,   this  was  a  huge  influence  on  the  environment.  Food  chains   were  disturbed  as  their  main  food  source  started  to  have   fewer  consumers.  The  plants  they  fed  on  started  to   increase  in  quantity  allowing  for  other  consumer’s   population  to  increase  as  well.  Apart  from  the  effects  on   other  plants  and  wildlife,  humans,  the  Native  Americans  in   the  areas  who  depended  on  the  buffalo  as  a  food  source   were  also  affected.  Since  laws  have  n ow  been  set  and  the   bison  population  has  been  re  established,  humans   nowadays  aren’t  affected  by  this.  However,  this  serves  as  a   lesson  which  might  h elp  prevent  similar  incidents  in  the  

The human  activity  in  grasslands  listed  to   the  left  has  many  n egative  effects  for  the   biome.   Since   grasslands   are   characterized  for   having   rich  soil   and  flat   and   open   land,   humans   find   it   a   convenient   place   for   farming   and   growing   crops.     However   even   though   this   may   be   beneficial   for   humans   economically   and   in   terms   of   food   production,   it   does   have   some   negative   effects  on  the  biome.  Today,  around  47%   of   grasslands   have   already   been   turned   into   agricultural   development.   As   humans   move   into   grasslands   and   convert   them   into   farmlands,   they   clear   out   all   the   pre   existing   vegetation,   replacing   it   for   specific   types   of   agricultural   plants   such  as   white.   As   this   happens,   vegetation   is   destroyed   and   animals   lose   their   home   and   are   forced   to   migrate   or   are   purposely   exterminated   by   farmers.   This   leads   to   disruptions   in   the   ecosystem   in   which   the   food   webs   are   altered.   This   issue   presents   a   problem   for   humans   in   the   future   since   it   is   a   threat   to   biodiversity   as   plants   and   animals   may   go   extinct,   especially  as  this  47%  begins   to  increase   as   time   goes   by.   Furthermore,   the   grasslands   used   for   livestock   farming   increase   the   release   of   green   house   gasses  which  presents  a  threat  to  climate  

Diego Carpio   5/26/13   Biology  P.3   Biome  Project     Desert  Biome    

Map  where  desert  biome  is  located  around  the  world     The  average  temperature  of  the  Desert  Biome  (Alice  Springs,  Australia)  

The  average  rainfall  of  the  Desert  Biome  (Alice  Springs,  Australia)    


Common Animals   Armadillo  Lizard   Desert  Snake   Scorpion   Rabbit   Eagle    

Common Plants   Barrel  Cactus     Desert  Ironwood   Jumping  Cholla   Brittle  Bush   Soap  tree  Yucca  

Climograph  Of  Alice  Springs,  Australia  (Desert  Biome)    

  Parasitism:     Sandalwood  and  the  entire  host,  which  are  the  trees   Commensalism:     Lichen  growing  on  the  tree  bark   Mutualism:     Barrel  Cactus  and  its  mycorhizae     Competitors:   Rattlesnakes  and  Eagles   Both  compete  for  the  same  food  source  (birds)  

Animal Adaptations:   In  order  to  survive  the  desert  animals  have  various  of  methods  on  how  to  stay  alive   in  their  environment.  The  most  common  one  is  staying  in  shade  of  plants  or  rocks  or   by  burrowing  underground  in  the  heat  of  the  day.   Other  animals  get  all  moisture  they  need  from  insects,  plants  and  also  from  the   seeds  they  eat  and  this  results  in  that  they  do  not  to  drink  any  water.  Also  these   animals  don't  have  any  sweat  glands  and  pass  only  small  amounts  of  concentrated   urine.       Energy  Pyramid:  

  Human  relation  with  Desert  Biome:     There  are  many  human  activity’s  that  can  make  a  great  impact  in  the  Desert   Biome.  One  way  that  impacts  the  biome  is  mining  or  residential  use  is  another  way,   as  it  would  be  diverting  the  water  supplies  for  agricultural  use  elsewhere.  Humans   also  make  an  impact  in  the  ecosystem  an  a  unwise  fashion  

Off road  riding  such  as  dirt  bikes  can  damage  desert  plants  and  also  it   pollutes  the  soil  as  well  affects  the  wildlife.  This  diverts  water  supplies,  which  are   already  in  rare  conditions  prevent  rainfall  from  reaching  the  plant  in  the  ecosystem.   Killing  rodents  or  predators  and  which  will  also  affect  the  food  chain  as  well.                  

Biome Project Magazine  

Period 2 Class