April 2019

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April 2019

ROOFING A Publication of the FRSA – Florida’s Association of Roofing Professionals

Providing Homeowners Peace of Mind with Adhered Tile Roofs Weight is Our Strength Smart Roofing Tip: Research Composite Roofing The Perils of PEO’s for Florida’s Construction Industry Safety Best Practices for Pneumatic Tools Mentorship and Training Key to Long-Term Employees


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ROOFING Available Online at www.floridaroof.com/florida-roofing-magazine/

FRSA-Florida Roofing Magazine Contacts: For advertising inquiries, contact: Heidi Ellsworth at: heidi@floridaroof.com (800) 767-3772 ext. 127 All feedback including Letters to the Editor and reprint permission requests (please include your full name, city and state) contact: Lisa Pate, Editor, at: lisapate@floridaroof.com (800) 767-3772 ext. 157 Florida Roofing Magazine, PO Box 4850 Winter Park, FL 32793-4850 View media kit at: www.floridaroof.com/ florida-roofing-magazine/

16 | Providing Homeowners Peace of Mind with Adhered Tile Roofs


18 | Weight is Our Strength On the iPad

20 | Smart Roofing Tip: Research Composite Roofing 29 | The Perils of PEO’s for Florida’s Construction Industry 31 | Safety Best Practices for Pneumatic Tools


44 | Mentorship and Training Key to Hiring, Retaining Long-Term Employees Any material submitted for publication in Florida Roofing becomes the property of the publication. Statements of fact and opinion are the responsibility of the author(s) alone and do not imply an opinion or endorsement on the part of the officers or the membership of FRSA. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without permission from the publisher. Florida Roofing (VOL. 4, NO. 4), April 2019, (ISSN 0191-4618) is published monthly by FRSA, 7071 University Boulevard, Winter Park, FL 32792. Periodicals Postage paid at Orlando, FL. POSTMASTER: Please send address corrections (form 3579) to Florida Roofing, PO Box 4850, Winter Park, FL 32793-4850.

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Managing Expectations “Under promise and over perform.” George A. Manson This is a hard slogan to live up to, however, George has made it a staple in our company.

All of you know how frustrated a customer can get when he or she is promised a time when an estimate will come, when a bid will be delivered, when the job will start or when the job will be finished — and the promise is not kept. We all have gotten the phone call from an angry customer, and it can be worse if the customer is an unpleasant person to begin with. George joined the company 35 years ago with a BA in Business from Florida Southern, after having worked at banks and managing condominiums. I could put on a good roof but was inept at good business practices. I always made payroll but never made the payroll tax deposits. I was $12K in debt and no one would lend me the money, telling me to just declare bankruptcy. That's when George saved the day by bringing his expertise into the business. The rest is history. George is the CFO now and we always make money thanks to his business practices.

The Hard Part

I have always had a hard time with "under promising and over performing." I want to tell the customer what they want to hear instead of what the real schedule will be. Of course, this is even harder when there is a storm or hurricane and people are frantic to get their home protected and back in shape. They

don't understand that there may be a shortage of material, let alone labor. Just remember Irma: there are still tile shortages in South Florida. It takes courage to service our previous customers first and then do our best to service others. It is not so hard when you follow FRSA President Bruce Manson George's simple phrase, Manson Roofing Inc. "under promise" when it will be done, which gives you the opportunity to "over perform" and then you can be a hero. I use this same technique with my wife Barbara and it works great (but please, don't tell her.) Best regards,

Bruce Manson FRSA President bruce.manson@mansonroofing.com

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Growth in Sales? Don’t Forget About Step Function Lee Rust, Owner, Florida Corporate Finance

Too often I see company budgets or financial projections that show a smooth increase in sales and related expenses. Corporate growth, however, is never linear. Instead, the growth in expenses follows a step function as capacity is added to match increasing sales. Think of a simple manufacturing facility operating at less than capacity. As sales increase, the cost of manufacture as a percent of those sales should decrease. The same number of employees and equipment produces more goods for sale. That relationship holds until the facility is operating at full capacity. At that point, any increase in sales will require an investment in more people, more machinery, and higher utility expenses to run the machines. As those expenses step up, the manufacturing cost as a percent of sales also increases, and gross profits go down. In addition, at some point more people will be required in administration, and those expenses will also step up. With the new capacity in place, however, the continued growth in sales can once again result in a decrease in costs as a percent of those sales. That is the step function in practice. As you might imagine, the step function related to the growth of expenses is more pronounced for a small company than for a larger one. If you have only two people in manufacturing, adding a third to increase capacity increases direct labor cost by 33.3 percent. If you have twenty people, adding another increases labor cost by only 4.8 percent. Big difference. When planning your company budgets, compiling projections, or simply thinking about the effects of a growth in sales, don’t forget the step function and the relationship between capacity and expense. The sales growth might be a smooth increase or close to linear; the related expenses won’t be. Although seldom in my long career, I’ve even seen profitable companies grow into bankruptcy. Once full capacity was reached, the cost of making the next step up to support a higher level of sales exceeded the company’s ability to finance the increase in costs. The result was a lack of cash and related working capital that then caused problems with suppliers and eventually lead to losses that could not be sustained. In earlier articles, I’ve talked about budgets and financial projections. Those are particularly helpful planning tools but to be helpful must be realistic. As you plan for growth, think about capacity and output related to your employees, equipment, and facility. When compiling budgets or projections, it’s always best to start with sales. Then analyze the number of employees needed to generate those sales in production, in administration, and in your sales department. By adjusting the number of employees in relation to the level of sales 6


and then converting the number of employees into the cost of employing them, you’ll see the step function in practice. Do the same for equipment and facility needs and then for other expenses. The results will be a realistic financial forecast that doesn’t anticipate a consistent relationship between the levels of sales and expenses. In business school, corporate expenses are often divided into three major categories: Fixed, Semi-Variable, and Variable. Without embarking on a B-school lecture, fixed cost don’t vary with sales until full capacity is reached. Variable expenses do track sales, such as material purchased for production. And semi-variable costs lie between the other two. As you might imagine, the fixed costs show the greatest step function effect; variable costs show none, and semi-variable costs step up at certain sales levels but at a lower percentage than the increase in sales. For planning purposes, it’s helpful to understand which of your corporate expenses are in each of those three categories. Why does the step function matter? Because planning for the future matters, and that planning must be based on a realistic assessment of revenues, costs, and the ability to generate profits as both of those change. Some time ago, I heard that the true purpose of financial projections is to make astrology look acceptable. When you compile your company’s budgets or projections, make sure that’s not the case for you. FRM Lee Rust, owner of Florida Corporate Finance, specializes in Mergers & Acquisitions, Corporate Sales, Strategic Planning, Financing and Operations Audits. He can be reached by phone at 407-841-5676 or by email at hleerust@att.net.

FRSA LEGAL COUNSEL Cotney Construction Law, LLP

Qualified Business Deduction for Roofers Jacqueline N. Feliciano, Attorney, Cotney Construction Law

When President Trump announced his plan to reduce corporate tax rates for C corporations, a tax advantage was similarly introduced for sole proprietorships, S corporations, trusts, estates, and partnerships. As construction businesses are generally set up as S corporations and limited liability companies, this deduction can be a huge tax advantage. With what has become one of the most highly discussed provisions in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, § 199A of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”) provides up to a 20 percent deduction for qualified business income. While this is a generous deduction, the new provision is riddled with limitations and exclusions that leave business owners wondering whether they qualify. Before determining how much of a deduction is warranted, the taxpayer must decide if and what qualifies in determining the deduction amount, if any. There are two crucial preliminary steps to consider: 1. Whether the taxpayer has a qualified trade or business; and 2. Whether the taxpayer has qualified business income. This article will discuss whether a qualifier and their business may be entitled to take the deduction.

Qualified Trade or Business

Under § 199A, one of the first questions to determine is whether the taxpayer has a qualified trade or business (“QTB”). QTB is defined in § 199A(d)(1) as any trade or business that is not a (1) specified service trade or business, or (2) trade or business of performing services as an employee. Thus, while the definition of QTB is broad, the two exclusions must be analyzed carefully. Employees are self-explanatory, but a specified service trade or business is more expansive than it appears. A specified services trade or business (“SSTB”) is defined under § 199A(d)(2) to include: A. Any trade or business involving the performance of services in the fields of health, law, [excluding engineers and architects], accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, consulting, athletics, financial services, brokerage services, or any trade or business where the principal asset of such trade or business is the reputation or skill of 1 or more of its employees; or B. The performance of services that consist of investing and investment management, trading, or dealing in securities.

Further explanation in § 199A(d)(2)(A) provides that the term “employees” is to be read as “employee or owners” which unfortunately broadens the definition. Upon plain reading of the Code, the language “reputation or skill of 1 or more of its employees” creates a problem for contractors as it appears to directly target contractors. Arguably, the principal asset of a roofing or construction company’s business is the reputation or skill of the qualifier. This language has caused a great deal of debate. Fortunately, the Internal Revenue Service (the “Service”) has provided guidance through regulations that were recently finalized. Although we were initially worried roofing contractors would be disqualified from the deduction, Reg. § 1.199A-5(b)(2)(xiv) has limited the meaning of “the principal asset of such trade or business is the reputation or skill of one or more employees or owners,” for purposes of § 199A to: A. A trade or business in which a person receives... income for endorsing products or services; B. A trade or business in which a person licenses or receives... income for the use of an individual’s image, likeness, name, signature, voice, trademark, or any other symbols associated with the individual’s identity; and C. Receiving... income for appearing at an event or on radio, television, or another media format. Thus, guidance released by the Service has provided a clearer answer that abates previous concerns for contractors. Absent additional facts, the new regulations point to construction as a QTB that is not a SSTB for the purposes of § 199A. This is an important distinction because if a roofing contractor were considered a SSTB and made over $415,500 for married taxpayers filing jointly, or $207,500 for all other taxpayers, they would not be entitled to the deduction.

Qualified Business Income

Once it is determined that the taxpayer has a qualified trade or business, the next question becomes how much of that QTB is qualified business income (“QBI”). www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


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QBI is defined under § 199A(c) as “qualified items of income, gain, deduction, and loss” which is further defined in § 199A(c)(3) as items “effectively connected” with a domestic trade or business that are “included or allowed in determining taxable income.” This determination becomes a number-intense analysis for which a taxpayer should seek professional advice.


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In addition to the obstacles mentioned above, there are additional phase-in limits. Under § 199A(b)(3)(B), if you exceed the threshold amount of $315,000 for married taxpayers filing jointly, or $157,500 for all other taxpayers, the deduction is subject to limitations. These complex limitations should be reviewed with your tax expert as an analysis of your taxable income would take place.

Example of § 199A Phase-In Complexities

Tom is a roofing contractor whose operations consist solely of re-roofing. His reportable taxable income is $200,000. For ease of example, Tom’s share of the qualified business income is $200,000; 20 percent of which is $40,000. Tom’s share of wages of the qualified trade or business is $70,000, 50 percent* of which is $35,000. Because Tom is a single taxpayer with income above $157,500 but below $207,500, phase-in limits under § 199A(b)(3) kick in. Thus, our deduction is reduced by 20 percent of the difference between $40,000 and $35,000 which equals $1,000, so $40,000 – $1,000 = $39,000. * See § 199A(b)(3) explaining phase-in limitations for taxpayers exceeding the threshold amount.


As you can see from the example above, the limitations in § 199A bring complexities that contractors should be cautious of. With proper guidance and planning, contractors may utilize § 199A to take advantage of this 20 percent deduction. FRM Disclaimer: The information contained in this article is for general educational information only. This information does not constitute legal advice, is not intended to constitute legal advice, nor should it be relied upon as legal advice for your specific factual pattern or situation. Jacqueline N. Feliciano is an attorney at Cotney Construction Law who practices tax law and other transactional matters. Cotney Construction Law is an advocate for the roofing industry, General Counsel of FRSA, NWIR, TARC, TRI, RT3, WSRCA, and several other local roofing associations. For more information, contact the author at 866-303-5868 or go to www.cotneycl.com.

Industry Updates ABC Supply Co. Inc. Names Tom VanBerkum Manager of Maitland, Fla. Branch Tom VanBerkum has been named Branch Manager of Building Products Distributor ABC Supply Co. Inc. location at 110 Atlantic Annex Point in Maitland, Fla. Before joining the company, VanBerkum worked for 13 years in the home improvement field. In 2012 he became Branch Manager of ABC Supply’s Hazelwood, Mo. location. VanBerkum attended Mankato State University and served in the Minnesota Air National Guard. As manager of the Maitland location, VanBerkum will help propel company growth while maintaining and developing new relationships with associates and contractors in the area.

Exceptional Metals Launches Updated Website

Exceptional Metals is pleased to announce the launch of their newly updated website, accessible at www.exceptionalmetals.com. The complete overhaul features a variety of design and organizational updates that aim to enhance overall user experience and efficiency. The homepage features easy-to-find links to product pages, featured contractors and award winners, company announcements and more. Product pages include detailed descriptions and quick access to technical resources, and the overall site navigation has been reorganized with user needs in mind. The new site also features a downloadable library of technical documents and specifications, an interactive color visualizer to preview and customize product selections, as well as marketing literature, ordering forms and a media gallery. “The entire team at Exceptional Metals is excited to officially launch our new website,” said General Manager Mike Gwizdala. “It was important to us that visitors were able to find what they were looking for easily and that information was organized effectively. We look forward to the continued development of the site with features to enhance the customer experience.”

