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TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Valve Flow Terminology......................................................................................................................... 4 The Sizing Process................................................................................................................................ 5 Operating Conditions ................................................................................................................. 5 Fluid Properties .......................................................................................................................... 5 Rangeability ............................................................................................................................... 5 Cv and Flow Sizing Formulas ..................................................................................................... 6 CV Formulas for Liquid Flow CV Formulas for Vapor Flow CV Formulas for Two Phase Flow Flow Velocity Formulas .............................................................................................................. 7 Flow Velocity for Liquid Flow Flow Velocity for Vapor Flow Nomenclature............................................................................................................................. 8 Conversion to Cg and Cs ........................................................................................................... 9 Seat Leakage ..................................................................................................................................... 12 Actuator Sizing .................................................................................................................................... 12 P Tables................................................................................................................................. 13 Actuator Air Volume ................................................................................................................. 26 Application Guide for Cavitation, Flashing and Compressible Flow Services ....................................... 27 Liquid Flow ..................................................................................................................................... 27 Cavitation ................................................................................................................................. 27 Cavitation Definition Cavitation Countermeasures Application of Norriseal 2700A Trims in Cavitation Service........................................... 28 Cavitation Avoidance Cavitation Tolerant Cavitation Containment Cavitation Prevention Application Summary.................................................................................................... 28 The Cavitation Phenomena .......................................................................................... 29 Fluid and Pressure Profiles Choked Flow and Incipient Cavitation Cavitation Damage Flashing .......................................................................................................................... 30 Flashing Definition Flashing Countermeasures Body Material Trim Selection Application of Norriseal 2700A Valves in Flashing Service ........................................... 31 Body Material Trim Selection The Flashing Phenomena............................................................................................. 31 Liquid Flow Velocity - Body Material......................................................................................... 31 Compressible Flow Noise .................................................................................................................... 32 Compressible Flow Noise Discussion Compressible Flow Noise Countermeasures Application of Norriseal 2700A Trims in Compressible Flow Applications................................. 32 Standard Trims DB I and DB II Multiple Orifice Trims Compressible Flow Velocity Limits //data/public/pdf/valve-sizing-maual.doc 2 of 43 Norriseal – P.O. Box 40525 Houston TX 77240-052–- Ph: (713) 466-3552, Fax: (713) 896-7386

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Two Stage Trims and Backpressure Orifices The Compressible Flow Noise Phenomena.............................................................................. 33 TABLES Table 1-Trim Rangeability...................................................................................................................... 6 Table 2-Cg & Cs Conversion Factors .................................................................................................... 9 Table 3-Fluid Properties ...................................................................................................................... 10 Table 4-FL Factors ............................................................................................................................... 11 Table 5-Flanged Body Inlet and Outlet Diameters ............................................................................... 12 Table 6-Allowable Seat Leakage Classes............................................................................................ 12 Table 7-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Teflon Packing 9 Actuator....................... 14 Table 8-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Teflon Packing 12 Actuator..................... 15 Table 9-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Teflon Packing 16 Actuator..................... 16 Table 10-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Teflon Packing 18 Actuator................... 17 Table 11-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Grafoil Packing 9 Actuator .................... 18 Table 12-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Grafoil Packing 12 Actuator .................. 19 Table 13-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Grafoil Packing 16 Actuator .................. 20 Table 14-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Cage Control Trim, Grafoil Packing 18 Actuator .................. 21 Table 15-Allowable P Ratings 2700A/E Plug Control Trim, 12, 16 & 18 Actuators............................. 22 Table 16-Allowable P Ratings for Unbalanced Trim, No.9 Actuator ................................................... 23 Table 17-Allowable P Ratings for Unbalanced Trim, No.12 Actuator ................................................. 24 Table 18Allowable P Ratings for Unbalanced Trim, No.16 Actuator .................................................. 25 Table 19-Actuator Air Chamber Volume & Required Added Air to Actuate .......................................... 26 Table 20-Liquid Flow Velocity Limits.................................................................................................... 31 Table 21-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2200/2220 Unbalanced Modified Percent. Plug Control................ 35 Table 22-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2275A Unbalanced Modified Percentage Plug Control ................. 35 Table 23-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2400/2420 Unbalanced Modified Percent. Plug Control................ 36 Table 24-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced Quick Opening Cage Control.......................... 36 Table 25-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced Linear Cage Control ....................................... 37 Table 26-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced Equal Percentage Cage Control ..................... 37 Table 27-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced DB I Cage Control .......................................... 38 Table 28-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced DB II Control................................................... 38 Table 29-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced CAV II Cage Control....................................... 39 Table 30-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced Modified Percentage Plug Control .................. 39 Table 31-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Balanced Quick Opening Plug Control ........................... 40 Table 32-Flow Coefficients, CV, for 2700A/E Unbalanced Modified Percent Plug Control.................... 40 FIGURES Graph 1-Pressure Drop Profile ............................................................................................................ 41 Graph 2-Liquid Flow Relationship with Pressure Drop ......................................................................... 42 Graph 3-CAV II Flow Noise Attenuation............................................................................................... 42 Graph 4-Pressure Profiles, Single Stage and Three stage Trims ........................................................ 43 Graph 5-DB I & DB II Flow Noise Attenuation...................................................................................... 43

