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BIRDSCAPING Birds as agent and device to balance large system MLA Project A Kexin Xie (s3549693)


Content

Bibliogaphy Manifesto and Conclusion Project 3 - Island Competition Floating Islands

Project 2 - Growing Land Birds Habitat Recreation

Project Overview

Flyway and Sites Analysis

Project 1 - Formative Landscape Birds Habitat Resilience

1. Formation of Territory and Field The Understanding of Birds in Landscape for Ecological System

9. Site Analysis

10. Birds as Device: The Design Strategy and Process 11. Design Details

2. Birds as Agent and Device The profile of Curlew Sandpiper

3. New Collaboration with Countries: Birds and Stakeholders

4. Field and Territory: The environment influence of flyway and site identification

5. Threatened Factor of Habitats - Sites Analysis

6. Current condition of Lake Albacutya 7. Birds as agent: The process of lanscape transformation 8. Design Details


Formation of Territory and Field - The Understanding of Birds in Landscape for Ecological System Background: ecological system - biological diversity - habitat reserve - human and non-human species - landscape When talking about ecological system, biological diversity is one of the key components and have great influence for the ecological system. For the biological diversity conservation, habitat reserves are and enssential element in any comprehensive program to conserve biodiversity for the forseeable future. Also, the habitat has a tight relationship with landscape, which deals with different envionment: natual and artificial, as well as the relationship between human and non-human species, In this project, as the conceptual division between city and nature dissolves, landscape is called upon to negotiate the territory and field between human and non-human species. The project aims to use non-human speceis to structure and transform landscape hybrid relationships that positively contribute to the biological diversity and ecological system. Position: Migratory species - birds - territory and field Among non-human species, migratory species are unique members of ecological systems—assemblages of plants, animals, and microbes that interact with one another and with the physical and chemical environment. The article Migratory species and Ecological Process talk about the influence of migratory species in details, it said the migration evokes the large quantitiy of nutrition recyclement, creates different types of microhabitats, results in an array of life-supporting goods and services for ecological system without which human life could not be sustained. In migratory species, birds are the typical manifestation for the characteristic of migratory species, and also have ecological importance for migratory species life cycle and environment. Also, birds have the significance role for conservation planning and environmental assessments, ‘The better understanding of the ecological role of avian community structure will help consider habitat conservation decision-making in a new way.’ The research article Ecological Importance of birds put forwards an idea of rethink the role of birds to consider the conservation decision-making.

Field formed by birds flock

All in all, those two articles motivate the idea of the project as well as the grand understanding of birds is - birds are widspread throughout the world, forming specific flyways to link other animals, different countries, as well as create their own territory and field. So birds become the object to seek the answers and possible as active players by engaging their habitat requirements, biological behaviors and seasonal patterns. Then two inquies are put forward: first, how to understand birds form territory and field within the human society development; second, how landscape design will contribute to a new biodiversity conservation when using the influence brought by birds, and have collaboration with birds.

Precedents

Territory formed by birds

THESIS: Synanthropic Suburbia

Vector and connection

The project mainly researches the new relationship between human and non-human species as there are more and more animals invade the city. Synanthropic Suburbia seeks to blur the boundary of animal acitivity territory and architectural area. Three architectural prosthetics re-imagine conventional building components into hybrid systems that augment the single family home and define the physical interface between human and non-human species. Eventually human perceptions could shift and more hybrid conditions of human-animal living could emerge

Territory of land form

Billion Oyster project: Living breakwaters The staten island is facing endangered due to water pollution and the death of oyster and other ocean mammals. The project actually using oyster as a new hero to reduce risk, revive ecologies, and connect educators to the shoreline, inspiring a new generation of Harbor stewards and a more resilient region over time. We have designed “reef street” micro-pockets of habitat complexity to host finfish, shellfish, and lobsters, and also modeled the breakwater system at a macro scale to understand how and where they can most effectively protect communities.

1.


Bird as agent and device - The profile of Curlew Sandpiper The process of the idea development Except for the natural enemy, human activities become the largest threaten factor for curlew sandpiper, the development of urban, industry and agriculture cause the habitat loss, lead to the endangered situation of curlew sandpiper. The traditional habitat conservation consider birds as a passive role, and the serving area is limited in habitat itself. The idea of bird as agent and device is to shift the role of birds to an active situation, consider the habitat by using bird as agent and device in a different way.

Predator

The basic needs for curlew sandpiper

Natural enemy Huwk

Industry and urban expansion

Agriculture development Human hunting Migration

Habitat endangered influence

18-23 cm

Habitat decrease

Curlew Sandpiper

East Asian–Australasian Flyway

The East Asian–Australasian Flyway is one of the world’s great flyways. At its northernmost starts from the Taimyr Peninsula in Russia. and end in Australia and New Zealand to the south part. Between these extremes the Flyway covers much of eastern Asia, including China, Japan, Korea, SouthEast Asia. It is especially important for the millions of migratory waders and shorebirds that breed in northern Asia and spend the non-breeding season in South-East Asia and Australasia. In total, the flyway passes through 22 countries with approximately 55 migratory species travelling along it, equating to about 5 million birds. Among these major species, Curlew Sandpiper became the member of the red list, facing endangered in recent years, the project will mainly focus on the research of Curlew Sandpiper to see what influences could it bring to the landscape and in what ways the stakeholders will collaborate with them.

