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New Perspectives Shin Hanga Beauties

RONIN GALLERY


New Perspectives Shin Hanga Beauties

RONIN GALLERY Bryant Park Place 32 West 40th Street, New York, NY 10018 212.688.0188 | RoninGallery.com Ronin@roningallery.com The Largest Collection of Japanese Prints in the U.S. Japanese and East Asian Contemporary Art © 2020 RONIN GALLERY All Rights Reserved


New Perspectives Shin Hanga Beauties “A beautiful woman is as a flower in nature...[one] cannot help but unload his heart of stone in front of beautiful flowers and charming beauties.” 1 These words evoke demure women, unaware of their audience as they sit before a mirror, or pull their comb through damp hair. Such sentiments speak to the romantic approach to the genre of bijin-ga, or “pictures of beautiful women.” Entranced by the myth of the “universality of female beauty,” one can get lost in the subtle shading of curves, creases of kimono, and soft faces of the women. The effect of these beauties is breathtaking, yet to limit their value to only surface beauty would be short sighted. These woodblock prints are as layered with early 20th century anxieties and gendered expectations as they are with artistic excellence and lavish printing. New Perspectives looks beyond the romantic appeal of these beauties to explore the prints as vital reflections of their cultural context. As Japan wrestled with identity on a national level, artists of the Shin Hanga or “New Print,” movement sought to redefine the woodblock medium. Members targeted the eager, international audience of ukiyo-e to nurture the movement as they ushered familiar genres into a new age. Though Shin Hanga generally carried on the ukiyo-e division of labor, the “triangle of cooperation”–artist, artisan, and publisher–they differentiated their prints from their Edo-period precedents through technical brilliance, western influence, limited editions, and modern marketing. Simultaneously, the women pictured in these works fought for a new position in Japanese society. Blending the familiar with the new, the past with the present, these prints contribute to a national conversation: Who was the “modern” Japanese woman? What was the role of the woodblock print in the modern era?

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Changing Roles, Contested Bodies: Defining Japanese Womanhood in the Early 20th Century In 1930, “woman” was ranked as one of the most printed words across media.” 2 From literature to newspapers, across periodicals and advertising strategies, a chorus of largely male writers discussed the true identity of the “new woman” who had been taking shape since the end of World War I. From her self-fashioning to her comport, the identity of the Japanese woman was seen as up for public discussion and definition. While the resulting stereotypes lacked internal consensus, they established a false, yet dominant, binary: the “good wife, wise mother” (ryosai kenbo) and the “modern girl” (moga). The “good wife, wise mother” was defined by her role in the domestic sphere. In the popular imagination, she wore kimono with her hair coiffed in a shimada (a type of up-do), forgoing Western-inspired fads. In contrast, the “modern girl” broke into the public realm through employment and leisure activities. She smoked cigarettes, embraced her sexuality to the point of aggression, and threatened cultural stability as she unionized with other working women. With her hair cropped and legs bared beneath her western-style dress, the “modern girl” could be found commuting to work or sipping a martini between dances at a nightclub. Ads spoke to the fashionable woman and her ready-to-wear accoutrements, while social convention reached into 19th century ideals, grounding women within traditional styles or the domicile. The two stereotypes existed simultaneously, each shaped by the ideals and fears of the early 20th century rather than an authentic representation of womanhood. In reality, the “new woman” existed in a spectrum of expression between these two imagined poles, but her perceived transgression was clear: she was “out in the open, working and playing alongside men.” 3 From cafés to department stores, she was both a consumer and creator of “goods, services, and new habits” of modern culture. 4 While some donned western style dresses with cropped hair and rouged lips, the majority of women wore a relaxed hairstyle, paired with a kimono, perhaps in an of-the-moment fabric pattern. The “new woman” was defined by a shifting attitude rather than her self-

fashioning, yet it was her changing physical appearance that stirred critics on both sides. A glimpse of the early 20th century woman can be seen through a collection of life sketches. Lively lines of colored pencil capture a woman at the seaside in a swimming costume, hair hidden within a swim cap. In another, a pair of women lounge in a café, their bobbed hair and location paired with summer kimono. Though these candid images capture women in public spaces, engaged in customs of the time, Shin Hanga artists cast women in a different scene. In lieu of cafes and beaches, these voyeuristic portraits reveal private spaces and intimate moments – combing her hair, painting her lips, and other scenes from the toilette. Artists of bijin-ga were involved in the official and unofficial definition of the “new woman.” They were privy to official social policy discussions regarding women.5 In 1930, Shinsui served as a judge for a nationwide beauty contest and lent one of his designs as the 6 cover image for the contest booklet. As printmakers helped craft ideas about women, they generally focused on the conservative ideal of femininity as they sought to redefine their medium.