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INTRODUCTION A Control Valve performs a special task, controlling the flow of fluids so a process can be controlled. In addition to controlling the flow, a control valve may be used to shut off flow. A control valve may be defined as a valve with a powered actuator that responds to an external signal. The signal usually comes from a controller. The controller and valve together form a basic control loop. The control valve is seldom full open or closed but in an intermediate position controlling the flow of fluid through the valve. In this dynamic service condition, the valve must withstand the erosive effects of the flowing fluid while maintaining an accurate position to maintain the process variable. A Control Valve will perform these tasks satisfactorily if it is sized correctly for the flowing and shut-off conditions. The valve sizing process determines the required CV, the required FL, Flow Velocities, Flow Noise and the appropriate Actuator Size VALVE FLOW TERMINOLOGY CV: The Flow Coefficient, CV, is a dimensionless value that relates to a valve’s flow capacity. Its most basic form is As the FL value becomes smaller the vena contracta pressure becomes increasingly lower than the valve’s outlet pressure and the valve is more likely to cavitate. A valve’s Rated FL varies with the valve and trim style, it may vary from .99 for a special multiple stage trim to .60 for a ball valve. Rated FL: The Rated FL is the actual FL value for a particular valve and trim style. Required FL: The Required FL is the FL value calculated for a particular service condition. It indicates the required FL needed to avoid choked flow. If the Rated FL is less than the Required FL, the liquid flow will be choked with cavitation.

variable such as fluid pressure, fluid level, Q flow rate or temperature C V  where P Q=Flow rate and P=pressure drop across the valve. See pages 5 and 6 for the equations for liquid, gas, steam and twophase flow. The CV value increases if the flow rate increases or if the P decreases. A sizing application will have a Required CV while a valve will have a Rated CV. The valve’s rated CV must equal or exceed the required CV. FL: The FL, Liquid Pressure Recovery Coefficient, is a dimensionless constant used to calculate the pressure drop when the valve’s liquid flow is choked. Increasing the pressure drop when the flow is choked will not increase the flow rate. The FL is the square root of the ratio of valve pressure drop to the pressure drop from the inlet pressure to the pressure of the vena contracta. See page 5 for the FL equation. The FL factor is an indication of the valve’s vena contracta pressure relative to the outlet pressure. See Graph 1. If the FL were 1.0, the vena contracta pressure would be the same as the valve’s outlet pressure and there would be no pressure recovery. Vena Contracta: The vena contracta is where the jet of flowing fluid is the smallest immediately downstream of the trim's throttle point. At the vena contracta, the fluid's velocity is the highest and the fluid's pressure is the lowest. Vapor Pressure: A fluid's vapor pressure is the pressure where the fluid will change from a liquid to a vapor. The liquid will change to a vapor below the vapor pressure and a vapor will change to a liquid above the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure increases as the temperature increases.

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Choked Flow: Liquid flow will become choked when the trim's vena contracta is filled with vapor from cavitation or flashing. Vapor flow also will become choked when the flow velocity at the vena contracta reaches sonic. A choked flow rate is limited, a further decrease of the outlet pressure does not increase flow. Choked flow is also called critical flow. Cavitation: Cavitation is a two stage liquid flow phenomena. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles in the liquid as the fluid passes through the trim and the pressure is reduced below the fluid's vapor pressure. The second stage is the collapse of the vapor bubbles back to a liquid as the fluid passes the vena contracta and the pressure recovers and increases above the vapor pressure. The collapsing bubbles are very destructive when they contact metal parts and the bubble collapse may produce high noise levels. Flashing: Flashing is similar to cavitation except the vapor bubbles do not collapse, as the downstream pressure remains less than the vapor pressure. The flow will remain a mixture of vapor and liquid. Laminar Flow: Most fluid flow is turbulent. However, when the liquid flow velocity is very slow or the fluid is very viscous or both, the flow may become laminar. When the flow becomes laminar, the required CV is larger than for turbulent flow with similar conditions. The ISA sizing formulas adjust the CV when laminar flow exists. THE SIZING PROCESS The first sizing step is to determine the required CV value for the application. Next determine if there are unusual conditions that may affect valve selection such as cavitation, flashing, high flow velocities or high flow noise. The valve sizing process will determine the proper valve size, valve trim size , valve trim style and actuator size. Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program will