Current habitat conservation: Dispersed, disconnect with surrounding fabric

Birds as agent: Linking and motivation

Birds as device: Transmitter and cultivator

Breeding Area Mud Grass Red Knot

Water Juvanile 2 years later

Marshes & Pools

The influence brought by curlew sandpiper

The clutch fo 4 eggs

Food Insects

Nutrition transmitter

Larvae

Dunlin

Seed dispersal

Birdscaping is a project that consider birds from different roles to influence, transform and balance environmental system. Here, birds are recognized as agents, as actors in their own rights, who are instrumental to a range of environmental phenomena; it is defined as linking and motivation. Another one is regard birds as devices, as vector and cultivator, which are the tools that human can engage and design with to accomplish healthy environment. Birds here blurs the spatial definition between human and non-human to maximize the mutual benefit of collaboration. The diagram of curlew sanpipers’ need shows the basic environmental elements that could support their livings. This is the standard for the later research and testing idea. Among all the elements, water and muddy area are the essential place, they support the habitat for curlew, as well as cultivate the food resource for them.

The apeal of other animals

Plants growth

Grand Claim of the project

Plants expasion

Insects

Stopover and foraging places Vegetation

Frog

Plankton

Water

Invertebrates

Grass Mud Micro organism

Then the influence of curlew sandpiper tells the contribution this bird could bring to the environment, it is the starting point to understand the idea of birds as agent and device.

Molluscs

Fish

Cultivation Seeds Shrimp

Crabs Small fishes Major food resource

Invertebrates Insects Food resource

Emergent food resource Rabbits and other mammels

Ducks

2.


New Collaboration with Countries: Birds and Stakeholders Curlew Sandpiper

Diagram of stakeholder identification

Suitable Habitat

Birds flock Countries

Department

Russia

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Aim Original habitat Comprehensive Development Balanced Envrionment System

Government

Urban and human development

South Korea

China

Ministry of Environment

State Forestry Administration

Birds endangered

Government

East Asian-Australiasian Flyway Partnership (Stakeholders) Thailand

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Birds (Curlew Sandpiper) (Agents/Devices)

Malaysia Habitat damaged: fragmented and disappeared

Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

Singapore

National Pards Board

Indonesia

The Ministry of Environment and Forestry

Government

Australia

Recover and resilience

Department of Environment and Energy

Birdscaping Project

New Zealand Aim

Sustainable Environment

Urban Development

Habitats

Department of Conservation

Endangered habitats

Residential Activity Migration route of Curlew Sandpiper

Collaboration with different countries along the flyway 3.


Yellow Sea: Birds flying route and intertidal zone changes

Field and Territory: The environment influence of flyway and site identification Related habitat field: The major type of habitats along the flyway

Breeding area: Tundra

䌀甀爀氀攀眀 匀愀渀搀瀀椀瀀攀爀 搀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀甀漀渀 愀渀搀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀 挀漀渀搀椀椀漀渀 椀渀 匀漀甀琀栀 䄀甀猀琀爀愀氀椀愀

唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀

Foraging area: Lake

唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀

唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀

䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀 刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀

䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀

刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀

刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀

刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀

South Australia: Wimmera

氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀

䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀

倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀

䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀 圀攀琀氀愀渀搀

䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀

Foraging area: Wetland

圀攀琀氀愀渀搀

圀攀琀氀愀渀搀

一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀

圀攀琀氀愀渀搀 一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀

䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀

一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀

一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀 䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀

䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀 䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最

䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀 䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最

䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最 䴀椀最爀愀琀漀爀礀 䈀椀爀搀猀 䠀愀戀椀琀愀琀

Foraging area: Intertidal zone The embodiment of territory and field of birds and environment is the activity area and habitats. Territory can be seen as the influencial area through their migration; while the field here could also be regarded as the habitat for birds. What’s more, both the birds flock and landscape materials have the mutual influence with each other. This mapping shows the relationship between birds density and green rate changes in 10 years. Most of the places have obvious green area increase along the flyway, however, the two large area - The Yellow Sea and South Australia decreased over the years. Both of the two sites are actually facing endangered as well.

一愀愀漀渀愀氀 倀愀爀欀 眀椀琀栀 氀漀眀 搀攀猀椀琀礀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀愀漀渀 愀渀搀 搀攀猀猀攀爀琀

㰀㔀  

一愀愀漀渀愀氀 倀愀爀欀 眀椀琀栀 洀攀搀椀甀洀 搀攀渀猀椀琀礀 漀昀 瘀攀最攀琀愀愀漀渀Ⰰ 眀栀椀琀攀 猀愀渀搀 愀渀搀 氀愀欀攀 眀愀琀攀爀

㔀  ⴀ㈀   

䌀漀洀瀀爀攀栀攀渀猀椀瘀攀 䠀愀戀椀琀愀琀 眀椀琀栀 栀椀最栀 搀攀渀猀椀琀礀 瘀攀最攀琀愀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 挀漀愀猀琀愀氀 爀攀猀漀甀爀挀攀