Minnesota State University Team Wins Roofing Alliance Student Competition

The Roofing Alliance selected a team from Minnesota State University—Mankato, Department of Construction, Mankato, Minn., as the winner of its fifth student construction management competition, which took place during NRCA’s 132nd Annual Convention in Nashville, Tenn. Members of the winning team were Chase Olson (team captain), Hunter Campbell, Shola George, Jon

Harrington and Hunter Morsching. The team from Colorado State University, Fort Collins, placed second in the competition. Additionally, Tony Centro from the University of Florida, Gainesville, received the award for Best Individual Student Presenter. Five construction management schools were chosen as finalists to participate in the competition, including a team from the M.E. Rinker Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida, Gainesville. Rob Springer, CPRC of Springer-Peterson Roofing and Sheet Metal Inc., Eaton Park, sponsored and mentored the team. The Roofing Alliance's goal of partnering with construction schools is to raise awareness of the roofing industry by developing roofing-related curriculum that can be incorporated into existing construction management undergraduate degree programs, exploring scholarship programs for students and faculty members, and developing an internship program with interested Roofing Alliance members.

Teams were presented with a problem statement: Create a company to bid on installing a new roof system on the Hilton Franklin Cool Springs Hotel in Franklin, Tenn. Each team was required to research the project, review the plans and specifications, and assemble a full estimate and proposal to submit a qualified bid package. Each team gave oral presentations in February at NRCA’s convention. The first place team received a team trophy and a $5,000 L.B. Conway scholarship for its school as well as individual team member trophies that were presented during NRCA’s Industry Awards Ceremony and Cocktail Reception. The second place team received a team trophy, a $2,500 scholarship for their school and individual awards. The Best Individual Student Presenter received an iPad. www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


RCI Rebranding to IIBEC

RCI, Inc., a nonprofit association originally incorporated in 1983 as the Roof Consultants Institute (RCI), is officially becoming the International Institute of Building Enclosure Consultants (IIBEC; pronounced eye-bec). The change, approved by its membership after extensive study, brand assessment, and industrywide feedback, will align the association’s name and brand with its purpose and strategy heading into the future. IIBEC has grown from a small core of dedicated roof consultants to represent some 3,600 members, comprised of building enclosure consultants and other industry stakeholders specializing in roofing, waterproofing, and exterior wall specification and design. The evolving focus of the institute’s members embracing the entire building enclosure called for a name that would clearly define its purpose as: ■■ An international association, ■■ A professional institute representing building enclosure consultants: architects, engineers and others such as ex-contractors who have gained the required education and experience, ■■ A knowledge hub and leading authority on all things building enclosure (roofing, waterproofing and exterior walls), ■■ An institute attractive to professionals of all ages, races, and genders, and ■■ An industry leader endeavoring to increase




exposure, recognition, and usage of the institute’s resources by nonmember architects and engineers, state and federal government agencies, as well as end-users such as school boards, universities, facility managers, etc. Please note that all correspondence, financial transactions, contracts, and references to RCI should be changed to the International Institute of Building Enclosure Consultants or IIBEC.

NRCA 2018-2019 Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award Winners Announced

The Roofing Alliance, the foundation of the National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA), proudly announces the winners of the 2018-2019 Most Valuable Player (MVP) Awards, who were invited to the International Roofing Expo (IRE) where they were recognized during the 2019 event in Nashville. In its 19th year, the MVP Program honors leadership in the field. Roofing contracting firms nominate any field roofing worker, foreman or superintendent. Distributors and supplier firms may nominate warehouse employees, warehouse foremen, drivers or equipment operators. Individuals can be nominated for their outstanding on-the-job performance and workmanship or their philanthropic contributions outside the workplace. Since the program’s inception, 660 employees have been nominated and 242 winners and finalists have been recognized. Florida 2018-2019 Most Valuable Player (MVP) Award Winners include: ■■ Bobby Ainsworth – Field Worker, Venture Construction Group of Florida, Inc., Stuart, Fla. for Other Noteworthy Contributions Outside the Work Place, and ■■ Drew Thomas – Superintendent, Reliant Roofing, Inc., Jacksonville, Fla. for Outstanding On-the-Job Performance and Workmanship

Congratulations Bobby and Drew!

SPRI Elects New Directors and Honors Members for Service

SPRI, the trade association representing sheet membrane and component suppliers to the commercial roofing industry, elected four Directors to its Board and honored members at the association’s 37th Annual Conference and Business Meeting, held in January in Tucson, Ariz. During the meeting, SPRI’s membership elected the following slate of Officers and Directors for the association’s 2019-2021 membership years: Associate Directors ■■ Scott Carpenter, SFS Intec ■■ Stan Choiniere, Stan Consulting ■■ Bob LeClare, ATAS International



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The following officers will continue to serve SPRI for a second year: ■■ Zebonie Sukle, Johns Manville, President ■■ Brad Van Dam, Metal-Era Inc., Treasurer ■■ Mike Hubbard, Firestone Building Products Co., LLC, President-elect ■■ Jim Rubenaker, Sika Sarnafil, Immediate Past President Each year, SPRI honors those volunteers who have gone above and beyond in devoting their time and talents to the association. Nominations for these honorees are solicited from the membership, and then the Member Services Chair and the President of SPRI make the selections. The first honoree was Mike Darsch of Sika Sarnafil. Darsch, a new participant in SPRI, who took on a leadership role chairing a Task Force responsible for updating and canvassing SPRI ANSI Standard VR-1, Procedure for Investigating Resistance to Root Penetration on Vegetative Roofs. Working on a canvass requires meticulous attention to detail and significant patience, qualities in which Darsch excels. The second honoree was David R. Hawn of Dedicated Roof & Hydro Solutions. Hawn was honored for his work on behalf of SPRI in starting the Wetting Curves: Acceptable Roof Material Performance at Elevated Moisture Content Task Force in 2013. This Task Force is in the testing phase of the project. Hawn’s participation on this project, and his input on so many others, represent a significant contribution of his time and knowledge. SPRI veteran Al Janni (pictured right in photo below) of Duro-Last Roofing Inc. was presented with SPRI’s President’s Award this year. This award was created to recognize the exemplary service of a volunteer. During more than 15 years at SPRI, Janni has chaired many technical task forces, served as Chair of the Member Services committee, as a Director, and President. Janni has supported SPRI through his exceptional volunteer

efforts, representing the values and priorities of the organization, while fostering the cooperative spirit that helps SPRI achieve its goals.

TAMKO Launches New Limited Lifetime Warranty

TAMKO Building Products, Inc. is offering homeowners longer protection for one of their biggest home investments through a new enhanced Limited Lifetime Warranty. The new Limited Lifetime Warranty applies to installations on owner-occupied, single-family structures of TAMKO’s most popular products – the Heritage family of laminated asphalt shingles, including TAMKO Heritage, Heritage Premium, Heritage Vintage, Heritage Woodgate and the new Heritage IR shingle. “We’ve heard from our customers that they already thought TAMKO had a great shingle warranty, but now we’re enhancing it to offer even longer coverage for homeowners,” said Stephen McNally, TAMKO’s Vice President of Sales and Marketing. The new Limited Lifetime Warranty includes a 10-year non-prorated Full Start period, during which replacement shingles and the labor for their installation are covered. After the Full Start period, the quantity of shingles is prorated each year until year 40, after which, the prorated remedy will be equal to 20 percent of the reasonable cost or quantity of replacement shingles for as long as the original homeowner (or qualified purchaser) owns the home. TAMKO’s new Limited Lifetime Warranty applies to applicable shingle purchases for single family structures made on or after February 1, 2019. TAMKO’s Limited Warranty term for Multi-Family installations of the Heritage line of shingles is 40 years. TAMKO’s Heritage line of shingles continues to offer a 15-year Limited Wind Warranty of 110 mph for standard application and 130 mph for high wind application, as well as a 10-year Algae Cleaning Limited Warranty. FRM

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OSHA’s Stance on Distracted Driving Rob Foote, CPCU, ARM, President, Frank H. Furman Inc. The top priority of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is keeping workers safe. While workplace fatalities have been decreasing in recent years, motor vehicle crashes continue to be one of the leading causes of death among American workers. As distracted driving dramatically increases the risk of vehicle accidents, OSHA and the Department of Transportation (DOT) are working together to combat distracted driving for the safety of workers across the country.

will investigate and, where necessary, issue citations and penalties to end such practices.

Supporting Safety in Your Workplace

Since distracted driving falls under the General Duty Clause and not a specific OSHA’s Distracted Driving Initiative standard, there are no direct According to OSHA, employers should prohibit any guidelines for how you must work policy or practice that requires or encourages work- protect employees from the ers to text while driving, as it greatly increases the risk of dangers of distracted driving. being injured or killed in a motor vehicle crash. It is up to you as the emWhile texting is not specifically addressed as an OSHA ployer to institute your own measures to keep employees standard, the General Duty Clause in The Occupational safe. The easiest way to do this is to develop a policy that Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) covers distracted outlines how employees are to use mobile devices while driving by stating, “employers must provide a workplace carrying out their duties. Specifically noting that texting free of serious recognized hazards.” It is well recognized while driving is not allowed not only protects employees that texting while driving dramatically increases the risk but also will keep your company from violating OSHA of a motor vehicle injury or fatality, and a number of state regulations. laws prohibit texting while driving. This means you could For more on OSHA’s Distracted Driving initiative visit https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/motorvehiclesafety. be in violation of the OSH Act if your company does the FRM following: ■■ requires employees to text while driving; ■■ organizes work so that texting is a practical necessity even if not a formal requirement; or ■■ provides any sort of financial or other incentives that encourage workers to text while driving. If OSHA receives a credible complaint that an employer enforces or encourages any of these activities, they

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Rob Foote is the President of Frank H. Furman, Inc. and is an experienced Insurance and Risk Management Advisor to the roofing industry. Rob is an expert in uniquely crafting and managing Insurance and Risk Management programs for 124 roofing professionals. Questions? Contact Rob at 954-9435050, 954-609-0820 (cell), or rob@furmaninsurance.com.



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Providing Homeowners Peace of Mind with Adhered Tile Roofs Tom Parker, Owner, TCParker & Associates

Nothing provides homeowners more peace of mind than a sound roof over their heads. For hundreds of years, tile roofs have been considered the time-tested, ultimate roofing system.



A key concern with tile roofs is keeping the tile secure during wind events. Nothing illustrates this more clearly than the recent damage done by Hurricane Irma on Marco Island. The photo at left shows a mechanically fastened tile roof where tiles were lost in the wind event. The damage is clear, as is the failure mode. Mechanical fasteners must be left a little “loose” or the tile will crack. In fact, inspectors will typically allow up to one inch of lift at the end of a mechanically fastened tile. When the wind blows across the tile, it can lift the end of the tile, causing “chattering” to occur. As the chattering continues, the tiles are literally pried off of the roof, as seen in the ridge tiles hanging on at a 45 degree angle in the photo.

In the photo to the right, we see a nearby home with an adhered tile roof that was subjected to the same wind event and shows no damage. Adhesives lock the tiles in place, eliminating the potential chattering and subsequent failures. Of course, this assumes that the adhesive is used and installed properly. Regardless of what type and brand of polyurethane foam adhesive you choose, the manufacturer’s installation instructions must be followed in order to comply with Florida Building Code Product Approvals and Miami-Dade NOA’s. Manufacturers will train and certify installers on the proper procedures. From a safety standpoint, minimum personal protective equipment generally includes safety glasses, gloves and full coverage clothing. Once polyurethane foam dries on a surface or skin, the only way to remove it is mechanically. So a little preventative measure up front will pay off. Consult the manufacturers SDS for more details. The ideal installation temperature for adhesives is generally 70 to 90ºF. This is typically not a problem in Florida, however it can be in the cool months. The adhesive must

be applied in the configuration and amount indicated in the installation instructions. Other product-specific procedures may be required, so review the manufacturers installation instructions for all the details. While use of adhesive adds a small percentage of cost to a tile roof installation, isn’t it worth the peace of mind that it provides to your customers? FRM

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Weight is Our Strength Tyler Allwood, Director of Business Development, Eagle Roofing Products

Concrete roof tile is well known in many areas of Florida, so much so that Florida is occasionally referred to as a tile market. This is a misconception and, in fact, much of Florida is a roof tile desert. Some roofing contractors are aware of concrete roof tile, but have, for one reason or another, chosen to not offer it to their customers. There are others that have installed concrete roof tile but avoid it. Still other contractors have not been exposed to concrete tile at all. One topic that tends to unite these contractors against concrete tile is its weight. It is imperative that concrete tile manufacturers address weight concerns head-on. We need to turn this perceived weakness into our greatest strength. Weight is the defining characteristic of concrete roof tile that makes many of its other benefits possible. We cannot tout our superior energy efficiency, our durability, our fire and hail ratings and then run from weight. These features and benefits are all tied to the amount of all-natural raw materials we incorporate into a premium, sloped-roofing product.

Thermal Mass

The first and most tangible benefit derived from weight is energy efficiency. When discussing energy efficiency, it is more appropriate to refer to weight as thermal mass. Thermal mass can be thought of as a product’s ability to store heat energy before allowing it to conduct through to the attic space (where HVAC equipment and ductwork are often housed). Therefore, the more thermal mass, the more heat energy stored. This means that tile, with a thermal mass more than double that of asphalt shingles or metal roofing, can delay the movement of heat into the attic. The attic temperature will be considerably lower as a result and this lower maximum daily temperature will occur much later in the day when energy use inside buildings is lower. A study at Oakridge National Laboratory showed that the results of this effect equated to an R value of 2. What does this mean for home and building owners? It means that they will experience lower energy costs and more comfortable living conditions. It is also important to note that tile’s greater thermal mass allows it to provide energy efficiency beyond mere reflectivity. Most ratings agencies focus on reflectivity as it is an easy value to test. However, reflectivity’s benefits diminish significantly after a roofing material has reached its maximum thermal mass. This means that concrete tile's reflectivity is more valuable than the reflectivity on lower thermal mass products.




