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AND THE DISCIPLES OF BUDDHA RONIN GALLERY


How does the artist breathe life into his work? By summoning the

spirit of the art that lives inside him…Power comes from the artist’s spirit, warmth from his tenderness, and serenity from his prayers.

-Shiko Munakata, Hanga no Hanashi (1954) 1

1. The Woodblock and the Artist: the Life and Work of Shiko Munakata, 139.


AND THE DISCIPLES OF BUDDHA

RONIN GALLERY 425 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10017 | 212.688.0288 | RoninGallery.com The Largest Collection of Japanese Prints in the U.S. Japanese and East Asian Contemporary Art March 2017 © 2017 RONIN GALLERY All Rights Reserved


1. “Kegon.” Shiko Munakata.

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Letter from the President

One of the most rewarding aspects of being an art dealer and gallerist is curating exhibitions around great collections. When I was given the opportunity to handle an important collection of Shiko Munakata, including works from his iconic series Ten Great Disciples of Buddha, the inspiration for this exhibit sprung from the paper. These graphic, monochromatic works spoke not only to the fiercely modern nature of Munakata, but also to the intertwined history of Buddhism and the Japanese woodblock print. As we considered the ephemeral Buddhist prints in our collection, we were surprised to learn that Munakata himself collected and drew inspiration from these works. However, Munakata’s connection to Buddhism extends beyond the Buddhist origins of the woodblock medium: in his artistic practice, one sees both a modern evolution of an ancient medium and a sacred process reimagined. I am exceptionally proud to present the exhibition Munakata and the Disciples of Buddha. As with many endeavors, it is the result of the hard work and collaboration of numerous individuals. I would like to thank Miwako Tezuka for her friendship and guidance, Yoriko Ishii for her invaluable expertise on her grandfather’s works, and Tomomi Seki for being my ukiyo-e sensei and passing on an understanding of the Buddhist spirit. My gratitude would be incomplete without thanking Madison Folks for her tireless research and her literary talents, Travis Suzaka for his artistic eye in the design of the catalogue, Sayaka Ueno for her photography, and, of course, my parents Roni Neuer and Herbert Libertson for the Ronin Gallery legacy. David Libertson, President, Ronin Gallery

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An Innate Understanding It’s a very fuzzy memory all colored in amber. I was at an age when memories barely hung as a vision, not as words. I was sick, feverish; a mere common cold, but miserable. My maternal grandmother lived close to Sugamo where people make pilgrimages to Togenuki Jizō at Kōganji Temple. She went there for me to get what I remember as a thin sheet of paper with multiple little Jizōs printed on it. Back home, she sat me down at a kotatsu (heated-low table) and while I was warming up snug under a warm blanket, she made tea for me. She set a small teapot, put some green tea leaves in it, and poured hot water into it. Up to this point, there was nothing unusual. But that day, she pulled that sheet of Jizō paper; cut out one Jizō image with scissors; burnt the little guy; and put the ash into the teapot. She then poured the tea into a small cup for me. “Drink it. He’ll make you feel better.” There are a few such curious memories from my childhood growing up in Japan. I don’t think my family is particularly religious, and yet, images and customs (not doctrinal but folk-, or even magico-religious) related to Buddhism were common in our daily life. This is how I understand Buddhism—innately and completely nonscholarly. Somehow, this is also how I understand Munakata Shikō and his work. He remains a subject outside of my scholarly scrutiny and this keeps his work perpetually fresh and unconventional, and most importantly, very personal. Buddhism to Munakata was—at least, how he expressed it in his work as I see it—integral to his person. You can never separate the two and this exhibition offers one possible way to see how he channeled images and customs of that religious tradition into his works of art. Miwako Tezuka, PhD Consulting curator for Reversible Destiny Foundation, Co-director of PoNJA-GenKon

--I remember my first awareness of Shiko Munakata. I had just left my home in Kagoshima, Japan, and arrived in New York City. I was staying at the Buddhist Church on Riverside Drive with my great uncle, the Reverend Hozen Seki. As he gave me the grand tour of the church and residence, he spoke of a very special guest of the church. Munakata had occupied the same space in 1959, living in the Buddhist Church as he completed his residency with the Japan Society. During my stay at the church, I learned more and more about the artist. My great uncle and aunt would recount lively stories of his visit, his work, and his faith. Growing up, my uncle would come home to Kagoshima once a year. He entranced us with stories about Buddhist sermons, his childhood, and life in America. At that time, I never even dreamed that I would come to United States, nor that I would stay in the New York Buddhist Church and stand next to my uncle on 5th avenue doing tsujiseppo (street preaching). I was so pleased when I found out that the gallery was planning this exhibition of Shiko Munakata’s work. Munakata not only holds a special place in the history of Buddhist art, but also in the presence of Buddhism in New York. When I think back to my stay at the church, the spirit of Munakata remains in residence through fond memories. Tomomi Seki Director, Ronin Gallery 3


ご挨拶 A Letter from Yoriko Ishii, Granddaughter of Shiko Munakata

棟方志功は明治36(1903)年、日本の北の都市青森に生まれました。ゴッホに憧れ世界一の画家を目指した棟 方が、日本が世界に誇る版画に目覚め、版画の道に生きる覚悟を決めたのは、昭和7(1932)年、29歳の時でし た。 爾来独自の版画を求め、その道を極めて行きますが、昭和11(1936)年の柳宗悦ら民藝運動の指導者たちとの 出会いは、その後の棟方に多大な影響を与えました。この流れの中で昭和14(1939)年に制作した《二菩薩釈迦 十大弟子》は畢生の代表作となりました。戦後は国内外で輝かしい受賞歴を重ね、世界にその名を知らしめて、昭 和50(1975)年72歳で没しています。 自らの作品を「板画」と称し、その一点一点を「柵」と表現した棟方は、一柵一柵に想いを込め、生涯の道標を置 いて行くように制作を続けました。山を描けば山に向かい、花を描けば花に向かって棟方は手を合わせました。こ れは青年期から晩年まで終生変わらぬ習慣でした。万物の中に神、仏を見、その命に感謝を捧げることは棟方の本 質です。自然への祈りの想いに加え、鍛冶屋だった実家の守り本尊である不動明王、遊び場の神社で見た絵燈籠、 祖母の背中で聞いた読経の声と身体の奥深くに染み込んだ禅の教え、長じて知る他力の世界、それらが相俟って棟 方の根幹を成していると言っても過言ではありません。神仏に祈りを捧げることと、作品を制作することは、彼の中 で同じ意味を持っています。 棟方が生涯に四回訪れ、合わせて約11ヶ月を過ごしたニューヨークは、彼が海外で最も愛した都市です。そのニ ューヨークで棟方の原点ともいうべき祈りの世界を主軸とした展覧会が開かれることを、棟方自身どれほど喜んで いることでしょう。奇しくも棟方が没した年にローニン画廊は誕生しています。日本の芸術作品を広く深く紹介して 下さっているこの画廊で、多くの方々に棟方志功の作品を見て頂けることを幸いに存じます。 この展覧会を企画して下さったローニン画廊と関係者の皆さまに心より感謝を捧げます。                                石井 頼子 拝 Yoriko Ishii, Jan. 2017 Art Historian and granddaughter of Munakata