㈀   ⴀ㔀    Habitats: National Park

匀攀愀猀栀漀爀攀Ⰰ 猀眀愀洀瀀 愀渀搀 眀攀琀氀愀渀搀 Green rate increasement in 10 years Grazing modified pasture 15% 吀栀攀 攀渀搀愀渀最攀爀搀 栀愀戀椀琀愀琀 眀椀琀栀 搀攀猀猀攀爀琀 Dryland cropping Territory of birds: Influence of birds flock and green rate changes

倀漀瀀甀氀愀愀漀渀 ⠀倀攀爀 䬀椀氀漀洀攀琀攀爀⤀

䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最

Distribution of 䐀椀猀琀爀椀戀甀甀漀渀 漀昀 戀椀爀搀猀 最爀漀甀瀀 birds group

0 Green rate decrease

Major urban area

Existing intertidal zone 䔀渀氀愀爀最攀 䄀爀攀愀

Influence of large birds flock

Disappeared intertidal zone

Birds flock

Endangered habitats 4.


Threatened Factor of Habitats - Sites Analysis The Yellow Sea: Urban Expansion for the Intertidal Area Claim

唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 唀爀戀愀渀 䐀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀ⴀ氀愀爀最攀 猀挀愀氀攀 椀爀爀椀最愀愀漀渀 刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀 刀愀椀渀昀攀搀 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀攀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 倀爀漀琀攀挀挀瘀攀 最爀愀猀猀氀愀渀搀 眀椀琀栀 氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 氀漀眀 氀椀瘀攀猀琀漀挀欀 搀攀渀猀椀椀礀 倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 倀爀漀琀攀挀琀攀搀 昀漀爀攀猀琀 䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀 䘀漀爀攀猀琀 眀椀琀栀 愀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 愀挀挀瘀椀椀攀猀 圀攀琀氀愀渀搀 圀攀琀氀愀渀搀 一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀 一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀 䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀 䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀 䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最 䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最

The major threat in Yellow Sea is the urban expansion, the surrounded countries are the fast-developing countries recent year, the pressure of population growth and the need for land keeps growing. As intertidal zone has rich resources for both human and non-human species, a lot of government plan the land reclaim to ease the pressure of land use, this causes serious consequence for birds and other creatures’ living, damage the ecological systems.

Most Suitable Urban development

Forest with agriculture activities

Agriculture large scale irrigation

Rainfed Agriculture

Protective grassland

Protective forest

Wetland

Nature conservation

Grazing modified pasture

Dryland cropping

Existing intertidal zone

Disappeared intertidal zone

Least Suitable

Wimmera: The threaten of climate warming and the condition for birds habitas in the future

2015

2045

2085 The situation in Wimmera is quite different. The pressure of population and land use is low, but the drought caused by climate warming is the key problem of the healthy development of habitats. What’s more, the activity of grazing agriculture exceed the endangered speed of these habitats. The mapping shows the living condition of curlew sandpiper without any control of climate warming, most of the habitat will no longer suitable for the living, this will definitely cause more death of curlew sandpiper.

5.


一愀琀甀爀攀 䌀漀渀猀攀爀瘀愀愀漀渀 䜀爀愀稀椀渀最 䴀漀搀椀ǻ攀搀 倀愀猀琀甀爀攀

䐀爀礀氀愀渀搀 䌀爀漀瀀瀀椀渀最

䔀砀椀猀猀渀最 䤀渀琀攀爀爀搀愀氀 娀漀渀攀

䐀椀猀愀瀀瀀攀愀爀攀搀 䤀渀琀攀爀爀搀愀氀 娀漀渀攀 椀渀 㔀  礀攀愀爀猀

䴀愀樀漀爀 䘀攀攀搀椀渀最 䄀爀攀愀

Project 1 - Formative Landscape -Birds Habitat Resilience Current condition of Lake Albacutya

䔀渀搀愀渀最攀爀攀搀 䘀攀攀搀椀渀最 䄀爀攀愀

䔀渀搀愀渀最攀爀攀搀 䠀愀戀椀琀愀琀 

Lake Albacutya at Wimmera Terminal Lake Systems was designated as a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1982. It is a large subterminal lake of the internally draining Wimmera River, and an important habitat for both curlew sandpiper and regent parrot. However, the expansion of grazing agriculture, the increasing evaporation and low precipitation cause the long-term dry of this lake, lead to the death and die back of Eucalypt woodlands, therefore threaten the living environment of these two birds as well as other species. The research mapping the changes of this region through the years to find the relationship between birds foraging area and woodland distribution. The birds activity has a contribution to the plants survival to some 唀爀戀愀渀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀 ㄀㤀㠀  ㄀㤀㌀  extent. But the influence is too weak to balance the damaged caused by agriculture expansion and climate change. On the other hand, the space and territory for birds is squeezed by human activities, which the major activity here is agriculture, this will also lead to the endagered condition of living birds here. The aim for this site is using birds as agent to make the habitat resilience, ative the energy to maximize its spatial value. 䄀最爀椀挀甀氀琀甀爀愀氀 搀攀瘀攀氀漀瀀洀攀渀琀