Reimagining the Medium: Shin Hanga As women redefined their roles in Japanese society, printmakers of the Shin Hanga movement worked to elevate the woodblock medium in the eyes of the Japanese art establishment and beyond. In a time when westernstyle painting dominated formal art circles prints were relegated to craft. Yet, the turn-of-the-century popularity of ukiyo-e abroad prompted a reappraisal of the woodblock tradition. This international acceptance sparked a shift in the perception of the medium–from private viewing to public exhibitions, commercial ephemera to fine art. As the artists of the Shin Hanga movement embraced foreign influence and a newfound global audience, they asserted the genres of ukiyo-e with a fresh approach. From shimmering mica and richly textured kimono, to blushing contours and individually discernable strands of hair, these sumptuous prints highlighted the skill of the artist and the rebirth of the medium. While Shin Hanga is usually discussed in romantic terms, there are distinct fantasies at work. For a Japanese audience, these works spoke to tradition, satisfying a

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longing for the past. For western collectors, these prints aligned with a fantasy of Japan, one constructed through ukiyo-e and Meiji-period studio photography.7 By the turn of the century, the manners and customs of the “floating world,” once immortalized by ukiyo-e, dissipated in the rapid industrialization and militarization of Japan. As modernization progressed, photography and lithography usurped the woodblock print medium. Faced with dwindling demand, artists turned to book and newspaper illustrations in order to make a living. However, with the new century the woodblock print found new life. Some artists of the Shin Hanga movement studied as oil painters in the Western tradition or Nihonga painters, and many found inspiration in the bijin-ga of the Edo Period. An example of these dual influences can be found in Goyo’s Woman after the Bath (pg. 26). The intimacy of this private moment, the mica ground, and the calligraphic line that threads through the fabric all recall the work of Utamaro, yet the full nudity, subtle peach-tinted shading, and the realism of her pose speak to Goyo’s academic training. The influence of multiple artistic traditions led to the use of inventive angles, such as those found in Shinsui’s A Woman at her Makeup (pg. 11)and Looking in the Mirror (pg. 9), and greater naturalism of both form and action, visible in the soft, curving shoulders and careful grooming in Shinsui’s Clipping Nails (pg. 21). The blend of artistic approaches instilled Shin Hanga images with greater realism without losing the graphic impact of the printed form. This combination sometimes proved to be too much for censors to accept: 20th century authorities deemed Kotondo’s Morning Hair (pg. 36) too sensual, resulting in the confiscation of the remaining 30 prints of a 100 print run.8 As style shifted, Shin Hanga further focused on technical prowess. This exploration extended from fineness of line, to the rich textural surfaces, such as the rounded baren-sugi lines that overlap in the background in Kotondo’s Steam (pg. 35). Some artists set their portraits against shimmering mica backgrounds evocative of “golden age” ukiyo-e. The layered patterns and diverse color of kimono allowed artists to show their technical skill and enhance the intrigue of their prints. Such technical and material decadence can be found in Shinsui’s Hand Mirror (pg. 13). Set against the pearlescent mica ground, the woman stands in profile. As she adjusts her hair, eyes locked on the hand mirror, Shinsui lavishes her obi with attention – its folds geometric, its colors bright across

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the lively pattern, finished with a dusting of mica. Marketing strategies evolved in tandem with increasingly complex printmaking techniques. Publishers introduced limited edition printings, export editions and international exhibitions. The Toldeo Museum of Art, Ohio featured Shin Hanga exhibitions in 1930 and 1936, introducing an American audience to the present-day answer to the already admired ukiyo-e.9 Some publishers produced print runs in dual editions, one for domestic audiences, another for export, indicating the strength of the foreign market. Publishers experimented with colors and patterns, releasing multiple variants of the same design in search of the most popular iteration. Though members of the Shin Hanga movement were redefining the woodblock print for the 20th century, their bijin-ga remained tethered to a more traditional aesthetic.

Women in Print: The Precarity of the Modern Geisha Kiyoshi’s Western Style Dancer (pg. 41) offers a portrait of a “modern girl.” Set against a deep aubergine, Kiyoshi emphasizes the elongation of the dancer’s slender limbs. The pale pink that blooms up from the soles of her feet, down her narrow fingers, and across her cheeks belies the physical exertion of her dance. Her bobbed hair and loosely draped crimson costume hang from her active form. Gold accentuates the highlights of the garment, while the bells that encircle her knees evoke a gentle ringing. Unlike the static, private moments common to bijin-ga, the dancer moves through her performance with intention. From hair to stature, exposed skin to freedom of movement, Kiyoshi evokes the common adjectives used to describe the stereotypical “modern girl.” Yet, she is an exception, rather than the rule in Shin Hanga. It was a different entertainer that claimed the spotlight in bijin-ga of the 1920s and 1930s. Poised as the guardians of a romanticized past, the geisha became the choice model of female beauty for Shin Hanga artists and Japan’s social conservatives.10 As social culture shifted from the teahouses of Edo to cafes of Ginza, from geisha to café waitresses, the geisha’s role also shifted–from fashion innovator of Edo period subculture, to a steward of tradition in pre-WWII Japan.11 Society tasked the geisha with historical safekeeping of Japanese tradition. Mirroring