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Photo courtesy of Yoriko Ishii

Internationally

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revered

as

Japan’s

greatest

Origins & Inspiration

modern print artist, Shiko Munakata (1903 - 1975)

“Others treat black as black ink… to me it is life itself.”

his spiritual connection to Zen philosophy,

is renowned for his expressive lines, evocative use of monochrome, and the powerful spirit of his work. Active in both the Sosaku Hanga (creative print) and Mingei (folk art) movements, he remained independent, incorporating each ideology to create his own distinct style. Through Munakata extends a visceral link to the Buddhist origins of the woodblock print.


Each Print a Prayer: Munakata and Buddhism

The influence of Buddhism courses through the history of the woodblock printmaking. From the early ephemeral Buddhist prints and the vivid world of ukiyo-e, to Munakata’s dynamic disciples, the medium is indivisible from its origin. The groundbreaking series, the Ten Great Disciples of Buddha, recalls the religious roots of woodblock printing through the artist’s spiritual connection to his work. Echoing the 12th-century Buddhist monks who printed as acts of devotion, Munakata treated each of his prints as a prayer, imbued with a power beyond himself. As he let the “mind go and the tool walk alone,” 1 his works transcended any fixed stylistic or temporal characterization. His Zen beliefs weave throughout his oeuvre, carrying tradition well into modern Japanese art. Munakata’s artistic philosophy bloomed from his Zen upbringing.2 Born to a family of blacksmiths, he believed in the power of the material and the humbleness of the artist. Rejecting the idea of pure artistic genius, Munakata recognized the role of nature and the beauty latent in his materials. This philosophy not only reflected the spirit of the traditional Japanese artisan and Shinto tradition, but also engaged the Zen practice of muga. 3 Referring to a spiritual state of selflessness, muga disavows singular responsibility for creation, respecting artistic influences beyond the individual. When this power is recognized, the finished work will possess hirogari, what Munakata described as “the cosmic energy produced when

2. Amida Nyorai.

3. Doji (Young Attendant).

1. Oliver Statler. “Shiko Munakata,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 15. 2. Ibid, 11. 3. Ibid, 16.

4. Nam Myoho Renge Kyo; Devotion to the Law of the Lotus Sutra.

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5. Fudo Myoo (inbutsu).

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the soul of the artist meets the soul of the block.” 4 Only through this union could an artist achieve a great work. Munakata engaged with early Japanese Buddhist prints as a young man. He found inspiration in 12th century inbutsu, or “stamped Buddha.” These ephemeral images, printed on small, delicate paper, date to the birth of the woodblock medium. Each inbutsu was a work of piety, a devotional practice. Munakata admired and collected these works throughout his life, drawing from them both stylistically and spiritually. 5 As he refined his style, his spiritual involvement with his work grew as well. In his words, “others treat black as black ink…to me it is life itself.” 6 Munakata authored several books that elaborate on his approach to woodblock printmaking. Many of these essays reflect his Zen values and speak to the indirect nature of his process. He emphasizes the selflessness of his works, arguing that truth cannot come from the artist himself. The artist provides one piece of the puzzle, but “only by starting from that which is not oneself does the truth of one’s work appear.” 7 Munakata remained devoted to Zen Buddhism and the woodblock medium throughout his life. He mused: “Its character is elusive. However hard one tries, one cannot create it. This is the greatness of the print. This is why its birth is a happy, teasing expectation. A print springs out by itself, just as joy, wonder, or sorrow. Its birth is spontaneous, and insuppressible.” 8 Echoing the centuries of Buddhist printmakers that came before him, Munakata intertwined his faith and his art. As Zen shaped his artistic identity, the act of printing brought him closer to his faith, each print a prayer. He viewed his career as a pilgrimage: “no print is complete in itself…It is one more stake in the ground…It is one more step towards the goal of a lifetime. 9

6. Folk Buddhist Jizo (inbutsu).

7. Amida Buddha (inbutsu).

8. Seven Hardship Destroyed, Seven Blessings Brought.

4. Shiko Munakata, “Hanga no Hanashi, 1954,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 138. 5. Mary W. Baskett, Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections, 109. 6. Sherman Lee, Shiko Munakata, 9. 7. Robert T. Singer and Kakeya Nobuho, eds., Munakata Shiko: Japanese Master of the Modern Print, 18. 8. Shiko Munakata, “Woodblock Prints,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 137. 9. Statler, 17.