accurately calculate the CV, flow velocity and flow noise. The program will also show messages when unusual conditions occur such as cavitation, flashing, high velocity or high noise. The results from Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program are only one element of the valve selection process. Knowledge and judgment are also required. This manual will give the user some of the sizing basics. The liquid, gas and steam CV calculation methods, in this manual, are in accordance with ISA 75.01 and the gas and steam flow noise calculations are in accordance with ISA 75.07.01. These two ISA Standards are in agreement with IEC-534. These standards have worldwide acceptance as the state of the art in CV and Flow Noise determination. OPERATING CONDITIONS The most important part of Valve Sizing is obtaining the correct flowing conditions. If they are incorrect or incomplete, the sizing process will be faulty. There are two common problems. First is having very conservative conditions that overstate the CV and provide a valve less than ½ open at maximum required flow. The second is stating only the maximum flow condition that has minimum pressure drops and not stating the minimum flow conditions with high pressure drops that often induce cavitation or have very high rangeability requirements. Fluid Properties Table 3 lists many fluid properties needed for valve sizing. These fluid properties are in Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program’s database and do not need manual entry. Rangeability: Rangeability is the ratio of maximum to minimum controllable CV. This is also sometimes called CV Ratio or Turndown. The maximum flow for Norriseal valves is at maximum travel. The minimum controllable CV is where the Flow

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Characteristic (CV vs. Travel) initially deviates or where the valve trim cannot maintain a consistent flow rate. The Trim’s rangeability is not always the useable range as seat erosion may be a governing factor. A valve with a significant pressure drop at low flow rates should not be used to throttle near the seat for extended periods of time. The rangeability values, listed in Table 1, apply to the rated CV, not the required CV. For example, an application may require a A 4” Equal maximum CV of 170. Percentage Trim may be selected that has a maximum CV of 195. Using the rangeability value for this trim, the minimum CV is 195/100=19.5, not 170/100=17. Valve applications subject to pressures from nature, such as gas and oil production, are usually sized for full flow at about 80% open as the pressure may be unknown when the valve is sized and the pressure may vary with time. Those valve applications with fairly consistent inlet pressures, such as process control and power applications are usually sized at full travel. The valve specifier usually includes a fair margin of safety in the stated sizing conditions. If the valve supplier includes additional safety, such as full flow at 80% open, the valve may be at full flow at less than ½ travel giving poor performance.

CV AND FLOW SIZING FORMULAS The following formulas are for information and for understanding the sizing process. Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program is recommended for the calculation process. Flow noise equations are not listed below as they are highly complex and should only be made on our verified computer program. Formulas are shown both for calculation the CV when the flow rate is known and for calculating the flow when the CV is known. CV Formulas for Liquid Flow Required FL 

P1  P2 P1  PV FF PV PC

FF  0.96  0.28

If the Rated FL is larger than the Required FL: Gf P1  P2 Q CV  or Q  C V FP FR FP FR P1  P2 Gf When the Rated FL is smaller than the Required FL, choked flow exists in the vena contracta limiting the flow. If the Rated FL is smaller than the Required FL: Gf Q CV  FP FL Rated  P1  FF PV

Table 1 - TRIM RANGEABILITY Rang Valve Trim ability

or

Equal Percent - Balanced Cage Control Linear - Balanced Cage Control Quick Opening - Balanced Cage Control DB I - Balanced Cage Control DB II & CAV II - Balanced Cage Control Modified Percent - Balanced Plug Control Modified Percent - Unbalanced Plug Control V Control Ball

P for choked flow  F P1  FFPV   psi P for incipient cavitation  K C P1  PV   psi

100:1 100:1 30:1 100:1 100:1 50:1 25:1 300:1

Q  CV FP FL ( Rated )

P1  FF PV Gf 2 L

(See discussion in “Choked Flow and Incipient Cavitation” section)

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CV Formulas for Vapor Flow

FLOW VELOCITY FORMULAS

P1  P2 P1 k FK  14 .