the passionate public discussions around definition of the “new woman,” the geisha’s appearance and behavior in the modern era came up for public appraisal. Yet, like the former, these conversations devolved into male fantasies about appearance, behavior, and the relevance of the geisha.12 For artists of the Shin Hanga movement, the frequent decision to depict geisha marks both a continuation with and a break from the legacy of bijin-ga. On one hand, geisha present a lavish aesthetic of female beauty, providing the artists with the opportunity to show their skill for color and line through layered kimono and ornate hairstyles. Yet, at times, this choice is tied to romantic nostalgia that marks a break from the Edo period bijin-ga. The beauties portrayed in the prints of ukiyo-e artists like Utamaro not only proclaimed the beauty of the women, but also the au courant nature of her styling. The geisha captured by the Shin Hanga artists are depicted as reflections of a more conservative femininity rather than members of a fashionable vanguard. Even so, popular fashion items can be found throughout these works: a black patent leather purse tucked under an arm (pg. 47), an art deco mirror in hand, or a sparkling ring upon a pale finger. It is important to remember that these representations, styled at the hands of Shin Hanga artists, do not reflect the complexity of the models pictured. The stories of real women exist beneath many of these printed contours. These women were very much modern. Women of the early 20th century experienced a shifting consciousness that went

beyond appearances. As they took positions as “teachers, typists, office workers, storekeepers, nurses, and telephone operators,” and more, the increased potential for economic 13 autonomy expanded their spectrum of choice. Thus, it was not so much what she wore, but her increasingly active role in society that defined her modernity. Fashion and fads changed with the ages, but empowerment born of increasing self-definition turned a societal tide. Today, worldwide, women continue to struggle to self-define their role and rights in society. Though Japanese women and woodblock printmakers faced parallel struggles for self-definition in the early 20th century, the beauties of the Shin Hanga movement rarely portray the changing role of real life women around them. Instead, many of these women remain cast as guardians of culture rendered through the artistic spirit of the modern age. The Shin Hanga beauties of the 1920s and 1930s were draped in the trappings of a femininity considered innovative in the late 18th century, but socially conservative by 1930s. When you reach beyond the romanticism, these portraits are as ripe with cultural negotiation as the historical climate from whence they came. To frame these works within their cultural context only adds to their brilliant beauty, honoring the women of the time.

1. Quote from Kiyokata Kaburaki regarding the bijin-ga genre. Shinji Hamanaka and Amy Reigle Newland, The Female Image: 20th Century Prints of Japanese Beauties (Leiden: Hotei, 2003), 15. 2. Kendall H. Brown, Taisho Chic: Japanese Modernity, Nostalgia, and Deco (Honolulu: Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2001), 19. 3. Miriam Silverberg, Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: the Mass Culture of Japanese Modern Times (Berkeley, CA: Univ. of California Press, 2010). 4. Silverberg. 5. Brown, 18. 6. Ibid, 22. 7. Hamanaka and Newland, 26. 8. Amy Reigle Stephens, and Hiromi Okamoto, The New Wave: Twentieth-Century Japanese Prints from the Robert O. Muller Collection (London: Bamboo Publishing, London, 1993), 202. 9. Hamanaka and Newland, 27. 10. Brown, 62. 11. Ibid, 19. 12. Dalby, Liza Crihfield, Geisha (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008), 82. 13. Silverberg.

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Shinsui (1898-1972)

Shinsui Ito was born in Tokyo as Hajime Ito. His works are truly elegant in appearance and graceful in pose and his bijin-ga have earned him a reputation as an unrivaled painter of women and a master of design. He began his artistic training at age 12 in the drawing department of the Tokyo Printing Company before joining the workshop of the painter Kiyokata Kaburaki. By 1916, Shinsui completed his first woodblock print, followed a year later by the series Eight Views of Lake Biwa. Between 1922 and 1923, Shinsui designed his first set of beauties (Twelve Figures of New Beauties), followed by two installments of Series of Modern Beauties (1929-1931 and 1931-1936). While most recognized for his bijin-ga, Shinsui also continued to work as a painter of landscape prints. In 1952, his mastery of woodblock design was designated as Intangible Cultural Property, an event commemorated with the print Tresses (1952). Appointed to the Japan Art Academy in 1958, Shinsui received the Order of the Rising Sun in 1970 before his death in 1972.

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1. Looking in the Mirror. Shinsui. July, 1916.

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2. In Spring. Shinsui. February, 1917. ref.#: jp-111632

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3. A Woman at Her Makeup. Shinsui. Spring, 1922. ref.#: jp-111580

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4. Listening to the Insects. Shinsui. June, 1923. ref.#: jpr-111662

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5. Hand Mirror. Shinsui. January 1st, 1931. ref.#: jp-111584

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6. Cooling Off. Shinsui. June, 1925. ref.#: jp-111888

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7. Drizzling Rain. Shinsui. 1927. ref.#: jp-111886

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8. Hanging a Mosquito Net. Shinsui. May, 1929. ref.#: jp-111586

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9. After the Bath. Shinsui. Summer 1930. ref.#: jp-111588

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10. Kotatsu (Charcoal Foot Warmer). Shinsui. December, 1931. ref.#: jp-111590