㄀㤀㠀 

Year 2005

Year 2008

Year 2012

Year 2016

吀栀攀 夀攀氀氀漀眀 匀攀愀

㈀ ㄀㘀

㈀ ㄀㘀

圀椀洀洀攀爀愀 吀攀爀洀椀渀愀氀 䰀愀欀攀

匀漀甀琀栀 䄀甀猀琀爀愀氀椀愀 愀琀 琀栀攀 䈀椀最 䐀攀猀猀攀爀琀

Year 2005

Year 2008

Year 2012

Year 2016

Agriculture clear land Water river Heathland Eucalypt woodland Plains woodland Eucalypt woodland Grassyland Curlew Sandpiper distribution Regent Parrot distribution Influencing area of Eucalypt by birds Regent Parrot distribution Curlew Sandpiper distribution Eucalypt woodland

Climate Change

6.


Project 1 - Formative Landscape -Birds Habitat Resilience Birds as agent: The process of lanscape transformation Current condition Narrow birds field

Birds as agent: Linking and Motivation

Birds foraging place

Current condition Lack of water and weak water containment

Birds themselves effect the environment to some extent, which can be seen as an agent connecting human, environment and other animals. The unique characteristics of birds such as browsers, pollinators, seed dispersers and migration behaviors bring different influences in different factors. What’s more, the movement and behavior of birds form the different spatial field, which could trigger the landform transformation to some extent. Through the migration and foraging experience, birds pollinate plants, disperse seeds, scavenge carcasses and recycle nutrition back into the earth, then offer more living opportunity to other insects and mammals. What’s more, the multiply and prosperous of birds in one place can contribute the environment’s vitality, ensure the healthy natural cycle process, and even benefit to human community and economic development. In this site, the fields for birds activities are squeezed by human activities such as agricutural grazing and hunting, they are narrow the area of both curlew sandpiper and regent parrot, as well as damage the Eucalypt that provide the important habitat for birds. So the testing idea is consider birds as agent to create a new field of birds, birds then become the motivation to trigger the landscape and territory transformation for a healthier habitat. Here, water is the key element, for it is the basic need for birds and also the problem of this site. The major aim of landform transformation is to contain more water and reduce the evaporation for the future development. At the same time, birds also become a link between Eucalypt woodlands, other animals, human activites and agriculture development. The resilience of this habitat brought by birds will active the energy, then appeal other species back, the value of a ramsar wetland will be fully developed. Besides, the testing idea will also contribute to the recreational and agricultural development.

100

Birds routes

75 65

55

Landscape transform to expand birds field

Birds stopover spot 50

Artificial sturcture construction for water and birds nutrition management

Expasion of wetland and contribution to surrounding agriculture

Testing idea development of birds as agent

Current Topography

Birds distribution and routes

Operation development process

New expanded agricultural wetland: combination of agriculture and habitat

Pipeline distribution

Step 1. Transform - Small natural wetlands For low evaporation and more water containment Appeal birds and trigger the space activity

Step 2. Expand - For more wetlands Artificial wetland construction For more water restoration and space of human activities

Step 3. Develop - influence with surrounding agriculture pipeline constuction and new small habitats For mutual development between agriculture and birds

7.


Project 1 - Formative Landscape -Birds Habitat Resilience Design Details

Detailed diagram of design

Camping area

Modified small hills and water tank

Water

Buffer zone

Pipeline

Natural Wetland The combination with water pipes is to make a better stormwater management during the dry period ‘Birds Hill’ Water Tank

Modified wetland

Wet Season

Section Expanded water pool at farmland

Strategic Plan

Dry Season

The water tank is a combination with modified hills for birds, it has huge moisture storage capacity that can cultivate the surrounding agriculture for a long term

The long-term water containment change through the testing: The aim is to achieve long-lasting water containment in the future, restore the function of wetland, keep the spatial energy for birds, other creatures as well as human

rain water

5 years

10 years

20 years

8.


Project 2 - Growing Land - Birds Habitat Recreation Site Analysis

Saemangeum is an important habitat for migratory birds as well as curlew sandpiper. It has great natural intertidal zone to cultivate birds and ocean mammals, however the government built a sea dike and reclaimed the intertidal area to satisfy the population growth and land use presseure, this behavior lead to the seriously damage of species lived in this place. Most habitats are disappeared, the amount of curlew sandpiper and other migratory birds is declined dramatically. Other sea walls like Saemangeum are also built along the west coast of South Korea. The behavior of land reclaim and urban expansion race to control the birds’ foraging area. So in this site, the idea is about the new territory construction by considering birds as device.

9.


