RR Auction: Remarkable Rarities

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Thursday, February 22, 2024




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Remarkable Rarities Bidding closes February 22

RR Auction’s first-ever February installment of its Remarkable Rarities series brings some 50+ pieces of history to the auction block, representing the most elusive and extraordinary items offered all year. Among them are a historic ‘Little Red Book’ signed by Mao Zedong during a 1966 visit by Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, with photo proof; an excessively rare check signed by George Washington as president; an important letter by Karl Marx on Das Kapital; a mission-critical checklist page carried to the lunar surface on Apollo 11; and The Hobbit signed by J. R. R. Tolkien. RR Auction is a globally recognized and trusted auction house specializing in historical autographs and artifacts. Join us as we make history selling history in February 2024.

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President George Washington cashes in on frontier lands, receiving funds from a Valley Forge veteran and entrusting his deposit to Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott, Jr. LOT 4001 George Washington Excessively Rare Check Signed as President, Filled Out by Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott Jr. - PSA MINT 10 Excessively rare Bank of the United States check, 6.25 x 3, filled out in the hand of Treasury Secretary Oliver Wolcott Jr. and boldly signed by President George Washington, “Go: Washington,” payable to “Oliv. Wolcott” for $2693.33, September 1795. Affixed by its top edge to a thin board and in fine condition, with a block of toning over the check area, and a tear to the lower blank margin, not affecting the check itself; Washington’s signature is crisp and bold. Accompanied by a full letter of authenticity and grading from PSA/DNA, evaluating both autographs as MINT 10 examples. This check pertains to a land transaction made between President George Washington and Colonel Israel Shreve, a veteran of the Revolutionary War who fought alongside Washington at the Battle of Brandywine and Battle of Germantown, and wintered at Valley Forge. A surveyor by trade, Washington had acquired vast land holdings through inheritance and purchase—in addition to large properties in his native Virginia, he owned about 58,000 acres of western lands in Pennsylvania and what is now West Virginia. His first purchase west of the Allegheny Mountains was a 1,644–acre tract of land, called Washington’s Bottom, on the Youghiogheny River in western Pennsylvania. In the fall of 1789, Col. Shreve leased a 600-acre section of the Washington’s Bottom property for a term of five years. When the lease was up, Shreve approached Washington about purchasing that tract, offering ‘any Sum per acre your Excellency may please to fix not Exceeding Six Dollars.’ Washington replied by offering him the entire tract for £4,000 Pennsylvania currency, one-fourth to be paid upfront and the remainder payable in five yearly installments, every June 1st, at an interest rate of six-percent. In this transaction, Washington acted through his agent, James Ross. The sum of this check represents Shreve’s first payment for the property, made several weeks late. Substantial correspondence on the topic is recorded in The Papers of George Washington, which notes: “On

15 Aug., GW recorded a check on the Bank of Pennsylvania from Israel Shreve to Ross for $2,693.33 and ‘by the latter transmitted to me—It being the first payment with interest thereon from the 1st of June until the 1st of Augt for the land I sold the said Shreve in Fayette County.’ GW noted that he had given the money to Secretary of the Treasury Oliver Wolcott, Jr., ‘to be transferred for my use to the Bank of the U. States.’” Shreve continued to struggle to pay his debt on time, falling delinquent in spite of Washington’s repeated requests and warnings. Although he threatened to foreclose, Washington could not bring himself to sue a fellow Continental Army officer. The History of Fayette Country (1882) reports: “At one time, not long before the death of Washington and Shreve, the former, notwithstanding his great wealth, having become somewhat straitened for money, pressed Shreve hard for payment on the lands, and caused an execution to be issued against him, at the same time writing him a severe letter in reference to his delinquency; but at its close he relented, and said to his old comrade of Trenton and Monmouth, ‘not withstanding what has been done, and in consideration of our ancient friendship I give you further indulgence. Take this letter to Col. Thomas Collins, sheriff of Fayette County, and it will operate as a stay of execution.’ Col. Shreve took the letter to the sheriff as directed; further time was given, the payments were met (though with great difficulty) by Shreve, but both he and his great creditor passed from earth, leaving the transaction uncompleted and the lands still unconveyed.” Ultimately, Washington’s executors conveyed the property to Col. Shreve’s heirs in 1802. This check is of further interest as it relates to the First Bank of the United States, established in 1791 as part of a three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power, along with a federal mint and excise taxes, championed by Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton believed a national bank was necessary to stabilize and improve the nation’s credit, and to improve handling of the financial business of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution. Hamilton’s successor was Oliver Wolcott, Jr., a fellow veteran of the American Revolution, and an exponent of Hamilton’s Federalist policies. Starting Bid $10,000

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Rare 1808 presidential autograph letter by Thomas Jefferson, seeking to unite the nation with “the Western road”— the first federally funded highway LOT 4002 Thomas Jefferson Autograph Letter Signed as President on “the Western road” The First Federally Funded Highway Historically significant ALS as president signed “Th: Jefferson,” one page, 7.25 x 9.5, August 6, 1808. Handwritten letter to Messrs. Kerr, Moore & Williams, commissioners of the Western Road. In part: “It has been represented to me on behalf of the inhabitants of the town of Washington in Pensylv’a, that by a survey at their expence, it is found that the Western road, if carried through their town, to Wheeling, would be but a mile longer, would pass through better ground, & be made at less expence; and if carried to Short creek, instead of Wheeling, the difference of distance would still be less. The principal object of this road is a communication directly Westwardly. If however, inconsiderable deflections from this course will benefit particular places and better accommodate travellers, these are circumstances to be taken into consideration. I have therefore to desire that, having a regard to the funds which remain, you make as good an examination, as they will admit, of the best route through Washington to Wheeling, & also to Short creek or any other point on the river, offering a more advantageous route towards Chillicothe & Cincinnati, & that you report to me the material facts, with your opinions, for consideration.” In fine condition. Like Washington before him, one of Jefferson’s major concerns was strengthening the union between the growing American

settlements on the far side of the Alleghenies and the eastern seaboard states, both commercially and politically. While Washington made progress toward that goal via waterways with the privately financed Patowmack Canal, Jefferson was committed to constructing a public road. The ‘Cumberland Road,’ later called the ‘National Road,’ was authorized by Congress in 1806, and Jefferson articulated its necessity in his annual message, saying that ‘new channels of communication will be opened between the states; the lines of separation will disappear, their interests will be identified, and their union cemented by new and indissoluble ties.’ The same year, Jefferson allocated $30,000 for the survey to which he refers in this letter, articulating that “the principal object of this road is a communication directly Westwardly.” Construction would not begin until after his presidency in 1811, and after an interruption from the War of 1812, the route to Wheeling was completed in 1818. Over the next few years, the road was extended through Ohio, Indianapolis, St. Louis, and eventually to Kansas City and Denver. It ultimately became the first federally funded road and was fondly called the ‘main street of America.’ Today the original route is largely followed by US Highway 40. According to ABPC, this is the only Jefferson letter discussing the national road to appear at auction in the last 40 years. A remarkable, significant letter regarding one of the key accomplishments of his administration. Starting Bid $5,000

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President Lincoln asks his cabinet for counsel after the atrocities at Fort Pillow: “A large number of our colored soldiers, with their white officers, were, by the rebel force, massacred after they had surrendered” LOT 4003 Abraham Lincoln Letter Signed as President on Massacre of Black Soldiers by Rebels Civil War–dated LS as president, signed “Yours truly, A. Lincoln,” one page, 8 x 10, Executive Mansion letterhead, May 3, 1864. Letter addressed in Lincoln’s hand to “Hon. Secretary of the Navy,” Gideon Welles, regarding the devastating massacre of Union soldiers (many of them part of the United States Colored Troops) at Fort Pillow on April 12, 1864. In full: “It is now quite certain that a large number of our colored soldiers, with their white officers, were, by the rebel force, massacred after they had surrendered, at the recent capture of Fort Pillow. So much is known, though the evidence is not yet quite ready to be laid before me.—Meanwhile I will thank you to prepare, and give me in writing, your opinion as to what course, the government should take in the case.” In fine condition, with a very light, uniform block of toning. On April 12, 1864, Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest— an expert cavalryman and future founder of the Ku Klux Klan—led a raid on Fort Pillow, an outpost in west Tennessee that had been held by federal troops for about two years. The Union garrison there numbered about 600 men, divided almost evenly between black and white troops. Forrest’s troops outnumbered them three-to-one, and had the fort surrounded. After several hours of sharpshooters’ repartee—which took the life of the fort’s commander, Major Lionel F. Booth—Forrest sent a note demanding surrender. The ultimatum was delivered to Maj. William F. Bradford, who asked for an hour to decide. Forrest ceded only 20 minutes, and Bradford replied: ‘I will not surrender.’Forrest then launched a brutal assault on the fort, quickly overwhelming the Union forces. Most of the garrison tried to surrender, throwing down their arms and begging for mercy—only to be fired upon and bayoneted by the attacking rebels. President Lincoln first addressed the Fort Pillow incident during a speech at the Baltimore Sanitary Fair on April 18th, pledging that these deaths would not be in vain: ‘A painful rumor, true I fear, has reached us of the massacre by the rebel forces at Fort Pillow, in the west end of Tennessee on the Mississippi river of some three hundred colored soldiers and white officers who had just been overpowered by their assailants...Having determined to use the negro as a soldier, there is no way but to give him all the protection given to any other soldier.… We are having the Fort Pillow affair thoroughly investigated.…If there has been the massacre of three hundred there, or even the tenth part of three hundred, it will be conclusively proved; and being so proved, the retribution shall as surely come. It will be a matter of grave consideration in what exact course to apply the retribution; but in the supposed case, it must come.’The Battle of Fort Pillow became the subject of an inquiry by the Congressional Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, as well as the subject of numerous reports

in the press. Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Weekly and Harper’s Weekly were among the nationally circulated periodicals that publicized the horrors of the massacre. Lincoln struggled to find an appropriate response as the truth about the massacre emerged, turning to the members of his cabinet for counsel. As documented in the Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 7 (ed. Basler), Lincoln sent this text to all members of his cabinet, asking for their advice regarding the government’s course of action following the Fort Pillow events. On May 6th, President Lincoln held a cabinet meeting to review the various options that had been suggested. Gideon Welles played a principal role in the affair, and provides an overview of the discussion in his diary entry for that date: ‘Between Mr. Bates and Mr. Blair a suggestion came out that met my views better than anything that had previously been offered. It is that the President should by proclamation declare the officers who had command at the massacre outlaws, and require any of our officers who may capture them, to detain them in custody and not exchange them, but hold them to punishment…In a conversation that followed the reading of our papers, I expressed myself favorable to this new suggestion, which relieved the subject of much of the difficulty. It avoids communication with the Rebel authorities. Takes the matter in our own hands. We get rid of the barbarity of retaliation.’ All feared that eye-for-an-eye retaliation—the execution of a like number of rebel soldiers and officers—would cascade into an even more vicious war. In 1885, Frederick Douglass recalled his August 1864 audience with President Lincoln to urge retaliation against the South for its brutality against black Union soldiers: ‘I shall never forget the benignant expression of his face, the tearful look of his eye, and quiver in his voice when he deprecated a resort to retaliatory measures. ‘Once begun,’ said he, ‘I do not know where such a measure would stop.’ He said he could not take men out and kill them in cold blood for what was done by others. If he could get hold of the persons who were guilty of killing the colored prisoners in cold blood, the case would be different, but he could not kill the innocent for the guilty.’Ultimately, Abraham Lincoln chose to take no action on the issue, and it was soon surpassed in the public mind by the successes of General U. S. Grant’s Wilderness Campaign. Nevertheless, ‘Remember Fort Pillow’ became a rallying cry for the Union’s black soldiers, and the tragic events may well have influenced President Lincoln’s implementation of a more radical abolition policy. His letter to his cabinet members reveals just one of the heavy subjects weighing on his mind as he fought to preserve the Union, his trust in his devoted ‘team of rivals’ cabinet, and the innate sense of justice that informed his decision making. A remarkable and historically significant letter signed by President Abraham Lincoln. Starting Bid $10,000

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Kennedy’s handwritten draft for a speech on “the entire security of the Middle East,” preceding the 1953 CIA-assisted coup that overthrew Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh LOT 4004 John F. Kennedy Handwritten Manuscript on Security in the Middle East: “All of these different conflicts are concentrated in ancient Persia, now Iran” Significant unsigned handwritten manuscript in pencil and ballpoint by John F. Kennedy, seven pages, 8 x 10.5, no date but dating to JFK’s time in the House of Representatives, circa 1951. Handwritten draft on foreign policy, in which Kennedy discusses the complicated international power struggle that was taking place in Iran in the 1940s and 1950s leading up to the 1953 CIA-assisted coup that overthrew Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh. In small part: “All of these different conflicts are concentrated in ancient Persia, now Iran, located in the center of the Muslim world—bordering Russia on its north—Turkey on its West—flanking Afghanistan, Pakistan and northern India on its east…And most recently Russia has been anxious to protect the source of its large oil supplies…only 125 miles from the Iranian border…Thus the dispute between the Anglo-Iranian Company & the government of Iran took place in an area which the Soviet Union had conditionally sought to control

and involved not only Western Europe & Great Britain’s major source of oil—but…also had the entire security of the Middle East…The fact is that the Mossadegh will never offer the British a deal good enough so that they feel they can accept. The British, I think, have always organized this so their efforts have been directed towards trying to replace M. which has convinced M. that the British will continue to meddle in the internal affairs.” At the head of the page written in ballpoint, Kennedy sketches a tiny drawing. In fine condition, with a few small edge chips and tears. Kennedy was correct and, two years after he delivered this speech, Mosaddegh and his democratically elected government was overthrown in a joint effort by British and American intelligence agencies, forever altering the relationship between Iran and the United States. Kennedy touched on several of these themes in a speech given at the Massachusetts Federation of Taxpayers Association’s annual meeting in Boston, Massachusetts April 21, 1951. Consignor notes that this originates from the estate of Robert Luddington, who worked as an interior designer for various Kennedy homes over the course of 60 years. Starting Bid $1,000

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Remarkable 1806 handwritten letter by Thomas Paine, likely to President Jefferson LOT 4005 Thomas Paine Autograph Letter Signed Likely to President Jefferson Exceedingly rare ALS, one page, 8 x 9, March 28, 1806. Handwritten letter to a gentleman (“Dear Sir”), likely Thomas Jefferson. In full: “I am sorry I am obliged to renew again my solicitation for an answer to my letters. If you were in my place you would know and feel the propriety of this application. It is not a cold and formal request that I make.” In very good to fine condition, with scattered light staining and expertly repaired paper loss to the top edge. Accompanied by an unsigned engraved portrait of Paine. The circumstances surrounding this letter suggest that it may have been sent to President Thomas Jefferson. Paine had been deeply involved in the French Revolution during the 1790s while at the same time making scores of enemies at home; he alienated George Washington and his supporters with vicious criticism and enraged the Christian population with attacks in The Age of Reason. He returned to America in 1802 at the invitation of President Jefferson, who by this time was one of his only friends. All of Europe was embroiled in the Napoleonic Wars, with the two key belligerents being the United Kingdom and France. Although they would not come to fruition, peace talks between the two nations began to warm in early 1806. Given Paine’s intimate knowledge of both countries

and international affairs at large, Paine considered himself an ideal candidate to be sent to Europe to help negotiate a treaty. In two known letters to Jefferson from the period preceding this example, Paine makes similar complaints regarding the president’s unresponsiveness. Just as this one does, those letters open with “Dear Sir,” and close, “Yours in friendship.” The closest in date is from two weeks earlier, March 15, and holds essentially the same plea, requesting a response to his letter of ‘the last days of January’ and closing with the repeated wish ‘that you would not delay an answer as the want of it holds me in useless inactivity.’ In the January 30th letter he references, Paine had written at length on the situation between France and Britain and offered to be sent to Europe to facilitate peace negotiations. He also commented twice about not having received responses to other letters to Jefferson, closing with ‘As I think that letters from a friend and to a friend have some claim to an answer it will be agreeable to me to receive an answer to this.’ Jefferson actually did respond to Paine’s request of March 15th—declining his offer—but not until ten days later. Presumably, Paine would not yet have received Jefferson’s letter of the 25th when writing this one on the 28th. Paine is one of the rarest and most highly soughtafter early American autographs, and the historical context of this example makes it all the more desirable. Starting Bid $2,500

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Complete ‘five note’ set of 1849 Mormon currency, with four examples signed by Brigham Young as the LDS Church President LOT 4006 Brigham Young Rare Complete Set of Signed 1849 Mormon Currency ‘White Notes’ Exceedingly rare complete set of the first five printed denominations of Mormon ‘white note’ currency from 1849, consisting of an unissued 25-cent note and issued partly printed notes for 50 cents, $1, $2, and $3. Each note measures 3.75 x 2, with the four issued examples filled out in another hand to N. K. Whitney and signed in ink by Brigham Young, who signs his name in full on the 50-cent note and as “B. Young” on the three larger denominations; the four issued notes are countersigned by Thomas Bullock as clerk and Heber C. Kimball as first counselor, and blindstamped with the seal of the Twelve Apostles. Each note was issued at Great Salt Lake City on January 20, 1849. In overall fine condition.

As there was no standard United States currency at the time, Brigham Young and his associates in the LDS Church established a mint in 1848 that produced coinage and currency backed by the church. The newly minted currency began to be issued in January 1849, with the bills bearing the January 20 date being the very first printing. Although over three thousand notes were printed in this run, when the church mint resumed coinage in the fall of 1849 the paper currency was redeemed and most of it was destroyed. Of the original 5,150 notes, only 184 notes, valued at $269.00 in total, were outstanding in May 1850. This particular bill is especially notable as it was issued to Newel K. Whitney, presiding bishop of the church. Kimball served as one of the original twelve apostles in the early Church of the Latter Day Saints, and Bullock was a fellow Mormon pioneer. A rare opportunity to own a complete set of these historically significant banknotes. Starting Bid $1,000

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Isaac Newton comments on the wrong-doings of the papacy: “Oh, the mystery of piety that has already spread almost throughout the whole world! False and treacherous accounts” LOT 4007 Isaac Newton Handwritten Manuscript Criticizing Religion and the Papacy English physicist, mathematician, and astronomer (1643– 1727), widely regarded as the most influential figure in the history of science, whose ideas and discoveries, including calculus, the laws of gravitation and motion, and observations on the nature of light and optics, earned him a place among the most profound geniuses in the history of mankind. Untranslated handwritten manuscript in Latin by Isaac Newton, unsigned, one page both sides, 5.75 x 7.5, no date. A significant manuscript critical of religion and the papacy; Newton claims that the people have been ‘brainwashed’ into believing religious doctrines. He states that the priests are using false and tricky arguments to convince their followers, and accuses the pope of similar wrong-doings. In small part: “[O pietatis mysterium quod iam prope per orbem universem est propajataum! Falsis et subdolis rationum] Oh, the mystery of piety that has already spread almost throughout the whole world! False and treacherous accounts.” In fine condition, with small areas of ink erosion. Newton’s theology had correlations with his physics—Newton essentially viewed God the Father as the cause of gravity and Christ the Son as the ruling principle of the natural world. For Newton, Christ was different in substance from God and

subject to God’s dominion. The 4th-century Church Council of Nicea, which Newton studied, ruled that Christ and God were one in substance—a ruling that ran counter to Newton’s own ‘heretical’ anti-trinitarian religious beliefs—and Newton repeatedly returned to the topic and re-examined it anew. The present manuscript may pertain to Newton’s long planned, but unpublished, work on The History of the Church. Scholars now increasingly recognize the importance of Newton’s theological views for an understanding of the whole man and his science. Newton himself kept his heretical religious views secret, and his heirs suppressed his manuscripts on theology for 200 years after his death—and they are only now beginning to see the light of day. A profound, critical religious manuscript from the hand of a genius. The consignor humorously relates: ‘When we acquired this manuscript, we mentioned it to a local priest who was an expert in Latin. He said that he would consider it a privilege to be able to see it and translate it. We brought it in. several days later, he called and angrily asked if it were a joke! He read us his translation and we all then learned how openly critical Newton was of the papacy.’ Starting Bid $2,500

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Significant alchemical notes by Isaac Newton, containing references for his work in ‘chymistry’ LOT 4008 Isaac Newton Handwritten Scientific Notes on Alchemy English physicist, mathematician, and astronomer (1643– 1727), widely regarded as the most influential figure in the history of science, whose ideas and discoveries, including calculus, the laws of gravitation and motion, and observations on the nature of light and optics, earned him a place among the most profound geniuses in the history of mankind. Untranslated handwritten notes in Latin by Isaac Newton, unsigned, one page, 7.25 x 3.75, no date. Handwritten scientific notes by Newton, recording references needed in his work on chemical reactions. In very good to fine condition, with edge toning, and a tiny area of ink erosion affecting one word of text.