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The Spirit of the Block

9. The Guardian Deity Koshin.

The oldest known Buddhist print depicts a six-armed bodhisattva surrounded by Sanskrit text. Discovered in a tomb in Chengdu, China, this work dates to 757, years before the famous Diamond Sutra was found in Dunhuang.10 Yet, the history of Buddhist printmaking predates the 8th century and the woodblock medium. The roots of printed Buddhist imagery trace back to India. During the 6th century, believers molded Buddhist texts and figures into clay seals that were inked and printed onto paper or silk. When Buddhism spread to East Asia, Buddhist devotees reimagined the printing process through wood, a readily available natural resource. These religious teachings and printed images traveled east through China and Korea, arriving in Japan by the 8th century. In 764, Empress Koken eagerly embraced this medium and commissioned the Hyakumanto, or the “One Million Pagodas.” 11 Each wooden pagoda housed a dainty Buddhist sutra, printed as a declaration of devotion and a plea for atonement. By 770, the project was complete and the empress disbursed the pagodas and hidden sutras among Nara’s Buddhist temples. At that time, the roots of woodblock printing planted themselves firmly and feverishly in Japan. The first popular use of Japanese printmaking occurred in the Heian period (794-1185), spurred by a fear of the end of the world, known as mappo. 12 Projected to occur 2000 years after the passing of the Buddha, mappo promised five centuries of destruction followed by the end of the world. Torn by war and misled by an ancient calendar, 12th century Japan braced for what appeared to be an imminent end. Buddhist practitioners produced small, printed images as a means of worship and a method to accrue merit in their remaining time on earth. As national anxiety raged, the practice spread throughout Japan as a hope for salvation. Monks and commoners alike printed these delicate works, all engaging in a visceral form of worship. Throughout this period, woodblock printing remained limited to religious practice and purpose. Echoing their origins, early Japanese printed works were produced as an act of devotion. Depicting images of deities or lines of sutras, these ephemeral works portrayed a vast range of Buddhist imagery. Temples distributed these prints to pilgrims or housed them within sculpture, but regardless of destination, the act of creation equaled the importance of the final product. The process of carving, inking, and printing all served as sacred acts intended to bring the printmaker closer to enlightenment. As these works were unmarked, they are notoriously difficult to date.

10. Jiang Wu and Lucille Chia, Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia the Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon, 152. 11. “One of the ‘One Million Pagodas’ (Hyakumanto),” The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed January 31, 2017. 12. Mary W. Baskett, Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections, 18.

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10. Shomen Kongo at Sumiyoshi-Jingudera.

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12. Zenzaidoji, Sudhanakumara.

11. Blessing of Shitennoji Temple.

13. Amida Nyorai with Bodhisattvas Fugen and Monju.

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During the Edo period (1603-1868), the woodblock print transitioned from a principally Buddhist practice to the popular artistic medium of Edo’s middle class. Capturing the demimonde of Edo, ukiyo-e, or “pictures of the floating world,” celebrated the urban, pleasure-driven spirit of the recently emerged middle class. Yet, the term ukiyo did not originate in the realm of worldly delights. The concept itself bears a Buddhist origin, referring to the transient and troubled nature of human life. The original concept consoled the Buddhist believer, assuring them that earthly struggles were fleeting and that they would find lasting peace in enlightenment. By the 17th century, the ephemerality of earthly pleasures replaced these somber connotations. From the romance of the Yoshiwara, Edo’s legalized prostitution district, to a rowdy evening at the kabuki theater, earthly delights boldly usurped human suffering. As the function and philosophy of the woodblock print shifted, the process of production followed suit. The woodblock prints of the Edo period are said to be the work of the artist, but in truth, it is the joint effort of the ‘ukiyo-e quartet’—the artist, engraver, printer and publisher. This division of labor is a departure from the one-man process of early Buddhist printmaking. Faced with an unprecedented demand for woodblock prints, artists achieved the efficiency necessary to satisfy their ravenous public, but at a cost. The spiritual nature faded, replaced by the glow of the floating world. Overtly Buddhist subject matter sharply declined during the Edo period. The remaining Buddhist works expanded their historically devotional role to a vividly didactic function. Pilgrims continued to collect ephemeral prints from temple visits, but Buddhist

14. Pilgrimage of Hara no Otsuji in Ise (Kumanokodo).

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15. Birth of Buddha.

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16. Death of Buddha.

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stories also played out across ehon (illustrated books) and narrative prints. Through ehon such as the Story of Nyorai at Zenkoji Temple in Shinshu or Hokusai’s account the life of the Buddha, interested audiences could delve into Buddhist history and traditions. Few single-sheet prints took blatantly Buddhist themes, but by this time, the spirit of Buddhism had become as woven into Japanese culture as the woodblock medium itself. Ukiyo-e designers depicted famous priests or classic tales through the early Meiji period (1868-1912). From Kuniyoshi’s rendering of Nichiren, the famous 13th century priest, in Nichiren in Snow at Tsukahara on Sado Island, to Yoshitoshi’s stoic depiction of Daruma, the founder of Zen Buddhism, Buddhist figures intertwined with popular culture. Portrayed as mythical heroes these Buddhist figures adapted to their changing audience. As Japan pushed towards modernity, this steadfast connection between the medium and the faith remained, but manifested with greater subtly. Buddhist ideology and practice intersected with Japanese cultural identity, influencing artistic philosophy and shaping the ideal of the Japanese landscape. While these later works may or may not seem explicitly

17. Story of the Nyorai at Zenkoji Temple in Shinshu.

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18. Shaka Goichidaiki zue: Life of Sakyamuni Buddha. Hokusai.

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19. Nichiren in Snow at Tsukahara on Sado Island. Kuniyoshi.

(above) 20. Disciple of Buddha Hattara-sonja with White Tiger. Kuniyoshi. (left) 21. Old Woman as Parody of Death of Buddha. Kuniyoshi.

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22. Kabuki Actor Nakamura Fukusuke as Nichiren Quelling Storm on His Exile to Sado Island. Kunimasa III.

Buddhist, each snow-laden temple and towering pagoda reveals a faded, yet enduring connection to the medium’s spiritual origins. By the early 20th century, the spiritual bond between the woodblock artists and the artwork had faded to a whisper. Shiko Munakata (1903-1975) revived this waning connection in the 1920s as he embraced the woodblock. From his inspiration to his technique, a fervent spirituality enlivens each of his works. Regardless of religious or secular subject matter, his oeuvre is indivisible from his Zen philosophy. Munakata quickly esteemed himself not only as the preeminent Japanese print artist of the 20th century, but also as the heir to centuries of Buddhist printmaking tradition. Like the monks centuries before, Munakata took his knife to the woodblock in a sacred act, embracing both the process and product, recognizing a power beyond himself that manifests in his work. Reflecting on the woodblock medium in his 1954 Hanga no Hanashi, Munakata explains: “How does the artist breathe life into his work? By summoning the spirit of the art that lives inside him…Power comes from the artist’s spirit, warmth from his tenderness, and serenity from his prayers.” 13 23. The Moon Through a Crumbling Window. Yoshitoshi. 13. Shiko Munakata. “Hanga no Hanashi (1954).” In The Woodblock and the Artist: the Life and Work of Shiko Munakata, 139.