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11. Rouge. Shinsui. May, 1929. ref.#: jp-111356

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12. After Washing Her Hair. Shinsui. August, 1936. ref.#: jp-111354

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13. Clipping Nails. Shinsui. August, 1936. ref.#: jp-111582

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Goyo (1880-1921) Goyo Hashiguchi (né Kiyoshi Hashiguchi) was born in Kagoshima to Kanemitsu Hashiguchi, a Shijo-style painter. Goyo began his career in Kano painting at age 10. He moved to Tokyo in 1899 to study with the leading painter Gaho Hashimoto. He soon shifted to Western-style painting under Seiki Kuroda at the Tokyo School of Fine Arts, where he graduated at the top of his class in 1905. Shortly thereafter, the prominent Shin Hanga publisher Shozaburo Watanabe convinced him to try his hand at printmaking. Watanabe published Goyo’s first woodblock print, Woman at the Bath in 1915. Goyo’s sensitive portrayal of women in a delicate, serene and infinitely graceful mode led to his immediate popularity. Unlike many Shin Hanga artists, Goyo established his own workshop. His standards were so high that he rarely allowed his editions to run more than eighty prints. This decision resulted in some of the most technically superb woodblock prints to be produced since the late 18th century. On February 24, 1921, Goyo died from an ear infection, the aftermath of a severe case of influenza. Goyo’s entire artistic career spanned 15 short years, of which only the last five were spent producing prints. He completed a total of 14 prints. At his death, Goyo left many works in various stages of completion. Members of his family completed these designs following his death.

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14. Woman at the Bath. Goyo. October, 1915. ref.#: jp-111576

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15. Woman Combing Her Hair. Goyo. March, 1920. ref.#: jp-110272

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16. Woman Applying Powder. Goyo. 1918. ref.#: jpr1-72120

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17. Woman After the Bath. Goyo. July, 1920. ref.#: jp-110270

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18. Woman with Sash in Nagajuban. Goyo. May, 1920. ref.#: jpr1-72136

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19. Woman Washing Her Face. Goyo. Designed 1920, printed 1950-1952. ref.#: jp1-71967

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20. Young Woman in a Summer Kimono. Goyo. Designed 1920. ref.#: jp3680

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Kotondo (1900-1976)

Kotondo Torii was born as Akira Saito in the Nihonbashi district of Tokyo. He was adopted as the son of Kiyotada Torii, the seventh Torii master and head of the school from 1929 until 1951. Kotondo began his career in 1914 in yamato-e (Japanese court painting) under the tutelage of Tomone Kobori, before joining Shinsui Ito in the workshop of Kiyokata Kaburaki in 1918. Early in his career, Kotondo produced posters and other kabuki focused illustrations for Entertainment Illustrated magazine. He completed the majority of his woodblock prints between 1927 and 1933, working with several publishers including Sakai/ Kawaguchi (Kyoto, 1920s) and Ikeda (Tokyo, 1930s). After his father’s death in 1941, Kotondo assumed the name Torii VIII (Kiyotada V). From 1966 to 1972, he lectured at Nihon University. Unlike his kabuki-focused Torii predecessors, Kotondo turned to the bijin-ga genre. In both his paintings and his woodblock prints, he portrays beauties with a delicacy and intimacy. Over course of his career, he produced twenty-two bijin-ga designs. Six of these designs were issued in multiple color variations.

21. Nagajuban (varient state). Kotondo. Variant state. July, 1929. ref.#: jp-111568

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22. Nagajuban (Undergarment). Kotondo. August, 1929. ref.#: jp-111570

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23. Rain. Kotondo. October, 1929. ref.#: jp-111572

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24. Snow. Kotondo. October, 1929. ref.#: jp-111566

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25. Makeup. Kotondo. June, 1929. ref.#: jpr-111226

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26. Steam. Kotondo. October, 1929. ref.#: jpr-111228

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27. Morning Hair. Kotondo. c.1930. ref.#: jp-111574

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28. At the Mirror (Makeup). Kotondo. June, 1929. ref.#: jpr-111924

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29. Iris Summer Kimono. Kotondo. 1932. ref.#: jpr-109842

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30. Combing Her Hair. Kotondo. October, 1929. ref.#: jp-111930

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Kiyoshi (1897*-1948) A student of the bijin-ga painter Kiyokata Kaburagi, Kiyoshi Kobayakawa concentrated on delicate depictions of beautiful women across painting and print. At times, he broke from bijin-ga convention and portrayed his subjects in the styles of the early 20th century, such as dressed in western clothes or smoking cigarettes. As a painter, he regularly participated in Teitan exhibitions from 1924 forward. He began to produce woodblock prints around 1927. As collector and admirer of ukiyo-e, he drew inspiration from the color and compositions of 17th-19th century printmakers. Between 1930 and 1931, Kiyoshi self-published the six-print series Styles of Contemporary Makeup (kindai jisesho). Half of the women pictured exude the particular femininity of the moga (“modern girl�), while the remaining three designs echo Kiyoshi’s contemporaries, featuring women in private moments in front of their toilette. *There is some disagreement about his birth year.