Flow Velocity for Liquid Flow

x

Limit

x  xT

Y  1

x 3 FK x T

If the flow rate is in volumetric units, SCFH, then CV 

Q 1360 F P P1 Y

G gT Z x

or Q  1360 C V F P P1 Y

x G gT Z

If the flow rate is in mass flow units, Lb./Hr., C

then or

V

W 63 . 3 F P Y

W  63 . 3 C

V

FPY

x P1  1 x P1  1

To convert SCFH to Lb./Hr.: W=0.0764 Q Gg = Lb./Hr. Specific Gravity of a Vapor  Molecular Weight of the Vapor Molecular Weight of Air

CV Formulas for Two Phase Flow Pressure Drop for liquid phase =  Pf  FL2 P1  FF PV 

Liquid Flow Velocity through the Valve: 0.408 Q VV   Ft./ Sec. Db2 Liquid Flow Velocity through the Pipe: 0.408 Q VP   Ft./ Sec. DP2 Flow Velocity for Vapor Flow Downstream Specific Volume for a Gas 10.72 T Z Vapor: V2   Ft.3 /Lb. M P2 Downstream Specific Volume for Steam: V2  Refer to Keenan & Keyes’ Steam Tables Vapor Flow Velocity through the Valve: 3.06W V2 0.234QGg VV    Ft. / Min. DV2 DV2 Vapor Flow Velocity through the Pipe: 3.06W V2 0.234QGg VP    Ft. / Min. DP2 DP2 Sonic Velocity of a Vapor Fluid: VSONIC  4650 P2 V2  Ft./Min. Mach Number: 

Vapor FlowVelocity,VV orVP VSONIC

Pressure Drop for vapor phase =  Pg  FK x T P1 ff = weight fraction of total flow as liquid fg = weight fraction of total flow as vapor CV 

W 63.3 FP

fg ff  PF  1f Pg  1g Y 2

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Nomenclature CV = Valve Flow Coefficient. DB = Inside Diameter of Valve Body Outlet = Inches. See Table 5. DP = Inside Diameter of Outlet Pipe = Inches. FF = Liquid Critical Pressure Ratio Factor: Fk = Ratio of specific Heats Factor. FL = Liquid Pressure Recovery Factor. FL Required = The FL factor to avoid Choked Flow. FL Rated = The FL factor rated for individual Trim Styles. See Table 4. FP = Piping Geometry Factor, If the valve size and pipe size are equal us 1.0, if not refer to ISA 75.01 section 4.3. FR = Reynolds Number Factor, Normally = 1.0 but varies with very slow fluid velocities or very viscous fluids. Refer to ISA 75.01 section 4.4. Gf = Specific Gravity of a Liquid relative to water at 60 F. Gg = Specific Gravity of a Vapor relative to air at 60 F 14.7 PSIA. k = Ratio of specific Heats. See Table 3. KC = Cavitation Index. See Table 4. M = Molecular Weight. See Table 3. P1 = Valve Inlet Pressure (psia). P2 = Valve Outlet Pressure (psia). PC = Fluid’s Critical Pressure (psia). See Table 3. PV = Fluid’s Vapor Pressure (psia). Q = Volumetric Flow Rate: Liquids (GPM) Vapor (SCFH) T = Fluid Temperature in Degrees Rankine. R = F + 460. V2 = Specific Volume of vapor, either gas or steam = Ft.3 / Lb. W = Mass Flow Rate = Lb./Hr. x = Pressure Drop Ratio. xT = Maximum Pressure Drop Ratio, varies with Trim Style. See Table 4. Y = Fluid Expansion Factor for vapor flow. Z = Compressibility Factor for vapor flow. Usually 1.0. Refer ISA Handbook of Control Valves, 2nd Edition, pages 488-490.  = Specific Weight = Lb./Ft.3

Subscripts: 1 = Inlet conditions 2 = Outlet conditions v = Valve p = Pipe f = Liquid g = Vapor b = Body

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Flow velocity of a vapor, gas or steam, physically cannot exceed sonic velocity or Mach 1.0. Vapor flow is physically limited at sonic velocity and becomes choked. The choked sonic limitation may apply either at the valve trim or at the valve body’s outlet. When the flow rate increases with the velocity at the valve’s outlet at sonic, the valve’s outlet pressure will rise increasing the fluid density and allowing a higher flow rate still limited at sonic velocity. When a sizing program shows a Valve MACH Number exceeding 1, the inputted outlet pressure is incorrect. Increase P2 until the MACH number equal 1.0. This determines the valve’s outlet pressure that develops to increase the fluid density sufficiently for the fluid to flow out of the valve at sonic velocity. The specifier may write a lower pressure that may occur further downstream after the piping system causes additional pressure drops. The ISA noise prediction formulas for vapor flow loses accuracy at Mach numbers larger than .33.

Conversion to Cg and Cs Not all valve suppliers use the ISA sizing coefficient and may use a Cg or Cs value instead. The ISA CV coefficient can be converted to Cg or Cs using these equations.