Newton’s interest in alchemy—or ‘chymistry,’ as it was called in 17th-century England—is well-documented. Roughly ten percent of his known writings deal with alchemy, and include laboratory notebooks, indices of alchemical substances, and Newton’s transcriptions from other sources supplemented by his own annotations. Indiana University professor William R. Newman, editor of the ‘Chymistry of Isaac Newton,’ asserts that Newton’s radical discoveries in the realm of light and color owed a significant debt to his alchemical research. Isaac Newton kept much of this research hidden from his contemporaries and colleagues, and some of its content could have been considered heretical by the church. Starting Bid $2,500

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Diderot trades work for art: “He is to grant me a Venus Anadyomene and his second small plate of antique stones” LOT 4009 Denis Diderot Rare Autograph Letter Signed, Trading Work for Art French philosopher, art critic, and writer (1713–1784), best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie, the most important and ambitious intellectual initiative of the 18th Century. Rare ALS in French, signed “Diderot,” one page, 4 x 6.5, April 11, 1781. Handwritten letter to “Monsieur de St. Aubin” in Paris, in full (translated): “Monsieur de St. Aubin has forgotten that there is a treaty between him and me. I am supposed to send him the first work that will be printed of mine. In return, he is to grant me a Venus Anadyomene and his second small plate of antique stones. If this forgetfulness stems from him valuing his work more than mine and thinking he made a bad deal, he is correct. If not, he will hand over the Venus to the bearer, well wrapped so that his dirty and coarse hand cannot spoil it. I send my regards and embrace him as always.” At the end of the letter, Saint-Aubin added the date in pencil: “1781, I sent him a Venus before the letter in February 1782.” In fine condition.

The letter was transmitted by Eugène Charavay to Maurice Tourneux, who published and commented on it in “Diderot et Catherine II” (Paris, 1899, pp. 419-420). Diderot’s autograph is exceedingly rare: we have offered just two examples in the course of the last decade. Starting Bid $1,000

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Darwin comments on his influential works: “I sh’d think my Journal would give better extracts on the habits of animals than the ‘Origin’” LOT 4010 Charles Darwin Autograph Letter Signed on ‘On the Origin of Species’ and ‘Voyage of the Beagle’ ALS signed “C. Darwin,” one page, 5 x 8, March 11, [no year but circa 1862–69]. Handwritten letter to a gentleman, granting permission to quote liberally from his famous works. In full: “You are most entirely welcome to insert anything from any of my works in your Magazine. I sh’d think my Journal would give better extracts on the habits of animals than the ‘Origin.’” In fine condition. In this interesting autograph letter by Charles Darwin, the great evolutionary thinker suggests that his first book, ‘Journal of Researches’ (now known as ‘Voyage of the Beagle’), may be a better resource for quotes on the habits of animals than his more famous work on evolution, ‘On the Origin of Species.’ First published in 1839 as his ‘Journal and Remarks,’ the work covers Darwin’s part in the second survey expedition of the ship HMS Beagle: it is a vivid travel memoir as well as a detailed scientific field journal covering biology, geology, and anthropology. Its initial publication brought Darwin considerable fame and respect, and in 1845 he released an extensively revised edition incorporating his developing

ideas on evolution, renaming it the ‘Journal of Researches.’ Writing of the Galápagos finches with their gradations in size of beaks, Darwin observed: ‘One might really fancy that from an original paucity of birds in this archipelago, one species had been taken and modified for different ends.’ Darwin further refined and developed these evolutionary ideas for his massively influential ‘On the Origin of Species,’ which introduced the idea that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. The book was a sensation, wildly exceeding the expectations of either Darwin or his publisher. Widely considered ‘the most important biological book ever written,’ Darwin’s work brought evolutionary thought to the masses and rightfully posited the idea of natural selection as its driving force. That Darwin comments on both of these incredibly important scientific books in a single letter is absolutely remarkable. The Darwin Correspondence Project records this as “Letter no. 13877F,” noting that the year is established by the form of the address, which Dawrin used from May 1861 to April 1869. Starting Bid $2,500

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Edison reports on his pioneering X-ray experiments for The Century Magazine, including a sketch of “the first Roentgen Ray lamp in the world” LOT 4011 Thomas Edison Handwritten Manuscript on X-Ray Experiments with Sketch of “the first Roentgen Ray lamp in the world” Handwritten manuscript on X-ray experiments by Thomas A. Edison, accomplished in pencil in his unmistakable hand and incorporating his surname twice, totaling eight pages plus a handdrawn diagram and an original photograph, 6 x 9, circa 1896. Edison drafts a contribution to an article that would appear in the May 1896 issue of The Century Magazine, entitled ‘Photographing the Unseen: A Symposium on the Roentgen Rays.’ Edison begins by outlining the purpose of his work: “[E]dison’s experiments with the Roentgen Ray have been almost entirely devoted to understanding the phenomenon with a view of obtaining the most practicable and powerful form of apparatus—especially the fluorescent lamp—the photographic plates and the best form of electric oscillation to energize the lamp. Having all the appliances for working with Incandescent lamp vacuo he has been enabled to try a large number of experiments with the end in view. He has not as yet attempted to take pictures [o]ther than a standard figure [o]f a number of bars of metal…[H]e is now fitting up a [c] omplete apparatus and [e]xpects soon to conduct a number of accurate experiments in the photography of animals & inanimate objects, from the rough experiments recorded in Edison’s note book I ‘brief’ the following.” The next five pages record his observations of these experiments, in part: “1st. The ray proceeds from all parts of the glass illuminated by fluorescence. 2nd. With same degree of fluorescence it is independent of the size or position of electrodes. 3d. Under same conditions as to distance of lamps from plate the distortion increases with increase in size of lamp bulb. 4th. Records taken every 3 inches up to 36 inches show that the photographic effect of the ray diminishes at the square of the distance as stated by Roentgen—5th. Commercial dry plates vary much in their sensitiveness to the ray—the most rapid plates for light are the slowest for the ray. 6th. As near as can be ascertained at present the power of the ray to photograph varies as to the square of the illuminating power of the fluorescence. 7th. The phosphoresce of the lamp after current is stopped does not photograph—powerful after phosphoresce of a lamp is no indication of its value for

photographic work.” He concludes by noting: “A good lamp should give [a] clear photograph of thin metallic strips through 8 inches of Georgia pine in 15 minutes.” Additionally includes Edison’s hand-drawn diagram of the lamp, accomplished on the reverse of a color illustration of New York, captioned in pencil in another hand: “Sketch of the first Roentgen Ray lamp in the world. Drawn by Edison’s own hand at his laboratory for George H. Guy.” The sketch closely corresponds with the official diagram that Edison submitted for his ‘Fluorescent Electric Lamp’ patent, filed May 19, 1896. Guy’s New York address is stamped in the upper right corner; Guy was manager of the Bureau of Scientific and Electrical Information, and a technical newspaper columnist/editor for several notable newspapers of the day, including the New York Times. Also accompanying is a rare contemporary 6 x 8.5 mounted albumen portrait of Edison, captioned on the mount in pencil: “Edison under his Fluorescent Lamp, May 29/96.” Browned, brittle, and in good to very good condition, with varying degrees of chipping, splitting, tears, and losses affecting some of Edison’s writing; the original photograph is heavily worn, with splits to the mount repaired on the reverse with tape. Accompanied by a photocopy of the piece as it appeared in The Century Magazine. German engineer and physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered X-rays in 1895, and scientists and inventors around the world clamored to investigate the newfound phenomenon. Edison was principal among them, and—as he notes here, already having developed apparatus for testing the electric incandescent light— made fast progress. He quickly developed a fluorescent lamp which used X-rays, or “Roentgen Rays,” to excite the phosphor, which he used to conduct experiments in X-ray imaging. He soon set to work on an early fluoroscope, but abandoned the project upon realizing the dangers of radiation: Edison nearly lost his sight, and his laboratory assistant Clarence Dally became an early victim of radiation dermatitis and subsequent medical complications, eventually losing his left arm and right hand due to radiation exposure, and dying of mediastinal cancer. These unfortunate events led Edison to famously announce: ‘Don’t talk to me about X-rays; I am afraid of them.’ Starting Bid $5,000

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Edison takes partial ownership in the patent for a “Meter for measuring electricity”— suggested for use in his electric light experiments LOT 4012 Thomas Edison Document Signed for Electric Meter Patent - Used in Developing the Electric Light Manuscript DS, signed “Thomas A. Edison,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 8 x 12.5, January 1, 1881. Document between Thomas A. Edison of Menlo Park and Benjamin F. Card of Brooklyn regarding the purchase of his patent for an electric meter, in part: “Whereas the said Card had granted of to him on the thirtieth day of December 1879 Letters Patent of the United States for Meter for measuring electricity and numbered #223,112 and the said Card is desirous of selling all his right, title and interest in the said Letters Patent and, whereas the said Thomas A. Edison is desirous of acquiring all said Card’s right, title and interest in said invention and letters patent on the terms and conditions set forth viz: Two thousand Dollars in hand paid by the said Thomas A. Edison to the said Card on the receipt of which the said Card agrees to convey by assignment one undivided half interest… The said Edison agrees to proceed as soon as practicable to construct such apparatus pursuant to said patent and to do all that is essential to render such an apparatus satisfactory as a reliable measure of the electric current. The said Edison shall have the right to sell the entire Patent but shall not grant licences under it.” The document goes on to outline further terms and conditions related to the agreement. Boldly and prominently signed at the conclusion by Thomas Edison,

and neatly countersigned by Benjamin Card; Card also signs two endorsements, one confirming receipt of Edison’s $2,000 payment and the other extending their agreement until January 1883. In fine condition, with some minor paper loss along the edges. On November 4, 1878, Card wrote to Edison asking if he would consider a submission of his electric meter invention in support of his research on the electric incandescent light: ‘Have you settled yet on your Electro-meter for your Electric Light? If not I should be pleased to submit one of my own design.’ His patent application for the device was filed on December 14, 1878, and granted in December 1879. Evidently impressed by the design, Edison—by this document—took partial ownership in the patent in 1881. From The Papers of Thomas A. Edison: New Beginnings, January 1885–December 1887: ‘Benjamin F. Card became an agent for the Edison Isolated Co. in New York City and Long Island about 1882, having previously corresponded with Edison about his own electric meter and electric railway inventions. (Edison took a partial ownership interest in a Card meter patent in 1881.) Edison complained in 1882 that he ‘talks a great deal too much’ and should be given a special assignment far from New York…By mid-1888, he was identified as an agent of the Edison Lamp Co.’ Starting Bid $1,000

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“Thomas Alva Edison” files to patent his “Improvements in and connected with Electric Lamps’” in India LOT 4013 Thomas Edison Document Signed for Light Bulb Patent: “Improvements in and connected with Electric Lamps” Manuscript DS, signed “Thomas Alva Edison,” one page, 9 x 13.5, November 22, 1881. In full: “I, Thomas Alva Edison, of Menlo Park in the state of New Jersey, United States of America, Electrician, do solemnly and sincerely declare, that I am in possession of an invention for ‘Improvements in and connected with Electric Lamps,’ British Patent dated Feb. 8th, 1881, No. 539; that I believe the said Invention will be of public utility; that I am the Inventor thereof, and that the same is not publicly known or used in India to the best of my knowledge and belief; and that to the best of my knowledge and belief my said invention is truly described in my petition for leave to file a specification thereof.” Boldly and prominently signed at the conclusion in ink, “Thomas Alva Edison,” and notarized beneath Edison’s signature by George T. Pinckney. The reverse of document bears a signed statement from William Simmons, written in another hand, stating: “I, William James Simmons, of Hastings Street in Calcutta a member of the firm Harris and Company, do solemnly and sincerely declare that the members of…Harris and Company have jointly and severally appointed by the said Thomas Alva Edison his agents for the purpose of obtaining an exclusive privilege for him under Act XV of 1859 of the Legislative Council of India in his invention above stated, and I verily believe that the declaration of the said Thomas Alva Edison on the other side hereof written was signed by him and that the contents thereof are true. Dated at Calcutta this 31st day of January one thousand eight hundred and eighty two.” Affixed to the front of the document’s bottom edge is a smaller one page document, 7.5 x 8, signed by Her Britannic Majesty’s Consul-General, attesting to the signature of Pinckney, signed by E[dward] M[ortimer] Archibald. In very good to fine condition, with some light soiling and toning, and splits to folds in the Archibald document.

Edison’s genius extended to his business acumen, and a number of his patents were first obtained overseas to ensure international ownership. Like most inventions, Edison’s famed development of the incandescent electric light built upon the work of predecessors. The first electric light was made in 1800 by Humphry Davy, an English scientist who experimented with electricity and invented an electric battery. When he connected wires to his battery and a piece of carbon, the carbon glowed, producing light. This is called an electric arc. Much later, in 1860, the English physicist Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914) was determined to devise a more practical, long-lasting electric light. He found that a carbon paper filament worked well, but burned up quickly. In 1878, he demonstrated his new electric lamps in Newcastle, England. In 1877, American Charles Francis Brush manufactured some carbon arcs to light a public square in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. These arcs were used on a few streets, in a few large office buildings, and even some stores. But all these electric lights were used by only a few people and were not widely accepted. Finally, the great inventor Thomas Alva Edison, who experimented with thousands of different filaments, found just the right materials to glow well while being long-lasting and affordable. In 1879, Edison discovered that a carbon filament in an oxygen-free bulb glowed but did not burn up for 40 hours. By making various adjustments, Edison eventually produced a bulb that could glow for over 1500 hours. His “Improvements in and connected with Electric Lamps” were patented in February 1881 in England, and then in other countries in the following months. This remarkable document pertains to the extension of the patent into India, then still part of the British Empire. A rare, early Edison document related to his greatest invention—the incandescent light—boasting his uncommon full signature. Starting Bid $1,000

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Einstein explains the “theory usually called Special Theory of Relativity,” demonstrating that the speed of light is a constant LOT 4014 Albert Einstein Typed Letter Signed, Explaining Special Relativity TLS in German, signed “A. Einstein,” one page both sides, 8.75 x 11, personal letterhead, August 8, 1931. Letter to physics student M. Frenkel in Vienna, offering a proof that Relativity does not hold if the speed of light is not constant. In part (translated): “My situation with regards to your work is such that I can’t see the forest for all the trees, that is, I don’t know what you are actually trying to prove…The theory usually called Special Theory of Relativity contains two assumptions: 1.) The principle of Special Relativity (R) 2.) The independence of one speed c from the relative system. (L[…]) (That this is the speed of light does not enter into the derivations of the results (e.g. the Lorenz-Transformation). You seem to believe now that Ritz’s law of the dispersion of light, that is, the hypothesis that the dispersion velocity of light is equal to c+v (c being a constant, v the velocity of the emitting body) can be consolidated with the Lorenz-Transformation. This, however, is a misconception. Proof: Let a light be sent from a body resting opposite to K, from the point of origin in the direction of a positive x-axis. By applying Ritz’s hypothesis twice, we get the propagationequation opposite to K’: x’=ct’ opposite to K: x= (c+v)t Both these equations are supposed to present the same occurrence, that is xt and x’t’ are supposed to be connected by the Lorenz-Transformation. That is not the case, because x2-c2t2 =x’2-c2t’2 is not valid. Thus, if I have understood you

correctly, you are mistaken. Should you, however, mean to express something else, then you need to state that briefly and clearly.” In very good condition, with heavy intersecting folds, and small areas of paper loss, repaired and reinforced by complete silking to the front. Einstein’s theories created controversies for many years and in all levels of scholarship. The speed of a ball thrown at a velocity of 40 miles per hour, thrown forward from a train going 30 miles per hour, actually travels at 70 miles per hour with respect to someone standing on the station platform. Einstein’s basic assumption is that the speed of light emitted from a flashlight on that train does not add on the 30 miles per hour of the train. Not all scientists agreed with him. Ritz’s theory, developed by Swiss physicist Walther Ritz, insists among other things that the light does travel 30 miles faster from that train. Here, a student insists that Relativity still holds true, even under Ritz’s theory. Einstein attempts to show his correspondent that he is in error. In offering his proof, Einstein hand-writes portions of the formulas “x’=ct’,” expressing the distance traveled by light in t’ seconds, and “x=(c+v)t” expressing the distance traveled by light in t seconds from a train going v miles per hour, as proposed and seen by Ritz standing on the platform. He also pens “x2-c2t2 =x’2-c2t’2” in his closing lines. A superb and thoughtful piece of instructive correspondence from Albert Einstein, who revolutionized modern physics through the theories of special and general relativity. Starting Bid $2,500

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“This precious institution, the only one of its kind in the world, is on the verge of collapse” LOT 4015 Albert Einstein Typed Letter Signed Seeking Support for a Jewish Academy, Weeks Before Hitler’s Rise to Power TLS in German, signed “A. Einstein,” one page, 8.5 x 11.25, December 8, 1932. Letter to Georg Jacobovits, a Jewish builder in Berlin, seeking financial support for a Jewish academy just weeks before Hitler’s rise to power as Germany’s chancellor. In full (translated): “The Academy for the Science of Judaism is in dire straits. They had undertaken the task of obtaining contributions from private persons and from the Jewish community, in order for Judaism to take on the tasks supported by state academies elsewhere. They gave young Jewish scholars the opportunity to work scientifically, thus providing them with support during their first and most difficult years, up to employment or appointment. With these young scientists they completed large scale collaborative works. Publications from all fields of science bear witness to their achievements and have made their name widely known. This precious institution, the only one of its kind in the world, is on the verge of collapse. The current emergency has long since forced even greater restrictions, and today the number of people employed by the Academy and their salaries are so reduced, that any further diminution would bring about complete dissolution. But this would cause irreparable damage to the spiritual representation of Judaism. What was created here in an exemplary way could, once destroyed, hardly be rebuilt. A number of the most valuable people would, all of a sudden, face no employment opportunities. I ask, therefore, all those who are able to do what they can for this valuable institution.” In fine condition, with fold separations expertly repaired on the reverse. Although Einstein was not particularly religious, he came to identify himself more closely with his Jewish heritage as the

years passed. In ‘Einstein and the Generations of Science,’ Lewis S. Feuer observes that while living in Berlin during the 1930s, Einstein’s ‘concern for Zionist activities grew, a response to the rising hatreds that he saw festering in Europe…A reconstructed atheist, Einstein agreed to serve as chairman of the Management Committee of the Akademie für die Wissenschaft des Judentums, a society dedicated to the cultivation of Jewish learning. Einstein indeed came to think that the hatred for the intellect was the underlying motive of anti-Semites: ‘Hence the hatred of the Jews by those who have reason to shun popular enlightenment. More than anything else in the world, they fear the influence of men of intellectual independence. I see in this the essential cause for the savage hatred of Jews raging in present-day Germany.’’ The Academy had been founded in Berlin in 1919 as a secular research institute, at the instigation of Franz Rosenzweig, under the direction of German historian Eugen Taubler. In writing this letter soliciting contributions to the Academy, Einstein recognizes its influential role in furthering Jewish scientists, as well as its precarious position in a time of social and economic tumult. Some seven weeks later, on January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler, the leader of the Nazi Party, would be named chancellor of Germany. Einstein, like so many Jewish academics of his time, was forced into exile in 1933 due to anti-Semitic persecution in Nazi Germany. He immigrated to the U.S. and was attached to Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study for the remainder of his life, becoming the symbol and leader of his cohort of refugee scholars. In the face of persecution, Einstein helped whenever he could and, in addition to assisting many fellow Jews flee Germany, he helped found and raise funds for Hebrew University and was offered (but declined) the Presidency of Israel. Starting Bid $1,000

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“In the formula E = Mc2, M is measured in gram, E in erg and c in cm/sec” — elusive Einstein letter explaining his landmark mass-energy equation LOT 4016 Albert Einstein Rare Typed Letter Signed Writing His Famous E=Mc2 Equation TLS signed “A. Einstein,” one page, 8.5 x 11, blindstamped personal letterhead, April 21, 1946. Letter to high school student Jack Monsted, in full: “Your informations do not seem to be quite reliable to me. But there is no time to correct them. In the formula E = Mc2, M is measured in gram, E in erg and c in cm/sec.” The formula’s equal sign, and the succeeding comma, are both written in pencil. In fine condition. Accompanied by the original mailing envelope and a letter of provenance from the original recipient: “The letter from Albert Einstein, dated April 21, 1946, was written in response to a letter I wrote him about two weeks earlier. I was a senior in high school and was taking physics and the atom bomb, which had been dropped on Japan that previous August, was a subject in the class. I was unable to find out what the units of measurement the symbols in the equation E=MC^2 meant so I wrote this letter and asked him. The first sentence in his letter refers to a question I asked regarding the theory of relativity

where I talked about a yardstick shrinking as it approaches the speed of light. I guess my information was not reliable.” Einstein’s theory of relativity—the foundation of modern physics—encompassed his pioneering concepts of special relativity and general relativity, respectively proposed and published in 1905 and 1915. With it came his famed equation, “E = mc2”—the mass-energy relationship—undoubtedly the most well-known equation ever set forth. In his later years, Einstein explained on-camera: ‘It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are but different manifestations of the same thing… Furthermore, the equation E is equal to m c-squared, in which energy is put equal to mass multiplied by the velocity of light squared, showed that a very small amount of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy, and vice versa.’ Letters from Einstein featuring his iconic “E = mc2” formula — undoubtedly the most well-known equation ever set forth — are tremendously rare and seldom offered for public purchase, distinctions that signal this offering as something of an event. Starting Bid $1,000

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Rare handwritten letter by Wittgenstein to the wife of his influential friend, whose remark led to the ‘Philosophical Investigations’ LOT 4017 Ludwig Wittgenstein Autograph Letter Signed to Piero Sraffa, who inspired the ‘Philosophical Investigations’ Highly influential Austrian-British philosopher (1889–1951) whose greatest contributions were in the fields of logic, philosophy of mathematics, and language. Scarce ALS, one page, 4.75 x 7.25, April 29, 1949. Unpublished handwritten letter to the wife of his old Cambridge friend, the Italian economist Piero Sraffa, written from Vienna, Austria. In full: “Thanks for your letter of April 11th. I was very glad to get it. It was forwarded to me here. I am staying for some weeks with my eldest sister who is very ill. I expect to be in Cambridge in about 3 or 4 weeks & am looking forward to seeing you then.” In fine condition. Wittgenstein’s autograph material is very scarce—this is the first example we have offered in over five years. According to Norman Malcolm, Piero Sraffa caused Ludwig Wittgenstein to rethink a rude gesture, providing him with the conceptual break that founded the Philosophical Investigations (published posthumously in 1953): ‘Wittgenstein was insisting that a proposition and what it describes must have the same ‘logical form,’ the same ‘logical multiplicity.’ Sraffa made a gesture, familiar to Neapolitans as meaning something like disgust or contempt, of brushing the underneath of his chin with an outward sweep of the finger-tips of one hand. And he asked: ‘What is the logical form of that?’’