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Photo courtesy of Yoriko Ishii

Shiko Munakata (1903-1975) Reflecting the Spirit

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On September 5th, 1903, Shiko Munakata was born to a blacksmith in Aomori, in Northern Honshu. As one of fifteen children, he received no more than an elementary school education before joining his father at the forge. Due to his severe nearsightedness, Munakata was not a natural blacksmith and mainly ran errands for his father. Nonetheless, he took over the family business with his older brother in 1920. Inspired by Japan’s growing auto industry, Munakata’s brother seized the opportunity to modernize their business and transformed the family forge into a garage. Disinclined from working as a mechanic, Munakata decided to seek a life outside this his ancestral trade. Through the aid of a family friend, he began to assist in the Aomori Prefectural Court. The job paid little, but he put his small earnings towards art supplies, nurturing his budding creative passion. He began to work in ink, using an


“I remember calling one day at his home. Hailing me in a loud voice from within, he came out into the entrance hall. He had probably been doing a preliminary drawing for a print, for he appeared with a brush still dripping Chinese ink held between his teeth. He had jet black ink all around his mouth. His kimono was smudged with black where he had apparently wiped his hands on it. His face, on the other hand, was bright with excitement, so that he had the forbidding presence of some wrathful Buddhist guardian god. The impression, though, was only momentary; the next instant the angry god had turned into the familiar smiling Buddha.” 24. Sitting in the Half Lotus Position. Shiko Munakata.

accounting pad as his impromptu sketchbook. 1 In his free time, the young artist drew inspiration from the pages of Shirakaba (White Birch), a literary and art magazine that featured the work of Cezanne, Matisse, Gaugin, and Van Gogh. It is interesting to note that Munakata became especially enamored with the works of Vincent van Gogh. When asked what he wanted to be when he grew up, he answered that he wanted to “be a van Gogh,” by which he meant a professional artist. And, in fact, Munakata would succeed in becoming a “van Gogh.” Choosing the block over oils, he would innovate Japanese printmaking just as van Gogh influenced European painting. Munakata sought formal art instruction from Kihachiro Shimozawa, a Western-style oil painter based in Tokyo. Stirred by a bold determination to devote his life to his art, Munakata followed his teacher back to Tokyo in 1924.The city greeted Munakata with a series of disappointments. Major exhibitions repeatedly rejected his works and he had to juggle odd jobs to support himself. However, within the year, his luck shifted. He

-Sori Yanagi,

The Divine Printmaker (1991)

Photo courtesy of Yoriko Ishii

1. Oliver Statler, “Shiko Munakata,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 12.

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25. No Reams of Element (From Eye to Mind Consciousness). Shiko Munakata.

participated in his first exhibition, presenting his oil paintings at the Hakujitsu Society, a prestigious art association. Munakata, a talented oil painter, quickly rose to success in the Tokyo art scene, but he found himself dissatisfied with the saturating Westernization of Japanese art. He began to search for a true Japanese style and experimented with wooden sculpture and printmaking. In 1928, Munakata met members of the Sosaku Hanga, or “Creative Print,” movement and adopted the woodblock print as his primary medium. In his words “I was fumbling with color prints…until one day I saw a woodcut by Sumio Kawakami…It was black and white, a small print showing a woman walking in the wind, with a poem about the wind of early summer…Suddenly I knew I had found what I was looking for…I threw myself into prints.” 2 Unlike many woodblock artists, Munakata rarely composed preliminary sketches. His compositions were spontaneous, flowing from mind to board in a single sitting. Sori Yangai recalls the sight of Munakata at work, doubled over to accommodate his nearsightedness: “He had to bring his face so close to the block that his nose nearly touched the block.” 3 The artist strayed further from convention in his choice of carving tools. While most artists worked with professional grade knives, Munakata favored children’s tools.4 Inexpensive, these simple knives would come pre-sharpened and ready to use. As they became dull, he would replace them with a new set, refusing to waste a moment of inspiration sharpening knives. Based on his choice of wood, tool replacement was frequent. Munakata largely worked with katsura blocks, a hard wood that provided the necessary resistance for his sharp, graphic forms.5 He often printed in monochrome, focusing on the rich contrast of india ink against the paper. 2. Statler, 13. 3. Sori Yanagi, “The Divine Printmaker,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 10. 4. Statler, 11. 5. Pat Glimour “Munakata as Printmaker,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 125.

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26. Yearning for Home. Shiko Munakata.

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27. Walt Whitman’s House. Shiko Munakata.

When he worked in color, he applied bright washes with a brush, or rich pigments for back coloring. Munakata emerged as a printmaker at the forefront of modern printmaking, caught in between the two major movements of his time: Sosaku Hanga and Mingei. Though he participated in both movements, he refused allegiance to single movement. The Sosaku Hanga, or “Creative Print,” movement arose from a central tenant: the artist must participate in every aspect of production. Artists shed the traditional delegation of artist, engraver, and printer, and explored each role themselves. Originally excluded from Japan’s formal art world, Sosaku Hanga nurtured its aesthetic and artists on the pages of magazines. Members adopted a more spontaneous, expressive attitude, heavily influenced by the artistic explorations of the European avant-garde movement. As the movement garnered new enthusiasm and foreign interest, tendencies shifted from the figural to the abstract. Founded by Soetsu Yanagi in the 1920s, the Mingei, or the “Folk Art” movement championed the beauty of Japanese craft and traditional arts. The movement distanced itself from the realm of fine art, celebrating the beauty inherent in handcrafted, everyday objects. Turning to traditional materials and techniques, Mingei valued works of a personal nature. From baskets to kimono, wooden sculptures to prints, the movement spanned various mediums and styles. The movement attracted many outspoken artists, establishing itself as a significant force in the development of modern art. Symbiotic yet, at times, antagonistic, Mingei and Sosaku Hanga defined the vanguard of modern Japanese printmaking. Despite plentiful overlap between their values and goals, the movements remained divided. As Munakata’s reputation grew, both movements vied for his loyalty. Though the rivalry flared throughout his career, Munakata persistently drew from both ideologies, bridging this schism with his fierce independence. 6. Statler, 14

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28. The Infinite Mercy of Buddha: Hana Fukaki no Kokoro. Shiko Munakata.