C g  C V  conversion factor  Cs 

CV 

CV 

C V  conversion factor  20 Cg

 conversion factor  C s  20

 conversion factor 

Table 2 - Cg Conversion Factors Valve General DB I DB II Size 1” 32.3 35.1 30 1.5” 32.7 37.8 30 2” 32.6 38.8 30 3” 32.2 38.1 30 4” 33.5 38.9 30 6” 34.8 N/A 30 8” 35.6 N/A 30

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Table 3 - FLUID PROPERTIES Name of Fluid Acetylene Air Ammonia Argon Benzene Butane Butanol Butene-1 Butylene Oxide Butadiene 1-Butene n-Butane Isobutane n-Butanol Isobutylene Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chloroprene Cyclobutane Cyclohexane Cyclopentane Cyclopropane Crude Oil Ethane Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethyl Chloride Ethyl Oxide Ethylene Ethylene Glycol Triethylene Glycol Freon 11 Freon 12 Freon 22 Helium Heptane Hydrazine Hydrogen Hydrogen Bromide Hydrogen Chloride Hydrogen Floride Hydrogen Iodide Hydrogen Sulphide

Fluid Form Liquid Gas G G L G G L G G L G L L L G G L L L G L G L L G L L L L L L L L L G L L G L L G L L L G L G L G G G L L G L L G L L G

Molecular Weight M 26.038 28.966 17.031 39.948 78.114 58.124 74.123 56.108 54.092 56.108 58.1243 58.124

Critical Pressure

Critical Temperature

Pc psia 905.04 546. 79 1637.48 706.34 713.59 529.39 639.62 583.4 63.6 652.5 583.4 551.1 529.10 638.3 580.5 1070.38 507.63 661.37 1116.79 655.62 786.11 616.5 723.24 590.30 654.15 797.71

Tc (F) 95.27 -220.99 270.59 -188.23 552.11 274.91 553.55 295.6

Ratio of specific Heats k 1.26 1.4 1.31 1.668 1.08 1.1 1.11

339 295.6 305.7 274.90

1.12 1.11 1.1 1.11

292.6 87.71 -220.45 541.85 291.29 678.32 505.13

1.12 1.295 1.395 1.067 1.355 1.1

367.82 536.45 460.88 256.37

1.14

90.05 469.49 651.1 369.05

1.18 1.13 1.072 1.13

28.054 62.069

707.79 925.34 523.2 754.20 1052.2 732.44 1117.2

49.91

1.22

137.37 120.92 86.48 4.003 100.205 32.045 2.016 80.912 36.461 20.006 127.91 34.076

635.00 596.90 716.00 33.36 396.8 2132.06 188.55 1240 1205.27 941.30 1205.27 1296.64

338.00 234.00 204.80 -450.33 512.7 716.09 -399.73 193.76 124.79 370.49 303.35 229.91

1.14 1.14 1.18 1.66 1.05

56.108 44.01 28.01 153.82 70.906 112.559 119.38 56.108 84.162 70.135 42.081 30.07 46.069 106.168 64.515

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1.11

1.412 1.4 1.41 1.32 10/10/2008


Name of Fluid Isoprene Methane Methanol Methyl Chloride 1-Methylchloride O-Methylene Chloride Napthalene Natural Gas Neon Nitric Oxide Nitrogen Nitrogen Dioxide Nitrous Oxide n-Nonane n-Octane Oxygen Pentane Phenol Propane n-Propanol Propene Propylene Propyl Oxide Sea Water/Brine Sulfuric Acid Sulfur Dioxide Sulfur Trioxide Tolulene Water M-Xylene O-xylene P-xylene

Fluid Form Liquid Gas L L G L L G L L L G G L G L G L L G G G L G G L L G L G L L L L L G L L L G L L L

Molecular Weight

Critical Pressure

Critical Temperature

M

Pc psia 532.1 667.17 1153.05 968.85 889.08 910.9 587.40 670 400.30 941.30 493.13 1479.8 1050.08 335.1 362.60 730.99 488.78 889.56 617.86 751.3 661 667.17 714.7 3200

Tc (F)

16.043 32.042 50.49 84.922 128.17 19.5 20.179 30.006 28.013 46.006 44.013 128.259 114.23 31.999 72.151 94.113 44.097 42.1 42.081 18 64.059 80.058 92.141 18.015 106.168 106.168 106.168

1142.90 1190.7 587.40 3208.24 514.4 540.8 510

-116.77 463.01 289.67 458.33 887.45 -80 -379.75 -135.67 -232.51 316.52 97.61 610.6 456.35 -181.39 385.61 789.56 205.97