Another benefit of tile's weight is overall durability and longevity. One of the earliest examples of nanotechnology – the hydration process that occurs when Portland cement and water combine to create the glue that suspends the aggregate – produces one of the strongest materials known to humankind. Because concrete is so strong and the extrusion process used to make concrete roof tile is so efficient, tiles throughout the industry often pass the FM 4473 ice ball hail rating test. Without its weight and heft, it would be very difficult to withstand a two-inch ice ball fired at over 70 mph. This kind of durability explains why tile roofs over 100 years old can be found around the world. According to an NAHB study of life-cycle costs for different steep-slope roofing products, a tile roof may last as long as three or four shingle roofs.

Fire Resistance

Concrete roof tile became a mainstay in the western United States in the 1980s due to its fire resistance, a quality derived from its density and weight. Because concrete roof tile is both thick and dense, it provides a roof surface that is impervious to heat. Obviously, there are considerations that need to be addressed at perimeters and transitions in order to prevent flying embers from entering the roof. However, the exposed field of the roof cannot reach temperatures that would cause it to combust or to cause any combustible materials under the tile to combust due to the heating of the tile. This makes concrete roof tile the superior choice for a Class A fire rated roof. The benefits of concrete roof tile are numerous, and the average home owner may agree that it is a great choice for their needs, but they may still worry about the load it will place on their home. There are many misconceptions about the weight of concrete tile roofs. Factually, there is often little need for concern. Many homes in all regions of the US and Canada are already suitable to take the load of a tile roof and most others need very little in the way of framing upgrades in order to hold a durable tile roof. A majority of homes in the last 30 plus years have been constructed with pre-engineered trusses. These Continued at the bottom of next page

What is Efflorescence? Manny Oyola, Jr., Technical Manager Eastern Region, Eagle Roofing Products

Edgar Allan Poe described an “efflorescence of language” in The Poetic Principle, as “flowery language that is overly rich and colorful.” The Latin root of the word efflorescence connotes “flowering or blooming.” In the chemistry of concrete, this meaning still applies. Efflorescence is defined as a “process that occurs when something changes to a powder from loss of water or crystallization.” Those who have installed tile with mortar weather blocking are likely aware of efflorescence. It is common to see the mortar lighten after it is installed or to see white streaks that appear to drip from the mortar onto the field tile. Efflorescence is commonly caused by the natural chemical nature of the actual cement used in the mix. Manufactured cement contains free lime, and when water is added, a series of chemical reactions take place. These reactions are accompanied by the release of calcium hydroxide, which can form an overall “white chalky” crystalline salt deposit on the tile surface when reacting with carbon dioxide. This reaction can appear as an overall “bloom” (softening of color) or in more concentrated patches. Efflorescence is not indicative of issues with the mortar or tile, or its performance, and it will not affect the physical properties of the concrete tile. Some believe that poor installation methods are to blame. That is far from the truth. Professional roofing contractors apply a premix mortar or, in some instances a job site mix, for weather blocking at the hips and ridges. They have no control over the calcium hydroxide content. While it represents a cosmetic challenge, it is merely a surface issue.

The immediate reaction may be to clean the efflorescence from the mortar and/or tile. It is always best to allow these salt deposits to dissipate on their own through exposure to rain and UV. Cleaning it too soon can mean that the “bloom” is incomplete and the white will return. It is difficult to predict how long the effects of efflorescence may last. It depends on the type and amount of deposit, as well as the local weather conditions. In most cases, the action of carbon dioxide and rainwater will gradually remove the deposit, leaving the original color of the concrete tile intact with no further efflorescence. FRM Manuel “Manny” Oyola, Jr., is the Technical Manager Eastern Region, Eagle Roofing Products. Manny holds a roofing contractors license and is an active member of the Tile Roofing Institute (TRI) and President of the Palm Beach County Roofing & Sheet Metal Contractors Association, the local FRSA Affiliate. He is also an active member of FRSA’s Codes and Regulatory Compliance and Roof Tile Committees, and on the Codes Subcommittee, as well as participating on the FRSA-TRI Manual Reformatting Committee. Manny teaches roof tile courses for TRI and FRSA.

Continued from previous page

trusses are engineered and certified to hold pre-determined loads. Whether 2”x 4” or 2”x 6” lumber, they often incorporate webbing, angled supports that break up the overall span of the truss. The addition of the webbing increases the trusses' load capabilities and often trusses that currently support an asphalt shingle roof are able to support a concrete tile roof. This can be determined by locating the home’s plans, going to the local building department, or it may even be determinable by referencing a stamp on the trusses themselves. In situations where conventional framing was used or when the pre-engineered trusses are not yet capable of holding a concrete tile roof, an engineer can be contracted to produce a stamped report. The report will explain any framing deficiencies and propose upgrades that can be made during the course of the roofing project. Very often these upgrades are minimal and require little added cost.

Given the large number of substantial benefits provided by concrete tile roofs, it is time for the concrete tile industry to take its place among the most popular steep-slope roofing products. While weight is an important factor to consider, it should be recognized by homeowners and building owners as a benefit that makes concrete roof tile the most energy efficient, most durable, longest-lasting and most fire resistant roofing option available to them. It is up to the concrete tile industry to convince them that “Weight is Our Strength.” FRM Tyler Allwood is the Director of Business Development for Eagle Roofing Products and a member of the Tile Roofing Institute Government Relations Committee and FRSA’s Roof Tile Committee. Tyler was a roofing contractor in Florida prior to joining Eagle and served as President of the Sarasota/Manatee affiliate of the FRSA. www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


Smart Roofing Tip: Research Composite Roofing Tim Gentry, Vice President of Technical Services, DaVinci Roofscapes

Watch out… we’re just weeks away from the start of another hurricane season. As we all know, Florida has a bullseye on it for severe storms coming in from both the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Last year was a painful hurricane season for Florida, with both Hurricanes Florence and Michael causing extensive damage to homes and commercial properties. As a roofer, you’ve probably been involved in widespread re-roofing projects during the past several months. You can offer your customers greater peace of mind when recommending they select synthetic slate and shake roofing materials.

Standing Up to Hurricane Michael

In our opinion, the only people slightly at ease after a hurricane hits are those who have invested in composite slate or shake roofing products. Here’s a great example: homeowner George Fleet in Port St. Joe decided to put a synthetic multi-width shake roof on his home in 2016. Just days after Hurricane Michael hit his area, he contacted our company. George had the only house left standing on the street. While some neighboring homes did manage to remain intact, their roofs were extensively damaged. But not George’s roof. There was not one synthetic shingle missing from his roof after the horrific storm. “Every home in my neighborhood had roof damage, except for mine,” says Fleet. “Some houses lost the entire roof and were blown out; others had structural damage with broken windows and lost foundations. The damage is so severe. We know it will take over a year just to clean up all the debris.” George adamantly believes that his DaVinci roof played a major role in saving his home. “When I returned from evacuating to my family’s house in Atlanta, there stood my perfect home,” says Fleet. “There were only three or four roof tiles that lifted a bit, but I can fix that easily. It’s a blessing that this roof did exactly what it was designed to do – protect my home from a hurricane. “I selected the DaVinci product for both its appearance and durability. Now look at it… this roof has survived a category four storm and still looks great!”

Manufactured for Strength

Protection from Mother Nature is the clear benefit of using synthetic roofing products in Florida. Several manufacturers create weather-resistant composite slate and shake roofing tiles to withstand many types of severe weather. Some 20


products are Class 4 rated for impact resistance (UL 2218), Class A rated for fire (ASTM E 108) can handle severe winds up to 110 mph (ASTM D 3161), and some meet High Velocity Hurricane Zones (HVHZ) criteria for winds rating up to 180 mph. These products also have Miami-Dade Code Approvals and ICC-ES (ESR – 2119). And yes, they’re also resistant to salt air, sea spray and fading from the sun’s powerful rays. Plus, the most reliable synthetic roofing resists cracking, mold, algae, fungus and insects. What makes synthetic roofing products so durable that they can meet (and in some cases exceed) industry standards? It’s all in the manufacturing process. “At our operations in Kansas, we use engineered polymer compounds for all our products,” says Michael Cobb, President of DaVinci Roofscapes. “These polymer compounds are created with fire retardant and the most advanced UV and thermal stabilizers available. They’re specifically formulated from virgin resins to assure consistency and to stand up to the tough conditions roofing tiles are exposed to in all climates throughout the year.”

Performance You Can Count On

Homeowners Mary and Larry Anderson discovered just how important investing in a synthetic roof can be back in 2017. Excitement over completing their coastal dream home in Jupiter turned to concern when Hurricane Irma came pounding ashore. The Anderson’s 9,000-square-foot-waterfront structure sustained no damage from 90-plus mph winds and several inches of rain. They credit strong construction and the use of reliable building products, including composite roofing tiles, with keeping their home safe during the storm. “We just finished construction a few weeks before Hurricane Irma hit,” says Larry Anderson. “We know the DaVinci composite tiles are made to meet Miami-Dade Code approvals, but we didn’t think they’d be tested so

soon. There wasn’t a leak at all… this roof held up extremely well to Mother Nature.”

almost any viewing angle. 2.

Ask what the tile is made of and get ready to be surprised. Some companies manufacture synthetic roofing out of recycled materials, such as tires or milk bottles. The variability found in recycled materials can possibly compromise the long term viability of a roof. Look for roofing manufacturers that use virgin resins in their tiles. This assures that high standards are met for quality and durability.


Make sure the tiles you select have color

Tips for Selecting Synthetic Roofing

In today’s competitive marketplace, there are many manufacturers offering synthetic roofing tiles or a version of them. Here are some tips for finding a durable, long-lasting product for your projects: 1.

Check the thickness of the tile. The thicker the profile, the more durable. And, a thicker tile is more visually appealing since you’ll see more details of the tile on the leading edges from

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“through and through” so there are no issues of advanced fading or “weathering away” the color. 4.


For Florida roofing projects, make sure to ask for products with an advanced UV stabilization package. While all outdoor building products fade to a varying degree, seek out a proven synthetic roofing product that will provide the best possible color performance over time.


Use copper, stainless steel, or hot-dipped galvanized nails. These are the best for reducing nail corrosion and enhancing the long-term performance of the roof system.


Be careful with your chalk lines. Blue chalk is probably the better choice over red or black (red chalk will almost certainly permanently stain synthetic tiles). When it says “permanent chalk” on the bottle, you should believe it. And the big hint when installing composite roofing tiles in a staggered application is to snap lines on the underlayment and then lay the tips of the tiles to those lines rather than marking the synthetic roofing materials.


Avoid wasteful tile cuts for valleys by finding the correct angle and cut your synthetic tiles with a circular saw. Then use all the accurate valley cuts and the leftovers to finish the hips.

Check out the warranty. Find a product with a “strong and long” warranty that will impress your customers. Ideally you’re looking for 50 years on the synthetic roofing tiles.

Installation Insights

Most synthetic slate and shake roofing products can be installed following standard industry practices. Roofers should always review and follow the specific instructions recommended by individual manufacturers. There are some positive surprises for roofers installing synthetic roofing for the first time. You’ll find that some companies ship the roofing shingles in pre-sorted bundles FRSA Membership Directory by size and color. That’s a huge time saver on the jobsite. Next, because it is lightweight, composite slate eliminates the time and expense of reinforcing the roof structure that is otherwise required when using quarried slate, concrete year-round. or clay tiles. From my perspective, there are a few tips you can use to make a synthetic roofing project go smoothly and reduce headaches.

Frequency Discounts4.

Ask for help. Synthetic roofing manufacturers are there with experience, installation videos and one-on-one training to assist you and make your composite roofing projects successful. FRM

Tim Gentry is Vice President of Technical Services for DaVinci Roofscapes and has decades of roofing experience. Before joining DaVinci Roofscapes in 1999 to help develop the company’s composite roofing products, he owned Gentry Roofing for 20 years and installed hundreds of roofs in the Kansas City area.

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ADHESIVE SYSTEM DESIGNED FOR THE PROFESSIONAL ROOFER. LABOR SAVINGS - A fast and reliable system that saves on materials and labor costs.

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Contractor Beware – Working Around Power Lines Duke Energy

A shocking fact – almost 200 construction workers die each year from contact with electrical energy, the fifth-leading cause of workplace death. Direct or indirect contact with power lines is the most common cause of electrocution, according to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Yet many roofing company employees aren’t aware of the danger overhead power lines can pose when they are located near a roof. Below are simple practices that can be implemented into their daily routine.

■■ Watch out for conduits. The conduits that lead away from an array of solar panels carry electrical current at voltages strong enough to severely injure or kill you if you contact the wires inside. Note that conduits may run from a rooftop down the outside of a building.

Basic Facts About Electricity – Circuits and Conductors

■■ Protect thermal systems. Thermal solar systems move water through an array of narrow pipes on which sunlight is focused through glass. Take care around these installations and their input and output pipes.

Electricity travels in closed circuits, usually through a conductor. A conductor is a substance with little resistance to the flow of energy. Metal equipment, roofs, steps on a ladder, and even your body are potential conductors.

How Do You Get Shocked?

Electrical shock occurs when a person’s body contacts an electrical circuit and provides a path for electricity to leave the circuit and travel to the ground. On the jobsite, this can happen when you contact one wire of an energized circuit and the ground at the same time or, you touch equipment that’s in contact with an energized wire while you’re also in contact with the ground.

What Happens When You Get Shocked?

Lower voltages (and lower amperages) can cause muscle spasms that inhibit your ability to “let go” of the object you’re touching that’s completing the circuit. The degree of injury increases with every second your body is conducting electricity. Higher voltages (and higher amperages) can throw you clear, interrupting the circuit, but, injury or death can still result from the electrical shock or fall. There is a risk of serious injury or death anytime you come into contact with an energized circuit, whether low or high voltage. That’s why it’s important to stay away from all energized conductors, thus avoiding contact with any electricity.