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29. Teizen no Hakujushi. Shiko Munakata.

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(above) 30. Amateur Sumo. Shiko Munakata. (right) 31. “Banri Hen-un Nashi” (Cloudless). Shiko Munakata.

Munakata’s introduction to these two movements not only deeply affected his creative process, but also welcomed him into the international art scene. In 1935, Munakata joined the Sosaku Hanga print association, Kokugakai, as a junior member. During his first exhibition with the association, his work drew the interest of Yanagi, founder of the Mingei movement.6 Yanagi recognized Munakata’s talent in the series Yamato shi Uruwashi and purchased the entire set for the Folk Craft Museum in Tokyo. Even today, the museum holds the most comprehensive collection of Munakata’s pre-war work. This event marked the beginning of a period of stylistic and spiritual development for the artist. Reflecting on his career, Munakata recognized his introduction to the movement as the true beginning of his printmaking career, in his words, “Mingei gave birth to me.” 7 While visits to the Folk Craft Museum in Tokyo and workshops with various Mingei artists influenced his creative experience, his friendships with members of the movement revolutionized his personal philosophy. Yanagi became an inspiration, a trusted counselor, and a dear friend. In May of 1936, Munakata spent forty days in Kyoto at the home of his close friend and famous Mingei potter, Kanjiro Kawai. During his visit, Munakata explored Buddhist texts with his host and toured the city’s many temples, filled with awe at the sight of Buddhist sculpture.8 Struck by the dignity of the looming statues, Munakata felt humbled by their passionate presence. 7. Ibid, 14. 8. Masatomo Kawai, “Munakata Shiko’s Path of Hanga,” in Munakata Shiko: Master of the Modern Print, 17.

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32. Yumedono Hall in Horyuji Temple. Shiko Munakata.

World War II and the following occupation did not slow Munakata’s vigorous pace. Despite the increasingly grim political climate, he sustained his exploration of the woodblock medium and furthered his Zen ideology through his calligraphy and writings. In response to early firebombing attacks, Munakata used the large, sturdy blocks of his Ten Great Disciples series to fortify a makeshift bomb shelter. On May 25th, 1945, all of his woodblocks perished in the Tokyo Air Raid except for the ten disciples. These woodblocks remained partially buried in his garden shelter until the end of the war. Upon his return to Tokyo in 1951, he interpreted the survival of the woodblocks as good luck. He re-carved two lost Bodhisattva blocks and reunited the series in full. As his career progressed, Munakata developed and reflected on his artistic philosophy, enriched his spiritual education, and persistently pushed the limits of the woodblock print. He took to writing about his work, the woodblock, and the power of prints. In 1959, Munakata traveled to New York City for a yearlong fellowship

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33. Purple Sleeves of My Love. Shiko Munakata.

sponsored by the Japan Society and the Rockefeller Foundation. He took this opportunity to explore the United States, creating new work and delivering lectures throughout the country. This same year, Munakata visited Europe, where he toured Van Gogh’s grave and home, paying homage to a persistent source of inspiration. As Munakata explored his medium abroad, his prestige continued to grow in Japan. That that same year, the National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo opened a one-man Munakata exhibition, marking the first of many solo exhibitions to sweep the globe in following decades. Munakata elevated the printmaking community throughout his career, achieving merits previously unreached by Japanese printmakers, while remaining true to his ideology. The Horinji Temple in Tokyo honored him with the rank of Hokkyo, a true artistic and spiritual honor. In 1970, he became the first printmaker to receive the high honor of the Order of Cultural Merit from the Japanese Government. Munakata traveled extensively, drawing inspiration

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34. Our Benefactor in the Sea. Shiko Munakata.

from Dehli to New York. All the while, he remained true to his craftsman lineage and his Zen beliefs. By the time of his death, Munakata had received countless international honors and never ceased striving for a beauty beyond himself. He continued to challenge his artistic philosophy and further his Buddhist learning until his last day. On September 13th, 1975, Shiko Munakata passed away at the age of 72 from liver cancer. The woodblock medium is inextricable from its Buddhist roots. While religious significance and traditional technique evolved over the centuries, the medium is indebted to the ephemeral inbutsu (stamped Buddha) of the

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35. Our Benefactor in the Mountains. Shiko Munakata.

past. In the works of Shiko Munakata, one can see both a modern evolution of an ancient medium and a sacred process reborn. Though Buddhism is never far from the woodblock, Munakata heartens the spiritual tie linking ancient sutras to the bold printmaking movements of the 20th century. Each print is an act of devotion, one that invites viewers to elevate their act of looking to an act of prayer. In Munakata’s words, “the prints comes to us inevitably if we are sincere, we must devote to it our entire mind, heart and life.” 9

9. Munakata, “Woodblock Printing,” in The Woodblock and the Artist, 137.

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Great Disciples of Buddha

In 1939, Munakata began work on his renowned series, the Ten Great Disciples of Buddha. Carved from katsura wood, each disciple measured over three feet tall. Rendering sharp, graphic lines and embracing white space, Munakata traded hand coloring for a boldly graphic style, as contemporary as it was ancient. He did not seek to replicate the personas of the specific disciples; instead, he sought to create distinct personalities, each distinguished with the dignity he admired in Buddhist sculpture. Although it is thought that Munakata carved the entire series without any preliminary sketches, in reality, he worked on the disciples for over a year and a half. During this time, he sought inspiration and artistic mindfulness before carving the blocks with his characteristic fervor. He worked to the very edge of each block, such that toes and heads brush the edge of the block. Though the names of the disciples were in mind as he worked, he waited to assign identities until all prints were complete. Composed of ten disciples and two bodhisattvas, this twelve print series stirred international praise, winning First Prize in printmaking at the annual print exhibition in Lugano, Switzerland in 1952, the 1955 Sao Paulo Biennial, as well as the 1956 Venice Biennale. While personal victories, this acclaim carried great national significance as well. Though designed in 1939, Munakata printed impressions throughout his life, each time he felt the world needed it.