Ratio of specific Heats k 1.31 1.2

1.27 1.667 1.4 1.29 1.04 1.05 1.397 1.07 1.09 1.13

198 197.51

1.14 1.154

705.47

1.33

315.59 423.8 609.53 705.47 650.9 674.7 649.5

1.29 1.06 1.335 1.072 1.049 1.073

Table 4 - FL, KC & XT Factors FL KC XT Rated CAV II Cage Control .94 .80  DB I Cage Control .75   DB II Cage Control .75   Plug Control (Flow Up) .90 .65 .70 Ported Cage Control (Flow Up) .90 .65 .70 Ported Cage Control (Flow Down) .90 .65 .75 Butterfly Valve .65 .30 .38 V Control Ball Valve .57 .22 .25  = No value for vapor flow  = No value for liquid flow Valve Trim Style

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Table 5 - Flanged Body Inlet and Outlet Diameters Nominal Body Size 1 1.5 2 3 4 6 8

150 1.06" 1.63" 2.06" 3.00" 4.00" 6.00" 8.00"

ANSI Pressure Class 300 600 900 1500 1.06" 1.06" 1.00" 1.00" 1.63" 1.63" 1.63" 1.63" 2.00" 2.00" 2.00" 2.00" 3.00" 3.00" 3.00" 2.69" 4.00" 4.00" 4.00" 3.69" 6.00" 6.00" 5.75" 5.75" 8.00" 8.00" 7.62" 7.25"

2500 1.00" 1.50" 1.75" 2.69" 3.44" 5.50" 7.00"

SEAT LEAKAGE The Fluids Control Institute (FCI) Standard ANSI/FCI 70.2 establishes a Valve’s allowable seat Leakage Rate. The standard recognizes five degrees of seat tightness.

Table 6 - ALLOWABLE SEAT LEAKAGE CLASSES Maximum Seat Test Test Relative Seat Leakage Fluid Pressure Tightness Class II 0.5% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 1.0 Class IIA (Norriseal) 0.2% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 2.5 Class III 0.1% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 5.0 Class IV 0.01% of rated CV Water 45 to 60 PSI 50 0.0005 ml /min/inch Max Operating Class V Water 300,000 of trim size/ P(PSI) P Class VI Air 50 PSI 600,000 About 0.9 ml/min   Leakage rate varies by valve size, Refer to the Standard ANSI/FCI 70.2. Norriseal offers Class IIA (Norriseal), Class IV, Class V & Class IV The Relative Seat Tightness is at a 50 P. For example, a Class IV leakage rate is 1/50 as much as Class II Class VI is for resilient seated valves; the other classes are for metallic seats. Leakage Class

ACTUATOR SIZING The actuator sizing process matches our actuator’s force output with our valve trim’s required stem forces. The result is the maximum obtainable pressure drop at the different seat leakage classes. The process considers the valve’s shut off

condition. The flowing conditions also require an adequate match between the actuator and trim forces but the shut off condition is dominant and determines the allowable.

UA  UnbalancedArea  BalancedTrim   Cage ID   Seat ID 2

2

  4  = In

2

2   2 UA  UnbalancedArea  UnbalancedTrim   Seat ID   = In 4

CL  Seat Contact Load   Seat ID   Load Factor  = Lb./In. of circumference Load Factors vary with seat leakage class //data/public/pdf/valve-sizing-maual.doc 12 of 43 Norriseal – P.O. Box 40525 Houston TX 77240-052–- Ph: (713) 466-3552, Fax: (713) 896-7386

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PF = Packing Friction (Teflon Packing)= 25 Lb. PF = Packing Friction (Grafoil Packing)= (Stem Dia.) (P1) (Packing Height) (.15) PF for Grafoil Packing friction should never be less than 25 Lb. 2 2   0.03 P RF  Plug Seal Ring Friction   Cage ID  2      Cage ID   Seal Groove 4 Direct Actuator Output = (Effective Diaph. Area) (Actuator Press.- Final Spring Pressure) Reverse Actuator Output = (Effective Diaph. Area) (Initial Final Spring Pressure)

The “Initial Spring Pressure” is the actuator pressure when the valve stem begins to move. The “Final Spring Pressure” is the actuator pressure when the valve stem reaches full travel. Allowable P  Allowable P 

 Actuator Output  PF  RF  CL UA  Actuator Output  PF  CL UA

 For Balanced Trim Flow to Close

 For Unbalanced Trim Flow to Open

P Tables The following eleven tables contain calculated P pressures, in psi, using the above formulas. The first four tables are for No. 9, 12, 16, & 18 actuators and valves with balanced trim and Teflon packing, the second four are with Grafoil packing.. The four Grafoil packing tables show lower allowable due to the significantly higher friction with Grafoil packing. The last three are for unbalanced trims with No. 9, 12 & 16 actuators. The difference in the allowable P pressures for the Seat Leakage Classes requires different seat contact forces. A lower leakage rate, except for Class VI, is obtained by increasing the net seat contact force. Leakage Classes IV & VI (resilient seat) share the same contact forces and allowable pressures even though their leakage rates are quite different.