Solar Power System Safety

Solar panels and equipment are easily damaged, and they may carry live electrical current even when the sun is not shining. Follow these tips to protect system components and to protect yourself from electrical shock. ■■ Locate all equipment. Ask the building owner or property manager to point out solar panels, conduits, batteries and all related equipment. Once you know the location of system components, take care to keep ladders, tools and supplies away from them.

■■ Stay away from solar panels. The top surfaces of solar panels are made of glass that will crack or break if a heavy object falls on them. If possible, maintain a twoto three-foot safety perimeter around panels and mounts.

A Good Rule of Thumb – The Deal on Clearances

Maintaining the proper clearance from overhead power lines is not only critical to a safe work environment, it’s the law. So, how do you determine the correct clearance distance? Here are some good rules of thumb: ■■ If the overhead line is 50 kV or less, stay at least 10 feet away. This clearance distance is 20 feet for cranes and derricks used in construction unless you have taken OSHA-mandated encroachment prevention precautions. ■■ Keep all equipment at least 20 feet away from lines carrying 50 kV to 350 kV. For lines carrying more than 350 kV, keep a minimum distance of 50 feet. ■■ If you are unsure of the power line’s voltage, contact the local utility provider before work begins. For specific clearance requirements visit www.osha.gov. Power lines are not covered by or wrapped in insulation. Always consider them energized and dangerous. Any contact with overhead lines could cause serious injury to operators and ground crew.

Did You Know?

A typical distribution line along a roadway may contain voltages ranging from 7,000 volts up to 138,000 volts. Major transmission lines can be as high as 500,000 volts. Direct and indirect contact with power lines is the most common cause of electrocution. OSHA analysis has determined that nearly 45 percent of major cases of crane accidents include boom or crane contact with energized power lines.

If You Make Overhead Contact

You’ve followed all mandatory safety guidelines but, despite your best efforts, your equipment still contacts an www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


overhead power line. What do you do now? ■■ Immediately try to move the equipment clear, but only if you can do so safely. ■■ Tell others to stay away and not to approach or touch the equipment. ■■ Have someone immediately call 911 and the local utility provider. ■■ Stay on the equipment until utility workers say it is safe to get off.

Leaving Your Equipment

If you must leave your equipment due to fire or other danger: ■■ Jump as far away as possible so you don’t touch the equipment and the ground at the same time. ■■ Land with your feet together. ■■ Shuffle away with your feet close together and on the ground, or hop away on two feet, keeping both feet together. ■■ Once you’re clear of your equipment, don’t return for any reason until you are advised by electric utility workers that the area is safe.

Operate Smart, Operate Safely

Utility contacts can be costly – and deadly. Implementing the simple steps outlined below can help you and your crew work safely around electric utilities. Examine the Site – Look Out for Power Lines Search carefully for overhead power lines, poles, guy wires, and pad-mounted equipment. Conditions can easily change, so check the site frequently. Look for lines that may be blocked from view by trees or buildings, and electrical equipment on the ground that may be hidden by bushes or small trees. If you suspect hidden hazards, talk to the utility company, inspectors, and experienced 26


colleagues about your concerns. Alert Others About Lines at Your Pre-Job Briefing Make sure everyone at the jobsite knows about nearby overhead and underground utilities and where they are located. Whether they are operating heavy equipment, using handheld tools, or climbing ladders, all workers on site must be aware of power lines. Assume All Lines are Energized and Potentially Dangerous This includes overhead and underground lines, and the service drops that run from utility poles to buildings. Clearly Mark Boundaries Use tape, signs, or barricades to keep workers and equipment the required distance away. For Equipment Operators, Visibility is Limited When you operate hoisting equipment, it is often hard to judge the distance from your equipment to power lines overhead. Certain weather conditions and bright or dim lighting can make it even harder to see. A Spotter Helps You Stay Clear of Overhead Lines Someone on the ground has a much better view of the power lines near you. You should work with a dedicated spotter on the ground whose only job is to watch your equipment and make sure you stay a safe distance from overhead lines and other hazards. For crane and derrick operators, maintain continuous contact with a dedicated spotter to comply with electric line clearance requirements. Make sure your spotter is not doing double duty by spotting and guiding a load at the same time. When You Guide a Load, You are At Risk of Electric Shock If the crane or other piece of equipment you are guiding hits an overhead power line, electricity can travel down

the tag line that you are holding and through you. In the event of power line contact, workers on the ground are in the greatest danger of shock. Don’t Try to Guide a Load and Spot at the Same Time Assign a spotter whose only job is to make sure the equipment stays clear of power lines. Spotting effectively needs someone’s full attention. “BET” Yourself – Wager on Safety Power lines are common on the jobsite and have become a familiar part of our surroundings. Perhaps, because of this, they often go unnoticed. How can you reduce your risk? Play a betting game with yourself. ■■ BET yourself that you’ll remember the safety rules and regulations associated with working around power lines. ■■ BET yourself that you’ll lead by example and show coworkers proper safety procedure. ■■ BET yourself that you’ll remain accident free.

Boundaries Help Keep You Safe

Always create a boundary around power lines to serve as a clearance reminder and to minimize risks to other workers in the area. When using tall or long equipment around power lines, maintain the required safe work distances and encroachment prevention precautions. Examine the Site Before work begins every day, examine the site and conduct a safety briefing to alert everyone on the jobsite about nearby overhead and underground power lines. Assume all lines are energized and potentially dangerous. Train Your Crew Educate everyone on your jobsite about the dangers of working near power lines. Assist your coworkers by showing them how to maintain a safe work environment. Are Overhead Power Lines Insulated? Most overhead power lines are made of highly conductive aluminum with a steel core, or are copper—and they are NOT insulated. If you look up at a utility pole or tower you may not be able to identify which lines are communication cables and which are energized wires. You should assume that any wire on a utility pole or tower is energized and dangerous, and stay away. All downed wires should also be considered energized and dangerous—stay far away from them as well. Don’t Be Fooled by the Covering Don’t be fooled by the covering on the service drop wires that go from utility poles to homes. This coating is designed to protect the service drop from the elements, but it is not true insulation and will not prevent injury to people. This covering will NOT protect you from electrical shock. Tall and Long Equipment– Keep Vehicles Clear of Lines Long-bed trucks, cranes and material conveyors can contact overhead power lines. Make sure you know the required safe work distances and encroachment prevention

precautions for all power lines at your jobsite, and respect all marked safety boundaries. Work with a dedicated spotter to comply with line clearance requirements. Take Care with Ladders and Long Handheld Tools Carry ladders, paint rollers, rain gutters, and other long objects so they are parallel to the ground. When it’s time to use them, raise and lower them carefully to avoid power lines. Adjust ladders and tools cautiously. Before adjusting extension ladders, paint rollers, or other long tools, add your own height and make sure the total height will remain a safe distance of at least 10 feet away from overhead lines of 50,000 volts or less. When climbing a single or extension ladder, you should never stand above the third rung from the top of the ladder or above the point where the ladder touches the wall or ledge. As voltage increases, clearance distances also increase. Consult your local utility and the OSHA regulations at www.osha.gov for specific safety clearance requirements. If a Co-Worker Hits a Power Line – Stay Away Stay clear of any person or any object that is in contact with a power line. Call 911 and the electric company immediately. Don’t try to rescue the victim. Stay away until rescue workers assure you the power has been turned off. Protect Yourself If you touch someone who is in contact with electricity, you could be shocked too. You can also be shocked if you touch the vehicle or equipment that person is in, or the tool they are holding. Again, the best thing to do is to stay far away and call for help. It’s human nature to want to help someone who is hurt. But when a power line is involved, you can’t help without endangering yourself. Do not try to use non-conductive ropes or tools to push an electrical contact victim clear of a power line—power line voltages can be strong enough to travel through non-conductive objects. If You Hit a Power Line If you MUST get off the equipment due to fire or other danger, jump clear, keeping both feet together and without touching the ground and the equipment at the same time. Shuffle away with small steps, keeping your feet close together and on the ground, or hop away on two feet, keeping both feet together. Even after you’ve jumped from equipment with a power line on it, the danger may not be over. Electricity can spread out through the ground in all directions from any downed line. The voltage drops as you move away from the point of contact. However, if you touch a high-voltage and a low-voltage zone at the same time (which can happen if you take big steps or run), electricity can travel up one leg and down the other, and you can be shocked. This is why you should shuffle away from the line, keeping your feet close together and on the ground. FRM

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The Perils of PEO’s for Florida’s Construction Industry Brett Stiegel, Administrator, FRSA Self Insurers Fund and Karen Phillips, General Counsel, FUBA’s Workers’ Comp Under Florida’s workers’ compensation law, companies working in the construction industry can be held liable if they hire subcontractors who do not have proper workers’ compensation insurance to cover all of their employees. In Florida, everyone on a construction job site is required to be covered by workers’ compensation insurance or must have a valid exemption issued by the Division of Workers’ Compensation. If a subcontractor without proper workers’ compensation insurance for all of his/ her employees comes onto a job site, and one of the sub’s employees gets hurt, the responsibility for that injury falls on the contractor who hired the sub; the contractor’s workers’ compensation insurance company can be held responsible for paying for the worker’s medical care and lost wages. There’s not a problem when a contractor subs out to a company with a valid workers’ compensation policy issued by a traditional workers’ compensation carrier. The subcontractor’s policy will take care of all of the workers the subcontractor brings to the job site, even if it’s just for one day or even one hour. However, when a contractor subs out to a contractor who receives workers’ compensation insurance through a professional employer organization or employee leasing arrangement, it’s a very different scenario, and one that leaves the contractor (and the contractor’s insurance company) very exposed.

workers’ comp coverage exists only for “employees” listed on its contract with the sub. Of course, the subcontractor is free to hire new workers, but they won’t be covered by the PEO until they are specifically reported as employees to the PEO. For example, the subcontractor could hire a new worker on Monday, put him or her right to work, but not send the worker’s paperwork to the PEO until Monday afternoon. If the new worker gets hurt on the job before the PEO knows about him or her, its workers’ compensation policy will not cover that new worker. This forces the injured worker to seek payment for his or her medical bills and lost wages from the contractor who hired the sub, even though the sub had “coverage” through the PEO. The same holds true for any casual labor of uninsured subcontractors that the subcontractor hires. Because these people are not considered “employees” by the PEO, the PEO does not provide workers’ comp insurance for them and will not pay if one of them is hurt on the job.

How So?

When a company signs up with a professional employer organization (known as a “PEO”), that company’s employees are technically no longer employees of that company; they become “employees” of the PEO. While the employees still report to work at the same place, their payroll checks now come from the PEO. The PEO also assumes responsibility for providing workers’ compensation coverage for these employees through the PEO’s workers’ compensation carrier. Under this arrangement, the PEO is the actual policyholder; the employer itself (the subcontractor, in our example) is not insured by the PEO’s carrier and does not have its own workers’ compensation policy. Along with the use of PEO’s is the potential for a “PEO coverage gap.” The gap could occur when the subcontractor hires new employees but doesn’t report them to the PEO in a timely manner. Because the PEO is now the employer, the PEO’s contract with the sub can state that www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


In all of these cases, the contractor’s workers’ comp policy will have to step in and pay for the injuries. It also will lead to the contractor owing additional premium to its insurance company for that exposure. Another potential issue with hiring subcontractors who have a PEO arrangement is that the subcontractor’s workers’ compensation insurance can be canceled at any time and without much notice. Because they are not providing insurance, PEO’s are not subject to the same cancellation notice provisions that traditional insurance companies are subject to. Traditional insurance companies have to give their policyholders advance notice before they cancel a policy – 10 days notice of cancellation for not paying premium and 45 days notice for non-renewal, etc. However, the PEO, because it is not an insurance company, does not have to comply with these notice provisions. The PEO can give immediate notice that it is canceling the contract, which also cancels the subcontractor’s workers’ comp insurance. A subcontractor whose workers’ comp insurance can be canceled at any time with short notice brings substantial potential exposure to a contractor hiring that sub. If the sub’s insurance is canceled, all of its employees/casual labor/uninsured subs become employees of the contractor who hired the sub. Again, the contractor will be billed for premium for all that payroll, and its insurance company will be on the hook for all on-the-job accidents.

Contractors who rely on a certificate of insurance showing a subcontractor’s PEO arrangement need to understand that the subcontractor itself is not insured and is not provided the coverage referenced on the certificate of insurance. The certificate is for the PEO’s coverage only and, again, does not cover workers hired by the sub whom the PEO doesn’t know about, casual labor, or uninsured contractors. PEO’s provide services for many small employers, such as weekly payroll processing and access to group benefit plans. The segment of the Florida workers’ compensation marketplace that turns to PEO’s is growing. But because of the liabilities that Florida law puts on contractors in the construction industry, Florida contractors subbing out work to companies with PEO’s need to understand the limitations of this coverage and the potential expense it could mean to them. FRM Brett Stiegel is the Administrator of FRSA’s Self Insurers Fund, covering Florida roofing, sheet metal and air conditioning contractors. Karen Phillips is general counsel for FUBA Workers’ Comp, the managing general agent for the Florida Citrus, Business & Industries Fund, which provides workers compensation insurance to over 6,000 Florida businesses.

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Safety Best Practices for Pneumatic Tools Brett McCutcheon, General Manager, FASCO America

Pneumatic tools are beloved by contractors for their efficiency and ease of use, but those who have not yet worked with them might need some help and guidance. Missteps with these tools can be both costly and painful, so proceed with caution on the first few projects. If you are new to pneumatics, here are some safe practices to follow.