In the introduction to the Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein mentions these ongoing conversations with Sraffa over the years and says, ‘I am ‘obliged’ to this stimulus; it gave me the most consistent ideas for this book.’ In 1946, despite Wittgenstein’s protests, Sraffa ended their weekly conversations; when the philosopher said he would say anything as Sraffa wished, Sraffa replied, ‘Yes, but in ‘your’ way.’ Sraffa and Wittgenstein deeply influenced each other, discussing and reviewing each other in journals and notebooks. Both authors dealt with the prevalent form of positivism in their respective disciplines—economics and philosophy. While Wittgenstein had his famous shift from the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus to the Philosophical Investigations, where he rejected the previous idea that the world is an atomistic set of propositional facts in favor of the notion that meaning arises from its use in a holistic, self-contained system, Sraffa similarly discarded the neoclassical paradigm, which was atomistic, individualistic, and deductive. Although there are disputes about how to understand Sraffa—especially between the neoclassical camp of Paul Samuelson and the neoRicardian camp of Pierangelo Garegnani—there is consensus on Sraffa’s influence. One can say that, similar to Wittgenstein in philosophy, Sraffa aims to replace the individualistic and positivistic understanding of price as the result of supply and demand equilibrium in neoclassical economics with the price that has the social function of reproducing a stationary or growing economy given a certain income distribution. Starting Bid $1,000

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King Henry VIII grants lands in Essex to their rightful heir LOT 4018 King Henry VIII Rare Document Signed (1541) King of England from 1509 until his death in 1547, remembered for his role in the English Reformation, his six marriages (and his beheaded ex-wives), and his radical changes to the English Constitution. Rare vellum manuscript DS, signed “Henry R,” one page, 19.25 x 13.5, May 15, 1541. An indenture of livery between King Henry VIII (‘’the same most Crysten prynce or naturall lyege lorde’’) and Humphrey Torrell, granting the latter lands inherited from his father Henry Torrell, with the stipulation that all the property be fully inspected and assessed by the King’s valuers. These lands, tenements, rents, and other hereditaments were chiefly located in Essex; the family home was Torrell’s Hall, in Willingale Doe. Humphrey Torrell died in 1544, leaving an infant daughter Anne, who went on to marry Henry, son of Sir Thomas Joscelyn. Mounted, matted, and framed with a descriptive caption to an overall size of 25.5 x 21.5. In very good condition, with overall wrinkling

and soiling, a stain to the lower left, and a small hole slightly affecting the text. The life and times of King Henry VIII have fascinated and inspired across the centuries. From William Shakespeare’s history play Henry VIII to the recent Broadway hit Six—covering the lives of his several wives—his story continues to capture the public imagination. The autograph of King Henry VIII is rare and highly sought in any form, particularly in complete documents. Starting Bid $2,500

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“4 factions divided the Republic”— Napoleon reflects on the French politics of the 1790s in an important, unpublished chapter of his memoirs LOT 4019 Napoleon Lengthy Handwritten Manuscript on the French Directory, Prepared for His Memoirs Unsigned handwritten manuscript by Napoleon Bonaparte, four pages on two adjoining sheets, 8 x 12.75, no date. Important, unpublished handwritten manuscript by Napoleon Bonaparte for his proposed memoirs, ostensibly penned while living in exile at Longwood House on Saint Helena. Napoleon famously dictated his memoirs to his aides, Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon, and Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases, who had accompanied him to Saint Helena. Las Cases published the admiring work under the title Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène (The Memorial of Saint Helena) in 1823. Here, Napoleon writes out lengthy commentary on the French Directory and his nation’s political situation in the 1790s. In part (translated): “III. Tipping system: 4 factions divided the Republic; the 1st had confidence in the adapted constitution of 1795. The 2nd desired a president at the head of the state. The 3rd was that of the 1793 constitution, called the terrorists. The 4th, supporters of the Bourbons and counter-revolution. This last one consisted of only a few families and priests; terror had weighed on them, and they had been destroyed. Its own followers who still lived had emigrated and perished in poverty and contempt abroad. The first three factions encompassed the entire population of France. Many individuals who approved the adopted constitution had a decided aversion to the Convention delegates and would have preferred that patriots who had not participated in the government of the Convention be called to the Directory, or at least that voters not be called. The five directors had all voted for the death of the king. It was expected that they would employ all the Convention delegates, their colleagues who were no longer part of the council, and especially that they would show confidence in the voters. In the end, the directors allowed themselves to be dominated by the spirit of persecution that each had adopted during the long and tumultuous reign of the Convention, to the great astonishment of observers. One can say that the title of Convention delegate and especially that of voter became a title of exclusion from employment and soon a title of proscription. As these individuals expressed indignation at this conduct, they were, by a high police measure, expelled from Paris and obliged to return to their homes. The supporters of a president’s government were easy to rally to the new system. Many of them

were educated men who had figured in the Constituent Assembly, in public affairs. The director to be sidelined allied with them forever; they became, for them, the constitution that was founded on self-love but from the directors. The terrorists or supporters of the 1793 constitution were initially few in number or at least inactive; they were inclined to sincerely rally to the government composed of 5 fervent Convention delegates who had belonged to various Jacobin groups…these 5 directors were also from the party desired on the 13th Vendemiaire, and the terrorists gloried in having contributed to the success of that day. But the grandeur that surrounded the 5 directors, the title of representative, the etiquette, initially frightened them…War was soon declared; this faction went to war and soon conspired for the salvation of the fatherland and for the deliverance from the tyranny of the 5 lords of the Luxembourg…Carnot alone was one of them and enjoyed their trust. The Bourbonians hated the directors as republicans, as Convention delegates, as voters, and as the men of the 13th Vendemiaire. It was to please, to capture, and to rally this faction that the Directory worked…it was Carnot who soon became the object of the hatred and fear of all the terrorists, especially since they had hoped more from him. The armies sincerely rallied to the government, which, while retaining the principles for which they had fought, promised them more stability in their employment and more consideration. Thus, the Directory, through the strangest of illusions, worsened its position every day.” On the last page is an autograph note in pencil by Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon, a general during the Napoleonic Wars who chose to go into exile with Bonaparte on Saint Helena (translated): “Writing of Emperor Napoleon at St. Helena.” In fine condition, with some light staining and soiling. Aware of the major role he had played in the history of his time, Napoleon Bonaparte devoted long hours at Saint Helena to dictate—and more rarely write—an account of his campaigns and military and political analyses of his era. Napoleon had little else to do than to reflect on his triumphs, and this piece documents some of Napoleon’s own thoughts on the political situation in France during the 1790s. It is a critical manuscript that offers insight into Napoleon’s understanding of his life, politics, and career. Starting Bid $2,500

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Exiled on Saint Helena and working on his memoirs, Napoleon Bonaparte reflects on the capture of Malta

Unsigned handwritten manuscript by Napoleon Bonaparte, one page, 8 x 4.5, no date. Important handwritten manuscript by Napoleon Bonaparte regarding his proposed memoirs, ostensibly penned while living in exile at Longwood House on Saint Helena. Napoleon famously dictated his memoirs to his aides, Charles Tristan, marquis de Montholon, and Emmanuel, comte de Las Cases, who had accompanied him to Saint Helena. Las Cases published the admiring work under the title Le Mémorial de Sainte-Hélène (The Memorial of Saint Helena) in 1823. Here, Napoleon writes out some commentary on the capture of Malta.

he had sent Poussielgue in November of the same year to gather information on defenses and gain supporters among the numerous French knights. It turned out that the military strength of the Order was weak, but the fortifications of the island were imposing. This project was executed during the prologue of the Egyptian expedition: the French fleet left Toulon on May 19, 1798, and Bonaparte landed on the island on June 10. At the request of the Order of Malta, he sent his aide-de-camp Junot to negotiate a ceasefire, which was signed on June 11 at 2 a.m. He then established a convention (capitulation) signed on June 12 aboard the French flagship by the Grand Master of the Order, Ferdinand von Hompesch: this text stipulated that the Order ceded to France all its sovereignty rights over Malta and its dependencies and settled the fate of the Grand Master and the knights.

In full (translated): “By the capitulation, the commander-in-chief promised his influence to obtain for the Order sovereignty in Germany equivalent to the population of Malta and ensured 700 francs of pension and the enjoyment of their property for French and Italian knights, and permission to return to their homeland. The stay in Malta was to count as if one had not left France. The Grand Master received 600,000 in gold and 300,000 in pension.” In fine condition.

Aware of the major role he had played in the history of his time, Napoleon Bonaparte devoted long hours at Saint Helena to dictate—and more rarely write—an account of his campaigns and military and political analyses of his era. Napoleon had little else to do than to reflect on his triumphs, and this piece documents some of Napoleon’s own thoughts on his early military successes. It is a critical manuscript that offers insight into Napoleon’s understanding of his life and career.

The capture of Malta had been contemplated by Bonaparte since the conquest of the Ionian Islands in July 1797, and

Starting Bid $1,000

LOT 4020 Napoleon Handwritten Manuscript on the Capture of Malta, Prepared for His Memoirs

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Scarce French–Arabic document signed by Napoleon Bonaparte during his campaign in Egypt, preceding the discovery of the Rosetta Stone by two weeks LOT 4021 Napoleon Document Signed During Egypt Campaign (1799) Manuscript DS, in French and Arabic, signed “Bonaparte,” one page, 9 x 13.75, June 30, 1799. A document from the Divan member in Cairo, Egypt, addressed to “general en chef Bonaparte,” boldly signed at the center by Napoleon using his surname; this is one of the most complete, legible “Bonaparte” signatures we have ever encountered. The document pertains to Napoleon’s request for the records of an interrogation of an Arab named Muustapha who had been arrested for violating passport regulations; the Divan claimed that Muustapha was

innocent and sought his release. In very good to fine condition, with light creasing, soiling, and intersecting folds. Accompanied by a related letter signed by an aide, containing the requested account of the interrogation. This interesting bilingual document dates to Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt and Syria, which he proclaimed to ‘defend French trade interests’ and to establish ‘scientific enterprise’ in the region. One of the campaign’s enduring legacies was discovery of the Rosetta Stone on July 15, 1799—mere days after the present document—inspiring of a burst of Egyptomania across Europe. Starting Bid $300

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Rare and important handwritten letter by Karl Marx on the French edition of Das Kapital: “The revolutionary spirit of the book is revealed only gradually” LOT 4022 Karl Marx Autograph Letter Signed on the French Edition of Das Kapital: “The revolutionary spirit of the book is revealed only gradually” Rare and important ALS in French, signed “Karl Marx,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 5 x 8.25, March 7, 1872. Handwritten letter to the publisher Maurice Lachâtre, on the subject of the French edition of Das Kapital. Marx opens by noting that on receipt of his correspondent’s “too flattering letter” he immediately wrote to his translator, asking him “to send the manuscript to Paris.” He goes on to make reference to a projected biography: “As for the biography, you will oblige me by not insisting on its immediate publication. My friend F. Engels, who will provide details to Lafargue [Marx’s son-inlaw, Paul Lafargue], is at the moment too overworked to deal with it. In my opinion, we should not waste time, and nothing prevents us from publishing the biography later.” Returning to Das Kapital, Marx writes, “I completely agree with you that no communication should be made to newspapers regarding the French translation. With the Russian edition we took the same precautions, and unfortunately France is now under a ‘Russian’ regime.” He then asks that it be clarified “in the first issue that the translation is made from the manuscript of the second German edition, which will not begin publication for a few weeks.” Marx goes on to emphasize the originality of his work: “I hope the book does not bring you further persecution. The method is quite different from that applied by the French socialists and others.” “I do not take general ideas like ‘equality’ etc. as my point of departure, but I begin, on the contrary, with the objective

analysis of economic relations as they are, and that is why the revolutionary spirit of the book is revealed only gradually. What I fear, on the contrary, is that the aridity of the first analyses will put off the French reader. Nevertheless, there are in the first chapters some anti-religious jokes which could hurt the devotees of the rural republic.” In a postscript, Marx reminds his correspondent that their agreement entitles him to a payment of 2000 francs in fifteen days’ time. In fine condition, with minor edge chipping and a short split to the bottom of the hinge. In 1872, Lachâtre published the first book of Marx’s Das Kapital in French—Le Capital, translated by Joseph Roy but edited by Marx himself. In his publishing agreement, Marx demanded that ‘the edition of his book be expressly in a form and at a price that make the work accessible to the smallest purses.’ The work proved to be the foundational text for Marxism, exploring the exploitative nature of the capitalist mode of production and the resultant struggle between social classes. Marx drew heavily from the French socialist thinkers—Claude Henri St. Simon and Charles Fourier in particular—in his studies of the political economy, making a French translation a natural fit. And, as he was fluent in French, Marx was able to edit and revise it himself. In the end, Marx complained that Roy often translated too literally, but ‘whatever the literary defects of the French edition, it possesses a scientific value independent of the original and should be consulted even by readers familiar with German.’ Marx’s letters are incredibly scarce, and as this example is associated with the publication of his most important work, it is of the utmost desirability. Starting Bid $10,000

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Historic signed first English edition of Quotations from Chairman Mao, with photo proof—the ‘Little Red Book’ autographed for the wife of Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, who aided in normalizing USA-China relations LOT 4023 Mao Zedong Historically Important Signed Book: Quotations from Chairman Mao (The Little Red Book) - Autographed for the Wife of Pakistan’s Foreign Minister, with Photo Proof Incredibly rare and historic signed book: Quotations from Chairman Mao. First English edition. Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966. Softcover bound in red vinyl covers with embossed title and star, 3.75 x 5.25, 312 pages. Signed in the border of the frontispiece portrait in fountain pen by Mao Zedong. Chairman Mao signed this book in October 1966 for the wife of Foreign Minister of Pakistan Sharifuddin Pirzada (1923–2017), who was the first statesman invited to visit the Chinese government after the beginning of the ‘Cultural Revolution’; the moment that Mao signed the book was captured on film. The foreign minister’s name is inscribed on the first free end page in blue ballpoint, “Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada, Peking, 25th October 1966.” Autographic condition: fine. Book condition: VG/None, with a bit of wrinkling to the bottom of the title page and some soiling to the bright red vinyl wrappers. Foreign Minister Pirzada and his wife arrived in Peking on October 22, 1966, to conduct a friendly diplomatic visit—making him the first statesman to make an official visit to China after the beginning of the Cultural Revolution. The Peking Review of October 28th reported on the visit: ‘Chairman Mao Tse-tung received Pakistan Foreign Minister Sayed Sharifuddin Pirzada and his wife on October 25, and had a cordial and friendly conversation with them…Foreign Minister Pirzada said that the friendship between Pakistan and China was based on the genuine and fundamental interests of the two countries and the two peoples. He pointed out that the policies of both countries provided an excellent basis for strengthening this friendship. Sino-Pakistan friendship and co-operation, he added, was a demand of our times and any attempt to interfere with it would never succeed. The Pakistan Foreign Minister thanked the Chinese Government and people for their support to the Kashmiri people’s just struggle. He said that the Government and people of Pakistan would never forget the support and aid given by the Chinese Government and people when Pakistan

met with aggression. He pointed out that China’s support to Pakistan in fighting against aggression was a stabilizing factor in South Asia.’ Accompanied by a photocopy of the article. When Pirzada was elevated to Foreign Minister in 1966, The Guardian reported: ‘Mr. Pirzada is expected to exert a wholesome influence…Pakistan will continue to maintain good relations with China…but in the coming months there is going to be an earnest effort to restore friendly relations with the United States without hurting Peking. Mr. Pirzada can be relied upon to forge a level-headed and balanced policy towards the ‘two worlds.’’ Pirzada was successful in those efforts, cultivating strong ties with both the United States and China as the two hostile nations began to consider rapprochement. Helping to close the communication gap between the two countries, Pakistan would play a pivotal role in organizing Henry Kissinger’s secret visit to Beijing in 1971, followed by President Nixon’s historic official trip to China in 1972—considered by many to be the greatest diplomatic achievement of the 20th century. Widely known as Mao’s ‘Little Red Book,’ the pocket-sized ‘Mao Zhu Xi Yu Lu’ [Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-tung] was first printed in Chinese in 1964 and widely distributed during China’s Cultural Revolution. The first English version was published in 1966 by the Communist Party’s Foreign Languages Press, and versions into over thirty other languages soon followed. An icon of Red China and the Cultural Revolution, the Little Red Book’s thirty-three chapters contain quotations from Mao’s speeches and writings, organized by topic: the Communist Party, class and class struggle, socialism and communism, war and peace, imperialism, the People’s Army, politics, patriotism, and culture are all touched upon in the famous work. Rarely found in autographed examples, this is one of just a handful to be offered at auction in the past few decades—and none have been bolstered by such exceptional provenance. A remarkable signed first edition of this historic and influential book, which helped to shape China’s cultural and political paths in the 20th century. Starting Bid $25,000

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Dinner menu signed by Chou En-lai and Chen Yi for Pakistan’s foreign minister LOT 4024 Chou En-lai and Chen Yi Signed Dinner Menu for Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Significant official menu from the dinner honoring Pakistani Foreign Minister Sharifuddin Pirzada on the occasion of his historic visit to China, held in Beijing on October 25, 1966, one page, 3.25 x 6.25, signed in blue ballpoint by Vice Premier Chou En-lai, Minister of Foreign Affairs Chen Yi and his wife Zhang Qian, and President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Guo Moruo. The menu bears the state emblem of Pakistan, as the dinner was hosted by Pakistan’s ambassador to China; it lists courses of “Mushroom cream soup, Fried Prawns, Chicken a’la kiev, Biriani, Chicken curry, Shami Kabab, vegetable, Ginger pudding, Fruits.” In very fine condition. This menu was signed for Foreign Minister of Pakistan Sharifuddin Pirzada (1923–2017), who was the first statesman invited to visit the Chinese government after the beginning of the ‘Cultural Revolution.’ Pirzada and his wife arrived in Peking on October 22, 1966, to conduct a friendly diplomatic visit. The Peking Review of October 28th reported on the visit, taking specific note of the dinner associated with this menu: ‘On October 25, Pakistan Ambassador Sultan Mohammad Khan gave a banquet to mark the Pakistan Foreign Minister’s visit to China. Premier Chou En-lai attended. Speaking at the banquet, Vice-Premier Chen Yi strongly denounced the Indian reactionaries who, backed by the U.S. imperialists and the Soviet modern revisionists, ‘are energetically continuing their arms expansion and war preparation, obdurately pursuing their big-nation chauvinist and expansionist policies, ruthlessly persecuting the Kashmiri people who are fighting for the right to self-determination, and tightening their control over Bhutan which is striving to win independence.’ Chen Yi added: ‘At the same time, the Indian reactionaries have raised a hue and cry about what they call China-Pakistan ‘collaboration’ and ‘threat’ to India and have concocted lies that Chinese troops have ‘intruded into Bhutan,’ all in a vain attempt to sow discord between China and her neighbouring

countries so as to realize their ulterior motives.’’ Accompanied by a photocopy of the article. Chinese revolutionary and politician Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) was the chief diplomatic representative of the Communist Party as the Premier of the People’s Republic of China from 1949 to 1976. A Marshal of the People’s Liberation Army, Chen Yi (1901–1972) served under Zhou as Vice Premier from 1954 until his death in 1972, acting as Foreign Minister beginning in 1958. Both autographs are scarce and highly sought. Starting Bid $5,000