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36. Manjusri, Incarnation of Buddha’s Wisdom. The Bodhisattva Manjusri embodies wisdom.

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37. Katyayana, Master of Fundamental Principles. Katyayana is an authority figure and generally associated with scholarship.

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38. Purnamaitrayaniputra, Master of Teaching. Purnamaitrayaniputra was a leading preacher who left a life of wealth for one of devotion.

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39. Anirhudda, Master of Supernatural Vision. The disciple Anirhudda was skilled in mindfulness and is associated with charity.

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40. Rahula, Master of the Esoteric. Munakata was said to have favored this disciple. Rahula was the only son of Buddha.

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41. Ananda, Master of Memory and Learning. As the Buddha’s most learned disciple, Ananda compiled sutras and is associated with wisdom.

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42. Sariputra, Master of Wisdom. Sariputra was the wisest of the disciples.

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43. Upali, Master of Vinaya, the Monastic Rules. The disciple Upali is associated with monastic rules (Vinaya).

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44. Subhuti, Master of the Immaterial. The disciple Subhuti holds a deep understanding of emptiness or the void (Sunyata).

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45. Maudgalyayana, Master of Supernatural Forces. The disciple Maudgalyana is associated with supernatural power.

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46. Samanthabhadra, Incarnation of Buddha’s Fundamental Element. Samantabhadra is the bodhisattva of natural law.

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Catalogue Notes 1. Kegon Artist: Munakata, Shiko Date: 1970 Size: 55” x 25” Medium: Sumi ink mounted on scroll Sealed Notes: For Munakata, the word “Kegon” held an important meaning throughout his life. #JPR1-64337 2. Amida Nyorai Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 5.5” x 3.5” Medium: Woodblock print #JPR1-63340 3. Doji (Young Attendant) Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 3.25” x 1.75” Medium: Woodblock print #JPR1-63336 4. Nam Myoho Renge Kyo; Devotion to the Law of the Lotus Sutra Inscribed: Nose Family Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 13” x 3” Medium: Wooblock print Note: Nam Myoho Renge Kyo is the main mantra chanted in Nichiren Buddhism. #JPR1-63361 5. Fudo Myoo (inbutsu) Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 19” x 13” Medium: Wooblock print #JPR1-62216 6. Folk Buddhist Jizo (inbutsu) Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 2” x 3.5” Medium: Wooblock print #JPR1-63353 7. Amida Buddha (inbutsu) Date: Late Heian Period* Size: 10.5” x 8” Medium: Wooblock print #JPR1-63370 8. Seven Hardships Destroyed, Seven Blessings Bestowed Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period*

Size: 9” x 4” Medium: Wooblock print Note: From the Daishido (Great Priest Hall); Kobo Daishi #JPR1-63372 9. The Guardian Deity Koshin Date: Early Edo period* Size: 21” x 9” Medium: Woodblock print ; Color applied with kappazuri Note: Illustrated in Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections (Philadelphia Museum of Art) #JP1-63398 10. Shomen Kongo at SumiyoshiJingudera Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 15” x 10.25” Medium: Woodblock print Note: Sumiyoshi is one of the Shinbutsu-koko. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines were somtimes combined in the late Muromachi and early Edo periods. #JPR1-63378 11. Blessing of Shitennoji Temple Date: Late Muromachi / Early Edo period* Size: 9.25” x 5.75” Medium: Wooblock print Note: Shitennoji is one of the oldest temples in Japan. The temple was founded in 593 by Prince Shotoku. #JPR1-63374 12. Zenzaidoji, Sudhanakumara Date: Edo Period* Size: 11.25” x 4.75” Medium: Wooblock print Note: The Young boy Sudhana’s quest for enlightenment and studies with fifty three good friends. #JPR1-63349 13. Amida Nyorai with Bodhisattvas Fugen and Monju Date: Edo Period* Size: 14.25” x 9.25” Medium: Wooblock print #JPR1-63376

* These early works have no inscription and are unmarked. Therefore, the dating is attributed. 42

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14. Pilgrimage of Hara no Otsuji in Ise (Kumanokodo) Date: Edo Period* Size: 18” x 8.5” Medium: Wooblock print #JP1-63405 15. Birth of Buddha Date: April 1679 Size: 23” x 17.25 Seal: Hiromasu (?) Medium: Hand-colored woodblock print embellished with gold #JP1-63405 16. Death of Buddha Date: c. 1716 Size: 20” x 10.75” Medium: Wooblock print Note: Illustrated in Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections (Philadelphia Museum of Art) # JP1-63383 17. Story of the Nyorai at Zenkoji Temple in Shinshu Date: 1692 Size: 9” x 6.75” Medium: Wooblock print ehon Publisher: Hangiya Shichirobei Note: Five volumes # JP1-63407 18. Shaka Goichidaiki zue: Life of Sakyamuni Buddha. Artist: Hokusai Author: Isai Yamada Date: 1845 Size: 10” x 7” Medium: Wooblock print ehon Publisher: Edo, Yamashiroya Sahei. Osaka, Kawachiya Mohei. Kyoto, Echigoya Jihei Signed: Zen Hokusai Manji Rojin Note: Six volumes. Illustrated in Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections (Philadelphia Museum of Art) # JP1-63414 19. Nichiren in Snow at Tsukahara on Sado Island Artist: Kuniyoshi Series: Life of Great Priest Nichiren Date: c. 1832


Size: 9.75” x 14.75” Medium: Wooblock print Publisher: Iseya Rihei Seals: Kiwame Signed: Ichiyusai Kuniyoshi hitsu #JP1-63472

24. Sitting in the Half Lotus Position Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: c. 1950 Size: 14.5” x 11.5” Medium: Woodblock print #JPR1-63111

20. Disciple of Buddha Hattara-Sonja with White Tiger Artist: Kuniyoshi Series: Surimono Date: c. 1838 Size: 8.5” x 7.25” Signed: Ichiyusai Kuniyoshi ga #JP1-63327