Employee Safety

First you should train your employees in the use of all tools, not just power tools. They need to understand the possible hazards and how to minimize them from happening. Next you should consider your employee’s individual comfort. Make sure all your workers are equipped with clothing and gear to keep them warm or cool and dry, plus encourage them to bring along an extra set of clothes in case anything gets wet. Other safety precautions include training your team to be aware of the signs of heat stroke and dehydration, as well as hypothermia. Have an emergency plan for any and all injuries. Make sure to provide plenty of cool water and breaks in an appropriately cooled or heated area. Lastly, try to schedule jobs during the most comfortable part of the days. This will help your employees and tools run smoother with less mishaps.

Check the Equipment

One of the first things you’ll want to do is to review the manufacturer’s instructions on use of the tool and follow them very closely. If the tool you are using for the job has been previously used, be sure to check for any damage. Before you start using any tool or machinery make sure you are wearing protective equipment such as safety goggles and gloves if needed. In chilly weather you’ll want to check and warm all machinery and tools and ensure they’re working properly. Cold temperatures can affect the equipment, especially the electrical wires and hoses which can become brittle. Remember to keep your tools clean and in good repair and they will keep working, even in extreme temperatures. When powering through a project, it’s easy to forget to reload the magazine. However, it’s better to reload before the tool has run out of fasteners because it may still fire and leave a dimple in the wood. This is because the driver will come forward and slam directly into the wood, which will cause some damage. Additionally, it can damage the tool itself, so make sure you’re checking reload indicators throughout the project to avoid potentially expensive mishaps.

Position Pins Correctly

Although not all pins come with a “this end up” label, many do. Pins do not have a crown or head, and it can be difficult to determine which end is the point. Most manufacturers will include an arrow or other type of symbol that labels the point of the fastener. It’s important to pay attention to this detail because loading pins incorrectly will not allow the fastener to drive completely into the wood. If done repeatedly, the point of the pin can cause damage to the driver, which will make the tool perform less effectively.

Use a Light Touch

The general rule is “less is more” when it comes to pneumatics. While these tools tend to require a bit of force to depress the nose tip, too much pressure can have some adverse effects on the surrounding wood. Excess pressure will cause the nose to strike the wood twice, which will leave an extra dimple near the fastener site. Some nailers don’t require any force at all, so when in doubt, use a light touch.

Keep Hands Out of Harm’s Way

Many contractors have been scorned by a rogue nail, so keep your fingers out of harm’s way to avoid injury. Fine fasteners tend to follow the wood’s grain, and from time to time the fastener will blow out the side of the joint. Knowing that, keep fingers away from potential off-course paths. To prevent wandering nails, fire them perpendicular to the grain. Also be sure that the tools are being directed away from aisle areas and from other employees who are working in close proximity. Pneumatic tools are not the right fit for every project; but they are safer, more light weight, and oftentimes more affordable than leading alternatives. For someone new to pneumatic tools, it’s important to understand what projects these tools are appropriate for, and above all, how to use them safely and effectively. With the above tips, using your new pneumatic will be a breeze. FRM Starting with Bostitch in 1994, Brett has 25 years of industry experience with the last 21 years being at FASCO America, the North American distribution company of the BECK Fastener Group. www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


OSHA’s Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica 29 C.F.R. § 1926.1153 This document is advisory in nature and informational in content. It is not a standard or regulation, and it neither creates new legal obligations nor alters existing obligations created by OSHA standards or the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Pursuant to the OSH Act, employers must comply with safety and health standards and regulations issued and enforced either by OSHA or by an OSHAapproved State Plan. In addition, the Act’s General Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1), requires employers to provide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or serious physical harm.

Frequently Asked Questions for the Construction Industry

On March 25, 2016, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published a final rule regulating occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (silica) in the construction industry (the standard). 81 Fed. Reg. 16286. OSHA developed these Frequently Asked Questions about the standard in consultation with industry and union stakeholders. These FAQs provide guidance to employers and employees regarding the standard’s requirements. This document is organized by topic. A short introductory paragraph is included for each group of questions and answers to provide background information about the underlying regulatory requirements. The following acronyms are used throughout this document:

Q: Has OSHA identified specific tasks that are likely to be outside the scope of the standard because they typically generate exposures below the AL under all foreseeable conditions? A: Yes. When the following tasks are performed in isolation from other silica-generating tasks, they typically do not generate silica at or above the AL under any foreseeable conditions: mixing small amounts of mortar; mixing small amounts of concrete; mixing bagged, silica-free drywall compound; mixing bagged exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS) base and finish coat; removing concrete formwork; using block or tile splitters; and using manual (i.e., non-powered) chisels, shears, and utility knives. In addition, tasks where employees are working with silica-containing products that are, and are intended to be, handled while wet, are likely to generate exposures below the AL under any foreseeable conditions (examples include finishing and hand wiping block walls to remove excess wet mortar, pouring concrete, and grouting floor and wall tiles). Q: Does the standard cover employees who perform silica-generating tasks for only 15 minutes or less a day?

A: The standard does not include a specific exemption for tasks with only short-term exposures (e.g., tasks with exposures for 15 minutes a day or less). However, in many cases, employees who perform construction tasks for very short periods of time, in isolation from activities that generate significant exposures to silica (e.g., some tasks listed on Table 1, abrasive blasting), will be exposed below the AL ■■ AL - action level (25 μg/m3 as an 8-hour time-weighted under any foreseeable conditions. average) Q: If employees are not covered by the standard because their exposures will remain below the AL under ■■ HEPA filter - high-efficiency particulate air filter any foreseeable conditions, does the employer need to ■■ PEL - permissible exposure limit (50 μg/m3 as an document this determination? 8-hour time-weighted average) ■■ PLHCP - physician or other licensed health care professional ■■ TWA - time-weighted average


OSHA’s silica standard for construction applies to all occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica in construction work, except where employee exposures will remain below the AL, under any foreseeable conditions. The exception applies only where exposures below 25 μg/m3 as an 8-hour TWA are expected or achieved without using engineering or other controls. The exception is intended to ensure that the standard does not apply to employees whose work results in only minimal silica exposures.



A: No. The standard does not require employers to document determinations about the applicability of the standard or the data on which such determinations are based. However, an employer may document these determinations for its own purposes. Furthermore, OSHA notes that nothing in the silica standard alters employers’ duty to maintain employee exposure records under 29 C.F.R. § 1910.1020. Q: Do construction employers have to consider exposures from other contractors when determining if their employees’ exposures will remain below the AL under any foreseeable conditions? A: Yes, if it is foreseeable that the exposures of employees will be affected by exposures generated by other contractors. On many construction sites, there are multiple contractors performing silica-generating tasks. The

silica generated by these tasks can migrate to employees of other contractors. Employers need to consider these secondary exposures when determining whether their employees’ exposures will remain below the AL under any foreseeable conditions. If, however, an employer can ensure - either due to the nature and timing of the work, or through work practice controls - that its employees will not be exposed to silica generated by other contractors, then the employer would not need to consider secondary exposures in determining whether its employees will be exposed below the AL under any foreseeable conditions.

Q: How can an employer determine who qualifies as a “competent person” under the standard? Does an employee have to take a particular training class to meet the definition of a competent person under the standard?

A: The standard does not specify particular training requirements for competent persons. Instead, it defines a competent person in terms of capability, i.e., whether a designated competent person has the knowledge and ability to perform the duties prescribed by the standard. The employer must also give the competent person the authority to perform those duties. To determine whether a given employee has the approQ: If employee exposures will remain below the AL under any foreseeable conditions, does the standard require priate knowledge and ability to perform the duties of the the employer to complete a written exposure control plan competent person, an employer needs to confirm that the employee is capable of: for the worksite? A: No. None of the standard’s requirements apply if, without implementing any controls, all employees’ exposures to silica will remain below the AL under any foreseeable conditions.


The standard defines certain key terms used in the rule. The standard defines such terms as “action level,” “employee exposure” (exposure to airborne respirable crystalline silica that would occur if the employee were not using a respirator), and “competent person” (an individual who is capable of identifying existing and foreseeable respirable crystalline silica hazards in the workplace, and has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate or minimize them and the knowledge and ability necessary to fulfill the responsibilities set forth in paragraph (g) of the standard).

■■ Identifying existing and foreseeable silica hazards; and ■■ Promptly eliminating or minimizing those hazards. In addition, the employee must be capable of making frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, and equipment for purposes of implementing the written exposure control plan, to ensure that the engineering controls, work practice controls, required respiratory protection, housekeeping measures, and procedures to restrict access in the workplace are implemented for the silica-generating tasks listed in the plan. A person with these capabilities (whether acquired through training, education, work experience, or otherwise), who is authorized by the employer to perform the duties of a competent person, qualifies as a competent person under the standard. Q: Some provisions in the standard refer to high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The standard defines a HEPA filter as a “filter that is at least 99.97 percent

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efficient in removing mono-dispersed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter.” May an employer rely on a manufacturer’s representation of the effectiveness of a filter to comply with this requirement?

calculated as an 8-hour TWA. The employer must assess exposures using either a performance option or a scheduled monitoring option. Further, as with other health standards, employers following alternative exposure control methods must use A: Yes. The standard does not require employers to engineering and work practice controls to reduce and independently test the effectiveness of filters to determine maintain employee exposure to silica to or below the PEL, if they meet the definition in paragraph (b). Employers unless the employer can demonstrate that such controls can rely on a manufacturer’s representation that a filter are not feasible. If feasible engineering and work practice is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing mono-discontrols are not sufficient to reduce employee exposure persed particles of 0.3 micrometers in diameter or that it to or below the PEL, the employer must nonetheless use is compliant with the OSHA definition of a “HEPA filter.” those controls to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible However, employers must properly select, use, maintain, level, and then supplement the controls with the use of and replace HEPA filters in order to ensure that they respiratory protection. continue to function according to the manufacturer’s Q: If all of the jobs and tasks an employer performs are specifications. included on Table 1, can the employer comply with Table 1 exclusively, instead of following alternative exposure Exposure Control Methods The standard permits construction employers to select control methods? from two methods of compliance to control exposures to A: Yes. Most of the tasks that generate exposure to respirable crystalline silica: “specified exposure control silica in construction are listed on Table 1, and OSHA anmethods” or “alternative exposure control methods.” ticipates that most employers will choose to follow Table 1 Under “specified exposure control methods,” employfor tasks listed on the table. ers can comply by fully and properly implementing the Q: Many of the entries on Table 1 require employers engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory to “operate and maintain” tools “in accordance with protection set forth for the relevant task on “Table 1.” manufacturer’s instructions to minimize dust emissions.” Employers that follow Table 1 do not have to assess emIf an employer is following Table 1, and employees are ployee exposures or separately ensure compliance with performing one of these tasks, does the silica standard the PEL. Table 1 includes common construction tasks. require the employer to follow every element of the tool For tasks that are not listed in Table 1, or where the manufacturer’s instructions? employer does not fully and properly implement the engineering controls, work practices, and respiratory protection described on Table 1, the employer must comply with “alternative exposure control methods.” Under this compliance option, the employer must ensure that no employee is exposed to an airborne concentration of respirable crystalline silica in excess of the PEL of 50 μg/m3,

A: No, the silica standard requires employers to follow manufacturer instructions that are related to dust control. In determining which instructions might relate to dust control, employers should consider whether the failure to follow the particular instruction would increase employee exposure to silica.

Table 1 Excerpt: Specified Exposure Control Methods When Working with Materials Containing Crystalline Silica

Equipment/Task (ii) Handheld power saws (any blade diameter)

Engineering and Work Practice Control Methods

Required Respiratory Protection and Minimum Assigned Protection Factor (APF) ≤ 4 hours/shift

> 4 hours/shift


APF 10

APF 10

APF 10

Use saw equipment with integrated water delivery sytem that continuously feeds water to the blade. Operate and maintain tool in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions to minimize dust emissions. When used outdoors When used indoors or in an enclosed area

Excerpt – see regulatory text for construction standard with complete Table 1 at www.osha.gov/silica/SilicaConstructionRegText.pdf 34


Q: The manufacturer’s instructions for a number of tools state that respiratory protection is required whenever employees use the tools. Does that language supersede the respiratory protection requirements on Table 1? A: No. The standard does not require employers to follow tool manufacturers’ instructions for respirator use. Q: Some entries on Table 1 require the use of a dust collection system that provides, at a minimum, the air flow recommended by the manufacturer. Does the standard require employers to conduct their own air flow assessments to ensure compliance with this requirement? A: No. Employers may normally rely on statements made by the manufacturer of equipment to determine compliance. Employers do not need to perform their own testing to determine if a dust collection system functions at the level required by the standard. However, employers must properly select, use, maintain, and replace dust collection systems in order to ensure that they function as designed, e.g., by ensuring that the port and hose are not obstructed. Q: For a few tasks on Table 1, respirator requirements vary based on task duration, i.e., whether the task is performed for “less than or equal to four hours/shift” or “greater than four hours/shift.” Does the employer have to track the exact amount of time that employees are performing a job throughout a shift to be in compliance with Table 1? A: No. Before the task is performed, the employer must make a good-faith judgment about whether the task will take more than four hours. This judgment should be based on previous experience and other available information. Q: Is an employer following Table 1 required to “minimize dust emissions?” What does it mean to “minimize dust emissions” in this context?

TWA (and thus below the PEL), is the employer required to put operators in ventilated booths or remote control stations, as specified in the relevant entry on Table 1? A: No. Employers performing tasks listed on Table 1 can choose to follow alternative exposure control methods in paragraph (d) instead of implementing the controls specified on Table 1. The alternative exposure control methods approach involves assessing employees’ silica exposures and limiting exposures to the PEL by following the hierarchy of controls. Q: Are tile saws covered by Table 1? A: OSHA considers handheld tile saws to be handheld power saws, for purposes of Table 1. (OSHA considers stationary tile saws to be stationary masonry saws, also covered by Table 1). Employers of employees using these types of tile saws can follow Table 1 by fully and properly implementing the engineering controls and work practices in the specified paragraphs.