Project 2 - Growing Land - Birds Habitat Recreation Birds as Device: The Design Strategy and Process Ecological and Environmental Lands

2017

2020

2023

2026

2032

2035

Industrial Lands Science and Research Lands

Birds as device: Transmitter and cultivator The identification of birds as agent can draw forth another role of birds, as devices to be utilized and get along with human and designers. Agricultural Lands

Tourism Leisure Lands

Residential Area

New and Renewable Energy Lands

Agricultural Lands

The idea of birds as devices can be embodied in two ways: firstly, birds can be an important catalyst for generate and develop territory as a transmitter, contribute to the territory growth by their foraging and flying behavior; Secondly, birds are the cultivator to the help the growing process of the habitat, it can be seen as a good partner with human as well as the growing process of the environment. By taking advantage of the behavior of birds, designers can exemplify the process of nutrition movement by birds to cultivate the environment to promote the healthy recycle of ecological system. In this site, the birds habitats are disappeared due to the land reclaim, so the key idea of birds as device is to design a new birds route, and create new territory and field along the new flyway. With the help of artificial structure, the new ecological land will be created based on the government plan for Saemangeum, to achieve the healthy balance, and using this place as an experimental point to search the new possibility for birds and endangered habitat at other places.

Complex Urban Lands (Industry/International/Tourism-leisure/Ecology-Environment)

Government Future planning at Saemangeum

General operation plan - New birds flyway and the growing habitat with artificial structure

Habitat expansion development with the process of construction 10.


Project 2 - Growing Land - Birds Habitat Recreation Design Details

Detailed plan of the structure

The expansion of territory

The development process of the growing structure

5 years Constructed mudflat

Structure of growing base

10 years

The connection of seperate mudflat

Shrimp and fish cultivation area

The coverage of plants

Walking Path

Nutrition tank for birds and other ocean mammals

20 years

The plan at Ecological and Environmental Lands

5 years

15 years Section shows how the habitat growth and how to understand birds as device, as the characteristic of trasmitter, the nutrition and seeds will travel from other place to Saemageum, the artificial strucutre only offer the basic land and place for them to grow

10 years

20 years

11.


Project 3 - Island Competition - Floating Island System of the island

Water

Birds

Island

Birds at global scale: consider the flyways and flocks as biodiversity highway, another pattern of multiple territorial connection without the consider of countries and boundaries.

Aquatic Invertebrate

Seaweed

Ocean mammals

Vegetation

Insects

Mammals

Migration flyways as a unique biodiversity highways, physically bridging different habitats, and the flock of birds overlap with the territories of the ground, influencing the landscape condition. The idea of floating island at large scale ignores the physical boundary and political countries, consider a new floating stopover places that spreading at different material of territory, collecting birds nutrition at the same time to nurture the habitat as well as the outside environment. Form a multiple territorial by birds, habitat and continent.

Soil

The details of the organisation of islands

New flyway

Converge point

Starting point

Strategic plan for the island at global scale

Section 唀爀戀愀渀

伀挀攀愀渀

䤀猀氀愀渀搀

匀攀挀挀漀渀

12.


Manifesto and Conclusion

Grand Claim Birdscaping is a project that consider birds from different roles to influence, transform and balance environmental system. Here, birds are recognized as agents, as actors in their own rights, who are instrumental to a range of environmental phenomena; and devices, which are the tools that human can engage and design with to accomplish healthy environment. Birds here blurs the spatial definition between human and non-human to maximize the mutual benefit of collaboration. The project will research the interaction between birds and human, then two inquiries are put forward: first, How birds could react to the human development in different ways; second, how landscape design will contribute to a new biodiversity conservation when using the influence brought by birds, and have collaboration with birds.

Birds as agents: make a resilience at medium endangered habitat, balance the system through birds need, connect with appropriate human intervention then contribute to sustainable environmental development and economic system. 1. 2. 3.

Relate birds flying routes and current topography to create new field Form the field to solve threatened problem Respond to the surrounding fabric and get connection with the neighbourhood

For the first site, the major role of birds of that habitat is being an agent, except for pollinate and disperse by birds, another important idea is form a more suitable habitat according to the birds’ demand in the environment that facing the same threat. The basic rule of transformation of this site is set up birds nutrition structure as well as having the function of water management for dry out problem, through the design and transformation, the place will be re-activated by birds, then contribute to other residential birds and animals, plants, human activities. Birds become the initial link and agent for the resilience and will contribute to a healthy development of the ecological system. Birds as devices: by taking full advantage of birds’ influence at seriously damaged habitat, to achieve habitat recreation and cultivation of the new habitat ecosystem itself.

Lineage Position: Understand the contribution of non-human species for ecological system and biodiversity through their relationship with habitat reserve in landscape. When talking about ecological system, biological diversity is one of the key components and have great influence for the ecological system. For the biological diversity conservation, habitat reserves are and essential element in any comprehensive program to conserve biodiversity for the foreseeable future. Also, the habitat has a tight relationship with landscape, which deals with different environment: natural and artificial, as well as the relationship between human and non-human species. In this project, as the conceptual division between city and nature dissolves, landscape is called upon to negotiate the territory and field between human and non-human species. The project aims to use non-human species to structure and transform landscape hybrid relationships that positively contribute to the biological diversity and ecological system. ‘’Yet like all species, migratory species are members of ecological systems (ecosystems)—assemblages of plants, animals, and microbes that interact with one another and with the physical and chemical environment.’’ —— Migratory species and Ecological Process

1. 2. 3. 4.