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Extremely rare official signed portrait of the first Premier of the People’s Republic of China LOT 4025 Zhou Enlai Rare Signed Photograph – The first we have ever offered Immensely rare official matte-finish 5.75 x 8 portrait photo of Chinese Premier Chou En-lai, affixed to the original 9.75 x 12 cardstock mount, the left margin of which is signed and dated in bold black ink in Chinese characters, “Zhou Enlai, July 10, 1967,” who pens an inscription to the right margin (translated): “His Excellence, Secretary of Foreign Affairs Pirzada.”In very good to fine condition, with silvering to the dark

areas of the image, and scattered light foxing to the mount. This photograph was presented to former Foreign Minister of Pakistan Sharifuddin Pirzada (1923–2017), who was the first statesman invited to visit the Chinese Government after the beginning of the ‘Cultural Revolution.’ Chou En-lai remains highly elusive across all signed formats, with this representing the first autographed photo that we have ever offered—a momentous occasion not soon to be repeated. Starting Bid $5,000

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Historic WWII-era teletype archive, with comprehensive coverage of FDR’s death and the Japanese surrender: “Japan’s war was lost by the American use of the new type bomb” LOT 4026 World War II Teletype Archive with Model 15 Printer, Covering FDR’s Death, Japan’s Surrender, and the Atomic Bomb Archive of historic teletype documents chronicling the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the end of World War II, comprising approximately 85 pages, dating to the summer and fall of 1945. The teletypes are on brittle teleprinter paper and in overall good condition, with numerous chips, tears, and splits to folds. Additionally includes the original Teletype Model 15, with its stand, on which these were printed; the bracket below the keyboard and the paper spool’s spindle are both broken. The consignor notes that the set—the teletypes and the machine itself—came from WWL Radio in New Orleans. Between the fascinating real-time accounts of some of the most historic moments of the 20th century, and the machinery that made the instant, worldwide dissemination of that news possible, this is an intriguing archive that connects history with technology. The archive begins with news of the death of President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 12, 1945: “Franklin D. Roosevelt died this afternoon at 4:35 P.M. Eastern War Time and at 7:08 P.M Harry

S. Truman was sworn in as the new President of the United States.” It goes on to discuss Truman’s first day as president and announce CBS programming arrangements for FDR’s funeral. The archive continues with news of the end of World War II, with highlights including: news of victory in Europe and subsequent celebrations throughout America; coverage of the historic ‘Jewel Voice Broadcast,’ or ‘Gyokuon-hoso,’ in which Hirohito announced Japan’s surrender on August 15, 1945; reportage on President Truman’s announcement of the end of the war; and further coverage of the surrender, with speculation the “formal surrender ceremonies will be carried out aboard an American battleship in Tokyo Bay. Some sources say that the Battleship ‘Missouri’ has been chosen.” Live coverage of the surrender ceremonies follows, with excerpts from an address by Admiral Nimitz and from General MacArthur’s Tokyo Bay broadcast outlining his vision for the future of Japan. Further pieces note the sensational force of the atomic bomb, the effective use of newly developed radar technology, and other WWII-related subjects. A more comprhensive description can be found online at www.RRAuction.com. Starting Bid $300

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Magnificent oversized portrait of Winston Churchill—‘The Roaring Lion’— signed by photographer Yousuf Karsh LOT 4027 Winston Churchill Oversized Photograph Signed by Yousuf Karsh Marvelous semi-glossy 16 x 20 silver gelatin portrait of Winston Churchill, famously known as ‘The Roaring Lion,’ taken by renowned portrait photographer Yousuf Karsh, affixed to a 16.5 x 20.5 mount, signed on the mount in black felt tip, “Karsh.” Impressively matted and framed to an overall size of 26 x 30. In very fine condition. Taken in 1941 after Prime Minister Churchill delivered his ‘Some chicken, some neck’ speech to the Canadian Parliament, this

is one of the enduring images of the WWII leader: his defiant posture and expression embody the prevailing British wartime feeling of persistence in the face of an all-conquering enemy. Now remembered as one of the iconic portraits of the 20th century, it effectively launched Karsh’s international career. Karsh later reflected on the image: ‘My portrait of Winston Churchill changed my life. I knew after I had taken it that it was an important picture, but I could hardly have dreamed that it would become one of the most widely reproduced images in the history of photography.’ Starting Bid $500

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An atomic timepiece – rare surviving wristwatch from the ruined blast zone of the Hiroshima bombing, frozen at the moment of detonation LOT 4028 Hiroshima Atomic Bombing: Melted Wristwatch with Detonation Time of 8:15 AM

Oppenheimer, a biographical thriller about theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, his role in the Manhattan Project, and the development of the first nuclear weapons.

Wristwatch recovered from the ruins of Hiroshima, Japan, shortly after the American Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber Enola Gay dropped the ‘Little Boy’ atomic bomb, which detonated above the city on August 6, 1945, during the final stages of World War II. The bomb destroyed roughly threequarters of the city and killed thousands upon thousands of Japanese citizens, including, presumably, the original owner of this timepiece. The small brass-tone clock, 1˝ x 1.25˝, is scorched and melted, its hands frozen at the moment of detonation; despite the cloudiness of the watch’s crystal, the time appears to show 8:15, approximately.

Small in size, immense in significance, this Hiroshima watch may present as just another broken timepiece, yet in its silence lies a sound and a fury known only by the last of the hibakusha. The devastating atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki introduced the world to the genocidal capabilities of nuclear power, with haunting images of leveled buildings, ghostly blast shadows, and sky-high mushroom clouds hammering home the very real threat of a new global fear.

The consignor affirms that a British soldier recovered this watch when he was dispatched to Hiroshima to provide emergency supplies and survey post-conflict reconstruction requirements while at the Prefectural Promotion Hall in Hiroshima. In 2015, an anonymous collector offered it for sale at the English auction house JP Humbert Auctions. It was purchased and eventually sold to the consignor, who is now making it available in large part due to the release of the award-winning 2023 film

Plucked from the ashes of annihilation, this watch stopped at the precise moment of detonation, its shell exhibiting telltale damage from the atomic blast, which occurred some 1,900 ft above the streets of Hiroshima. Although over 120 timepieces from the August 6th bombing are held in the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, examples are rarely offered for sale or at auction. An exquisite and provocative historical rarity that palpably marks the dawn of the nuclear age — a keystone collector’s item for enthusiasts of both horology and militaria. Starting Bid $1,000

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Omar Bradley’s five-star general flag, flown over Fort Benning’s Marshall House

LOT 4029 Omar Bradley’s Five-Star General Flag, Flown at Fort Benning Omar Bradley’s historic 58.5 x 34 five-star general flag, featuring five white stars on each side, sewn onto a solid red field. The flag features a white hoist with two metal grommets and internal leather straps at either end. Bradley’s personal flag was displayed over Marshall House at Fort Benning, Georgia, for many years. In 1975, the Army ‘retired’ the flag and in 1990 it was acquired by the Canadian Military Studies Museum. In need of funds, the museum deaccessioned and sold the flag in 2001. In 2011, it was flown again at the annual D-Day WWII re-enactment event in Conneaut, Ohio. In fine condition, with some scattered staining and a few tiny holes. Accompanied by a presentation letter from Fort Benning’s Protocol Division, June 16, 1975, in part: “Presented to your

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office in recognition of outstanding service is the retired flag of General of the Army, Omar N. Bradley which was displayed proudly over Marshall House this post for many years.” Also includes a letter of provenance from the Canadian Military Studies Museum.Omar Nelson Bradley was one of America’s greatest generals. He commanded the largest American force ever united under one man’s leadership during WWII. He acted as field commander of American soldiers during the Allied invasion of Normandy on D-Day and led Allied troops as they drove into Germany near the end of World War II. Afterwards, General Bradley became the first chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He was the last of only nine people to hold the five-star rank of General of the Army, a distinction shared with MacArthur, Eisenhower, Marshall, and Arnold. His total of 69 years, 8 months and 7 days of active service made Bradley the longest-serving military man in U.S. history. Starting Bid $1,000

Exceedingly rare autograph receipt by the Spanish Baroque painter Bartolome Esteban Murillo

LOT 4030 Bartolome Esteban Murillo Exceedingly Rare Autograph Document Signed Spanish Baroque painter (1617–1682) celebrated for his religious works and his realistic portrayals of everyday life; his widely imitated paintings proved influential in Europe through the 19th century. Exceedingly rare ADS in Spanish, signed “Ba’me Murrillo,” one page, 8.5 x 6, March 13, 1674. Handwritten receipt for 80 Reales (“ochenta Reales”), which he received from Don Juan Antonio de la Torre as a two-year

rent for some houses in Pilas. In full (translated): “I received from Mr. Don Juan Antonio de la Torre eighty reales de bellón for the rent of two years of a tribute that Your Grace pays for some houses he has in the town of Pilas that belong to some chaplaincies that I administer, and it is from the rent of the years seventy-two and seventy-three, and in truth, he signed it for me.” These houses were part of the dowry of Murillo’s wife, Doña Beatriz de Cabrera y Sotomayor. Mounted by its left edge to a slightly larger card and in fine condition. Starting Bid $2,500

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Monet negotiates for the placement of “l’Olympia d’Edouard Manet” in the Louvre LOT 4031 Claude Monet Autograph Letter Signed on Manet’s ‘Olympia’ ALS in French, signed “Claude Monet,” two pages on two adjoining sheets, 8 x 12.25, March 27, 1890. Handwritten letter from his famous home at “Giverny par Vernon,” commenting on the “Olympia” of Eduard Manet and the bureaucratic difficulties connected with the installation of it in one of the world’s most famous art museums, the Louvre. He requests that the masterwork be exhibited in Paris’s Musée du Luxembourg until it is suitable for the Louvre. Includes a letter to Monet signed by Gustave Larroumet, a French art historian and administrator, one page both sides, 8.25 x 10.75, February 24, 1890, responding to one of Monet’s inquiries related to Manet’s “Olympia.” In fine condition, with some faint toning and light edge creasing.

Edouard Manet’s painting ‘Olympia,’ an arrestingly bold nude of a reclining prostitute, immediately sparked controversy upon its unveiling at the 1865 Paris Salon. Later recognized as one of the artist’s true masterpieces, Monet spearheaded a public campaign to raise money for the French government to purchase the painting. Monet’s letters on the subject—mostly sent to those within his artistic circle—are highly coveted. By February 1890, Monet had raised about 20,000 francs to purchase the great work and announced its donation to the French national museums. As the law prevented the Louvre from exhibiting works until their creators were ten years deceased (Manet died in 1883), ‘Olympia’ was first shown at the Musée du Luxembourg, then at the Musée de l’Art Contemporary of Paris. By order of Georges Clemenceau, Olympia finally took its place in the Louvre in 1907. Starting Bid $300

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‘The finest book since Gutenberg’— rare example of the oversized Kelmscott Chaucer, designed by William Morris LOT 4032 Kelmscott Chaucer: The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer by Kelmscott Press (1896) ‘The finest book since Gutenberg’ Rare and important book: The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer, now newly imprinted, edited by F. S. Ellis. First edition thus, limited issue: one of 425 copies on handmade paper (of a total edition of 438, with 13 on vellum). Hammersmith: Kelmscott Press, 1896. Hardcover bound in full white leather, with gilttitled spine in seven compartments and all edges gilt, plus matching quarter-leather slipcase, 12 x 17, 554 pages. Book condition: VG+/None in a VG case, with mild staining and darkening to spine. Founded in 1891 by William Morris and Emery Walker, the Kelmscott Press sought to replicate the style of 15th-century printing and started the contemporary fine press movement, focusing on the craft and design of bookmaking. The ‘Kelmscott Chaucer’ is regarded as the short-lived press’s magnum opus, and is often cited as one of the most beautiful printed books in existence. Writing in The Private Presses (pg. 43), Colin Franklin observes: ‘From first appearance, the Chaucer gained a name as the finest book since Gutenberg. It has held its place near the head of the polls ever since…The terms which critics used in the eighteen-nineties to welcome it simply show us what an impression Morris’s printing made upon late Victorian bookmen.’

A collaborative effort between William Morris and his longtime friend Edward BurneJones, the ‘Kelmscott Chaucer’ features 87 woodcut illustrations by Burne-Jones; Morris designed the frames, borders, and initials which surround the illustrations, while also developing the type and layout of the impressive volume. Writing in 1894, more than two years into their work, BurneJones commented on the project in a letter to Charles Eliot Norton: ‘Indeed when the book is done, if we live to finish it, it will be like a pocket cathedral—so full of design and I think Morris the greatest master of ornament in the world.’ A rare and spectacular example of a beautiful, pioneering fine press book. Starting Bid $5,000

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Rare handwritten letter by the legendary Casanova, with significant commentary on world affairs LOT 4033 Giacomo Casanova Rare Autograph Letter Signed on European Wars and Politics Italian adventurer (1725-1798) who spent most of his life traveling through Europe meeting the famous men and women of his time; he is probably best known for his ‘Memoirs,’ which concerned his many love affairs. ALS signed “Casanova,” three pages on two adjoining sheets, 7.5 x 9, July 9, 1790. Expansive handwritten letter to Count Antonio Collalto, in which Casanova reports on conflicts in Europe prompted by early revolutionary fervor, including the quelling of an uprising in Dresden by the Elector of Bavaria, Frederick Augustus III, and the ill-health of the Archduke Francis of Austria. Casanova ponders over the threat of war from Prussia, which might be tempted to intervene in Austria’s conflict with Turkey, but which he hopes will be prevented by the indolence of the court and the unwillingness of the King [Friedrich Wilhelm II]. Additionally, he reports a letter from his patron Pietro Zaguri, who tells him that all Constantinople desires peace, in part (translated): “Here there is a rise of villagers, which restrains the

government, and…were sent troops to suppress their daring. It is hoped, however, that the general allowance, which the most prudent Serenity electorate has been to hunt down, will calm down everything. It is here that S.A.R. Archduke Francesco suffered a sneer of blood. The ministers who surround Silesia, the king of Prussia, are lazy…He does not want to make war, and if he does not want to do it, he will not. He does not want the war to be feared.” Casanova thanks Collalto for his letter and message from “l’egregio signor principe [Francesco] Ruspoli,” asks his permission to contact the prince, and offers his services whilst he is in Naples, assuring him that he has sent by mailcoach the two little books that he had requested, presumably the Corollaire [and Seconde Corollaire] à la duplication de l’Hexaèdre donné à Dux en Bohème, both of which Casanova had published that year in Dresden. In fine condition, with slight creasing and spotting. Handwritten letters by Casanova, particularly of such length, content, and impressive condition, are rarely offered at auction. Starting Bid $1,000

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Sherlock Holmes briefs Watson on the case of ‘The Crooked Man’—a rare autograph manuscript leaf from a Conan Doyle classic LOT 4034 Arthur Conan Doyle Handwritten Manuscript Page from the Sherlock Holmes Story ‘The Crooked Man’ Autograph manuscript leaf from Arthur Conan Doyle’s draft for the Sherlock Holmes story ‘The Crooked Man,’ one page, 8 x 12.75, no date but circa 1893. One of the first ‘Locked Room’ mystery stories ever written, Holmes himself calls the The Crooked Man ‘one of the strangest cases which ever perplexed a man’s brain.’ The story employs a different, and more interiorized, literary technique than most Sherlock Holmes adventures—the narrative of the adventure is largely taken up with Holmes openly ruminating on the known facts of the case (seeking to deduce the missing key to the crime)—and makes an especial point of highlighting Holmes’ keen observational skills and logical abilities. In this particular leaf of manuscript, exemplary of this style, Holmes informs Watson of the details of the case as they are known to him at this point in time. In small part: “The facts are only two days old. Briefly they are these: The Royal Munsters is, as you know, one of the most famous Irish regiments in the British army. It did wonders both in the Crimea and the Mutiny, and has since that time distinguished itself upon every possible occasion. It was commanded up to Monday night by [Robert Barker, struck through] James Barclay...Barclay had married at the time when he was a sergeant, and his wife, whose maiden name was Miss [Annie, struck through] Nancy Devoy, was the daughter of a former color-sergeant in the same corps. There was therefore, as can be imagined, some little social friction when the young couple (for they were still young) found themselves in their new surroundings. They appear, however, to have quickly adapted themselves, and Mrs. [Barker, struck through] Barclay has

always, I understand, been as popular with the ladies of the regiment as her husband was with his brother officers. I may add that she was a woman of great beauty, and that even now, when she has been married for upwards of thirty years, she is still of a striking and queenly appearance. Colonel [Barker, struck through] Barclay’s family life appears to have been a uniformly happy one.” In fine condition. Originally published in the July 1893 issue of The Strand Magazine, ‘The Crooked Man’ was subsequently reprinted as one of twelve adventures in The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes. Doyle himself ranked The Crooked Man among his fifteen favorite Sherlock Holmes stories, and it is famous for being the presumed source of the phrase ‘Elementary, my dear Watson’ (a phrase Doyle himself never in fact penned, but which derives from the 1929 movie The Return of Sherlock Holmes). Beyond being a ‘Locked Room’ mystery, the story is distinctive among Doyle’s work for being a moralistic tale of karma, in which the apparent victim is revealed to actually be the villain. This autograph leaf of the story is particularly notable for containing an emendation changing the name of the victim/villain from Robert Barker to James Barclay, as it appears in the published version; interestingly, the change to “James Barclay” was written in an editor’s hand, while the adjustment from “Anne” to “Nancy” was done by Doyle himself. Individual autograph leaves from Sherlock Holmes stories are very rare in commerce. Though leaves from The Hound of the Baskerville are occasionally encountered (typically at a six-figure price), leaves from Doyle’s shorter stories are almost never offered for sale. Starting Bid $5,000

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Handsome signed limited edition of Ulysses by James Joyce, published by The Bodley Head in 1936 LOT 4035 James Joyce Signed Book - Ulysses (Limited Edition, 1936) Rare signed book: Ulysses by James Joyce. First edition thus, limited issue of 100 signed copies on mould-made paper bound in calf vellum [numbered 56/100]. London: John Lane The Bodley Head, 1936. Hardcover bound in full cream vellum with Homeric bow design by Eric Gill in gilt on covers, spine lettered in gilt, top edges gilt, others uncut, by the Leighton Straker Bookbinding Co., with the publisher’s original slipcase with printed paper label, 8 x 10.25, 766 pages. Boldly signed on the colophon in fountain pen, “James Joyce.” Autographic condition: fine. Book condition: VG/None in a VG- case, with some minor discoloration and slight bowing to boards; moderate edgewear to the case (with some tape repairs to splits) and some staining to the paper label. Joyce encountered difficulties with his controversial masterpiece Ulysses in both Great Britain and the United States, with publishers reluctant to print the uncensored work due to obscenity laws. The editors of The Little Review (a literary magazine based in New York) supported subversive

material and were willing to take the risk, but even they had trouble finding a printer; the London-based The Egoist faced an even greater challenge in the UK because both publishers and printers were liable to prosecution, and published only excerpts. These fears of censorship and prosecution were realized in September 1920, when charges were brought against The Little Review after the New York Society for the Suppression of Vice lodged a complaint. The Little Review lost the ensuing legal battle and ceased its serialization of Ulysses, which was banned in the United States until 1933. It was also officially banned in Britain after a book-form version was successfully published in Paris in 1922, and remained illegal there until 1936. This edition of Joyce’s masterwork, the first edition of the complete work to be printed and published in England, was set from the second impression of Odyssey Press’s edition and proofed by Joyce. With the binding and typography designed by the English artist Eric Gill, it is widely considered to be the most handsome of all Ulysses editions. Starting Bid $2,500

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Tolkien presents The Hobbit to a distinguished British bookseller LOT 4036 J. R. R. Tolkien Signed Book - The Hobbit Signed book: The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien. Third edition, second impression (sixteenth impression overall). London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1966. Hardcover bound in the publisher’s original green cloth boards (lettered and decorated in blue), with original pictorial dust jacket, 5.25 x 7.5, 317 pages, featuring pictorial map endpapers, color frontispiece depicting Hobbiton, plus three other color plates (‘Rivendell’; ‘Bilbo comes to the Huts of the Raft-elves’; ‘Conversation with Smaug’). Beautifully signed and inscribed on the title page in fountain pen, “For Mr. I. Chambers, J. R. R. Tolkien.” The personal bookplate of noteworthy bookseller Ivan Chambers, O.B.E., is affixed opposite the half-title. Autographic condition: very fine. Book condition: VG+/VG, with mottled foxing on the top edge of the textblock, minor fading to the book’s spine, and the jacket’s spine toned. Housed in a handsome custommade quarter-leather clamshell case, gilt-lettered on the spine.