Alternative Exposure Control Methods

Q: Does an employer using alternative exposure control methods for compliance have to conduct sampling of all employees performing all job tasks? A: No. Q: For alternative exposure control methods, the standard requires employers to assess the exposure of each employee who is or may reasonably be expected to be exposed to silica at or above the AL using either the performance option or the scheduled monitoring option. If an employer reasonably expects its employee’s exposure to remain below the AL, does the standard require the employer to assess that employee’s exposure using one of these two options?

A: No. The standard only requires an employer using alternative exposure control methods to conduct an A: Although many of the entries on Table 1 require em- exposure assessment if it is reasonable for the employer to ployers to “operate and maintain” tools “in accordance with expect that exposures will be at or above the AL. Q: Under the scheduled monitoring option, do employmanufacturer’s instructions to minimize dust emissions or to “operate and maintain machine[s] to minimize dust emis- ers have to monitor exposures every time a new job is sions,” the standard does not separately require employers started (and thus a new work area is created)? to minimize dust emissions. An employer generating a A: Following initial monitoring, the employer can limited amount of dust when engaging in a task listed on continue to perform periodic monitoring at the frequency Table 1 would not be in violation of the standard if it is fully specified in the standard, provided that the task and the and properly implementing the engineering controls, work workplace conditions in the new work area are substantialpractices, and respiratory protection specified on the Table ly similar, in that they are not reasonably expected to result (including operating and maintaining controls so as to min- in exposures above those detected during the most recent imize emissions). A small amount of dust can be expected monitoring. This applies whether the new work area is on even with new equipment that is operating as intended by the same or a subsequent jobsite. the manufacturer. However, a noticeable increase in dust Q: Can an employer use the scheduled monitoring emissions may indicate that the dust control system is not option, but then switch to the performance option? operating properly. A: Yes. The employer has the option of switching to the Q: If an employer is utilizing water to control dust performance option, and can use air monitoring data gengenerated by a crushing machine, and has consistent air erated during scheduled monitoring to fulfill assessment monitoring results or objective data demonstrating that requirements under the performance option, provided that exposures are under the AL of 25 μg/m3 as an 8-hour www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


the air monitoring data relied on is sufficient to accurately characterize employee exposures. When following either exposure assessment option under the silica standard, the employer must reassess exposures following any changes in the production process, control equipment, personnel, or work practices that may reasonably be expected to result in new or additional exposures to silica at or above the AL, or when the employer has any reason to believe that new or additional exposures at or above the AL have occurred.

clean clothing or surfaces when the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air. What type of ventilation system is acceptable to use?


Q: On occasion, construction employees remove and clean filters used in dust collection systems and dispose of the dust, as appropriate. Are there specific engineering or work practice controls employers must implement during this task?

The standard includes requirements related to housekeeping on construction worksites. Under the standard, employers must not allow dry sweeping or dry brushing “where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless wet sweeping, HEPA-filtered vacuuming or other methods that minimize the likelihood of exposure are not feasible.” In addition, employers must not allow compressed air to be used to clean clothing or surfaces where such activity could contribute to employee exposure to respirable crystalline silica unless: (1) The compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air, or (2) No alternative method is feasible.

A: The standard does not specify the use of a particular ventilation system for these purposes. Whatever type of system is selected, it must be able to effectively capture any dust cloud created by the use of compressed air, thereby preventing the dust cloud from entering employees’ breathing zones and contributing to silica exposures.

A: No. The standard does not specify the engineering or work practice controls to be used during filter cleaning and dust disposal. The tasks of filter cleaning and dust disposal are not separately listed on Table 1, but will often be performed as part of a Table 1 task. An employer following Table 1 must operate and maintain the relevant tool in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions to minimize dust emissions, which may include instructions for removing and cleaning filters and disposing of dust.

Written Exposure Control Plan Q: If employee exposure will remain below the AL The standard requires employers to establish and under any foreseeable conditions, does the prohibition on dry sweeping, dry brushing, and the use of compressed air implement a written exposure control plan that contains at least the following elements: (1) a description of the tasks for cleaning clothing and surfaces apply? in the workplace that involve exposure to silica; (2) a deA: No, none of the standard’s requirements apply if, scription of the engineering controls, work practices, and without implementing any controls, exposures will remain respiratory protection used to limit employee exposure to below the AL under any foreseeable conditions. Employers silica for each task; (3) a description of the housekeeping should note, however, that dry sweeping, dry brushing, measures used to limit employee exposure to silica; and and the use of compressed air, either alone or in combina(4) a description of the procedures used to restrict access tion with other tasks, can result in exposures at or above to work areas, when necessary, to minimize the number the AL, and thus coverage under the standard. Employers of employees exposed to silica and their level of exposure, should consider the duration of the dry sweeping, dry including exposures generated by other employers or sole brushing, or use of compressed air; the location and proprietors. The plan must be reviewed and evaluated for frequency of the tasks; and other factors in determining effectiveness at least annually and updated as necessary. whether employee exposures will remain below the AL Furthermore, employers must designate a competent under any foreseeable conditions. person to make frequent and regular inspections of job Q: Does the standard prohibit an employer from using sites, materials, and equipment to implement the exposure control plan. compressed air as part of a task not related to cleaning clothing or surfaces? Q: Does the standard require employers to have a A: No. The standard generally prohibits the use of compressed air “to clean clothing or surfaces” where that activity can contribute to employee silica exposures. It does not prohibit the use of compressed air for purposes other than cleaning clothing or surfaces, e.g., for operating a pneumatic tool. Employers may also use compressed air for housekeeping when the compressed air is used in conjunction with a ventilation system that effectively captures the dust cloud created by the compressed air, or if no alternative method for cleaning clothes or surfaces is feasible. Q: The standard allows the use of compressed air to 36


written exposure control plan for each worksite? A: Yes, but the standard does not require employers to develop a new written plan for each job or worksite. It requires only that employers have a written exposure control plan applicable to each worksite. Employers may develop a single comprehensive written exposure control plan that covers all required aspects of the plan for all work activities at all worksites. Any such comprehensive plan can be used on all of an employer’s worksites if it addresses the materials, tasks, and conditions that are relevant to the work being performed.

Q: Does the standard require employers to list all of the tasks that could involve any exposure to silica in their written exposure control plans?

describe all current conditions/scenarios at the worksite, a discussion with the competent person(s) regarding the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan(s); and (3) a discussion with a sample of employees regarding A: No. Tasks that are not covered by the standard because employee exposures will remain below the AL under the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan(s). any foreseeable conditions, without implementing any con- There is no set number of employees that need to participate in the review and evaluation. The employees involved trols, do not need to be included in the written exposure should represent a range of exposures in order to allow control plan. the employer to adequately review and evaluate the plan’s Q: In the written exposure control plan, what level of effectiveness. detail is required for the description of workplace tasks Q: Does the standard require employers to document that involve silica exposures? their review and evaluation of the written exposure A: The written exposure control plan must describe the control plan? tasks that involve silica exposures in sufficient detail to enA: No. The standard requires employers to review and able the employer and employees to consistently identify evaluate the effectiveness of the written exposure conand control silica-related hazards. trol plan at least annually, and to update it as necessary, Q: What procedures can employers use to restrict because work conditions can change. access to work areas where silica-generating activities Q: If a small employer with just a handful of employees occur? intends to designate one of those employees as a compeA: The standard requires that the written exposure con- tent person on each job site, does the standard require trol plan include procedures for restricting access to work the employer to hire an additional competent person to areas, when necessary, to minimize the number of employ- conduct frequent and regular inspections of its jobsites? ees exposed to silica and their level of exposure, including A: No. The standard requires employers to designate a exposures generated by other employers or sole propricompetent person to make frequent and regular inspecetors. The standard does not specify particular procedures tions of job sites, materials, and equipment to implement employers must use to restrict access to work areas with the written exposure control plan, but it does not obligate silica-generating activities. employers to hire a new employee to carry out these tasks. Q: If employees are performing silica-generating Q: Does the competent person have to be on site at all tasks on a particular floor of a construction site, does times? the employer need to restrict access such that no other employees can enter the area where the silica-generating A: No. The competent person can leave the site peritasks are occurring? odically, so long as he or she fulfills the responsibilities set forth in paragraph (g). The competent person must “make A: No. OSHA does not intend for the standard to prohibit all employees from entering entire areas of a con- frequent and regular inspections of job sites, materials, struction site simply because employees in those areas are and equipment to implement the written exposure control plan.” performing some work involving the generation of silica. Q: What are the standard’s requirements for reviewing and evaluating the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan?

Medical Surveillance

The standard requires construction employers to make medical surveillance available at no cost, and at a

A: The standard requires employers to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan at least annually, and to update it as necessary. The standard does not specify how employers should review and evaluate the effectiveness of the written exposure control plan. The review and evaluation needed will depend on a number of factors, including the number and variety of jobs conducted by the employer. In general, a review and evaluation that consists of the following steps will be sufficient to fulfill this obligation: (1) an assessment of the written exposure control plan(s) to determine if it continues to accurately www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


reasonable time and place, to any employee who is required by the silica standard to use a respirator for 30 or more days a year. All required medical examinations and procedures must be performed by a physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP), defined as an individual whose legally permitted scope of practice allows him or her to independently provide or be delegated the responsibility to provide some or all of the particular health care services required by paragraph (h) of the standard. An initial examination must be offered within 30 days of initial assignment, unless the employee has received a medical examination that meets the requirements of the standard within the last three years. Thereafter, the employee must be offered a follow-up examination at least every three years, or more frequently if recommended by the PLHCP. The examinations must include a medical and work history, a physical examination, a chest x-ray, a pulmonary function test, a test for latent tuberculosis infection (initial exam only), and any other tests deemed appropriate by the PLHCP. The employee will receive a written medical report from the PLHCP within 30 days of each exam that includes: (1) a statement indicating the results of the medical examination; (2) any recommended limitations on the employee’s use of respirators; (3) any recommended limitations on the employee’s exposure to silica; and (4) a statement, if applicable, that the employee should be examined by a specialist. The employer must also obtain a written medical opinion from the PLHCP within 30 days of each exam, which contains more limited information than the report to the employee. The PLHCP’s opinion to the employer contains the date of the examination, a statement that the examination has met the requirements of the standard, and any recommended limitations on the employee’s use of respirators. If the employee gives written authorization, the written opinion for the employer must also contain any recommended limitations on the employee’s exposure to silica and/or a statement that the employee should be seen by a specialist (if applicable). The employer must ensure that each employee receives a copy of the written medical opinion provided to the employer within 30 days of his or her exam.

Q: Does the standard require employers to count any day during which an employee is required to use a respirator, for any amount of time, as a day of respirator use for purposes of applying the 30-day trigger for medical surveillance? A: Yes. If an employee is required by the standard to use a respirator at any time during a given day, regardless of the duration of the respirator use, that day counts as one day toward the 30-day threshold for medical surveillance. Thus, a “day” of respirator use for purposes of the 30-day threshold does not mean a full day of respirator use. Q: The silica standard limits the information that can be included in a PLHCP’s or specialist’s written medical opinion for the employer without the employee’s written consent. Does the standard prohibit an employer from receiving any of the information from sources outside of the medical surveillance examination process, such as via a workers’ compensation claim? A: No. The standard limits only the information that can be included in the PLHCP’s or specialist’s written medical opinion for the employer following an examination offered to an employee for purposes of compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the standard. If an employer uses the same individual or entity to manage medical surveillance and workers’ compensation records, there must be separate procedures for maintaining and managing the separate sources of information. Q: Under the standard, can an employer require employees who participate in medical surveillance to see a health care professional of the employer’s choice? A: Yes, the silica standard permits employers to select a health care professional to perform the medical examinations required by the standard. Q: Does the standard require employees to participate in medical surveillance? A: No, although the standard requires employers to make medical surveillance available to qualifying employees, the standard does not require qualifying employees to participate in medical surveillance. Q: Although the standard does not require employees to participate in medical surveillance, can an employer make such participation mandatory? A: Nothing in the standard precludes an employer from requiring participation in medical surveillance programs, as appropriate under other applicable laws or collective bargaining agreements. Q: Paragraph (h) requires employers to make an initial (baseline) medical examination available to each employee required to wear a respirator for 30 or more days per year, unless the employee has received an examination that meets



the requirements of the standard within the last three years. Can an employer rely on an employee’s verbal statement that he or she has already received such an examination?

A: No. Employers are in the best position to determine how training can most effectively be accomplished. Therefore, the standard does not specify how an employer needs to train employees.

A: No. An employee’s verbal statement that he or she received an initial medical examination from a prior employer is not sufficient to discharge the employer’s responsibility to offer such an examination.

Q: How can employees demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the required subjects, as required by the silica standard?

Q: The standard requires respirator use under certain circumstances. Under OSHA’s respiratory protection standard, employees must be medically able to use a respirator. What are the employer’s responsibilities for employees who are assigned a task that requires the use of a respirator under the standard, but are not medically able to use a negative pressure respirator? A: Among other things, OSHA’s respiratory protection standard requires employers to provide a medical evaluation to determine the employee’s ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fit tested or required to use the respirator in the workplace. It also requires employers to obtain a written recommendation from the PLHCP on whether the employee is medically able to use a respirator. If an employee receives medical surveillance under the silica standard, the PLHCP’s written medical opinion for the employer also must include any recommended limitations on the employee’s use of respirators. If a PLHCP determines through either a medical evaluation under the respiratory protection standard, or medical surveillance under the standard, that an employee has a medical condition that places the employee’s health at increased risk if a negative pressure respirator is used, but the employee can use a powered air purifying respirator (PAPR), then the employer must provide a PAPR. OSHA believes many workers who are medically unable to use a negative pressure respirator will be able to use a PAPR. However, if an employee cannot use either type of respirator, then the employer must not assign the employee to perform a task that would require the employee to use a respirator. In such a situation, the employer may need to consult other local, state, or federal laws and regulations and collective bargaining agreements to determine its obligations with respect to such employees.