The allowable pressure drop cannot exceed the Body’s ANSI pressure rating. The table’s first column for direct acting actuators is the air supply pressure to the actuator. A 3-15 psi actuator spring is assumed. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct actuator, add 15 to the pressure in the first column. The table’s first column for reverse acting actuators is the initial pressure corresponding to the amount of compression in the actuator’s spring when the valve is closed. The “Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. The final air pressure is determined by adding 12 psi to the initial air pressure of a 3-15 psi spring and by adding 24 psi to the initial air pressure of a 6-30 psi.

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Table 7 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No. 9 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size 1.5” 2” 3” 23

Leakage Class

1” 4” 18 II 94 18 IV & VI 18 V 20 II 312 223 175 92 20 IV & VI 59 20 V 22 II 529 423 370 278 144 22 IV & VI 277 82 22 V 24 II 747 623 564 465 296 24 IV & VI 494 282 165 24 V 27 II 1,074 923 855 744 523 27 IV & VI 821 583 457 233 27 V 30 II 1,400 1,223 1,147 1,024 751 30 IV & VI 1,147 883 748 513 197 30 V 10 33 II 1,726 1,524 1,438 1,304 979 33 IV & VI 1,474 1,183 1,039 792 425 33 V 336 36 II 1,944 1,724 1,633 1,490 1,130 36 IV & VI 1,691 1,383 1,234 979 577 36 V 554 Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No. 9 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial Air Leakage Trim Size Pressure* Class 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4”

3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

94

23

421 168

323

273

185

68

747 494

623 282

564 165

465

296

1,074 821

923 583

855 457

744 233

523

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 3-15 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 and 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 8 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.12 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

Leakage Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1" 421 168

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size 1.5" 2" 3" 323 273 185

4" 68

856 603

723 382

661 262

558 47

372

1,291 1,038 1,726 1,474 336 2,379 2,126 989 3,032 2,779 1,642 3,685 3,432 2,295 4,120 3,867 2,730

1,123 783

1,050 651

931 420

675 121

1,524 1,183 2,124 1,784 251 2,725 2,384 851 3,325 2,984 1,452 3,725 3,385 1,852

1,438 1,039

1,304 792

979 425

2,021 1,622

1,863 1,352

1,434 880

2,604 2,205 410 3,187 2,788 993 3,575 3,177 1,382

2,422 1,911

1,890 1,336

2,981 2,470 171 3,354 2,843 543

2,345 1,791 2,649 2,095

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No. 12 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure* 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4"

3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

421 168

323

273

185

68

1,074 821

923 583

855 457

744 233

523

1,726 1,474 336 2,379 2,126 989

1,524 1,183

1,438 1,039

1,304 792

979 425

2,124 1,784 251

2,021 1,622

1,863 1,352

1,434 880

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 9 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.16 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Air Leakage Supply Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

887 634

752 411

689 290

584 73

393

1,633 1,380 243 2,379 2,126 989 3,125 2,873 1,735 4,244 3,992 2,854 5,364 5,111 3,973 6,483 6,230 5,093 7,229 6,976 5,839

1,438 1,097

1,355 956

1,224 713

914 360

2,124 1,784 251 2,810 2,470 937 3,840 3,499 1,966 4,869 4,529 2,996 5,899 5,558 4,025 6,585 6,244 4,711

2,021 1,622

1,863 1,352

1,434 880

2,687 2,288 494 3,686 3,288 1,493 4,686 4,287 2,492 5,685 5,286 3,491 6,351 5,952 4,157

2,502 1,991

1,955 1,401

3,461 2,950 650 4,420 3,908 1,609 5,378 4,867 2,568 6,017 5,506 3,207

2,735 2,181 3,516 2,962 470 4,297 3,743 1,250 4,817 4,263 1,777

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.16 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

887 634

752 411

689 290

584 73

393

2,006 1,753 616 3,125 2,873 1,735 4,244 3,992 2,854

1,781 1,440

1,688 1,289

1,543 1,032

1,174 620

2,810 2,470 937 3,840 3,499 1,966

2,687 2,288 494 3,686 3,288 1,493

2,502 1,991

1,955 1,401

3,461 2,950 650

2,735 2,181

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 10 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.18 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Air Leakage Supply Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 6” 8” 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1,447 1,194 56 2,566 2,313 1,176 3,685 3,432 2,295 4,804 4,551 3,414 6,483 6,230 5,093 8,161 7,909 6,771 9,840 9,587 8,450 10959 10706 9,569