25. No Reams of Element (from Eye to Mind Consciousness) Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Hannya Shingyo; Heart of Great Date: 1941 Size: 13” x 16” Medium: Wooblock print Perfect Wisdom Sutra Notes: Munakata created four series of Hannya Shingyo. This is one of his first series. #JPR1-63112

21. Old Woman as Parody of Death of Buddha Artist: Kuniyoshi Series: Kuniyoshi’s Comic Prints Date: 1849 Size: 14” x 10” Medium: Wooblock print Publisher: Tsujiokaya Bunsuke Seals: Murata and Mera Signed: Ichiyusai Kuniyoshi giga #JP1-63139 22. Kabuki Actor Nakamura Fukusuke as Nichiren Quelling Storm on His Exile to Sado Island Artist: Kunimasa III Date: 1886 Size: 14.25” x 28” Medium: Wooblock print Publisher: Fukuda Kumajiro Signed: Baido Kunimasa hitsu #JP1-63138 23. The Moon Through a Crumbling Window Artist: Yoshitoshi Series: 100 Views of the Moon Date: 1886 Size: 14.5 x 9.5 Medium: Wooblock print Publisher: Akiyama Buemon Seals: Yoshitoshi no In Signed: Yoshitoshi Notes: The Indian prince Bodhidharma (known in Japan as Daruma) traveled from India to China to find the Zen sect of Buddhism. He sat in meditation without moving for nine years and, as a result, his legs withered away. #JP1-47018

26. Yearning for Home Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1950 Size: 14” x 8” Medium: Wooblock print on scroll Seal: Mune #JP1-63110 27. Walt Whitman’s House Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1959 Size: 8.5” x 12” Medium: Woodblock print Edition: 30/70 Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Tobin Collection #JP1-63108 28. The Infinite Mercy of Buddha: Hana Fukaki no Kokoro Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1961 Size: 12.5” x 12.5” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63105 29. Teizen no Hakujushi Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: c. 1960 Size: 23.5” x 18” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR-64672

30. Amateur Sumo Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1968 Size: 6.5” x 8.25” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata # JPR1-63106 31. “Banri Hen-un Nashi” (Cloudless) Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1959 Size: 83” x 15” Medium: Sumi ink mounted on scroll Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata, New York #JPR-64667 32. Yumedono hall in Horyuji temple Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Wandering Away from Home Date: 1956 Size: 15.75” x 13.75” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Notes: Designed in 1953, Munakata was inspired by Yoshii’s poem when he traveled to Yatsuo in Toyama in 1945. #JPR1-63102 33. Purple Sleeves of my Love Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1955 Size: 16.75” x 11.5” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Notes: As the current of the Oyabe River is raised from the melting snow in early Spring, the fragrance rises from the sleeves of the wife’s arrow-patterend kimono. #JPR1-63100 34. Our Benefactor in the Sea Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1962 Size: 21.5” x 16” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Notes: Designed in 1949. #JPR1-63104 35. Our Benefactor in the Mountains Artist: Shiko Munakata Date: 1962 Size: 21.5” x 16” Medium: Hand colored woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata

Note: The broken pine needles and small chrysanthemums in the signature of several works were done in thought of his father and mother.

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Notes: Designed in 1949. #JPR1-63103 36. Manjusri, Incarnation of Buddha’s Wisdom Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (designed) Size: 39” x 15.5” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63115 37. Katyayana, Master of Fundamental Principles Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 40.25” x 15.5” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63122 38. Purnamaitrayaniputra, Master of Teaching Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 41.75” x 18.75” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63125 39. Anirhudda, Master of Supernatural Vision Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 41.5” x 18.75” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63127 40. Rahula, Master of the Esoteric Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 42” x 15.25” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63117 41. Ananda, Master of Memory and Learning Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: Size: 41.5” x 18.75”

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Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Ex-Juda Collection #JPR1-63116 42. Sariputra, Master of Wisdom Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 41.75” x 18.75” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Ex-Juda Collection #JPR1-63119 43. Upali, Master of Vinaya, the Monastic Rules Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 41.75” x 18.75” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata #JPR1-63126 44. Subhuti, Master of the Immaterial Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 42” x 18.75” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Ex-Juda Collection #JPR1-63123 45. Maudgalyayana, Master of Supernatural Forces Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (block carved), 1960 (printed) Size: 38” x 15.5” Medium: Woodblock print Signed and Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Ex-Juda Collection #JPR1-63121 46. Samanthabhadra, Incarnation of Buddha’s Fundamental Element Artist: Shiko Munakata Series: Ten Great Disciples of Buddha Date: 1939 (designed) Size: 39.5” x 19.75” Medium: Woodblock print Sealed: Shiko Munakata Provenance: Ex-Tobin Collection #JP1-63114