Set artificial structure as the assist of birds Design a new birds’ flyway Birds as ecological moving vector to promote the growth of designed area Form a new territory by the movement and connect to the existing urban context

As for the second site, where mudflat habitats were replaced by industrial and urban lands, the aim and principle for the similar problem is habitat recreation with the function of fully use the energy, pollination and dispersal from birds. Here, the value and resources of birds become a new idea for a future environment development, to cultivate flora and fauna through birds and feed birds back, create a long-lasting and balanced ecology system. To fully utilize birds as a valuable resource, artificial structures are designed and built to collect these resources brought by birds; meanwhile, the structures also have the function of solving environmental problems that necessary for birds. Birds at global scale: consider the flyways and flocks as biodiversity highway, another pattern of multiple territorial connection without the consider of countries and boundaries.

This article talks about the influence of migratory species in details, it said the migration evokes the large quantity of nutrition encirclement, creates different types of microhabitats, results in an array of life-supporting goods and services for ecological system without which human life could not be sustained. In migratory species, birds are the typical manifestation for the characteristic of migratory species, and have ecological importance for migratory species life cycle and environment. Also, birds have the significance role for conservation planning and environmental assessments. ‘’The better understanding of the ecological role of avian community structure will help consider habitat conservation decision-making in a new way.’’ The research article Ecological Importance of birds put forwards an idea of rethink the role of birds to consider the conservation decision-making.

The largest scale that relations with birds is habitat, which is a place of great concern to birds, including breeding area and wintering area, habitat apply for the living places as well as food resources. General birds’ habitat can be included in the following types: wetlands, forests, seashore and intertidal area; these places are all important area for ecosystem and biodiversity, where birds become the key link in the system. Migration flyways as a unique biodiversity highways, physically bridging different habitats, and the flock of birds overlap with the territories of the ground, influencing the landscape condition. What’s more, the living condition and reaction of birds in this environment directly reveal the healthy condition of the system, birds and the living environment have a mutualistic relationship——that is, they both benefit from the relationship; while birds get nutrition from the environment, and bring the nutrition back and cultivate the area at the same time.

The current paradigm of habitat conservation for migratory species

The principle at large scale ignores the physical boundary and political countries, consider a new floating stopover places that spreading at different material of territory, collecting birds nutrition at the same time to nurture the habitat as well as the outside environment. Form a multiple territorial by birds, habitat and continent.

“Ecosystem has biotic and abiotic components. There is constant interaction between. But, recently, this relationship has been changed negatively. For example, habitat loss is the major factor affecting directly or indirectly the global decline of biodiversity. Being complexed to measure directly, biodiversity trends are often monitored as the extent and rate of species extinctions. Therefore, species’ responses to habitat loss are a central issue of contemporary conservation biology” —— (Mikusiński and Angelstam 2004). In most conditions, migratory species are highly depending on the quality of habitat, the habitat loss due to human development largely influence the living of non-human species. Traditional habitat reserve mainly serves for human themselves, however, there are two characteristic of the conservation that could be considered in different ways: first, the fragmentation and disconnection with the surrounding fabric form an isolated environment for the general habitat recovery; second, the singularity for one species narrow the spatial value and the contribution to the surrounding area to some extent. The relationship between human and non-human should be carefully considered when design and recover the habitat, and there also have several design research projects to research human and non-human in different ways. One project is the THESIS: Synanthropic Suburbia, researches the new relationship between human and non-human species as there are more and more animals invade the city. Synanthropic Suburbia seeks to blur the boundary of animal activity territory and architectural area. Three architectural prosthetics re-imagine conventional building components into hybrid systems and define the physical interface between human and non-human species. The project talks about non-human species will have a new relationship with human living, the role of animals shifted from passive to active. The articles and the thesis project evoke the idea of rethinking the role and impact brought by non-human species and how they affect habitat in their own way.

Birds are the important source for cultures, especially the aboriginal culture, inherit the tradition of the view of birds and strengthen their cultural value to modify and fuse into modern culture. Additionally, migratory birds provide especially valuable cultural services because their migration pathways are typically predictable in time and space so that ecotourists are virtually guaranteed to see them, which can also develop and attract human activity like hunting and bird watching. In other words, through the resilience project by the research and design for the birds, the beneficial of recreational, economic and political system will together contribute to a more sustainable and healthier world system in the future development. Conclusion In the birdscaping project, birds are the main object to study and research, then triggers the idea of environmental resilience by the needs and behavior of birds. As birds play a great role of being agents, devices and bioindicators, the project will make use of these precious value of birds to evoke landscape transformation to mediate and balance unhealthy and destroyed environment, connect human, plants, birds and other non-human species in a balanced way. Eventually, birds will become a new hero to link the world, make a better ecosystem and biodiversity system.