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31. Western Style Dancing. Kiyoshi. Spring 1934. ref.#: jp-111628

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32. Sipping Cocktails. Kiyoshi (attributed). c.1928. ref.#: jp-111922

33. Beach Day. Kiyoshi (attributed). c.1928. ref.#: jp-111918

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34. Women: Evening. Kiyoshi (attributed). 1928. ref.#: jp-111920

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35. Dressing Her Hair. Kiyoshi. 1931. ref.#: jp-111622

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36. After the Bath. Kiyoshi. c.1933. ref.#: jp-111624

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37. Applying Beni to Her Lips. Kiyoshi. c.1930. ref.#: jp-111630

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Tatsumi (1907-1980) Born in Takasaki, Gunma as Sentaro Shimura, Tatsumi Shimura began his career in 1924 as an apprentice to Shuho Yamakawa. Like many artists at the time, Tatsumi worked as an illustrator for magazines, book covers, and newspapers in addition to his career as a painter. While he built his reputation as an artist through his bijin-ga paintings, Tatsumi released woodblocks prints with the publisher Junzo Kato between 1948 and 1952. Tatsumi turned away from printmaking at the age of 60, devoting his time to nihonga painting. Professionally, he served as both director and chairman of the Shuppan Bijutsuka Renmei (“Union of the Artists and Publications�).

38. Falling Cherry Blossoms (Hanafubuki). Tatsumi. 1953. ref.#: jp-111612

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Shuho (1898-1944) Shuho Yamakawa was a nihonga painter and woodblock print artist. Born in Kyoto as Yoshio Yamakawa, Shuho’s father worked as a fabric designer. Shuho began his career as a painter of kacho-ga, or “bird and flower pictures,” under the tutelage of Shuho Ikegami. He later joined the workshop of Kiyokata Kaburaki, where both Kotondo and Shinsui also studied, and shifted his focus to bijin-ga, or “pictures of beautiful women.” Shuho’s paintings earned national acclaim at the ninth and eleventh Teiten exhibitions. While principally a painter, he completed woodblock print designs with both Watanabe and Bijutsu-sha.

39. Autumn. Shuho. 1927. ref.#: jp-111620

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40. It Looks Like Snow. Shuho. 1927. ref.#: jp-111614

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Shunsen (1886-1960)

Shunsen Natori (nĂŠ Yoshinosuke Natori) was the son of a Tokyo silk merchant. Shunsen took an early interest in art. He studied nihonga (Japanese style painting) under Beisen Kubota and participated in his first exhibition in 1906. Shunsen then entered the Tokyo School of Fine Arts and began working as an illustrator for the newspaper Asahi Shinbun, where he became interested in kabuki portraiture. In 1916, Shunsen collaborated with Shozaburo Watanabe on two kabuki prints. By 1919, Shunsen retired from nihonga and became a prominent woodblock print artist. His work is known for its vibrant emotion, most readily apparent in his portraits. Following the tragic passing of his daughter Yoshiko in 1958, Shunsen and his wife, unable to get over her death, committed suicide in 1960.

41. After a Bath. Shunsen. 1928. ref.#: jpr1-65970

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42. Combing Her Hair. Shunsen. 1928. ref.#: jp-111616

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Hiroaki (1871-1945) Born in Tokyo as Katsutaro Takahashi, Hiroaki (aka Shotei/ Komei) was in his mid-teens when he began to work in the design department of the Imperial Household Agency. He studied nihonga, or “Japanese-style painting” under his uncle Fuko Matsumoto, but also worked as an illustrator for periodicals and textbooks. Beginning in the early Taisho period, Hiroaki regularly collaborated with the prominent Shin Hanga publisher Shozaburo Watanabe. Hiroaki used a variety of signatures. Many of his large landscape and bijin-ga are signed “Hiroaki,” while ‘Shotei’ appears on other works. Hiroaki was a productive artist, completing around five hundred designs by the time he was fifty. Unfortunately, much of his work was destroyed by the fire that raged in the aftermath of the Great Kanto earthquake in 1923. Despite this tragedy, Hiroaki continued to work as a printmaker until his death in 1945.

43. Nude Playing with Cat. Hiroaki (aka Shotei). c.1927-1931. ref.#: jp-111596

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Toyonari (1885-1942) Toyonari Yamamura began his career as a nihonga painter. He turned to printmaking at the impetus of the Shin Hanga publisher Shozaburo Watanabe. As demand for 19th cenutry actor prints grew among a foreign audience, Watanabe scouted Toyonari to capture the current generation of theatrical stars, both on the kabuki stage and beyond. Their partnership spanned 1917 to 1922, resulting in the series Flowers of the Theatrical World. It was only after this initial partnership that Toyonari explored other genres, some of which were self-published. During his career, he worked in two different styles with corresponding aliases, often signing as Koka for paintings and Toyonari for prints.