The recipient, Ivan Chambers, began his bookselling career at W.J. Bryce’s bookshop in Holborn, London; the shop soon moved to Museum Street, in a building belonging to Tolkien’s publisher, Stanley Unwin, and Chambers stayed there until his retirement as the store’s managing director in 1971. Active in the book trade, Chambers served as an executive on the National Book Council and as chairman of the London branch of the Booksellers Association. The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography notes: ‘The success of Tolkien’s writing, as well as his subsequent fanatical worldwide readership, was due in no small part to the author–publisher relationship that existed between Tolkien, Stanley Unwin, and later [Stanley’s son] Rayner Unwin.’ Considering Chambers’ proximity to the Unwin and his long-term activity in the book trade, he certainly played a part in the enduring success of Tolkien’s novels. Starting Bid $2,500

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 71

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Rare limited signed edition of On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, presented by Ian Fleming to his first true love LOT 4037 Ian Fleming Limited Edition Signed Book - On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Presented to His Lover Signed book: On Her Majesty’s Secret Service by Ian Fleming. First edition, limited issue, numbered 5/250. London: Jonathan Cape, 1963. Hardcover bound in quarter-vellum over black Linson cloth, top edge gilt, 5.25 x 7.75, 288 pages. Signed on the colophon in blue ballpoint, “Ian Fleming.” The half-title page is inscribed by Lisl Popper (née Jokl): “From Ian to Lisl, From Lisl to Gianandrea.” Autographic condition: fine, with a very subtle diagonal crease to the signed page. Book condition: VG/None, with minor foxing to endpapers. Housed in a gorgeous custom-made quarter-leather clamshell case, gilt-lettered on the spine. This was one of Ian Fleming’s personal copies of the book—the only Bond book released in a signed limited edition—presented to his longtime girlfriend Lisl Jokl. Fleming first met Jokl in Kitzbuhel, Austria, in 1926, when he was nineteen years old, and the two had a torrid, youthful love affair that developed into a lasting friendship. According to Fleming’s biographer Andrew

Lycett, Lisl was the author’s first real love. She likely inspired the name for ‘Bond girl’ Lisl Baum, who appears in the short story ‘Risico,’ included in the 1960 collection For Your Eyes Only. In addition to being inscribed by Jokl, the book was later owned by Fleming bibliographer Otto Penzler; accompanied by a card from “Gianandrea” to Penzler, presenting the book to him. Starting Bid $2,500

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 73

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Chopin sells a musical manuscript for 300 francs LOT 4038 Frederic Chopin Document Signed for the Sale of a Musical Manuscript Choice partly-printed DS in French, signed “F. Chopin,” one page, 8 x 3.5, June 20, 1838. Receipt from the Paris firm Pleyel et Comp., completed in another hand and signed at the conclusion by Frederic Chopin, acknowledging (translated): “Received from Mons. Probst the sum of three hundred francs for a manuscript.” In fine condition.

The piano manufacturer and music publisher Camille Pleyel (1788-1855) and his wife Marie were among the most important people in Chopin’s time in Paris. Chopin gave his first concert in Paris on February 25, 1832, and his last on February 16, 1848, on the company’s premises. Pleyel, who saw Chopin as a suitable advertising medium, made his pianos and grand pianos available to the composer free of charge. Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 75

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“I would never sing again, but I still have Mama to take care of” —fired from Count Basie’s band, the 22-year-old Billie Holiday seeks new work LOT 4039 Billie Holiday Autograph Letter Signed on Being Fired from Count Basie’s Band: “I would never sing again, but I still have Mama to take care of” ALS signed “Billie,” four pages on two adjoining sheets, 5 x 6.5, February 11, 1938. Handwritten letter to “Hotch,” emotionally explaining that she has lost her gig with Count Basie’s orchestra. In full (spelling and grammar retained): “Just a line to say I hope you will try to be very happy on your birthday even tho you are in school. Now for the bad news. I’ve lost my job with Count Basie. I got my three weeks’ notice in the mail yesterday. Willard said he had too let me go because he had to cut down on expense, but that’s not it. I cussed John Hammond out at rehearsal before we went in Iowa State, an after that he gave a party but I wasn’t there. We haven’t spoke. An another thing, I owe him some money an haven’t been able to pay him. Well, I didn’t accept the three weeks’ notice, and when the band left this morning I was sleep because I could never sing with the band again. I would never sing again, but I still have Mama to take care of. Well, honey, right now I am as low as a snake, don’t know what I am going to do, but I guess something will happen, it’s just got too or else I’ll be in the poor house by Tuesday. Gee, I wish I could see someone like you too talk too. Sorry, too have to write all these things down but you’re my friend an I had to tell someone. Will sign

off now. Please write soon.” In fine condition, with some light soiling to the last page. An extraordinary emotional note from the young singer, who was just 22 years old and had begun singing with Count Basie’s band in late 1937. Various reasons have been given for why Holiday was fired by Count Basie in 1938: she was reportedly temperamental and unreliable, and refused to adapt her style to the band’s. Jimmy Rushing, Basie’s male vocalist, called her unprofessional, while Count Basie himself said that ‘she knew how she wanted to sound and you couldn’t tell her what to do.’ She is also said to have complained of low pay and poor working conditions. This letter, however, implies some tension between Holiday and the impresario John Hammond— the record producer and talent scout who ‘discovered’ her in 1933—and also an issue of a bad debt held by the singer. In spite of the difficult situation, she expresses some optimism, writing: “I guess something will happen, it’s just got too or else I’ll be in the poor house by Tuesday.” She would be hired by bandleader Artie Shaw within a month, placing her among the first black women to work with a white orchestra. A unique and moving handwritten letter from Holiday’s early, tempestuous life and career. Starting Bid $10,000

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Cased Civil War–era Colt Model 1860 Army Revolver presented by Johnny Cash to Gene Ferguson of Columbia Records LOT 4040 Johnny Cash Cased Civil War Colt Model 1860 Army Revolver Presented to Gene Ferguson of Columbia Records Cased Civil War–era Colt Model 1860 Army Revolver presented by Johnny Cash to Gene Ferguson of Columbia Records, serial #84751, .44 caliber, 7 1/2” barrel with a very good bore that has some mild pitting within the grooves. This is an 1862made revolver that retains 70-75% of a restored blue finish on the barrel and cylinder, with the balance of the metal having turned to a smooth, plum-brown patina with a few spots of mild pinprick pitting scattered about. The frame has reapplied heat coloring, with fairly bright gray metal on the balance, while the trigger guard has a dull gray patina, and the backstrap has a bright blue finish. The numbers are all matching, including the wedge and cylinder arbor, and the cylinder retains about 75% of the naval battle scene. The walnut grip is original and in very good shape, with handling marks and blemishes under an added varnish finish that has left the US inspector cartouches visible, but illegible on both sides of the butt. The action lock-up is tight and fully functional. The revolver is housed in a period presentation case with black baize-lined interior, and comes with the following accessories: Colt pistol flask with spare spout; Colt double-cavity bullet mold; tin of post Civil War Winchester percussion caps; key; and several

cast lead bullets. The case is in fine condition, although the glue holding the cushioned liner in place has since let go, and Ferguson’s name etched/inked on one side. The revolver is also accompanied by a framed presentation letter signed by Johnny Cash, July 23, 1964, stating that this “1860 Cased Army Model with Flask and Bullet Mold, Serial Number 84751” was a gift to Gene Ferguson as “a small token of my friendship.” The letter is typed on Cash’s private letterhead, and, according to a 2016 interview with the NRA Museum, was presented to Ferguson while on a trip to Las Vegas. Additionally includes a Colt Archive Letter issued to Gene Ferguson in 2016, noting that this Colt Model 1860 Army Revolver was sold to the United States War Department and shipped to Major R. A. Wainwright, New York Arsenal, Governor’s Island, New York, on January 1, 1863. Gene Ferguson was a longtime promotions executive with Columbia Records, and a close friend of Johnny Cash from 1957 until Cash’s death in 2003. This is a great Civil War firearm in its own right, but also has a documented connection to ‘The Man In Black,’ a legendary figure in American music, whose first single was, fittingly, ‘Don’t Take Your Guns to Town.’This is an antique firearm and transfers with no federal restriction. Starting Bid $500

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 79

Unseen personal 8mm candid film footage of the Beatles on the set of Help!

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LOT 4041 Beatles: 8mm Unseen Behind-the-Scenes Footage from Help! Original reel of 8mm black-and-white silent film of the Beatles taken during the filming of their second feature film, Help!, by a member of the production crew on May 3, 1965, lasting 3 minutes and 17 seconds. This unseen, behind-the-scenes Beatles footage, shot on location at Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire, during the production of the ‘I Need You’ sequence, originates from a personal archive. It offers some rare and unique moments where all four Beatles—John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison, and Ringo Starr—were captured ‘off-camera,’ in their natural, jovial state. In this footage, they are not performing for the camera, but engaging with cast and crew, noodling on their instruments, and joking around on set. Notably, the footage shows John Lennon clowning around with director Richard Lester, who went on to direct two classic ‘Superman’ movies of the 1980s. Some of the set’s ‘extras’—soldiers of the British Army’s 3rd Royal Tank Regiment, complete with their tanks and weapons—are also seen in the footage. ‘Unseen footage’ of the Beatles—perhaps the most well-documented band in history—is incredibly rare, making the discovery of such a film a unique moment in popular music history. In fine condition. The sequence for ‘I Need You’ was shot near Stonehenge on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England, from May 3–5, 1965, and portrays the Beatles miming to the track in a makeshift

outdoor recording studio, surrounded by armed soldiers of the British Army’s 3rd Royal Tank Regiment and their Centurion tanks. In the movie’s plot, Ringo Starr is being targeted for assassination by a mysterious cult so the band performs under Royal Artillery protection. George Harrison wrote ‘I Need You’ about Pattie Boyd, and he would go on to marry her in January 1966. Reflecting on the quality of Harrison’s song, producer George Martin said: ‘He has got something to say as a songwriter, and I hope he keeps it up.’ Help! made its Royal World Premiere at the London Pavilion Theatre on July 29, 1965; its soundtrack, released as the Beatles’ fifth studio album on August 6th, includes such classics as ‘Help!,’ ‘Ticket to Ride,’ and ‘Yesterday.’ Although the Beatles were initially dissatisfied with the movie, they came to admire it and its influence. Reflecting on the production of Help! in 1980, John Lennon said: ‘I realize, looking back, how advanced it was. It was a precursor to the Batman ‘Pow! Wow!’ on TV—that kind of stuff. But [Lester] never explained it to us. Partly, maybe, because we hadn’t spent a lot of time together between A Hard Day’s Night and Help!, and partly because we were smoking marijuana for breakfast during that period. Nobody could communicate with us, it was all glazed eyes and giggling all the time. In our own world. It’s like doing nothing most of the time, but still having to rise at 7 am, so we became bored.’ Today, Help! is credited with influencing the development of music videos. Starting Bid $1,000

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Pristine 1963 Dezo Hoffman portrait signed backstage for a lucky contest winner LOT 4042 Beatles Signed 1963 Program Page - featuring Dezo Hoffman’s classic ‘collarless suits’ portrait Magnificent vintage 7.25 x 9.5 program photo by Dezo Hoffman of the band looking sharp in their matching iconic collarless suits in the spring of 1963, nicely signed and inscribed in fountain pen, “Love to Christine from John Lennon xx,” “George Harrison xxx,” “Paul McCartney xxx,” and “Love, Ringo Starr xxx.” Beautifully archivally triple-matted and framed to an overall size of 17 x 19.5. In fine condition. Accompanied by

full letters of authenticity from PSA/DNA and noted Beatles expert Frank Caiazzo, who notes that these signatures were obtained between August 19-24, 1963, in Bournemouth, Hampshire, by a young female fan who was invited to meet the group backstage after winning a Disc magazine contest during their six-day engagement at the Gaumont Cinema. A stellar example of one of their most famous images, almost unparalleled in its condition, boasting bold and unhurried signatures. Starting Bid $1,000

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“About not telling anyone that I left the Beatles—PAUL and Klein both spent the day persuading me it was better not to say anything” 84 www.RRAuction.com | (603) 732-4280

In the wake of the Beatles breakup, John Lennon drafts a scathing letter to Paul and Linda McCartney, venting on their treatment of Yoko Ono, the band’s impact on “today’s art,” and the secrecy of his departure LOT 4043 John Lennon Typed and Hand-Annotated Letter to Paul and Linda McCartney - an intense letter discussing Yoko, art, the media, and his exit from the Beatles Typed and hand-annotated letter from John Lennon, unsigned, two pages, 8.25 x 11.75, Bag Productions Inc. letterhead, no date but circa 1971. A fiery letter to Paul and Linda McCartney that touches on many sensitive topics, with Lennon making several corrections in his own hand, in full: “I was reading your letter and wondering what middle aged cranky Beatle fan wrote it. I resisted looking at the last page to find out – I kept thinking who is it – Queenie? Stuart’s mother? –Clive Epstein’s wife? – Alan Williams? – What the hell – it’s Linda! You really think the press are beneath me/you? Do you think that? Who do you think we/you are? The ‘self-indulgent doesn’t realize who he is hurting’ bit – I hope you realize what shit you and the rest of my ‘kind and unselfish’ friends laid on Yoko and me, since we’ve been together. It might have sometimes been a bit more subtle or should I say ‘middle class’ – but not often. We both ‘rose above it’ quite a few times – & forgave you two – so it’s the least you can do for us – you noble people. – Linda – if you don’t care what I say – shut up! – let Paul write – or whatever. When asked about what I thought originally concerning MBE, etc. – I told them as best as I can remember – and I do remember squirming a little – don’t you, Paul? – or do you – as I suspect – still believe it all? I’ll forgive Paul for encouraging the Beatles – if he forgives me for the same – for being – ‘honest with me and caring too much’! Fucking hell, Linda, you’re not writing for Beatle book!!! I’m not ashamed of the Beatles – (I did start it all) – but of some of the shit we took to make them so big – I thought we all felt that way in varying degrees – obviously not. Do you really think most of today’s art came about because of the Beatles? – I don’t believe you’re that insane – Paul – do you believe that? When you stop believing it you might wake up! Didn’t we always say we were part of the movement – not all of it? – Of course, we changed the world – but try and follow it through – GET OFF YOUR GOLD DISC AND FLY! Don’t give me that Aunty Gin shit about ‘in five years I’ll look back as a different person’ – don’t you see that’s what’s happening NOW! – If

I only knew THEN what I know NOW – you seemed to have missed that point…. Excuse me if I use ‘Beatle Space’ to talk about whatever I want – obviously if they keep asking Beatle questions – I’ll answer them – and get as much John and Yoko Space as I can – they ask me about Paul and I answer – I know some of it gets personal – but whether you believe it or not I try and answer straight – and the bits they use are obviously the juicy bits – I don’t resent your husband – I’m sorry for him. I know the Beatles are ‘quite nice people’ – I’m one of them – they’re also just as big bastards as anyone else – so get off your high horse! – by the way – we’ve had more intelligent interest in our new activities in one year than we had throughout the Beatle era. Finally, about not telling anyone that I left the Beatles – PAUL and Klein both spent the day persuading me it was better not to say anything – asking me not to say anything because it would ‘hurt the Beatles’ – and ‘let’s just let it petre out’ – remember? So get that into your petty little perversion of a mind, Mrs. McCartney – the cunts asked me to keep quiet about it. Of course, the money angle is important – to all of us – especially after all the petty shit that came from your insane family/in laws – and GOD HELP YOU OUT, PAUL – see you in two years – I reckon you’ll be out then – inspite of it all, love to you both, from us two.” Lennon adds a brief handwritten postscript, “P.S. about addressing your letter just to me – STILL….!!!” In fine condition, with center crease and a few small stains. Referenced in the 2012 book The John Lennon Letters and in Yoko Ono’s 2018 book Imagine, this biting missive is in response to a letter from Linda in which she had chided Lennon for, among other things, not openly announcing his departure from the Beatles. Triggered by the death of manager Brian Epstein, the dissolution of the Fab Four and, in particular, the relationship between McCartney and Lennon, escalated over the subsequent control of Apple Corps., and the introduction of both Linda and Yoko Ono into the Beatles inner circle. Lennon, who was prepared to leave the band and formally announce the end to the Beatles era, shares his side of the story, explaining that McCartney’s interference ultimately stayed him from reaching out to the media. McCartney’s eventual ‘break-up’ announcement, given in a public relations coup with his debut solo album, was viewed by Lennon as a ‘preemptive strike.’ Likely written shortly before Lennon and Ono’s departure for America, this draft captures the intense rivalry between the two men in the months, and even years, surrounding the breakup of the Beatles. Starting Bid $5,000

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Rare fully signed first pressing of the Jimi Hendrix Experience’s first single, “Hey Joe” LOT 4044 Jimi Hendrix Experience Rare Signed 45 RPM Single - ‘Hey Joe’ Rare Polydor Records 45 RPM single for the Jimi Hendrix Experience single ‘Hey Joe / Stone Free,’ signed on the center label in black ballpoint by Jimi Hendrix (“Jimi Hendrix”), Noel Redding (“Noel Redding - Bass”), and Mitch Mitchell (“Love, Mitch”). Moreover, the center has been decorated with an intricate wreath-style sketch, evidently done by Hendrix and initialed by him, “J. H.” Featuring the Polydor logo in black, and credited only to “Jimi Hendrix,” this the earliest pressing of the ‘Hey Joe’ single. In very good to fine condition, with wear and creasing to the sleeve, which has been decorated as a collage with clipped and affixed images of the band members; a small portrait of Hendrix has also been affixed to the signed label, slightly covering the first letters in the Hendrix and Redding signatures. Accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Tracks, as well as an original program from the 1967 UK tour of the Jimi Hendrix Experience/The Pink Floyd/The Move/The Amen Corner, and an “I Am Experienced” promotional badge. Recorded at London’s De Lane Lea Studios on October 23, 1966, the Jimi Hendrix Experience’s cover of ‘Hey Joe’ was released as a single on the Polydor label on December 16,

1966. It became a hit in the United Kingdom, entering the Top 10 of the UK Singles Chart in January 1967 and peaking at No. 6. In 2010, Rolling Stone magazine ranked it as No. 201 on their list of ‘The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time.’ Fully signed copies of the first pressing of the Jimi Hendrix Experience’s first single are extremely rare—this is the first example we have encountered. Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 87

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Majestic oversized Queen concert poster from their ‘News of the World’ tour, signed in full by the band, Mary Austin, and a total of 12 touring crew members, presented to the band’s personal hairdresser and wardrobe keeper LOT 4045 Queen Massive Signed 1978 Concert Poster the largest example that we have ever offered Enormous color 46 x 62.75 French poster for a Queen concert held at the Pavillon de Paris in Paris, France, on April 24, 1978, which dates to their ‘News of the World’ tour, signed in felt tip by the full band, who each add personal inscriptions to Dane Clark, the group’s hairdresser and wardrobe keeper between 1976 and 1980: “Love & kisses to the lovely Dane, Freddie Mercury,” “To Dane, Best Wishes, John Deacon,” “Many Thanks D.C., a true professional, Love, Brian May,” and “To Doctor Teeth, Roger Taylor,” who writes the inscription in bubble letters and draws an arrow pointing to his hair with the message, “Just another small miracle.” Coincidentally, Roger Taylor studied dentistry at the London School of Medicine and Dentistry in 1967 before dropping out. In addition to the Queen signatures, the poster is signed and inscribed by Mary Austin, the ex-fiancé and dear friend of Freddie Mercury, and by 12 members of Queen’s road crew, including: Peter ‘Ratty’ Hince (crew lead and photographer), Chris ‘Crystal’ Taylor (drum tech), Richie ‘Big Rich’ Anderson (guitar tech), Brian ‘Nudger’ Spencer (sound tech and monitor mixer), James ‘Trip’ Khalaf (sound engineer), Joe Trovato (lighting supervisor), Chris H. Lamb (lighting system supervisor), Tom Pettus (rigger), and four others. Rolled and in good to very good condition, with overall creasing, edge tears, some paper loss, and professional repairs to complete fold separations. Dane Clark was a hairdresser, wardrobe keeper, and friend to several noteworthy musicians in the 1970s and early eighties. Per his grandson: ‘[Clark] got a call at the end of 1973 from a guy named ‘Breck Wall’ who got Dane an interview for the position of Elton John’s hairdresser and wardrobe keep. He was on a flight the very next day and stayed with them at Elton’s mansion in Beverly Hills. [He later] went on to tour with Elton John in 1974…thus opening the door to work with Queen during their very first U.S. Tour.’ Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 89

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Incredible Star Wars rarity—an original post-production music manuscript from composer John Williams, containing the iconic ‘Star Wars (Main Title)’ theme LOT 4046 Star Wars: John Williams Original Handwritten Music Manuscript for the Opening ‘Star Wars Main Title’ Theme Spectacular original handwritten music manuscript by Oscar-winning composer John Williams, used during the post-production stage of George Lucas’ 1977 science fiction classic Star Wars and containing a partial musical score from the film’s famous opening ‘crawl’ sequence. The manuscript, which includes Williams’ arrangement for the film’s iconic ‘Star Wars (Main Title)’ theme, is annotated in pencil on an off-white 12 x 15.5 sheet of Pacific music paper, which Williams has signed and inscribed in black ink to Len Engel, his music supervisor, “To Len — In appreciation for a treasured friendship — John.” The sheet, which is headed and signed in the upper margin, “Star Wars,” “Reel 1 Part 2, ‘Star Wars,’” and “J. Williams,” is identified as “Reel 18,” with an arrow pointing down to the word “Crawl,” indicating the score as belonging to the film’s signature opening ‘crawl’ sequence, a device memorably employed by Lucas in every numbered film of the Star Wars series. The score is numbered in the upper margin as “19” and “18,” and contains what appears to be a total of 13 different arrangements, with the main theme starting in the fourth measure of the first system and continuing below. The sheet contains over 30 bars of original handwritten Star Wars music, with Williams adding instruments to the left border, “6 tpts,” “4 troms,” and “Stg,” and emphasizing “Maestoso” in the upper right, a suitable directive for the film’s soaring introduction. The toned tape to the vertical edges strongly suggests that this sheet was used as a rehearsal example and taped accordionstyle within its completed score. In fine condition.