Birds as agent: linking and motivation Birds themselves effect the environment to some extent, which can be seen as an agent connecting human, environment and other animals. In ecological models, the evaluation of birds and other non-human species depends on whether effects on other species or ecosystem function are more or less desirable from a given perspective. The effects in ecology and biodiversity systems, although context dependent, can be evaluated as ‘beneficial’ or ‘detrimental’. In that case, the specific influence of birds need to be exactly identified. For the beneficial perspective, the unique characteristics of birds such as browsers, pollinators, seed dispersers and migration behaviors bring different influences in different factors. On one hand, the migration of birds every year build a physical connection between different countries, which break the political boundaries and create their own field by its flock during the migration. In this case, based on the migration globally, birds become an agent of the politically collaboration among countries for the agreement of healthy environmental development. On the other hand, the movement and behavior of birds form the different spatial field, which could trigger the landform transformation to some extent. Through the migration and foraging experience, birds pollinate plants, disperse seeds, scavenge carcasses and recycle nutrition back into the earth, then offer more living opportunity to other insects and mammals. What’s more, the multiply and prosperous of birds in one place can contribute the environment’s vitality, ensure the healthy natural cycle process, and even benefit to human community and economic development. As for the detrimental influence, the major one is avian influenza, which refers to the disease and virus that brought and caused by the infection of birds. These viruses occur naturally among wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species, which lead to a negative circulation in ecological system. However, the avian influenza is not the main affections that birds bring, the beneficial influence make birds become a crucial part of the ecological system, the disappearance of birds will cause the endangered situation of other species. All in all, in ecological area, birds are important role model and agent to link different elements together. Birds as device: transmitter and cultivator “They also show us that species’ effects depend on a particular environmental context, birds’ effect are variable in space and time, and are characterized by efficient nutrient cycling, a high degree of materials recycling, retention and resilience.” The identification of birds as agent can draw forth another role of birds, as devices to be utilized and get along with human and designers. In this case, birds can be identified as a ‘keystone’ to the community or ecosystem they inhabit. The concepts of birds as keystone species give us role models of thinking the way to get along and deal with the relationship of ecological system and the development by human, and a role model to effect ecological system. The idea of birds as devices can be embodied in two ways: firstly, birds can be an important catalyst for generate and develop territory as a transmitter, contribute to the territory growth by their foraging and flying behavior; Secondly, birds are the indicator to the habitat condition, it could directly indicate the element relationship in environments. By taking advantage of the behavior of birds, designers can exemplify the process of nutrition movement by birds to cultivate the environment to promote the healthy recycle of ecological system. Birds flock: form the field and territory through the movement, then help to build a new structure for habitat reserve Birds will form a flock through their flying and migration, which is considered as a kind of field by designers. In order to increase foraging efficiency, defense against predators, a group of birds always conduct flocking behavior in the midst of their flight. This behavior often form different beautiful patterns in the sky, have affections to the environment, according to the research, the constant and long-last migration routes will have contribution to the green rate and land form to some extent. On another side, the flock pattern is also influenced by the ground condition such as typography and material. Theoretically, flocks follow three main principles: first, the single bird always maintain a relatively fixed distance from other birds (as well as obstacles) in the flock; second, single bird will modify its speed to match the velocities with other birds; third, there always a tendency that birds move towards the center of the mass group of birds in its neighbors. The flock is apparently an autonomous behavior, even though it forms differently due to the context and environment, it is a clearly field phenomenon. Variation and obstacles in the environment are situated by fluid adjustment. “Flock behavior tends toward roughly similar configurations, not as a fixed type, but as the cumulative result of localized behavior patterns.” —— Object to field revise. From this perspective, birds flock and landscape context have mutual influence, and indispensable in large environment development. Overall, the function and the unique characteristic of birds will offer a different thinking ways to intervene the ecology and biology system. In the research and project, birds as both agent and device, as a resource for we designer think a different way to take full advantage of birds to make a resilience and restoration in large system. Principles Using the point of ‘birds as agent’ and ‘birds as device’ as two basic idea to develop and test at two different birds’ habitat. In responding to the paradigm of birds, the birdscaping project will develop two different idea development in two sites at micro scale: the first one is at Lake Albacutya in Wimmera, Victoria, this place mainly look for birds as agent for environment resilience; the second site is at Saemangeum in South Korea, which recognize birds as devices for environment cultivation. Understand the embodiment of birds being recognized as agents and devices, using those characters to generate idea of specific site testing

Collage: ‘Birds Builder’

At the micro habitat scale, one of the key component is flora and it has a tight relationship with birds. For the active of flying and migration brings the pollination and seed dispersal, which helps the energy movement for the flora expansion. Pollination is the process when pollen and guano is transferred within and between plants enabling fertilization and reproduction; while native plants are dependent on birds for successful seed dispersal and regeneration. Once a seed has passed through the digestive tract of a bird, it will often be dropped far away from the host tree’s location, enabling the tree to potentially colonize a new area. Except for the dispersal of plants, this activity can also happen on other animals, some wading birds relocate fish eggs that get stuck to their legs, thereby aiding in fish dispersal to other parts of a river or marsh. What’s more, birds are the biological controls of insects, insectivore birds consume tons of insects, many of which we consider pests. These unique characteristics of birds are the basic principles to understand birds as both agents and devices.

The mappings right now talks about the general understanding and idea of birds as agent and device, for the next step, the project will further investigate the topic about birds as agent and devie through specific design operation.