Timeline 1905 – Born on September 5th in Aomori, Japan. 1920 – Leaves family blacksmith business to clerk for the Aomori District Court. 1924 – Moves to Tokyo to pursue art; rejected from the 5th Imperial Fine Arts Exhibition. 1926 – First encounters the work of Sumio Kawakami, develops interest in the woodblock medium; accepted into his first major exhibition at the Hakujitsu Society. 1928 – Begins focus on woodblock printmaking, studying briefly with key Sosaku Hanga artists such as Kihachiro Shimozawa and Un’ichi Hiratsuka; continues to exhibit his oil paintings. 1930 – Marries Chiya Akagi; enters prints into group exhibitions. 1931 - Participates in first solo print exhibition at Tokyo’s Kanda Bunbodo Gallery; publishes his first book of prints, Bride of the Constellation; his daughter Keijo is born. 1932 – Joins the Japan Print Association; wins an award at the Kokugakai Exhibition. 1933 – Publishes two books reflecting on his artistic philosophy and his prints; his son Pariji is born. 1935 – Wins award and membership at the Kokugakai exhibition; his daughter Chiyoe is born. 1936 – Soetsu Yanagi, leader of the Mingei movement, purchases Munakata’s series Yamatotakeru, The Beautiful at the Kokugakai Exhibition; begins a life-long friendship with Yanagi and other members of the Mingei movement. 1939 – Begins to experiment with urazaishiki, or “back coloring;” featured in an exhibition at The Japan Folk Crafts Museum in Tokyo; creates his famous Ten Great Disciples of Buddha series, which wins the Saburi Prize from the Kokugakai. 1941 – Travels throughout Japan with members of the Mingei movement; continues to focus on Buddhist subject matter; his son Yoshiaki is born. 1945 – His woodblocks and home are destroyed in the Tokyo air raids; only the ten disciple blocks survive, buried in his garden to form a makeshift shelter; Munakata evacuates to Fukumitsu, Toyama Prefecture before the attack; wins the Okada Prize at the 2nd Japan Art Academy Exhibition (Nitten). 1951 – Returns to Tokyo; enters prints in the 1st Sao Paulo Bienal and the 1st Mainichi International Art Exhibition (Tokyo). 1952 – Exhibits in Paris, New York, and throughout Japan; wins prize at the 2nd International Print Exhibition in Lugano, Switzerland; helps to establish the Japan Woodblock Print Society. 1954 – Severs membership with official print associations; continues to travel throughout Japan. 1955 – Receives award for Best Print at the 3rd Sao Paulo Bienal. 1956 – Awarded Grand Prize for printmaking at the 28th Venice Biennale; enters the Contemporary Prints Exhibition at the Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art. 1959 – Travels to New York for fellowship with the Rockefeller Foundation and the Japan Society; lectures in New York, Boston, Seattle, Chicago, Cleveland, and San Francisco; explores the U.S. and Europe; The National Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo hosts solo exhibition; Receives Aomori Culture Award. 1960 – Exhibition at Cleveland Museum of Art; Smithsonian Institute arranges for his travel throughout the U.S.; Munakata Exhibition opens at the Musee Guimet in Paris. 1961 – Granted the rank of Hokkyo by Kyoto’s Horinji Temple, an honor doubled the following year by Shingon Buddhist Headquarters, when they promoted him to the rank of Honjin, the highest cultural honor. 1963 – Creates his largest work to date, a 72 composite printed image Great World—Earth, which earned the “Blue Ribbon Medal” from the Japanese government. 1964 – Publishes his essay collection The Extreme Way of Prints; completes screen painting for the home of the Japanese Prime Minister; Asahi Newspaper sponsors a traveling solo exhibition. 1965—Awarded the Asahi Newspaper Culture Prize and publishes another collection of essays. Returns to the United States, where he receives an Honorary Ph.D. from Dartmouth University, lectures at Washington University, and exhibits his Tokaido series at the St. Louis Museum of Art. 1966 – Suffers cerebral thrombosis in the summer, but resumes his work by fall. 1967 – Returns to the United States; exhibits in Cleveland, at the Brooklyn Museum, the Smithsonian, and the Rome Academy. 1968 – Appointed an officer of the annual Japan Art Academy Exhibition; lectures at the University of Hawaii; participates in group exhibition in Philadelphia. 1970 – Receives the Order of Cultural Merit from the Japanese government; continues to hold one-man exhibitions throughout Japan. 1972 – Travels to India, where he exhibits in several cities, and furthers his spiritual growth; resumes oil painting in addition to printmaking. 1974 – The Munakata Hanga Museum opens in Aomori; presents solo-exhibition in Dallas; lectures in St. Louis and New York; receives the New York Japan Society Arts Award; falls ill and is hospitalized when he returns to Japan. 1975 – Appointed standing director of the Japan Arts Academy; Mainichi Films releases documentary Carving- the World of Shiko Munakata; September 13th, Munakata dies of liver cancer in Tokyo.

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Selected Sources 1. Baskett, Mary W. Footprints of the Buddha: Japanese Buddhist Prints from American and Japanese Collections. Philadelphia, PA: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 1980. 2. Castile, Rand. Shiko Munakata (1903-1975): Works on Paper. New York, NY: Japan Society, 1983. 3. Fogg Museum of Art. Religious Wood-block Prints of the Far East. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, 1948. 4. The Heilbrunn Timeline of Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. “One of the ‘One Million Pagodas’ (Hyakumanto).” Accessed January 31st, 2017. 5. Ishida, Mosaku. Japanese Buddhist Prints. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1964. 6. Jenkins, Donald. Images of a Changing World. Portland, OR: Portland Art Museum, 1983. 7. Lee, Sherman. Shiko Munakata: catalogue of an exhibition Sponsored by the Print Club of Cleveland and the Cleveland Museum of Art. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 1960. 8. Singer, Robert T., and Kakeya Nobuho, eds. Munakata Shiko: Japanese Master of the Modern Print. Kamakura, Japan: Munakata Museum, 2002. 9. Smith, Lawrence. Japanese Prints During the Allied Occupation, 1945-1952: Onchi Kōshirō, Ernest Hacker and the First Thursday Society. Chicago, IL: Art Media Resources, 2002. ---. The Japanese Print since 1900. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1983. ---. Modern Japanese Prints 1912-1989. New York, NY: Cross River Press, 1994. 10. Stanley-Baker, Joan. Mokuhan: The Woodcuts of Munakata & Matsubara. Victoria, BC: Art Gallery of Greater Victoria, 1976. 11. Statler, Oliver. Modern Japanese Prints: An Art Reborn. Rutland, VT; Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1956. ---. Shiko Munakata: Kodansha Library of Japan. Rutland, VT; Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Co., 1958. 12. The Woodblock and the Artist: The Life and Work of Shiko Munakata. Tokyo, Japan; New York, NY: Kodansha International, 1991. 13. Wu, Jiang, and Lucille Chia. Spreading Buddha’s Word in East Asia the Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2016.

RONIN GALLERY 425 Madison Ave New York, NY 10017 212.688.0188 www.roningallery.com ronin@roningallery.com Chairman: Herbert Libertson President: David Libertson Executive Director: Roni Neuer Director: Tomomi Seki Assistant Director: Travis Suzaka Research Associate: Madison Folks Gallery Associate: Sayaka Ueno Photographs of Munakata courtesy of Yoriko Ishii

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RONIN GALLERY 425 Madison Ave. New York, NY 10017 RoninGallery.com The Largest Collection of Japanese Prints in the U.S. Japanese and East Asian Contemporary Art

Shiko Munakata and the Disciples of Buddha  

Internationally revered as Japan's greatest modern print artist, Shiko Munakata (1903-1975) is renowned for his expressive lines, evocative...

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