Over seven decades, John Williams has composed music for many of the biggest, most successful movies in the history of cinema. The winner of five Academy Awards (his 53 nominations is second all-time to Walt Disney), Williams has worked with legendary filmmakers like Steven Spielberg, Alfred Hitchcock, Brian De Palma, Robert Altman, Chris Columbus, Oliver Stone, and, of course, and George Lucas. Transcending the theater of classical music, his body of work contains some of pop culture’s most recognizable earworms, with the themes from Jaws, Jurassic Park, Superman, Schindler’s List, and the Indiana Jones series amongst the most instantly identifiable in all of movie history. His music for Star Wars, however, its opening theme in particular, not only overlooks from the top of his impressive oeuvre, but it may, in actuality, represent the finest composition ever written for the silver screen. Accompanied by a letter of provenance from the stepgrandson of the original recipient: “Len Engel was Head of Music Supervising, working under the Head of the Music Department, Lionel Newman, for over 33 years until he died in 1988. Len built his home in the Bel Air hills in the 1960s and turned it into a state-of-the-art music studio complete with recording, re-recording, and mixing abilities. He was an ‘analog’ man, saying there is no purer sound, and he refused to go digital, to which John Williams (along with the likes of Jerry Goldsmith) heartily agreed. Len became a working partner with Williams on all of his movies, taking them from the composer sheets to the finished product ready for distribution. Len worked alongside Ken Wannberg, the music editor for John Williams, who followed him from 20th Century Fox to Dreamworks. After studio recording, every bit of Star Wars was mixed and perfected at Len’s ‘home,’ then given over to Wannberg for final movie editing. This sheet music was gifted in appreciation of their working together on the Star Wars films.” Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 91

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“I hope my Hong Kong deal, which is at present, the only hope, will come through” — eager to return to acting, Bruce Lee stays optimistic in the face of hardship, unaware that The Silent Flute’s failure will lead to a Big Boss breakthrough LOT 4047 Bruce Lee Autograph Letter Signed (1971) – recovered from his back injury, the martial artist writes about The Silent Flute, borrowing money, and his career-saving “Hong Kong deal” ALS signed “Bruce,” three pages, 8.5 x 11, no date [early 1971]. Handwritten letter to “Bob,” ostensibly friend and actor Robert Baker, in full (grammar retained): “Jim fusses over India’s location again — after the three of us have sat down and discussed — at Warner’s meeting. Warner is ready to move ahead; even with the increase of budget; however, now we are waiting to hear if Warner will okay another location trip (this time with director and cinematographer). We should know shortly. So what it all amounts to is that I am not getting my ‘desperate money’ as I hope it would — thanks to Jim! Stirling sold his T.V. series ‘Longstreet’ and I will do one episode, however, that won’t be till June. Freddie Weintraub’s movie looks like a sure thing (script is being prepared now) but of course it won’t start till Sept. I have nothing but faith for ‘Silent Flute,’ though again it won’t be till late Oct. or early Nov. One other thing that ‘might’ just keep me — and I should know in about two weeks — is to go back to Hong Kong and make a film during the next few months, before the T.V. shooting of ‘Longstreet.’ Linda is of course still working (for peanuts!) and in the midst of baby sitting, selling stuffs, waiting, waiting, waiting…I feel my life energy is being suppressed. The hell of it is that I know where I am at, where I am going, and my ‘energy’ is in abundance for my craft, but… I am keeping you up to my latest now because should I feel the borrowing from the three grand would help my momentum, I might. However, you have to understand this: first, I have to feel sure where I will be heading, so that I can repay you. Second, being me, I would not like to feel obligated, and this goes for whether or not I will borrow, because flimsy as this saying goes: ‘I will treasure your thoughtfulness and kindness in my heart.’ That is all I say, do you understand? I hope I will not have to talk this matter with you again in the next ten days because I feel somehow or other, this task will be a great strain on your part. If it is, let me know and we won’t even mention it again. I hope my Hong Kong deal, which is at present, the only hope, will come through.

Last but not the least, I want you to know that though my back is not 100%, I am going through rough moment, I have no doubt in my mind what I meant to be, to express, and to do. Life has forced ‘what should be’ to me at the moment to give me contrast as well as harmony to ‘what is to come.’ Like a cinema I am watching all this flow by and accept them for the bank in my heart so that with the contact, the conflict, the letting go, I understand. May things flow once more to where I can express my happiness once more after tasting bitterness.” In fine condition, with some light circular stains. Accompanied by a full letter of authenticity from PSA/DNA. Although undated, the content of this letter points to the early stages of 1971, a pivotal period in the life and career of Bruce Lee, some six months removed from a major back injury and finally back to training. He reveals as much to his friend, Robert Baker, best known for portraying the Russian villain Petrov in the 1972 movie Fist of Fury, admitting that “my back is not 100%, I am going through rough moment.” It wasn’t about to get any easier for Lee. Eager to return to Hollywood following the cancellation of The Green Hornet, Lee looked to his friends for help, namely actor James “Jim” Coburn and screenwriter Stirling Silliphant, who landed him small roles in movies like Marlowe and the television series, Longstreet. Most important to Lee was the trio’s collaboration on a film entitled The Silent Flute, which, after a month-long scouting trip to India in February 1971, was scrapped by Warner Bros. after Coburn left the project. The news devastated Lee, who viewed The Silent Flute as his next big break, but the actor took the news in stride and, on the suggestion of producer Fred Weintraub, booked a trip to Hong Kong. The trip proved to be a revelation. Lee, a relative unknown in America, was a celebrity in Hong Kong thanks to television reruns of The Green Hornet. The Hong Kong visit renewed Lee’s confidence, opened him to the idea of filming overseas, and changed the trajectory of his career. When Lee returned to California in May, it wasn’t long before he met with an associate of Golden Harvest film producer Raymond Chow, who promptly offered Lee his “Hong Kong deal,” a two-film contract for $15,000. Lee accepted and starred in his first two Hong Kong films, The Big Boss and Fist of Fury, movies that paved the way for his international breakthrough role in Enter the Dragon. Despite his setbacks, Lee’s optimism and resilience are perfectly represented by the closing line of this letter — “May things flow once more to where I can express my happiness once more after tasting bitterness.” Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 93

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Rare handwritten invoice by luxury trunk-maker Louis Vuitton, penned for the descendent of a founding father LOT 4048 Louis Vuitton Autograph Document Signed Penned for a Founding Father’s Descendent French fashion designer and businessman (1821–1892) who had been appointed as trunk-maker to Empress Eugénie de Montijo, wife of Napoleon III, and founded the Louis Vuitton brand of luxury leather goods now owned by LVMH. Rare ADS in French, signed “LV,” one page both sides, 8.25 x 10.75, May 13, 1873. Very early and extremely rare handwritten document issued to William Few Chrystie, accomplished by Louis Vuitton on ornate “Louis Vuitton Emballeur” stationery, being an invoice listing prices for fabric, boxes, and other packaging amounting to 387.50 francs. In very good to fine condition, with light creasing and handling wear, and some tiny holes along the intersecting folds. William Few Chrystie was the grandson of U.S. Constitution signer William Few. In 1858, inspired by H.J. Cave & Sons of London, Vuitton introduced his revolutionary rectangular

canvas trunks at a time when the market had only rounded-top leather trunks. The demand for Vuitton’s durable, lightweight designs spurred his expansion into a larger workshop in Asnières-sur-Seine. The original pattern of the shellac embedded canvas was named ‘Damier.’ Vuitton also designed the world’s first pick-proof lock. All lock patterns were safely kept at Vuitton’s workrooms and registered with the owner’s name in case another key was needed. In 1871, as a result of the Franco-Prussian War, demand fell sharply, and Vuitton’s workshop was in shambles. Many of his tools were stolen and his staff were gone. Vuitton rebuilt immediately, erecting a new shop at 1 Rue Scribe, next to a prestigious jockey club in the heart of Paris. In 1872, Vuitton introduced an iconic new line, featuring beige monogrammed designs with a red stripe—this would remain a signature of his brand long after he died. Vuitton’s autograph is extremely rare in any form—this is the first we have offered. Starting Bid $1,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 95

Coco Chanel leases “couture workshop” space in Cannes—an exceedingly rare signed document

LOT 4049 Coco Chanel Rare Document Signed for Cannes Couture Workshop Lease French fashion designer and businesswoman (1883–1971) celebrated as the founder and namesake of the Chanel brand. Rare DS in French, signed “Lu et approuvé, Gabrielle Chanel,” four pages on two adjoining sheets, 7 x 9.75, May 1, 1926. Lease agreement between Pierre Salmon, owner of the “Villa Numa Blanc, Boulevard de la Croisette in Cannes,” and “Mademoiselle Gabrielle Chanel, residing in Paris, 31 rue Cambon,” by which Salmon leases to Miss Chanel, “to hold

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salons or couture workshops,” an apartment in Villa Numa Blanc, consisting of the ground floor on the west side of the house, two additional rooms, and the basement beneath the large living room and adjacent room, from May 1, 1926, for 15 years at a price of 15,000 Francs per semester, payable in cash. In fine condition. Accompanied by an export certificate from the French Ministry of Culture and a photocopy of a postcard depicting Villa Numa Blanc with the Chanel boutique. Coco Chanel’s autograph is very rare in any form—this is just the second example we have offered. Starting Bid $1,000

LOT 4050 Enzo Ferrari Signed Photograph

Uncommon vintage matte-finish 5 x 7 close-up photo of Enzo Ferrari in sunglasses, signed in purple felt tip, “Ferrari, 75.” In fine condition, with a crease to the lower left corner. Starting Bid $300

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 97

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“Carried to the surface of the moon in Lunar Module Eagle” — Buzz Aldrin’s amazing LM prep checklist annotated by CDR Neil Armstrong a few hours before the first manned lunar landing LOT 4051 Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Flown LM Prep Checklist with In-Flight Annotations by CDR Neil Armstrong Prior to the First Moon Landing – From the Private Collection of Buzz Aldrin Remarkable flown double-sided “Drift Check & Landing Gear Deploy” page from the Apollo 11 Lunar Module Activation Checklist, 8 x 6, signed and flight-certified in black ink, “Flown to the Lunar Surface on Apollo XI, Eagle, July 20, 1969, Buzz Aldrin, LMP.” This page includes significant in-flight handwritten notations by Commander Neil Armstrong of the gimbal angles of the CM and LM and the precise time they were recorded. The pages are numbered at the top, “ACT-44” and “ACT-45.” In fine condition. Accompanied by a photo of Aldrin holding the offered checklist, printed transcripts of the mission’s drift check and deployment of the landing gear, and a detailed letter of provenance from Aldrin, who signs at the conclusion. The letter reads, in part: “Enclosed with this letter is a sheet numbered ACT-44 & ACT 45 from the Apollo 11 (LM) Lunar Module Systems Activation Checklist, Part No. SKB32100080360. The checklist was flown to the moon aboard Apollo 11… Then the entire checklist, including this sheet, was carried to the surface of the moon in Lunar Module Eagle during the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969. This sheet has mission notes by Neil Armstrong, and provides critical steps Neil and I performed in Eagle just little more than three and a half hours prior to the first manned lunar landing. Side ACT-44 indicates that at approximately (GET) Ground Elapsed Time of 98 hours and 50 minutes, I would activate the S-Band Antenna in the SLEW (Manual) position and capture the angles necessary to acquire the (MSFN) Manned Spaceflight Network. Once acquired, I put the S-Band Antenna into the Auto Tracking mode. I took the additional steps to activate

Telemetry to Right/Hi and activate Voice to Voice…Once the S-Band was activated at GET 98:56, MSFN ran Program 27 to uplink our AGC (Apollo Guidance Computer) with REFSMMAT & State Vector data… Side Act 45 next requires we perform a Drift Check of the lunar orbit trajectory via the AGC for course drift. Neil punched in the Verb 06/Noun 20 commands into the Display Keyboard (DSKY) of the AGC. This command provided us and transmitted Eagle’s present ICDU — Inertial Coupling Data Unit or gimbal angles (roll, pitch & yaw) to MSFN. CMP Mike Collins radioed the Gimbal Angles of Columbia to be: 358.64; 020.73; and 359.54. CapCom Charlie Duke read back Mike Collin’s angles as well as Eagle’s transmitted angles of 303.74; 200.78, and 000.53. Neil recorded mission notes of Colombia and Eagle’s gimbal angles on this page and marked the time of the report he transmitted to MSFN as 99:04:00 (GET). The final act called for the deployment of the Landing Gear at 99:05, though Neil and I actually deployed the Landing Gear earlier at 98:14 GET while on the dark side of the moon. I called off the checklist for Neil to ensure that the circuit breaker for Landing Gear Flag was closed and Logic Power-A open, located on Panel 11 in Eagle. Then I called for Neil to turn to Panel 8 & engage the Master Arm explosive device and fire the Landing Gear deployment switch. This action fully deployed the landing gear necessary for Neil and I to make Mankind’s very first landing on another celestial body — the moon.” A most important surface-flown piece from the legendary Apollo 11 mission, personally flight-certified by LMP Aldrin and containing incredibly rare working annotations by first moonwalker Neil Armstrong on the very day the Eagle’s crew began their historic descent and landing on the moon. Starting Bid $5,000

Remarkable Rarities | February 22, 2024 99

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The Incredible Hulk #1 – Stan Lee and Jack Kirby’s gray monster smashes his way into comic book history LOT 4052 The Incredible Hulk #1 (Marvel, 1962) CGC 3.5 (off-white to white pages) Issue No. 1 of The Incredible Hulk comic book, published by Marvel Comics on May 1, 1962, written by Stan Lee, penciled by Jack Kirby, and inked by Paul Reinman, with the iconic front cover art showing Bruce Banner transforming into the large gray Hulk. The cover notes a 12-cent price and features a group of eye-catching captions: “The Strangest Man of All Time!!,” “Fantasy As You Like It!,” and “Is He Man or Monster or…Is He Both.” This classic comic contains the origin and first appearance of the Hulk as well as the first appearances of Rick Jones, Betty Ross, and Thunderbolt Ross. Also of note, Banner’s cover transformation into the Hulk depicts a gray-skinned monster, a color choice made by Lee who didn’t want to reference any particular ethnic group. The gray didn’t stay, however, as a printing error in the first issue resulted in the Hulk being presented in a variety of gray and green tones. Lee took to the new look and asked his colorist Stan Goldberg to make the character green for the second issue. Encapsulated and graded by CGC as 3.5 (off-white to white pages). Currently ranked No. 2 on Overstreet’s list of the Top 50 Silver Age Comics, the first issue of The Incredible Hulk famously premiered as the second title of the new Marvel Age of Comics, releasing seven months after the debut of the Fantastic Four. The series was not initially a hit and Hulk was canceled after just six issues to make room for the new Marvel war series Sgt. Fury and the Howling Commandos. However, after appearing as an original member of the Avengers in September 1963, and then being featured in a few other stories, the Hulk earned a headlining spot in Tales to Astonish, splitting time with GiantMan in issue No. 60 (October 1964). The Hulk was a smash — and four years later, the would-be 102nd issue of Tales to Astonish officially became the second incarnation of The Incredible Hulk series. Starting Bid $1,000

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Unused admission ticket from the World Trade Center Observatory, dated hours before the 9/11 attacks LOT 4053 9/11: World Trade Center Observatory Ticket (September 10, 2001) - PSA EX 5 Rare full World Trade Center admission ticket to the “Top of the World Trade Center Observatories,” dated September 10, 2001, with a 24-hour time of 19:51 (7:51 PM), indicating that this unused ticket was one of the very last purchased before the devastating terrorist attacks the following day on 9/11. The ticket, 8 x 2, lists an adult ticket price of $13.50, a pair of unique identification codes, “00301003776183” and “003 282338 13,” and an advertisement for J&R Music World on the reverse. In very fine condition. Encapsulated and graded by PSA/DNA as “EX 5.” The Twin Towers offered expansive views from the observation deck atop the South Tower and from the Windows on the World restaurant on the North Tower. This ticket, which was unused due to heavy rain in the NYC area on the night of September 10th, was intended to be used the following day. Starting Bid $200

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Conditions of Sale ANYONE EITHER REGISTERING TO BID OR PLACING A BID (“BIDDER”) ACCEPTS THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE AND ENTERS INTO A LEGALLY, BINDING, ENFORCEABLE AGREEMENT WITH R&R AUCTION COMPANY OF MASSACHUSETTS, LLC (“RR AUCTION”) TOGETHER WITH BIDDER, THE “PARTIES”). This Agreement contains important provisions that control rights and liabilities, and specifically has provisions governing how disputes are handled as well as LIMITATIONS OF LIABILITY that can be imposed upon RR Auction, WAIVER OF JURY and ARBITRATION PROVISIONS. This acknowledgement is a material term of these Conditions of Sale and of the consideration under which RR Auction agrees to these terms. PLEASE READ CAREFULLY. The following terms and conditions (“Conditions of Sale”) constitute the sole terms and conditions under which RR Auction will offer for sale and sell the property on its website, and/or described in the catalog of items for auction (the “Catalog”). These Conditions of Sale constitute a binding agreement between the Parties with respect to the auction in which Bidder participates (the “Auction”). By bidding at the Auction, whether in person, through an agent or representative, by telephone, facsimile, online, absentee bid, or by any other form of bid or by any other means, Bidder acknowledges the thorough reading and understanding of all of these Conditions of Sale, all descriptions of items in the Catalog, and all matters incorporated herein by reference, and agrees to be fully bound thereby.