44. Maiko (Apprentice Geisha). Toyonari. 1925. ref.#: jp-111594

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Kajiwara Hisako (1896-1988) Born in Kyoto to a successful sake producer, Hisako Kajiwara was a nihonga (Japanese-style painting) artist specializing in bijin-ga. After training with Kikuchi Keigetsu and Chigusa Soun, Kajiwara debuted in 1918 at the Kokuga Society in Kyoto. In her early career, she broke from genre standards to capture a more inclusive, realistic spectrum of femininity as a member of the Humanist school (jinsei-ha). These works were criticized for their “grim” realism. Following her father’s bankruptcy in 1929, financial necessity led her to back to the elegant beauties that dominated the bijin-ga genre. It was not until the end of her career that she once again returned to more complex depictions of womanhood. While Kajiwara focused on nihonga, over the course of her career she completed several woodblock prints as well.

45. Snow View from the Window. Hisako Kajiwara. 1930. ref.#: jp-109399 54

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Catalogue Notes 1. Looking in the Mirror Artist: Shinsui Date: July, 1916 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Watanabe (upper left rectangular seal) Size: 17” x 11.25” Signature: Shinsui with circular seal Sen Note: Shinsui’s first work in collaboration with Watanabe. Ref. #: JP-111578 2. In Spring Artist: Shinsui Date: February, 1917 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Lozenge-shaped S. Watanabe shop paper seal on reverse Edition: 53/100 Size: 19.75” x 10” Signature: Shinsui ga with circular Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111632 3. A Woman at Her Makeup Artist: Shinsui Series: Twelve Figures of Modern Beauties Date: Spring 1922 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 187/200 Size: 17” x 10.5” Signature: Shinsui saku with rectangular Ito seal Note: Watanabe distributed prints from this series to the 200 limited members of the Ukiyo-e Study Group. Ref. #: JP-111580 4. Listening to the Insects Artist: Shinsui Series: Twelve Figures of Modern Beauties

Date: June, 1923 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 44/200 Size: 16.75” x 10” Signature: Shinsui ga Note: Watanabe distributed prints from this series to the 200 limited members of the Ukiyo-e Study Group. Ref. #: JPR-111662 5. Hand Mirror Artist: Shinsui Series: First Series of Modern Beauties Date: January 1st, 1931 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 121/250 Provenance: J. Tobin Collection Size: 17” x 11” Signature: Shinsui with rectangular seal Shinsui Ref. #: JP-111584 6. Cooling Off Artist: Shinsui Date: June, 1925 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Isetatsu (embossed on the lower margin) Size: 14.75” x 10” Ref. #: JP-111888 7. Drizzling Rain Artist: Shinsui Date: 1927 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Isetatsu (embossed on the lower margin) Size: 14.5” x 10” Signature: Shinsui ga with circular Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111886

8. Hanging a Mosquito Net Artist: Shinsui Series: First Series of Modern Beauties Date: May, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Rectangular Watanabe seal on reverse Edition: 195/250 Size: 16.75” x 11” Signature: Shinsui ga with square Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111586 9. After the Bath Artist: Shinsui Series: First Series of Modern Beauties Date: Summer 1930 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Watanabe 6mm circular seal and Watanabe rectangular seal on reverse Edition: 236/250 Size: 16.75” x 10.75” Signature: Shinsui with rectangular seal Shinsui Ref. #: JP-111588 10. Kotatsu (Charcoal Foot Warmer) Artist: Shinsui Series: Second Series of Modern Beauties Date: December, 1931 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Watanabe 6mm circular seal and Watanabe rectangular seal on reverse Edition: 212/250 Size: 17” x 11” Signature: Shinsui ga with rectangular Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111590

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11. Rouge Artist: Shinsui Series: First Series of Modern Beauties Date: May, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 113/250 Seals: Watanabe rectangular seal on reverse Size: 16.75” x 10.75” Signature: Shinsui ga with square Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111356 12. After Washing Her Hair Artist: Shinsui Series: Second Series of Modern Beauties Date: August, 1936 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 43/250 Seals: Watanabe 6mm circular seal and Watanabe rectangular seal on reverse Size: 17.25” x 11.25” Signature: Shinsui ga with square Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111354 13. Clipping Nails Artist: Shinsui Series: Second Series of Modern Beauties Date: August, 1936 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Watanabe 6mm circular seal and Watanabe rectangular seal on reverse Edition: 73/250 Size: 17.25” x 11” Signature: Shinsui ga with square Shinsui seal Ref. #: JP-111634 14. Woman at the Bath Artist: Goyo Date: October, 1915 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Seals: Watanabe on reverse Size: 16.25” x 10.75” Signature: Goyo ga with Shisaku seal 56