Employee Information and Training

The standard requires employers to ensure that each employee who is covered by the standard can demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the health hazards associated with exposure to silica, specific tasks in the workplace that could result in exposure to silica, specific measures the employer has implemented to protect employees from exposure to silica, the contents of the standard, the identity of the competent person designated by the employer, and the purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program.

A: There is no set method employers must use to ensure employees demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the required subjects. Instead, the standard defines employers’ training obligations in terms of performance-oriented objectives meant to ensure that employees are aware of the hazards associated with silica in their workplace and how they can help protect themselves. However, as a general matter, employers can determine whether employees have the requisite knowledge through methods such as discussion of the required training subjects, written tests, or oral quizzes. Q: Does the hazard communication standard apply when employees’ silica exposures will remain below the AL? A: Yes. The hazard communication standard applies to hazardous chemicals (including respirable crystalline silica) regardless of the airborne exposure level.


The standard requires employers to make and maintain records of certain information, including air monitoring data, objective data, and medical surveillance data. Required records must be maintained and made available in accordance with 29 C.F.R. § 1910.1020, which generally requires employers to ensure that these types of records are maintained for at least 30 years. Q: How can employers comply with the requirement to ensure that employee medical records are maintained for the proper period of time when they do not receive a copy of the PLHCP’s written report to the employee? A: Employers are responsible for maintaining records in their possession (e.g., the PLHCP’s written medical opinion for the employer). Employers are also responsible for ensuring the retention of records in the possession of the PLHCP. An employer can fulfill this second obligation by including the retention requirement in the agreement between the employer and the PLHCP or by otherwise specifically communicating to the PLHCP the substance of OSHA’s record-retention requirements. For more information on OSHA’s Silica Standard, please visit the OSHA website at www.osha.gov. FRM

Q: Does this standard require classroom training for employees on the required subjects of the rule? www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


Five Steps to Help Build a Predictable Sales Model Ryan Groth, President, Sales Transformation Group, Inc. Making Roofing Contractor's Top 100 list is really a special honor. When looking at the list each year, I recognize market leaders who I know are doing certain things better than everyone else. To be fair, the top line isn’t everyone’s measure of success for building their roofing business. However, if you’re looking to become the best operator you can possibly be, just look at this list and you will notice a group of professionals that are inspired by the others on the list and are driven to innovate and share what they’ve learned to grow – which helps the industry grow. If you’re looking to find your company on the list – or want to find yourself higher on the list – here are five steps you can take to help you get there. The first step your company should take is to designate a leader to oversee sales. After all, the list is about the top line number. The “Sales Manager” is one of the roofing industry’s most underfilled positions, however when filled properly it can be like switching out a four cylinder for a V8 engine. Finding a good sales manager can be difficult, but using the right tools you can identify the right competencies for the job. From my experience working with several Top 100 Roofing Contractors, grabbing a sales leader from a different industry can serve very well because they are accustomed to more developed sales structures, which translates very well in roofing. However, be sure to screen them by using candidate assessment tools such as the one provided by Objective Management Group based in Boston. The biggest competencies that you’re looking for in a sales manager are a strong desire for sales success, commitment to do whatever it takes as long as it’s moral and ethical, the right outlook about themselves and your company’s future, taking responsibility (the opposite of excuse making), accountability, motivation, recruiting and coaching. Roofing technicalities are the easy part; they can learn that over time. Chances are, you as the owner have plenty of technical expertise, what you may lack is the sales competency – which is where the sales manager comes in. The second step involves making service and preventative maintenance a top priority. Service repairs take the least amount of time to close, which makes the sale easier. When you can more easily sell to someone it’s more likely you will sell to many more people, which means you have a low entry barrier to build many relationships and have a chance to provide a great experience for the client. Once someone has worked with you, they can then refer you; and it’s only when you have referrals and repeat business that you build more and more trust in your market. As service revenue goes up, construction revenue should go up accordingly. Make sure that when you focus on service, you offer a preventative maintenance plan so that they see only your truck arriving at their property for years to come. You’ll be their trusted advisor and will be able to develop the relationship that perhaps cuts right through any red tape that could cause your bid to be shopped out, and require you to compete more heavily on price. 40


The third step is to get a grip on your sales pipeline. Too often I see a “bid it and forget it” mentality. They jump right into the presentation of the bid upon invitation without slowing the process down to ask great questions and listen. The only question that most roofers ask when they get to a lead is “where’s your leak?” They don’t learn what the real problem is, which is the compelling reason people buy. The best management of the sales opportunity is when there’s urgency present, before asking the real qualification questions, like what they think a roof costs and their decision criteria and timeline. Too many times I see “happy ears,” contractors getting all excited about an opportunity and not having a healthy skepticism. In fact, Objective Management Group has data on over 3,000 specialty contractor sales people and the findings state that roofing is in the bottom 11 percent in consultative selling and qualifying competencies out of 1.8 million sales people around the world. If we work at managing the pipeline, it can pay huge dividends. I’ve seen it occur myself while working with many of the Top 100 Roofing Companies. The fourth step is to get a sales pipeline CRM program. Did I just say a curse word, CRM? AH!!! Yes, you need to be able to see what’s going on in your future sales opportunities anytime you want. However, if you really want to see revenue grow, you should score each deal in the pipeline, and hold everyone accountable to the appropriate expectations to drive more pipeline. Each deal should be followed up on until a decision is made along with a status of when the decision will be made. The fifth and final step to help you get on the Top 100 list is to set goals. Goals should be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time sensitive. Really consider what it is that you want to achieve and then reverse engineer what it’s going to take to achieve it. It would really help if your sales manager and you came up with a compensation plan that matched these goals and held your sales people and estimators accountable for performing these activities. I also want to be clear with something, just because you don’t have a true “sales person” right now, doesn’t mean you can’t incorporate these things. One of my favorite lines is “on the way to perfect, you pass up a lot of good.” The principle that I take from this (and teach my clients) is to get started and don’t expect perfection right away. FRM Ryan Groth, Founder of Sales Transformation Group, Inc., is a family man, former professional baseball player, and entrepreneur who became involved in the contracting business with his family as a teen.




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Choosing CRM and Project Management Software Ben Hodson, Co-founder, JobNimbus As a roofing professional, you work hard to build up a successful business. But often, the trick to gaining success is not to work harder, but smarter. A simple customer relationship management (CRM) or project management (PM) software can assist you in making difficult tasks easier. Roofing software is a tool to plan projects, organize contacts, track time and more. According to a case study by the Project Management Institute, the company Du Telecom credits its success of a 32 percent growth rate in its first four years to having a project management system for its teams. Whether you are trying to be more productive as a company or communicate more as a team, roofing software is the way to help you reach your goals. To get the most out of a system, not only do you need to know how to use it, but also how to choose the right one for you.

Roofing Software Programs

CRM stands for customer relationship management. A CRM system is a unique tool for building a healthier bottom line and is designed to manage data and relationships between you, your company, prospects, and clients. It focuses on your business’ customer activities and primarily lets you track leads, total revenue, and sales reps’ activities. Project management software, on the other hand, is a tool for planning, systematizing and controlling the scope, time, budget and resources for projects. It tells you why a project is necessary, the quality of deliverables, the risks of a project and more.

Customer Relationship Management

There are many reasons to use roofing software for your business, but mainly, a CRM and PM system can provide solutions for higher client satisfaction and positive results. A CRM system helps you get and provide accurate and efficient information. It allows you to improve customer relationships by updating customer contact details, tracking customer interaction and managing customer accounts. A CRM system will solve the challenges that come with handling customer data. For example, each time you interact with a customer or meet with a new sales prospect, the information you gain from talking to them becomes valuable, actionable insight to developing a long-lasting relationship with them. Documenting this data in a CRM system will help organize the information and save it for future contact. Without a CRM, this information could easily get lost or forgotten, and you’ll have a lot of unhappy customers. Work with clients or prospects would be based more on presumptions rather than actual communication. Additionally, if an employee who holds the client’s 42


information ends up leaving the company, then that client’s information would disappear also. Roofing software with a CRM feature keeps all employees and customers in the loop and provides useful, up to date information that is accessible to everyone. Not to mention, if the system is cloud-based, it can be accessed from anywhere. Key features of CRM systems will include: ■■ Contact database and profile ■■ Lead management ■■ Sales performance management ■■ Instant messaging ■■ Email marketing tool ■■ File and content sharing ■■ Social media analytics ■■ Quotes and proposal tools ■■ Mobile access

Project Management

A project management system helps simplify the project management process and allows you to increase productivity and achieve better results. The software will let you view the progress of all ongoing projects. You can identify which projects are at risk, track their timelines and share their current status with people at all levels. You will also be able to view a summary of each project along with upcoming and overdue assignments. PM systems are also great for organization. You can keep workflow tools all in one place and securely store project details and files in specific locations. Key features of project management systems will include: ■■ Risk management ■■ Project management ■■ Task completion tracking ■■ Collaboration tools ■■ Scheduling tools ■■ Budget management ■■ Resource management ■■ Photo sharing ■■ Workflow reports Depending on what you decide to go with, some

software will have different or additional features, but the components listed above are what you’ll typically find in CRM and PM systems. You should also keep these other features in mind when choosing your roofing software:


We’ve all used software that comes with a hefty learning curve. Who has time for that? Your team shouldn’t need extensive training to use powerful roofing software. Find a simple yet supercharged tool that works for you—not the other way around! Take some time to figure out how your team works and find a software that will help you do what you’re already doing and improve on it.


A roofing software solution must be collaborative. After all, your reputation for problem-solving and professionalism is on the line. Look for construction CRM roofing software that supports good record-keeping and communication. Specifically, a good roofing software solution helps contractors streamline their tracking, accountability, and employee management. It also needs to be reliable both in the office and in the field. Software with a mobile app is great for this.

Results Driven

Roofing software should ultimately help you improve your bottom line. You certainly have other outcomes you want to accomplish, but each of those comes down to the one that makes you a business: your bottom line. If the software you picked isn’t working, see if you can make it work or if you need to find a new one. There are many CRM and project management systems available. Depending on your business’ specific needs, you and your colleagues will want to look further into these options to find what specialized features you’ll make the most of. You can look at online reviews and take advantage of free trials and demos to discover which roofing software platform is most preferred. Whatever you decide to go with, roofing software will certainly change the way your business operates for the better, and assist in building customer relationships and getting projects back under control. FRM Ben Hodson is the co-founder of JobNimbus, an all in one roofing software, where you can track sales, jobs, and tasks from a single, simplified interface. A lifelong entrepreneur and technology innovator, he has had great success in creating and leading in the software industry.


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Mentorship and Training are Key to Hiring, Retaining Long-Term Employees Todd Avery, Senior Project Manager, Advanced Roofing, Inc. Over the last 32 years, I have learned many important lessons from great managers and mentors, lessons and experiences that have shaped who I am as a person and as a manager. They have helped me become the best mentor and employee I can be, and have helped me identify the environment necessary to cultivate success and growth. This knowledge helps me identify great talent and companies, and develop career project managers and teams that will benefit the commercial roofing industry. In my senior year of high school, I gave a presentation to my Careers Class about my future career plans. While others talked about becoming doctors and lawyers, my lack of financial resources prevented me from furthering my education after graduation. Instead, I chose to follow in the footsteps of my father and grandfather by enlisting in the Army. Unfortunately, that career ended early due to an injury, so I began working for a residential framing and roofing company. I am sure my early steps are probably similar to many in our industry. Back in the ‘80s, the roofing world was very different from what it is now. Roofing was hard work and developing the skills to literally “climb the ladder” within our chosen career was difficult. By 1989, I was working for a commercial company in Richmond, Va., and went through the ranks from lead man to lead superintendent by 1996. It was a small family-owned company that gave me the opportunity to prove myself on many projects. Though they could not offer me the highest salary or perks, they provided me with immense value elsewhere. I learned the importance of pre-planning, developing contingency plans when problems occurred, and how to accept responsibility and take ownership for my decisions. Most importantly, my boss instilled in me a strong sense of teamwork, honesty, and integrity. A major turning point in my life came in 1996 when I was brought into the fold of a major roofing company based out of Norfolk, Va. I started as service manager at their branch office in Richmond and then transferred to the Norfolk office as project manager. Here I learned the importance of organizational skills, documentation, and developing my knowledge in all forms of commercial roofing, working with built-up roofing, single-ply systems, shingles, slate, standing seam, and custom sheet metal work. The company’s President graduated from the Navy Fighters Weapons School (aka “Top Gun”), so the environment was much like a military unit, where everyone understood their role and followed the chain of command. While this method worked to an extent, it also made the ownership appear unapproachable when employees had issues. On the other hand, the 44