Section 1 The Parties1.1 RR Auction and Auction This Auction is presented by RR Auction, a d/b/a/ of R&R Auction Company of Massachusetts, LLC, as identified with the applicable licensing information on the title page of the Catalog or on the www.RRauction.com Internet site. The Auction is conducted under these Conditions of Sale. Announcements and corrections from the podium at live auctions and those made through the Conditions of Sale appearing on the Internet at RRauction.com supersede those in the printed Catalog. 1.2 Bidder Bidder shall mean the original Bidder on the property offered for sale by RR Auction and not any subsequent owner or other person who may acquire or have acquired an interest therein. If Bidder is an agent, the agency must be disclosed in writing to RR Auction prior to the time of sale, otherwise the benefits of the warranty shall be limited to the agent and not transferable to the undisclosed principal. The rights granted to Bidder under these Conditions of Sale are personal and may not be assigned or transferred to any other person or entity, whether by operation of law or otherwise without the express written assent of RR Auction. Bidder may not transfer, assign, or otherwise convey these Conditions of Sale or any of the rights herein, and such purported transfer, assignment, or conveyance shall be null and void. No third party may rely on any benefit or right conferred on any Bidder by these Conditions of Sale, and no third party is intended as a beneficiary of these Conditions of Sale. Bids will not be accepted from minor persons under eighteen (18) years of age without a parent or legal guardian’s written consent containing an acknowledgment of the Conditions of Sale herein and indicating their agreement to be bound thereby on behalf of the Bidder. All Bidders must meet RR Auction’s qualifications to bid. Any Bidder who is not a client in good standing of RR Auction may be disqualified at RR Auction’s sole option and will not be awarded lots. Such determination may be made by RR Auction in its sole and unlimited discretion, at any time prior to, during, or even after the close of the Auction. RR Auction reserves the right to exclude any person from the Auction. If an entity places a bid, then the person executing the bid on behalf of the entity agrees to personally guarantee payment for any successful bid and agrees to be bound by these Conditions of Sale in addition to company for whom the Bidder is acting By accepting the Conditions of Sale, Bidder personally and unconditionally guarantees payment. Section 2 Bidding Privileges

2.1 In order to place bids, Bidders who have not established an account with RR Auction must either furnish satisfactory credit information (including two collectibles-related business references) or supply additional information if requested, well in advance of the Auction. Bidders who are not members of RRAuction.com should pre-register before the close of the Auction to allow adequate time to contact references. Privileges will be granted at the sole discretion of RR Auction. Additionally, Bidders who have not previously established credit or who wish to bid in excess of their established credit history may be required to provide a cash deposit prior to RR Auction’s acceptance of a bid. Check writing privileges and immediate delivery of merchandise may also be determined by pre-approval of credit based on a combination of criteria: RRAuction.com history, related industry references, bank verification, a credit bureau report and/or a personal guarantee for a corporate or partnership entity in advance of the Auction venue. 2.2 Bidder providing any false or misleading information provided in connection with the registration shall be a material breach of the Conditions of Sale and in addition to any other remedies at law shall excuse RR Auction from performance under these Conditions of Sale, including the right to any refund. 2.2 Bidding privileges may be revoked without notice, for any reason, at the sole discretion of RR Auction . Section 3 Buyer’s Premium 3.1 The Bidder acknowledges and agrees that a 25% buyer’s premium will be added to the hammer price on all individual lots sold in timed and live Auctions. . For payment other than by cash, delivery will not be made unless and until full payment has been received by RR Auction, i.e., check or wired funds have fully cleared. Unless otherwise agreed in writing, signed by RR Auction, payment in full is due within thirteen (13) calendar days of the Auction or within twelve (12) calendar days of the invoice date, whichever is earlier. Bidder’s failure to pay any payment in full when due required shall constitute a material breach, and in addition to other damages available under contract or law, at RR Auction’s election, RR Auction may cancel the sale and require full premium still be due along with interest at 1.5% per month from the date of breach, or at the maximum legally allowable rate. Section 4 Bidding 4.1 Each Bidder’s determination of its bid should be based upon its own examination of the item(s) and independent investigation, rather than the any reliance as to what is represented in the Catalog, online or elsewhere. Bidder affirms that it regards any statements made by RR Auction concerning the item as solely opinion and that Bidder is making its own inspection and independent evaluation of the goods, and is not relying upon any description or statements by RR Auction (including as to quality, authenticity, provenance, ownership, liens existing, on goods legality, or value) in making its determination to bid on or purchase an item. In any purchase or sale, the value of the item(s) is determined by the price. THE BIDDER HEREBY ASSUMES ALL RISKS CONCERNING ANY AND ALL PURCHASES TO THE FULLEST EXTENT UNDER APPLICABLE LAW. 4.2 RR AUCTION IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR ERRORS IN BIDDING. A Bidder should make certain to bid on the correct lot and that the bid is the maximum (plus the Buyer’s Premium) that the Bidder is willing and able to pay. Since other Bidders (by mail, facsimile, online, and in person) will be present, and since a reoffering could damage the momentum of the sale, once the hammer has fallen and RR Auction has announced the winning Bidder, such Bidder is unconditionally bound to pay for the lot, even if the Bidder has made a mistake. 4.3 All prospective Bidders who examine lots in person prior to the sale shall personally assume all responsibility for any damage they cause in so doing. RR Auction shall have sole discretion in determining the value of the damage caused, which shall be promptly paid by the prospective Bidder. 4.4 Title to any lot remains with Consignor, any secured party of the Consignor, or assignee of Consignor, as the case may be, until the lot is paid for in full by Bidder and Bidder has fully satisfied any outstanding financial obligations to RR Auction (including as it concerns aby other lots). RR Auction reserves the right to require payment in full before delivering any lot to the successful Bidder. 4.5 It is the Bidder’s responsibility and obligation to have the lots fully insured while in their possession. Bidder assumes any and all risk of loss upon the earlier of shipment to Bidder or in Bidder’s possession. 4.6 Bidder grants to RR Auction or its assigns the right to offset any sums due, or found to be due by RR Auction, and to make such offset from any past, subsequent or future consignment, or items acquired by Bidder in possession or control of RR Auction or from any sums due to Bidder by RR Auction. Bidder fur-

ther grants RR Auction a lien consisting of a senior security interest (or purchase money security interest to the extent applicable) in such sums or items to the fullest extent applicable, authorizes RR Auction to file documents concerning the interest, and Bidder agrees to execute any further documents as may be reasonably necessary to grant RR Auction such security interest. Bidder agrees that RR Auction and its assigns shall be a secured party with respect to items bought by Bidder and in the possession of RR Auction, to the extent of the maximum indebtedness, plus all accrued fees and expenses, until the indebtedness is paid. 4.7 By bidding in this sale, Bidder personally and unconditionally guarantees payment. The authorized representative of any corporate Bidder who is present at the sale shall provide RR Auction or its agent, prior to the commencement of the bidding (or at the time of registration), with a statement signed by a principal, director or officer that they he or she personally and unconditionally guarantees any payment due RR Auction. 4.8 RR Auction may at its sole and absolute discretion, make loans or advances to Consignors and/or prospective Bidders. Section 5 Bidding Options 5.1 Non-Internet bids (including but not limited to in-person, facsimile, phone and mail bids) are treated similarly to floor bids in that they must be on-increment. Any in-person, facsimile, phone, or mail bids that do not conform to a full increment will be rounded up or down to the nearest full increment and this revised amount will be considered Bidder’s high bid. 5.2 When identical bids are submitted, preference is given to the first received. To ensure the greatest accuracy, written bids should be entered on the standard printed bid sheet and be received at RR Auction’s place of business at least twenty-four (24) hours before the Auction start. RR Auction is not responsible for executing mail bids or facsimile bids received on or after the day the first lot is sold, nor Internet bids submitted after the published closing time; nor is RR Auction responsible for proper execution of bids submitted by telephone, mail, facsimile, e-mail, Internet, or in person once the Auction begins. 5.3 In all Auctions, bids on an item must raise the current high bid by at least 10%, or as specified on a per-Auction basis. Bids will be accepted in whole dollar amounts only. No “buy” or “unlimited” bids will be accepted. In a live sale, bids on an item can change at the discretion of RR Auction. 5.4 RR Auction reserves the right to accept or decline any bid. Bids must be for an entire lot and each lot constitutes a separate sale. All bids are per lot unless otherwise announced. Live auction lots will be sold in their numbered sequence unless RR Auction directs otherwise. It is unlawful and illegal for Bidders to collude, pool, or agree with another Bidder to pay less than the fair value for lot(s). For live auctions, RR Auction will have final discretion in the event that any dispute should arise between Bidders. RR Auction will determine the successful Bidder, cancel the sale, or re-offer and resell the lot or lots in dispute. RR Auction will have final discretion to resolve any disputes arising after the sale and in online auctions. If any dispute arises, RR Auction’s sale record is conclusive. Section 6 Payment 6.1 Subject to fulfillment of all of the Conditions of Sale set forth herein, upon the sooner of (1) the passing of title to the offered lot pursuant to these Conditions of Sale, or (2) possession of the offered lot by the Bidder, Bidder thereupon (a) assumes full risk and responsibility (including without limitation, liability for or damage to frames or glass covering prints, paintings, photos, or other works), and (b) will immediately pay the full purchase price or such part as RR Auction may require. In addition to other remedies available to RR Auction by law, RR Auction reserves the right to impose from the date of sale a late charge of 1.5% per month of the total purchase price if payment is not made in accordance with the conditions set forth herein. All property must be removed from RR Auction’s premises by the Bidder at his/her expense not later than sixty (60) business days following its sale and, if it is not so removed, RR Auction may send the purchased property to a public warehouse for the account, at the risk and expense of the Bidder. 6.2 Payment is due upon closing of the Auction session, or upon presentment of an invoice. RR Auction reserves the right to void an invoice if payment in full is not received within thirteen (13) calendar days of the Auction or within twelve (12) calendar days of the invoice date. In cases of nonpayment, RR Auction’s election to void a sale does not relieve the Bidder from their obligation to pay RR Auction its fees (seller’s and Buyer’s Premium) on the lot and any other damages pertaining to the lot. 6.3 All sales for total invoices greater than $1,000 are strictly for cash in United States dollars (including U.S. currency, bank wire, cashier checks, eChecks, and bank money orders), and are subject to all reporting requirements.

6.4 All deliveries are subject to good funds; funds being received in RR Auction’s account before delivery of the Purchases; and all payments are subject to a clearing period. RR Auction reserves the right to determine if a check constitutes “good funds”: checks drawn on a U.S. bank are subject to a ten (10) calendar day hold, and ten (10) business days when drawn on an international bank. Clients with pre-arranged credit status may receive immediate credit for payments via e-Check, personal or corporate checks. 6.5 In the event that a Bidder’s payment is dishonored upon presentment(s), Bidder shall pay the maximum statutory processing fee set by applicable state law. If Bidder attempts to pay via check and the financial institution denies the transfer from Bidder’s bank account, or the payment cannot be completed using the selected funding source, Bidder agrees to complete payment. 6.7 If RR Auction refers any unpaid invoice to an attorney for collection, the Bidder agrees to pay and shall be liable for RR Auction’s attorney’s fees, court costs, and other collection costs incurred by RR Auction in addition to the invoice amount and interest the greater of 1.5% per month or at the maximum legally allowable rate from date of invoice to collection. If RR Auction assigns collection to its house counsel, such attorney’s time expended on the matter shall be compensated at a rate comparable to the hourly rate of independent attorneys. 6.8 RR Auction shall have a lien against the merchandise purchased by the Bidder (as well as to the extent it is a consignor any other monies owed or due to Bidder) to secure payment of the Auction invoice. RR Auction is further granted a lien and the right to retain possession of any other property of the Bidder then held by RR Auction or its affiliates to secure payment of any Auction invoice or any other amounts due RR Auction or affiliates from the Bidder. With respect to these lien rights, RR Auction shall have all the rights of a secured creditor, including but not limited to the right of sale. In addition, with respect to payment of the Auction invoice(s), the Bidder waives any and all rights of offset he might otherwise have against RR Auction and the consignor of the merchandise included on the invoice (the Consignor”). If a Bidder owes RR Auction or its affiliates on any account, RR Auction and its affiliates shall have the right to offset such unpaid account by any credit balance due Bidder, and it may secure by possessory lien any unpaid amount by any of the Bidder’s property in their possession. 6.9 All checks, cashiers checks, bank checks, or money orders are payable to R&R Auction Company of Massachusetts, LLC. RR Auction clients with an invoice totaling $1,000 or under will have the option to pay by VISA, Mastercard, Discover or Paypal. All Paypal payments must be sent to FinanceDepartment@ rrauction.com. Authorize.net, a third-party service provider contracted by RR Auction for processing on-line payments, charges a nonrefundable service fee of 3%, which will be added to your final invoice should you pay by credit/debit card. Section 7 Sales Tax RR Auction is a remote seller and we are now required to collect Sales/Use Tax from our bidders. The states that we have nexus in we will be required to collect and remit sales tax on your behalf. Each state has different requirements to meet nexus. When RR Auction has achieved a certain monetary and/or invoice threshold in each state we will apply sales tax to your total invoice. The states that are affected are: ARIZONA, ARKANSAS, CALIFORNIA, COLORADO, CONNECTICUT, FLORIDA, GEORGIA, ILLINOIS, INDIANA, IOWA, KANSAS, KENTUCKY, MAINE, MARYLAND, MASSACHUSETTS, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, NEBRASKA, NEVADA, NEW JERSEY, NEW YORK, NORTH CAROLINA, OHIO, OKLAHOMA, PENNSYLVANIA,RHODE ISLAND, TENNESSEE, TEXAS, UTAH, VIRGINIA, WASHINGTON, WISCONSIN If we have not achieved nexus in a particular state it is still your responsibility to pay sales tax on your purchases. The sales tax rate is determined by the State, Country, and City where purchases are shipped to. If you decide to pick up your purchases at our New Hampshire location you will not be required to pay sales tax. The State of New Hampshire does not have a general sales and use tax. All purchases picked up at our Massachusetts location will be taxed at the current rate of 6.25%. If you have a resale number please email Sue@RRAuction.com or fax to (603) 732-4288 a copy of your state resale certificate and you will be exempt from paying sales tax. Section 8 Delivery; Shipping; and Handling Charges Bidder is liable for shipping and handling and providing accurate information as to shipping or delivery locations and arranging for such. RR Auction is unable to combine purchases from other auctions or affiliates into one package for shipping purposes. Lots won will be shipped in a commercially reasonable time after payment in good funds for the merchandise and the shipping fees is received or credit extended, except when third-party shipment occurs. Bidder agrees that

service and handling charges related to shipping items which are not pre-paid may be charged to a credit card on file with RR Auction. Successful international Bidders shall provide written shipping instructions, including specified Customs declarations, to RR Auction for any lots to be delivered outside of the United States. NOTE: Declaration value shall be the item’(s) hammer price and RR Auction shall use the correct harmonized code for the lot. Domestic Bidders on lots designated for third-party shipment must designate the common carrier, accept risk of loss, and prepay shipping costs. Section 9 Title Title shall not pass to the successful Bidder until all invoices of Bidder (including those pertaining to the item(s) at issue) and amounts owed to RR Auction are paid in full. It is the responsibility of the Bidder to provide adequate insurance coverage for the items once they have been delivered to a common carrier or third-party shipper. Section 10 Rights Reserved RR Auction reserves the right, at any time before, during or after an auction has ended to: withdraw any lot before or at the time of the Auction, cancel any bid, and/or to postpone the Auction of all or any lots or parts thereof, for any reason. RR Auction shall not be liable to any Bidder in the event of such withdrawal, cancellation, or postponement under any circumstances. RR Auction reserves the right to refuse to accept bids from anyone at any time. Section 11 Conducting the Auction 11.1 RR Auction reserves the right to postpone the Auction or any session thereof for a reasonable period of time for any reason whatsoever, and no Bidder or prospective Bidder shall have any claim as a result thereof, including consequential damages. 11.2 RR Auction’s Discretion: RR Auction shall determine opening bids and bidding increments. RR Auction has the right in its absolute discretion to reject any bid in the event of dispute between Bidders or if RR Auction has doubt as to the validity of any bid, to advance the bidding at its absolute discretion and to determine the successful Bidder in the event of a dispute between Bidders, to continue the bidding or to reoffer and resell the lot in question. In the event of a dispute after the sale, RR Auctions record of final sale shall be conclusive. RR Auction also may reject any bid if RR Auction decides either that any bid is below the reserve of the lot or article or that an advance is insufficient. Unless otherwise announced by RR Auction at the time of sale, no lots may be divided for the purpose of sale. 11.3 Reserves Lots may be subject to a reserve which is the confidential minimum price below which the lot will not be sold. Consignors may not bid on their own lots or property. RR Auction may, from time to time, bid on items that it does not own. RR Auction may execute bids consecutively or otherwise up to one bid increment below the reserve. 11.4 Off-Site Bidding Bidding by telephone, facsimile, online, or absentee bidding (advance written bids submitted by mail) are offered solely as a convenience and permitted subject to advance arrangements, availability, and RR Auction’s approval which shall be exercised at RR Auction’s sole discretion. Neither RR Auction nor its agents or employees shall be held liable for the failure to execute bids or for errors relating to any transmission or execution thereof. In order to be considered for off-site bidding in any manner, Bidders must comply with all of these Conditions of Sale and the terms contained on the Registration Form. 11.5 Estimate Prices: In addition to descriptive information, each item in the Catalog sometimes includes a price range which reflects opinion as to the price expected at auction (the “Estimate Prices”). In other instances, Estimate Prices can be obtained by calling RR Auction at (603) 732-4280. The Estimate Prices are based upon various factors including prices recently paid at auction for comparable property, condition, rarity, quality, history and provenance. Estimate Prices are prepared well in advance of the sale and subject to revision. Estimates do not include the Buyer’s Premium or sales tax (see under separate heading). 11.6 Owned or Guaranteed Property: RR Auction generally offers property consigned by others for sale at public auction; in very limited occasion, lots are offered that are the property of RR Auction. 11.7 Before the Auction:

Bidder may attend pre-sale viewing for all of RR Auction’s auctions at no charge. All property to be auctioned is usually on view for several days prior to the sale. Bidder is encouraged to examine lots thoroughly. Bidder may also request condition reports (see below). RR Auction’s staff are available at viewings and by appointment. 11.8 Maximum Bids In All Auctions: To maximize Bidder’s chance of winning, RR Auction strongly encourages the use of maximum bids. RR Auction will then bid for Bidder until the lot reaches Bidder’s specified maximum. Maximum bids are strictly confidential. Placing arbitrary, non-incremental bids on lots with prior maximum bids may result in these lots being sold for less than 10% above the under Bidder’s bid. 11.9 Successful Bids: The fall of RR Auction’s hammer indicates the final bid. RR Auction will record the paddle number of the Bidder. If Bidder’s salesroom or absentee bid is successful, Bidder will be notified after the sale by mailed or emailed invoice. 11.10 Unsold Lots: If a lot does not reach the reserve, it is bought-in. In other words, it remains unsold and is returned to the Consignor. RR Auction has the right to sell certain unsold items after the close of the Auction. Such lots shall be considered sold during the Auction and all these Terms and Conditions shall apply to such sales including but not limited to the Buyer’s Premium, return rights, and disclaimers. 11.11 Bidding in Timed Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www.rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. The auctioneer may also execute a bid on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www.RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. Any Bidder may bid on any lot prior to 6 pm EST/EDT. At that time, an extended bidding period goes into effect. If Bidder has not bid on a lot before 6 pm EST/ EDT, Bidder may not bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. Only those Bidders who have placed bids on a lot before 6 pm EST/EDT will be allowed to bid on that lot after 6 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the only Bidder on a lot at 6 pm EST/ EDT, that lot is awarded to Bidder. During the extended bidding period, a lot will remain open only to those who bid on that lot prior to 6 pm EST/EDT. All lots WITHOUT an opening bid at 6 pm EST/EDT will remain OPEN to ALL Bidders until 7 pm EST/EDT or until they receive their first bid. These lots will close immediately upon receipt of a bid or at 7 pm EST/EDT, whichever comes first. For all lots that are active after 7 pm EST/EDT, bidding will remain open until 30 minutes pass without a bid being placed on THAT lot (the “30 Minute Rule”). The 30 Minute Rule is applied on a PER LOT BASIS; each lot in the Auction closes individually based on bidding activity after 7 pm EST/EDT. On a PER LOT BASIS, the 30 minute timer will reset each time a bid is placed after 7 pm EST/EDT. If Bidder is the high Bidder, raising Bidder’s maximum bid will NOT reset the timer. RR Auction reserves the right to close the Auction at any time at its sole discretion. 11.12 Bidding - Internet Live Auction: Bidder may open, monitor, and/or raise bids at any time before the close of a lot through www.rrauction.com. RR Auction offers a callback service the day of the Auction, but Bidder is responsible for supplying a correct telephone number(s) where Bidder can be reached until the Auction closes. Bidder must request this service in writing. RR Auction will make reasonable efforts to ensure that Bidders who request a callback are contacted if outbid; however, RR Auction does not guarantee this service and it is merely a courtesy and not an enforceable right. To ensure proper registration, those Bidders intending to bid via the Internet must visit www.RRauction.com and register accordingly at least one full day prior to the actual auction. Winning bidders will be notified by RR Auction. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. During live internet or live auction, property is auctioned in consecutive numerical order, as it appears in the catalog. The auctioneer will accept bids from those present in the salesroom or absentee bidders participating by telephone,

internet or by written bid left with RR Auction in advance of the auction. The auctioneer may also execute a bid or bids (successively or otherwise) on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve, either by entering a bid in response to salesroom, telephone or absentee bids. Under no circumstances will the auctioneer place any bid on behalf of the consignor above the reserve. The auctioneer will not specifically identify bids placed on behalf of the consignor to protect the reserve. All auctions for lots are with reserve unless specifically stated otherwise. During live Auctions, internet bids can be placed in real time through one or more of the following Third Party services: www.liveauctioneers.com, www.invaluable. com and www.icollector.com. RR Auction is not responsible or liable for any problems, delays, or any other issues or problems resulting out of use of the Internet generally or specifically, including but not limited to transmission, execution or processing of bids. RR Auction treats any third-party site bids as floor or telephone bids. Floor bids and telephone bids are always considered first over third party sites bids, and floor bids are considered earlier than telephone bids. All RR Auction lots purchased through the third-party sites carry an additional Buyer’s Premium. 11.13 Miscellaneous: Agreements between Bidders and Consignors to effectuate a non-sale of an item at Auction, inhibit bidding on a consigned item to enter into a private sale agreement for said item, or to utilize RR Auction’s Auction to obtain sales for non-selling consigned items subsequent to the Auction, are strictly prohibited. If a subsequent sale of a previously consigned item occurs in violation of this provision, RR Auction reserves the right to charge Bidder the applicable Buyer’s Premium and Consignor a Seller’s Commission as determined for each auction venue and by the terms of the seller’s agreement. Acceptance of these Terms and Conditions qualifies Bidder as a client who has consented to be contacted by RR Auction in the future. In conformity with ”donot-call” regulations promulgated by the Federal or State regulatory agencies, participation by the Bidder is affirmative consent to being contacted at the phone number shown in his application and this consent shall remain in effect until it is revoked in writing. RR Auction may from time to time contact Bidder concerning sale, purchase, and auction opportunities available. 11.14 Rules of Construction: RR Auction presents properties in a number of collectible fields, and as such, specific venues have promulgated supplemental Terms and Conditions. Nothing herein shall be construed to waive the general Conditions of Sale by these additional rules and shall be construed to give force and effect to the rules in their entirety. Section 12 RR Auction’s Remedies Failure of the Bidder to comply with any of these Conditions of Sale or the terms of the Registration Form is an event of material breach or default. In such event, RR Auction may, in addition to any other available remedies specifically including the right to hold the defaulting Bidder liable for the Purchase Price or to charge and collect from the defaulting Bidder’s credit or debit accounts as provided for elsewhere herein: (a) cancel the sale, retaining any payment made by the Bidder as damages (the Bidder understands and acknowledges that RR Auction will be substantially damaged should such default occur, and that damages under subpart (a) are necessary to compensate RR Auction for such damages); (b) resell the property without reserve at public auction or privately; (c) charge the Bidder interest on the Purchase Price at the rate of one and one-half percent (1.5%) per month or the highest allowable interest rate; (d) take any other action that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems necessary or appropriate to preserve and protect RR Auction’s rights and remedies. Should RR Auction resell the property, the original defaulting Bidder shall be liable for the payment of any deficiency in the purchase price and all costs and expenses associated there with, including but not limited to warehousing, sales-related expenses, reasonable attorney fees and court costs, commissions, incidental damages and any other charges due hereunder which were not collected or collectable. In the event that such Bidder is the successful Bidder on more than one lot and pays less than the purchase price for the total lots purchased, RR Auction shall apply the payment received to such lot or lots that RR Auction, in its sole discretion, deems appropriate. If RR Auction does not exercise such discretion, the lots to which the payment shall be applied will be in descending order from the highest purchase price to the lowest. Any Bidder failing to comply with these Conditions of Sale shall be deemed to have granted RR Auction a security interest in, and RR Auction may retain as collateral such security for such Bidder’s obligations to RR Auction, any Bidder’s property in RR Auction’s possession or to which title has not yet passed to Bidder. RR Auction shall have the benefit of all rights of a secured party under the Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.) as adopted by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Section 13 Warranties