13.


Bibliography

Lexicon Resilience The ability to become strong, happy, or successful again after a difficult situation or event The ability of a substance such as rubber to return to its original shape after it has been pressed or bent In the project, the resilience is the restore of endangered habitat and system balance in order to survive the birds, and also consider the power of birds to make a resilience Agent Someone or something that affects or changes a situation A substance that exerts some force or effect In the project, bird is the agent to evoke and effect other species, plants or methods to improve environment, it is the view and perspective to find information and research about natural environment. Mediation Negotiation to resolve differences conducted by some impartial party The act of intervening for the purpose of bringing about a settlement In the project, mediation involves the consideration of larger networks, border relations, and processes of global connectivity; which also include adjusting element to make a balance in birds living environment.

Books

Territory A territory is a bounded space under the control of a group of people, perhaps a state or other political organization Territory is the outcome of a process of territoriality – a human way of shaping and interacting with the environment, it can be based on animal ethology and related to innate biological drive, or it can be a more socially based understanding of bounding, protecting, including and excluding. Field A piece of land cleared of trees and usually enclosed A region where a battle is being (or has been) fought The field describes a space of propagation of effects. It contains no matter or material points, rather functions, vectors and speeds. Field conditions move from the one toward the many, from individuals to collectives, from objects to fields. Here in the project, the birds flock also forms a kind of field. Vector A quantity such as force that has a direction as well as size An insect or animal that passes disease from one person to another In the project, the movement of birds and birds flock is actually the biological vector that make connections between different places, also carry nutrition and influence on the environment and human beings. Biodiversity The variety of plants and animals in a particular place Biodiversity is a sure sign of the health of habitat or ecosystem, while it is also a diverse array of bacteria, insects, birds, mammals etc. it makes a system more robust and able to withstand stress. The project about bird and its habitat restoration will finally contribute to the biodiversity system, which will become an outcome in this project.

Reference

Reports

1. Bazzaz, F.A. (1975). Plant species diversity in old-field successional ecosystems in southern Illinois. Ecology, 56, 485–488. 2. BirdLife International, 2004. State of the World’s Birds 2004: Indicators for Our Changing World (BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.) 3. Clouth, M.N. & Hay, J.R. (1989). The Importance of Birds as Browsers, Pollinators and Seed Dispers in New Zealand Forest. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Vol 12 (Supplement), 27-33. 4. Stan Allen. From object to field: field conditions in architecture and urbanism 5. Donald, P.F. & Evans, A.D. (2006). Habitat connectivity and matrix restoration: the wider implications of agri-environment schemes. Journal of Applied Ecology 43, 209–218. 6. Franklin, J.F. (1993). Preserving Biodiversity: Species, Ecosystems, or Landscapes? Ecological Applications, 3 (2), 202-205. 7. Gregory, R.D., Noble, D.G., Custance, J. (2004). The state of play of farmland birds: population trends and conservation status of lowland farmland birds in the United Kingdom. Ibis, 146 (Suppl. 2), 1–13 8. Mikusiński, G. & Angelstam, P., (2004). Occurrence of mammals and birds with different ecological characteristics in relation to forest cover in Europe – do macroecological data make sense? – Ecol. Bull. 51: 265–275. 9. McEwan, W.M. (1978). The food of the New Zealand pigeon (Hemiphaga novaseelandiae novaeseelandiae). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 1: 99-108. 10. MacArthur, R.H. & MacArthur, J.W. (1961). On bird species diversity. Ecology, 42, 594–598. in Tews J. , Brose, U. et all (2004). Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography 31, 79–92. 11. Mikusiński, G. & Angelstam, P., (2004). Occurrence of mammals and birds with different ecological characteristics in relation to forest cover in Europe – do macroecological data make sense? – Ecol. Bull. 51: 265–275. 12. Newton, I. (1995). The contribution of some recent research on birds to ecological understanding. Journal of Animal Ecology 1995, 64, 675-696. 13. Ormerod, S.J. & Watkinson, A.R. (2000). Special Profile: Birds and Agriculture. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 699-705. 14. Owens, I. P. F. & Bennett, P. M. (2000). Ecological basis of extinction risk in birds: Habitat loss versus human persecution and introduced predators. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.200223397. 15. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Green, R.E. & Balmford, A. (2004). Land-use trends in endemic bird areas: global expansion of agriculture in areas of high conservation value. Global Change Biology, 10, 2046–2051. 16. Steadman, D.W. (1996). Human-Caused Extinction of Birds. Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources, http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309052270/html/139.html. 17. Sekercioğlu, Ç.H, Daily, G.C., Ehrlich, P.R. (2004). Ecosystem consequences of bird declines. www. Pnas.org/cgl/dol/10.1073/pnas.0408049101. 18. Tews J. , Brose, U., Grimm, V., Tielbörger, K., et al (2004). Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures. Journal of Biogeography 31, 79–92.

14.

Kexin Xie, Birdscaping - Project Proposal  

RMIT MLA Final year project

Kexin Xie, Birdscaping - Project Proposal  

RMIT MLA Final year project

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