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Note: This was Goyo’s first woodblock print. Ref. #: JP-111576 15. Woman Combing Her Hair Artist: Goyo Date: March, 1920 Medium: Woodblock print Size: 17.75” x 13.5” Signature: Goyo ga with circular Hashiguchi Goyo seal Ref. #: JP-110272 16. Woman Applying Powder Artist: Goyo Date: 1918 Medium: Woodblock print Size: 21” x 14” Signature: Goyo ga Ref. #: JPR1-72120 17. Woman after the Bath Artist: Goyo Date: July, 1920 Medium: Woodblock print Size: 17.75” x 12” Signature: Goyo ga with circular YG seal Ref. #: JP-110270 18. Woman with Sash in Nagajuban Artist: Goyo Date: May 1920 Medium: Woodblock print Size: 18” x 5” Signature: Goyo ga Ref. #: JPR1-72136 19. Woman Washing Her Face Artist: Goyo Date: Designed 1920, printed 19501952 by Yasuo Hashiguchi Medium: Woodblock print Size: 22” x 16” Signature: Goyo ga Ref. #: JP1-71967 20. Young Woman in a Summer Kimono Artist: Goyo Date: This print was designed 1920. While the work was printed after Goyo’s death, the key block and color blocks were completed during his lifetime.

Medium: Woodblock print Seals: Goyo (family seal) Size: 20.75” x 11.25” Signature: Goyo ga Ref. #: JP3680 21. Undergarment (varient state) Artist: Kotondo Date: July, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Kawaguchi Seals: Carver: Ito, printer: Komatsu and publisher seal Kawaguchi Size: 18.25” x 11.5” Signature: Kotondo saku with rectangular seal Kotondo Ref. #: JP-111568 22. Undergarment (Nagajuban) Artist: Kotondo Date: July, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Edition: 135/200 (export edition) Seals: Paper edition label on reverse with signature and red Kotondo circular seal Size: 18.25” x 11.5” Signature: Kotondo saku with rectangular seal Kotondo Ref. #: JP-111570 23. Rain Artist: Kotondo Date: October, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Edition: 78/200 (export edition) Seals: Paper edition label on reverse with signature and red Kotondo circular seal Size: 18.25” x 11.75” Signature: Kotondo ga with rectangular seal Kotondo Ref. #: JP-111572 24. Snow Artist: Kotondo Date: October, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Edition: 112/200 (export edition) Seals: Edition label on reverse with signature and red Kotondo circular seal Size: 18.25” x 11.75”


Signature: Kotondo ga with rectangular seal Kotondo Ref. #: JP-111566 25. Makeup Artist: Kotondo Date: June, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Seals: Edition label on reverse with signature and red Kotondo circular seal Provenance: Robert O. Muller Collection Edition: 50/200 (for foreign export, Torii Kotondo) Size: 16.5” x 11.75” Signature: Kotondo ga with circular Kotondo seal Ref. #: JPR-111226 26. Steam Artist: Kotondo Date: October, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Edition: 85/200 (export edition) Seals: Paper edition label on reverse with signature and red Kotondo circular seal Provenance: Robert O. Muller Collection Size: 17.25” x 12” Signature: Kotondo ga with circular seal Kotondo Ref. #: JPR-111228 27. Morning Hair Artist: Kotondo Date: c.1930 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Ikeda Edition: 97/100 Seals: Paper seal on reverse (Ikeda, Asanegami, 97th) Size: 19” x 11.75” Signature: Kotondo ga with rectangular seal Shi Ref. #: JP-111574 28. At the Mirror (Makeup) Artist: Kotondo Date: Summer 1930 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Kawaguchi

Edition: 117/350 Size: 18” x 11.75” Signature: Kotondo ga with rectangular seal Shi Note: This print is the first edition by Kawaguchi with the pink kimono. Ref. #: jpr-111924 29. Iris Summer Kimono Artist: Kotondo Date: 1932 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Ikeda Edition: 4/100 Seals: Kotondo Size: 18.75” x 11.5” Signature: Kotondo ga Ref. #: JPR-109842 30. Combing Her Hair Artist: Kotondo Date: October, 1929 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Sakai and Kawaguchi Edition: 200 Size: 18.75” x 12” Signature: Kotondo saku with square seal Kotondo Ref. #: jp-111930

34. Women: Evening Artist: Kiyoshi (attributed) Date: 1928 Medium: Colored pencil drawing Size: 7.5” x 10.25” Note: Another uncompleted drawing can be found on the reverse. Date noted on lower right side. Ref. #: JP-111920 35. Dressing Her Hair Artist: Kiyoshi Date: 1931 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Tanrokudo Size: 15.75” x 10” Signature: Kiyoshi with rectangular seal Kobayakawa Ref. #: JP-111622 36. After the Bath Artist: Kiyoshi Date: c.1933 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Takamizawa Size: 16” x 10.25” Signature: Kiyoshi with rectangular seal Kobayakawa Ref. #: JP-111624

31. Western Style Dancing Artist: Kiyoshi Date: Spring 1934 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Size: 17.25” x 10.75” Signature: Kiyoshi with rectangular seal Kobayakawa Ref. #: JP-111628

37. Applying Beni to Her Lips Artist: Kiyoshi Date: c.1930 Medium: Woodblock print Seals: Ogikai (lower right corner) Size: 10.25” x 15” Signature: Kiyoshi with rectangular artist seal Ref. #: JP-111630