Vice President, who hired me personally, took me under his wing and taught me not only how to be a good manager but also a good person; and, how to mentor others. He taught me the importance of going beyond telling someone how to complete a task to making clear why it should be performed a certain way and the potential ramifications if it was not. He was a leader who was always thinking two steps ahead and appreciated when others challenged his thinking. This taught me that feedback allows the opportunity to prove your point of view or to re-evaluate an old method and improve processes for everyone’s benefit. After the events of 9/11, the company in Virginia went through some financial issues and was not able to extend pay increases to existing employees nor to offer competitive salaries for new employees coming in the door. Unfortunately, I saw many good employees come and go between 2001 and late 2004. Eventually, an opportunity arose for me that offered a much higher salary and a challenging position in southwest Florida. Though I was reluctant to move on from a company where I felt comfortable and had strong relationships, I knew it was in the best interest for me and my family to take that next step. When I arrived, this family-owned and operated company was performing approximately $100 million a year in work and had nearly 700 employees. We had several project management teams, each led by senior project managers who had project managers and assistant project managers assigned to them. It was a very challenging time in commercial roofing in Florida during the post-Hurricane Charlie years, as Florida Building Code and engineering, permitting, and manufacturer requirements were changing. I was no longer only working with career roofers who had worked their way up through the ranks, I was also working to develop people who had started their careers in other construction fields or who had just come out of college. The company offered very competitive starting salaries with good benefits and a project bonus program. However, the executive management positions were filled by family members and the volatile nature of their relationships were very apparent, at times creating a stressful work environment. By 2008, we began to experience the economic downturn and the company was forced to make difficult

personnel decisions. Mostly the top performers were retained or re-assigned. Many of the employees who had been laid off either went to work in a different field or left Florida altogether (which helped lead to the shortage of qualified/experienced candidates we have now). I worked under several of the family members and eventually became Vice President under a different banner of one of the co-owners. With this experience I learned that if senior leadership is disjointed and creating a stressful environment, employees across all divisions will be affected, forcing good people to leave. Today, I am the statewide Senior Project Manager for the largest commercial roofing contractor in Florida. Joining this team two years ago was the most important (and best) decision of my career. Though it is a family-owned and operated company, the ownership has incorporated all of the best aspects I have come to identify throughout my career: a positive culture, training, a clear career path, and access to tools to help employees succeed. The culture is built around supporting employees and providing the necessary training to ensure their success – a benefit for both the company and the employees. As I enter the latter part of my career, my goal is to identify people with potential and passion, and mentor them into reaching their greatest potential. I look for people with a strong work ethic who are detail oriented, have the willingness to put forth the effort to learn, and

are stable. Most importantly, I look for someone who has the capacity to develop and grow. Despite all of my years in this industry, I have an appreciation for the fact that I do not know it all and there is always something new to learn. Being in a position to develop and train others is overwhelming at times. But being able to do so in an environment that promotes understanding and respect for others, and with a strong sense of teamwork and family, makes it easier and promotes success. Operating at this level ensures customers and potential employees that honesty, integrity, and the willingness to always do the right thing on behalf of our clients are values that are at the heart of our company. This is the only way to attract and retain exceptional employees and build a reputation that keeps customers returning year after year. It is a concept that was true when I began my career over 30 years ago, and one that remains especially true today. FRM With over 32 years experience in the roofing industry, Todd Avery has developed a detail-oriented, proactive approach to project management. Results are driven by planning, organization, and good communication with both the customer and with other team members. Thriving in high pressure situations and problem mitigation, he continues to grow professionally and as a mentor in this fast-paced and challenging field.

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Giving Back

FRSA Members Giving Back to the Community

Perkins Roofing Participates in Local Make-AWish Foundation Fundraising Drive

smiles to kids and their families. I’m so grateful Perkins Roofing belongs to a thoughtful organization (RCASF) that chooses to participate in giving back to the community year after year,” says Tim Kanak, Perkins Roofing Vice President. “Our customers love participating as well and feel good knowing a percentage of their new roof or roof repair cost directly benefited an ill child in need. It’s good vibes all around.” The RCASF Corporate Challenge began in the Fall of 2018 and will run until June 2019 with top contributors being announced at the annual RCASF Fishing Tournament in the Florida Keys. The overall corporate challenge goal is set high at $25,000, and is expected to be reached. The RCASF Corporate Challenge continues to rank as a Make-A-Wish top team contributor in South Florida as of March 2019. To learn more about the RCASF Corporate Challenge benefiting Make-A-Wish Southern Florida, Inc., please visit www.is.gd/rcasf_make_a_wish.

TAMKO Donates Roof to Surprise Project for Single Mother with Failing Roof

Squad. Rachel had just found out she was pregnant with her second child when her fiancé was killed by a drunk driver in 2015. Recent storms tore a hole in her roof and water started leaking into her home, causing further damage. She was nominated for the Surprise Squad by her mother. The repairs to Rachel’s home were made possible through donations of product and labor from members of the Arizona

Perkins Roofing Corporation, based in Miami, Fla., is a high ranking participant in the Roofing Contractors Association of South Florida (RCASF) Make-A-Wish Corporate Challenge to benefit the Make-A-Wish Southern Florida, Inc. The donation challenge, which has been running since the fall of 2018, benefits local South Florida terminally-ill children and their families by granting “wishes” to brighten spirits and fulfill children’s biggest wishes. A child's wish may be: being a princess for a day, visiting Disney World, meeting a favorite celebrity, and more. Each roofing contractor in the corporate challenge is given an individual fundraising goal of $5,000. Perkins Roofing recently celebrated its halfway milestone and is excited to contribute more through every sale it makes until the end of the challenge in June 2019. “It’s great participating in such a wonderful cause and donating to an organization that truly brings the biggest

TAMKO shingles now cover what were gaping holes and the exposed roof deck of Phoenix single mother Rachel’s home only a few weeks ago. Rachel was the beneficiary of a new TAMKO roof and other home repairs during a Phoenixarea 3TV news feature called Arizona’s Family Surprise

Continued on page 49

Fall Protection on Roofs FRSA-SIF Safety

Falls are the leading cause of death in the construction industry. According to OSHA, out of 991 construction fatalities in 2016, 370 were the result of falls to a lower level. Many falls can be avoided by implementing and enforcing a good fall protection program. Your fall protection program should outline inspections of the roof deck, fall prevention, fall protection, engineering controls and fall protection equipment, which are the primary means of eliminating injury and death from falls. In this article, we will be covering fall protection options for the roofing industry. The first part of the fall protection standard states that an employer must determine “If the walking/working surfaces on which its employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to support the employee safely.” This is an extremely important standard for roofing contractors to address since there has been an increase in employee deaths related to roof failures over the last couple of years. A roofing contractor should create some type of roof inspection protocol system which documents the integrity of the roof prior to any work commencing. In construction, OSHA requires that any employee working six feet or more above lower levels have some type of fall protection. Since OSHA removed the directive for Warnings – Always read all instructions and warnings contained on the product and packaging before using any fall protection equipment. Inspection – All fall protection equipment must be inspected prior to each use and written documentation should be performed by a competent person on a quarterly basis. Regulations – Understand all Federal, State, Local and Provincial regulations pertaining to fall protection before selecting and using the equipment. Product/System Preferences – If there are any doubts about which fall protection products to use, contact your product distributor or manufacturer directly. System Components – Only components that are fully compatible with one another should be used. Fall arrest systems are designed and tested as complete systems and should be used in this way. Rescue Planning – Minimizing the time between a fall occurrence and medical attention of the worker is vitally important. A thorough rescue program should be established prior to using fall protection equipment. What to Do After a Fall – After a fall occurs, all components of the fall arrest system should be removed from service. 48


residential fall protection back in 2011, they now look at all roofing projects whether they are residential or commercial either as low sloped roofing (4:12 and below) or steep sloped roofing (4:12 and above). Along with conventional fall protection, there are also other fall protection options for roofing contractors that work on low-slope roofs. We’ll explain what type of fall protection is required for steep roofs and alternative fall protection permitted for low-slope roofs.

Conventional Fall Protection

Conventional fall protection can be used for either lowslope or steep roofs. However, it is the only option when working on steep roofs. Conventional fall protection consists of three types of fall protection: The first option is a safety net. Although not very common in roofing, a safety net can be used for fall protection. If used, a safety net must be installed as close as possible under the walking/working surface on which employees are present, but never more than 30 feet below such levels. Safety nets shall be installed with enough clearance under them to prevent contact with the surface or structures below when subjected to an impact force. The second option is guardrail systems. This system is more commonly used on commercial structures but is acceptable on residential buildings as well. When using guardrails, the top rail shall be 42 inches plus or minus 3 inches above the walking/working level. Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent intermediate structural members shall be installed between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working surface (when there is no wall or parapet wall at least 21 inches high). Midrails, when used, shall be installed at a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail system and the walking/working level. Guardrail systems shall be capable of withstanding, without failure, a force of at least 200 pounds in any outward or downward direction. The third and most common conventional fall protection is Personal Fall Arrest System (PFAS). Personal Fall Arrest Systems consist of a full body harness, a lifeline, a lanyard and an anchor. D-rings and snap hooks shall be corrosion resistant, of smooth surface, and have a minimal tensile strength of 5,000 pounds. Only locking (double action) snap hooks shall be used. Lanyards and lifelines shall have a minimum breaking strength of 5,000 pounds. Anchors used for attachment of Personal Fall Arrest equipment shall be capable of supporting at least 5,000 pounds per employee.


OSHA standards state that an employer shall provide a training program for each employee who might be exposed to fall hazards. The program shall enable each employee to recognize the hazards of falling and shall train each

employee in the procedures to be followed to minimize these hazards. Training should be documented and provide information on regulations, potential hazards, equipment selection and instruction on how to use the equipment correctly. OSHA fall protection standards also provide additional options for fall protection on low-slope roofs. Roofing contractors can use a warning line system with a designated safety monitor for roofing projects over 50 feet in width and are allowed ONLY with a safety monitor if the roof deck is less than 50 feet in width. The safety monitor shall be a competent person that recognizes fall hazards and warns employees when it appears that the employee is unaware of a fall hazard or is acting in an unsafe manner. The safety monitor shall be on the same working level, within sight distance and shall not have any other responsibilities that could take his/her attention from the monitoring function. A warning line system cannot be used alone. When used, the warning line system shall be erected around all unprotected sides of the roof work area at least 6 feet from the edge. If mechanical equipment is used, the line shall be at

least 10 feet from the edge, perpendicular to machine travel. A warning line system must be flagged a minimum of every 6 feet with high visibility material and have a semi-rigid height of 34-39 inches. The line shall resist, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds and have a tensile strength of at least 500 pounds. No employee shall be allowed in the area between a roof edge and a warning line unless they are performing roof work and are monitored, or are using PFAS. Companies must identify fall hazards and implement effective fall prevention programs and fall protection systems to protect employees. The primary goal is to eliminate fall hazards. In construction, when an employee is working at a height of six feet or more, the employee is risking a fatal fall: fall protection and fall prevention programs are required. Using fall prevention and fall protection engineering controls and fall protection equipment are the primary means of eliminating injury and death from falls. For more details on fall protection or for OSHA compliance, contact your local Safety Consultant or visit the OSHA website at www.osha.gov. FRM

Giving Back, continued from page 47

Roofing Contractors Association’s Young Professionals group, including TAMKO Building Products, Inc. who provided shingles for the roof. “This story touched all our hearts,” said TAMKO President and CEO David Humphreys. “We’re so glad that we were able to play a part in helping ease the burden from this young mother’s shoulders. And we feel proud to be a part of a group like the Arizona Roofing Contractors Association that is always looking to make a difference in their communities.” The ARCA Young Professionals group has been involved in several charitable projects in recent years, but the group’s

leadership knew there was something special about this situation as soon as they heard Rachel’s story. Eric Perry, COO of Azul Roofing Solutions and member of the ARCA Young Professionals, said, “The response was overwhelming with people willing to step up and help. I couldn’t be happier with the way it came together. Any time we have the ability to use our skills in this trade to help someone, especially so deserving, like Rachel, it’s a no-brainer. Her response made it all the better too. It just made us want to do more and more for her.” FRM www.floridaroof.com | FLORIDA ROOFING


Greg Keeler, Owens Corning Technical Services Leader, 7 Years Greg serves on FRSA's Code and Regulatory Compliance and Roof Tile committees.

How did you get started in the roofing industry? Despite the fact that my background is in architecture and building code enforcement, when I came on board with Owens Corning I really had no in-depth knowledge of roofing. They believed in me and I've been learning nonstop. I still have a lot to learn and enjoy every opportunity to do so. What’s your favorite part of the job? The activities I enjoy most with my job are: Helping contractors navigate the muddy waters of the code; meeting new people that share my passion for roofing, and opportunities to share my knowledge and experience to educate others. What’s the most unusual roofing project that you’ve been a part of? Though it wasn't in Florida, we had one single-family home roofing job in which the contractor installed all of the asphalt shingles without a single nail. Believe it or not, the shingles stayed on the roof for about 3 years after installation without any leaks or issues. It wasn't until a high wind event passed through that the homeowner realized that there was a HUGE problem! What do you consider a waste of time? Watching television. What’s your favorite vacation? My family and I love to return to the Sandpearl Resort in Clearwater Beach every year for our beach vacation. The memories are priceless. What is your dream job? I am doing it. There really are very few parts of my role that I don't thoroughly enjoy.


If you could spend time with three people (living or not), who would they be and why? My wife and my boys. I enjoy every second I get to spend with them. They are all unique and special and loved more


than I thought was ever possible. How long have you been involved with FRSA? 7 years. What do you personally find most rewarding about being involved with FRSA? The networking and interaction with like-minded roofing professionals. Whether it's roof consultants, contractors, or other manufacturers, I have found my affiliation with FRSA invaluable to my personal growth. I have become great friends with many members and always look forward to opportunities to get together with them. What advice would you give to someone interested in joining the roofing industry? Always be eager to learn. No matter how much or what you have seen in your career, there are always valuable lessons to be learned. What’s your favorite pastime activity? I used to enjoy playing two-man beach volleyball. I played three to four days a week for at least a few hours. I also enjoyed playing football. Too old and rickety for either now! What would be your ideal place to live and why? That's a great question! I have traveled to just about every major metropolitan area in the continental US, and I really haven't found one place that I would consider ideal. I'd have to say it's wherever my awesome family is and wants to be. What other activities and organizations are you involved with? I am a very active member of ASTM, ARMA, several UL Standards Technical Panels, Canadian Standards Association, and the Cool Roof Rating Council. I am also a volunteer coach for my sons' High School/Middle School Archery Team. What would surprise others to learn about you? I have been a drummer since I was 12 years old. FRM

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