13.1 RR Auction does not provide any warranties to Bidders, whether expressed or implied, beyond those expressly provided in these Conditions of Sale. All property and lots are sold ”as is” and “where is”. By way of illustration rather than limitation, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to merchantability or fitness for intended use, condition of the property (including any condition report), correctness of description, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, importance, exhibition, relevance, attribution, source, provenance, date, authorship, condition, culture, genuineness, value, or period of the property. Additionally, neither RR Auction nor the Consignor makes any representation or warranty, expressed or implied, as to whether the Bidder acquires rights in copyright, trademark, or other intellectual property (including exhibition or reproduction rights) related to the item, or whether the property is subject to any limitations or other rights. RR Auction does not make any representation or warranty as to title. 13.2 All descriptions, photographs, illustrations, and terminology including but not limited to words describing condition (including any condition reports requested by Bidder, see also Terminology), authorship, period, culture, source, origin, measurement, quality, rarity, provenance, importance, exhibition, and relevance, used in the Catalog, bill of sale, invoice, or anywhere else, represent a good faith effort made by RR Auction to fairly represent the lots and property offered for sale as to origin, date, condition, and other information contained therein; they are statements of opinion only. They are not representations or warranties and Bidder agrees and acknowledges that he or she shall not rely on them in determining whether or not to bid or for what price. Price estimates (which are determined well in advance of the Auction and are therefore subject to revision) and condition reports are provided solely as a convenience to Bidders and are not intended nor shall they be relied on by Bidders as statements, representations or warranties of actual value or predictions of final bid prices. 13.3 Bidders are accorded the opportunity to inspect the lots and to otherwise satisfy themselves as to the nature and sufficiency of each lot prior to bidding, and RR Auction urges Bidders to avail themselves accordingly. 13.4 All lots sold by RR Auction are accompanied by an Auction Certificate (“AC”). On any lot presented with an AC issued by RR Auction, the certification is only as to its attribution to the person or entity described or to the lot’s usage and only as explicitly stated therein (the “AC”), to the exclusion of any other warranties, express or implied, including but not limited to those pursuant to the Uniform Commercial Code. The AC inures only to the original Bidder (as shown in RR Auction’s records). Bidder may not transfer, assign, or otherwise convey the AC and such purported transfer, assignment, or conveyance shall be null and void. Section 14 Firearms RR Auction complies with all Federal and State rules and regulations relating to the purchasing, registration and shipping of firearms. A Bidder is required to provide appropriate documents and the payment of associated fees, if any. Bidder is responsible for providing a shipping address that is suitable for the receipt of a firearm. Section 15 Unauthorized Statements Under no circumstances is any employee, agent or representative of RR Auction authorized by RR Auction to modify, amend, waive or contradict any of these Conditions of Sale, any term or condition set forth on a registration form, any warranty or limitation or exclusion of warranty, any term or condition in either the Registration Form or these Terms and Conditions regarding payment requirements, including but not limited to due date, manner of payment, and what constitutes payment in full, or any other term or condition contained in any documents issued by RR Auction unless such modification, amendment, waiver or contradiction is contained in a writing signed by all parties. Any statements, oral or written, made by employees, agents or representatives of RR Auction to Bidder, including statements regarding specific lots, even if such employee, agent or representative represents that such statement is authorized, unless reduced to a writing signed Bidder and by an authorized officer of RR Auction by all parties, are statements of personal opinion only and are not binding on RR Auction, and under no circumstances shall be relied upon by Bidder as a statement, representation or warranty of RR Auction. Section 16 Bidder’s Remedies 16.1 Except as stated expressly herein, Bidder’s sole and exclusive remedy related to or pertaining to items it bids upon, views, or purchases from RR Auction, and any claims by Bidder related to authenticity, ownership, condition, title or value, shall be against Consignor only. 16.2 This section sets forth the sole and exclusive remedies of Bidder as against

RR Auction (inclusive of its affiliates, officers, managers, employees or agents), or in any way arising out of, related to, or in connection with these Conditions of Sale, , and is expressly in lieu of any other rights or remedies which might be available to Bidder by law. Time is of the essence with respect to these procedures. 16.3 Title to Items The Bidder hereby accepts the benefit of the Consignor’s warranty of title and any other representations and warranties made by the Consignor for the Bidder’s benefit. In the event that Bidder demonstrates in writing, satisfactory to the sole discretion of RR Auction, that there was a breach of the Consignor’s warranty of title concerning a lot purchased by Bidder, RR Auction may make demand upon the Consignor to pay to Bidder the Purchase Price (including any premiums, taxes, or other amounts paid or due to RR Auction). Should the Consignor not pay the Purchase Price to Bidder within thirty days after such demand (if any made), RR Auction may disclose the identity of the Consignor to Bidder and may assign to Bidder all or some of RR Auction’s rights against the Consignor with respect to such lot or property. Upon such disclosure and/or assignment, all responsibility and liability of RR Auction, if any, with respect to said lot or item shall automatically terminate related to or arising from these Conditions of Sale or such transaction operating as a complete waiver and general release by Bidder as to RR Auction and its agents, contractors, and affiliates, as to any and all claims concerning or related to the item, if any . RR Auction shall be entitled to retain the premiums and other amounts paid to RR Auction by Consignor only. The rights and remedies provided herein are for the original Bidder only and they may not be assigned or relied upon by any transferee or assignee under any circumstances. 16.4 Authenticity Challenge Process (1) If Bidder wishes to dispute or challenge the Authenticity of the lot or item (including asserting that it is incorrect), Bidder must adhere to the following procedure: Within 30 days of the Auction Date, Bidder must present written evidence to RR Auction, that the lot is not authentic as determined by a known expert in the field (and one recognized by RR Auction within its discretion) and send the physical item or lot at issue to RR Auction along with all evidence relied upon by Bidder for contesting the Authenticity. (“Authenticity Challenge Process”) “Authenticity” shall mean a gross discrepancy in the between the description, genuiness, or attribution of the item as represented by RR Auction in the Catalog or at the auction, and the item. If RR Auction concurs that the lot is not Authentic as was represented (it is sole discretion), Bidder’s sole and exclusive remedy as against RR Auction (inclusive of its affiliates, agents, employees, and contractors) shall be a refund of the purchase price of the subject item paid by Bidder, with no other costs, liabilities or amounts recoverable by Bidder. If RR Auction does not agree with the assertion by Bidder, then the Parties shall follow the dispute resolution procedures of these Conditions of Sale. Strict adherence to the Authenticity Challenge Process is a condition of standing for Bidder to initiate suit or claim. (2) So long as Bidder has complied with the Authenticity Challenge Process, any claim, suit or action, by Bidder concerning an AC or Certification of Authenticity, or related to the authenticity of the item must, without any exception, be brought within one (1) year of Auction Date and is subject to the other limitations and conditions stated in the Conditions of Sale. 16.5 Other Issues. Any dispute or claim by Bidder against RR Auction (or its affiliates, directors, employees, officers, agents, or contractors)) other than Authenticity, concerning any item or lot bid upon, or purchased, including value, title, condition, bidding process, or description must be asserted (if at all) in the following manner: (1) If the description of any lot in the Catalog is materially or grossly incorrect (e.g., gross cataloging error), or there is any other gross material issue pertaining to the item or lot, the item or lot may be returned if returned within five (5) calendar days of receipt, and received by RR Auction no later than twenty-one (21) calendar days after the Auction Date with explanation in writing.. If there is any discrepancy between the description in the Catalog and a certificate of auction, then the description in the certificate of auction (“Lot Challenge Process”). This paragraph shall constitute Bidder’s sole right with respect to the return of items, and no refunds shall be given for any items not returned to and received by RR Auction within the period of time stated herein or not materially or grossly in deviation from the description. Such a refund is subject to RR Auction’s sole discretionary review, and any request for refund must be made concurrently with returning the physical item or lot to RR Auction. Any item not returned within said frame will constitute acceptance of the item and a waiver and release of any and all claims by Bidder pertaining to the item other than with respect to authenticity; and (2) Provided that the Bidder has engaged in the Lot Challenge Process, any

claim concerning such must be brought no later than one (1) year of the Auction Date for the item or lot at issue and is subject to the other limitations and conditions stated in the Conditions of Sale. NO RETURN OR REFUND OF ANY AUCTION LOT WILL BE CONSIDERED OR PROVIDED EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THESE CONDITIONS OF SALE AND BIDDERS OR AS MAY BE REQUIRED BY LAW. FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH SUCH SHALL BE A COMPLETE DEFENSE TO ANY CLAIMS BY BIDDER RELATED TO THE CONDITIONS OF SALE, ANY AUCTION OR BID. 16.6 LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. For any and all claims by Bidder arising out of or related to this Agreement, Bidder’s viewing, bid, or purchase of items, or any agreement between the Parties, or otherwise, Bidder agrees that to the fullest extent such can be limited under the law, Bidder shall have no right to recover and hereby waives any and all rights to recover from against RR Auction or its affiliates, directors, employees, officers, agents, or contractors, consequential or indirect damages, lost profits damages, punitive, exemplary, statutory (or multiplier damages), physical or emotional distress damages, general or special damages of any kind (beyond amounts actually paid by Bidder for item(s) at issue), and in the event of recovery of any damages whatsoever, such shall be limited by the amounts actually paid by Bidder to RR Auction for the item(s) at issue in such claim, or if no money was paid to RR Auction by Bidder for items at issue, or there items are at issue, the amount of $150.00. Section 17 RR Auction’s Additional Services For Bidders who do not remove purchased property from RR Auction’s premises, RR Auction, in its sole discretion and solely as a service and accommodation to Bidders, may arrange to have purchased lots packed, insured and forwarded at the sole request, expense, and risk of Bidder. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for acts or omissions in such packing or shipping by RR Auction or other packers and carriers, whether or not recommended by RR Auction. RR Auction assumes no and disclaims all responsibility and liability for damage to frames, glass or other breakable items. Where RR Auction arranges and bills for such services via invoice, RR Auction will include an administration charge. Section 18 Headings Headings are for convenience only and shall not be used to interpret the substantive sections to which they refer. Section 19 Entire Agreement Except to the extent Bidder is also a consignor (in which case the terms of the consignment agreement shall also govern), these Conditions of Sale constitute the entire agreement between the Parties together with the terms and conditions contained in the auction Registration Form. They may not be amended, modified or superseded except in a signed writing executed by all parties. No oral or written statement by anyone employed by RR Auction or acting as agent or representative of RR Auction may amend, modify, waive or supersede the terms herein unless such amendment, waiver or modification is contained in a writing signed by all parties. If any section of these Conditions of Sale or any term or provision of any section is held to be invalid, void, or unenforceable by any court or arbitrator of competent jurisdiction, the remaining parts of the agreement and remainder of the sections or terms and provisions of the section and all sections shall continue in full force and effect without being impaired or invalidated in any way. Section 20 Governing Law and Enforcement 20.1 The Parties agree that all agreements between the Parties including but not limited to these Conditions of Sale are entered into in Boston, Massachusetts, no matter where Bidder is situated and no matter by what means or where Bidder was informed of the Auction and regardless of whether catalogs, materials, or other communications were received by Bidder in another location. 20.2 The Parties agree that these Conditions of Sale, any other related agreement(s), along with all claims between the Parties, including those arising out of or related to such are governed by the laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, without regard for its conflict of laws principles. The Parties agree that any dispute between the Parties, including but not limited to those related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale, or related to or arising out of any other related agreement(s) shall be submitted to confidential binding arbitration (the ”Arbitration”) before a single Arbitrator of the American Arbitration Association

(the “AAA”) The Parties agree that the Arbitration shall be conducted pursuant to the commercial rules of the AAA in Boston, Massachusetts, unless the Consumer Arbitration Rules apply, in which case, such rules and venue will govern. In the event that the Parties cannot agree on the selection of the Arbitrator, then the Arbitrator shall be selected by the AAA. The prevailing Party in the Arbitration shall also recover all of its related fees and costs, whether before or after the formal institution of the Arbitration, including but not limited to its reasonable attorneys’ fees and costs, if RR Auction prevails, such recovery, in addition to all remedies available at agreement or law, shall include the Buyer’s Premium as defined in these Conditions of Sale. Federal arbitration law, including the Federal Arbitration Act apply to this agreement to arbitrate and its related provisions. The arbitration and all related proceedings shall be held strictly confidential and all documents and discovery shall be held confidential and not used, published or disclosed publically or to anyone outside the Parties or expert consultants or counsel who shall agree to hold such confidential.

(along with its officers, directors, agents, contractors, and affiliates) from and against any and all claims, costs, fees, damages, and liabilities arising out of or related to these Conditions of Sale, view of items, or lots, bidding, or participation in any auction by RR Auction, and/or or in any way connected to any item you viewed, bid upon or purchased through RR Auction.

20.3 The Parties consent to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts as exclusive jurisdiction and venue for all claims between the Parties except as provided specifically herein and may seek confirmation of the decision in the Arbitration pursuant to the Federal Arbitration Act in any Court of competent jurisdiction, including the courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts or the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. To the extent such is necessary under the law, RR Auction may enforce the Arbitration award against Bidder and any related Party in any court of competent jurisdiction. Nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as RR Auction consenting to jurisdiction or venue in any location outside of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

For Residents of California:


A written express warranty is provided with each autographed collectible, as required by law. This dealer may be surety bonded or otherwise insured to ensure the authenticity of any autographed collectible sold by this dealer.

20.4 Except as provided specifically in these Conditions of Sale in Bidder’s Remedies against RR Auction (along with its affiliates, directors, agents, officers, employees, and contractors) for any dispute, claim, cause of action related to or arising out of these Conditions of Sale or any other related agreement(s), brought by Bidder must be brought within the earlier of the Auction Date as it pertains to the item(s) at issue or no later than one (1) year of the acts, omissions or circumstances occurred giving rise to the alleged claim, without exception. This provision is intended as a full, complete and absolute bar to and release of any claims by Bidder initiated after one (1) year of such acts, omissions or circumstances. The Parties agree further that these waiver provisions are intended to be binding in the event of any dispute, specifically including but not limited to third party claims and cross-actions brought by Bidder. These provisions are consideration for the execution of these Conditions of Sale. 20.5 To the fullest extent under applicable law and except as specifically stated herein Bidder hereby holds harmless, releases and discharges RR Auction and its agents, officer’s directors, affiliates, successors, and assigns from any and all claims, liabilities, obligations, promises, agreements, damages, causes of action, suits, demands, losses, debts, and expenses of any nature whatsoever, known or unknown, suspected or unsuspected existing prior to these Conditions of Sale. Bidder agrees to the Conditions of Sale and upon each instance that Bidder participates in any auction, bids, or otherwise agrees to such terms and reaffirms this release as of the date of so participating or agreeing unless Bidder otherwise provides clear written notice to RR Auction prior to so bidding. 20.6 The Bidder hereby agrees that RR Auction shall be entitled to present these Conditions of Sale to a court in any jurisdiction other than set forth in this paragraph as conclusive evidence of the Parties agreement, and the Parties further agree that the court shall immediately dismiss any action filed in such jurisdiction. 20.7 Liquidated Damages for Specific Breaches In the event that Bidder provides false information in connection with registering for bidding, fails to correct or update information or breaches the Conditions of Sale by failing to pay the purchase price when due after becoming the winning bidder, as liquidated damages associated with such breaches, R&R may obtain from Bidder the greater of (1) 150% the reserve of the item (if any); (2) the amount bidder bid; or (3), the full amount that bidder would have otherwise paid. Bidder will also be liable for an additional 20% of such amount to account for additional administrative costs, shipping, additional advertising, and other damages and liabilities fees that are difficult to calculate on an item-by-item basis. 20.8 Indemnity. Bidder agrees to defend, indemnify, hold harmless RR Auction

Section 21: State-by-State Law Issues This Auction is being conducted in and the sale shall take place in the State of Massachusetts. Notwithstanding, the foregoing, should these terms and conditions violate the law of any State should that state’s law be found to govern, or any provision herein determined to be invalid, the clause itself and the remainder of the Agreement shall be valid to the fullest extent allowed. Also, to the extent other states law apply to any transaction arising out of the Agreement (without admitting such), RR Auction states:


Section 22 Glossary of Condition terms Information provided to prospective Bidders with respect of any lot, including any pre-sale estimate, whether written or oral, and information in any catalogue, condition or other report, commentary or valuation, is not a representation of fact but rather a statement of opinion held by RR Auction. Use of the following terms constitutes an opinion as follows: VERY FINE describes an item believed to be in virtually flawless condition, and is used sparingly for items of exceptionally attractive appearance. FINE is the most common statement of condition, and applies to most items that we offer. It describes items that we believe to show expected handling wear, generally acceptable random flaws (such as light creases, small bends, etc.), and an overall appearance that is pleasing to the majority of collectors. VERY GOOD describes an item that we believe exhibits more moderate flaws (such as toning, light staining, professional reinforcements or repairs, etc.). Most collectors would be comfortable with items in very good condition, and this would be the expected condition for many formats (early presidential documents, for example). GOOD describes an item which we believe to have obvious visible flaws, including heavy wear, missing portions, or repairs that affect appearance; generally items in this condition are offered only if an item is otherwise believed to be exceedingly rare or important. Bidder may call and request further details and information about RR Auction’s opinions concerning any item via phone or email which shall provided in RR Auction’s discretion. Certificate of Auction, Certificate of Authenticity and Goods Acquired: Bidder warrants that Bidder (and its agents, assigns, successors, and affiliates) shall not purposely deface, destroy, dismember, cut-up into parts the item or Lot purchased at auction from RR Auction and in the event such shall occur whether purposefully or accidently, Bidder (and its agents, assigns, successors, and affiliates) shall refrain from advertising, promoting, or marketing the item as having been purchased from RR Auction and shall in no event display, expressly claim, or imply that the item was certified or auctioned in such state by RR Auction. As liquidated damages for such breach, Bidder agrees to be liable to RR Auction for the greater of the amount of three (3) times the hammer price of the item along with all other fees and costs as otherwise provided in this Terms of Sale.

Since 1976

Let’s make history—together For over 40 years, relationships have been the backbone of RR Auction. We have made it a priority to keep our consignors informed and involved, encouraging them to share their voices, to instill their knowledge, and to forge a partnership based on our shared passion for history. With a mutual desire to achieve greatness, these relationships are at the heart of our success.

RR Auction


Est. 1976




(800) 937-3880







T. 1976 S E






(603) 732-4280


Boston, Massachusetts

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