32. Sipping Cocktails Artist: Kiyoshi (attributed) Date: c.1928 Medium: Pencil drawing Size: 10.25” x 7.25” Ref. #: JP-111922

38. Falling Cherry Blossoms (Hanafubuki) Artist: Tatsumi Series: Five Figures of Modern Beauties Date: 1953 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Nihon Hanga Kenkyujo Seals: Lower left margin: Proofed by Tatsumi. Lower right margin: Carver Yanoshita Tadashichi. Printer Inomura Shonosuke. Inspected by Gihachi. Size: 17.25” x 11.25”

33. Beach Day Artist: Kiyoshi (attributed) Date: c.1928 Medium: Colored pencil drawing Size: 8.75” x 7” Note: Another drawing can be found on reverse. Ref. #: JP-111918

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Signature: Tatsumi with rectangular seal Tatsumi Ref. #: JP-111612 39. Autumn Artist: Shuho Series: Four Images of Women Date: 1927 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Bijutsusha Size: 15.25” x 10.25” Signature: Shuho Ref. #: JP-111620 40. It Looks Like Snow Artist: Shuho Series: Four Images of Women Date: 1927 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Bijutsusha Size: 15” x 10.25” Signature: Shuho Ref. #: JP-111614 41. After a Bath Artist: Shunsen Series: Three Beautiful Women by Shunsen

Date: 1928 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 13/200 Seals: Watanabe 6mm circular seal Size: 16” x 10.75” Signature: Shunsen ga with rectangular seal Shunsen Ref. #: JPR1-65970 42. Combing Her Hair Artist: Shunsen Series: Three Beautiful Women by Shunsen Date: 1928 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Edition: 94/150 Size: 15.5” x 10.5” Signature: Shunsen ga with rectangular seal Shunsen Ref. #: JP-111616 43. Nude Playing with Cat Artist: Hiroaki (aka Shotei) Date: c. 1927-1931 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Fusui Gabo

Seals: Printer Onotomi Size: 17” x 10.75” Signature: Hiroaki (Komei) with rectangular seal Hiroaki (or Komei) saku Ref. #: JP-111596 44. Maiko (Apprentice Geisha) Artist: Toyonari Date: 1924 Medium: Woodblock print Publisher: Watanabe Shozaburo Size: 15.75” x 11.25” Signature: Toyonari ga Ref. #: JP-111594 45. Snow View from the Window Artist: Kajiwara, Hisako Date: 1930 Medium: Painting on Silk Signature: Hisako Size: 49” x 10.5” Ref. #: JP-109399

Select Sources Brown, Kendall H. Taisho Chic: Japanese Modernity, Nostalgia, and Deco. Honolulu, HI: Honolulu Academy of Arts, 2001. Dalby, Liza Crihfield. Geisha. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008. Hamanaka, Shinji, and Amy Reigle Newland. The Female Image: 20th Century Prints of Japanese Beauties. Leiden: Hotei, 2003. Iino, Masahito, Minoru Kono, and Kanzo Hirasawa, eds. Ito Shinsui Zen Mokuhanga = All the Woodblock Prints of Ito Shinsui. Tokyo: Executive Committee for the Exhibition “All the Woodblock Prints of Shinsui Ito, 1992. Mueller, Laura J. Strong Women, Beautiful Men: Japanese Portrait Prints from the Toledo Museum of Art. Toledo, OH: Toledo Museum of Art, 2005. Newland, Amy, and Chris Uhlenbeck. Ukiyo-e to Shin Hanga: The Art of Japanese Woodblock Prints. Leicester: Magna Books, 1990. Sato, Barbara. The New Japanese Woman: Modernity, Media, and Women in Interwar Japan. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007. Sato, Mitsunobu. Hashiguchi Goyo Ten = Hashiguchi Goyo Exhibition. Tokyo, 1995. Silverberg, Miriam. Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: the Mass Culture of Japanese Modern Times. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of California Press, 2010. Slade, Toby. Japanese Fashion: A Cultural History. Oxford: Berg, 2010. Smith, Lawrence. The Japanese Print since 1900: Old Dreams and New Visions. London: British Museum, 1983 Smith, Lawrence. Modern Japanese Prints, 1912-1989: Woodblocks and Stencils. London: Trustees of the British Museum, 1994. Stephens, Amy Reigle, and Hiromi Okamoto. The New Wave: Twentieth-Century Japanese Prints from the Robert O. Muller Collection. London: Bamboo Publishing, London, 1993.

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RONIN GALLERY Bryant Park Place 32 West 40th Street New York, NY 10018 212.688.0188 www.roningallery.com ronin@roningallery.com Chairman: Herbert Libertson President: David Libertson Executive Director: Roni Neuer Director: Tomomi Seki Associate Director: Madison Folks Associate Director: Travis Suzaka Gallery Assistant: Valentina Vidusin

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New Perspectives Shin Hanga Beauties OPENING MARCH 6 11AM-6PM On View: Mar. 6 – April 25, 2020 Hours: Tues. – Fri. 11 am – 6 pm and Sat. 11...