1,266 926 56 2,296 1,955 422 3,325 2,984

1,189 790

1,064 553

784 230

333

177

2,188 1,789

2,023 1,512

1,564 1,010

759 300

500 24

3,187 2,788

2,981 2,470

2,345 1,791

1,185 726

824 348

4,354 4,014 2,481 5,899 5,558 4,025 7,443 7,102 5,569 8,987 8,646 7,113 10,016 9,675 8,143

4,186 3,787 1,992 5,685 5,286 3,491 7,183 6,785 4,990 8,682 8,283 6,489 9,681 9,283 7,488

3,940 3,429 1,129 5,378 4,867 2,568 6,816 6,305 4,006 8,255 7,744 5,444 9,213 8,702 6,403

3,126 2,572 79 4,297 3,743 1,250 5,468 4,914 2,421 6,639 6,085 3,592 7,419 6,866 4,373

1,611 1,152

1,147 671

2,250 1,791

1,632 1,156

2,889 2,430 363 3,528 3,069 1,002 3,954 3,495 1,428

2,117 1,641 2,602 2,127 2,926 2,450 309

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.18 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI)  Initial Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 6” 8” 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1,447 1,194 56 3,125 2,873 1,735 4,804 4,551 3,414 6,483 6,230 5,093

1,266 926

1,189 790

1,064 553

784 230

333

177

2,810 2,470 937 4,354 4,014 2,481 5,899 5,558 4,025

2,687 2,288 494 4,186 3,787 1,992 5,685 5,286 3,491

2,502 1,991

1,955 1,401

972 513

662 186

3,940 3,429 1,129 5,378 4,867 2,568

3,126 2,572 79 4,297 3,743 1,250

1,611 1,152

1,147 671

2,250 1,791

1,632 1,156

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

//data/public/pdf/valve-sizing-maual.doc 17 of 43 Norriseal – P.O. Box 40525 Houston TX 77240-052–- Ph: (713) 466-3552, Fax: (713) 896-7386

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Table 11 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.9 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

Leakage Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1" 94

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size 1.5" 2" 3" 23

4"

299 59

223

175

92

453 274

381 82

343

275

144

607 428

527 278

487 165

415

290

838 659

747 498

702 407

625 233

471

1,070 891 10 1,301 1,122 316 1,455 1,376 470

967 718

918 623

835 451

653 197

1,187 937

1,133 838

1,045 661

834 393

1,333 1084

1,277 982

1,185 801

955 514

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.9 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial  Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

94

23

376 168

308

271

185

68

607 428

527 278

487 165

415

290

838 659

747 498

702 407

625 233

471

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 12 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.12 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Air Leakage Supply Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

376 168

308

271

185

68

684 505

601 351

559 262

485 47

350

993 813

894 644

846 551

765 381

592 121

1,301 1,122 316 1,763 1,584 778 2,226 2,047 1,241 2,689 2,510 1,704 2,997 2,818 2,012

1,187 937

1,133 838

1,045 661

834 393

1,626 1,377 251 2,066 1,816 694 2,505 2,256 1,134 2,798 2,549 1,427

1,565 1,270

1,464 1,081

1,197 756

1,996 1,701 373 2,427 2,132 804 2,714 2,419 1,092

1,884 1,500

1,560 1,118

2,304 1,920 171 2,583 2,200 474

1,922 1,481 2,164 1,723

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.12 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial  Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 3 II 376 308 271 185 68 3 IV & VI 168 3 V 6 II 838 747 702 625 471 6 IV & VI 659 498 407 233 6 V 9 II 1,301 1,187 1,133 1,045 834 9 IV & VI 1,122 937 838 661 393 9 V 316 12 II 1,763 1,626 1,565 1,464 1,197 12 IV & VI 1,584 1,377 1,270 1,081 756 12 V 778 251 

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 13 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.16 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Air Leakage Supply Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

706 527

622 372

579 284

505 73

368

1,235 1,056 243 1,763 1,584 778 2,292 2,113 1,307 3,085 2,906 2,100 3,878 3,699 2,893 4,671 4,492 3,686 5,200 5,021 4,215

1124 875

1072 777

985 601

782 341

1,626 1,377 251 2,129 1,879 757 2,882 2,633 1,511 3,635 3,386 2,264 4,389 4,140 3,018 4,891 4,642 3,520

1,565 1,270

1,464 1,081

1,197 756

2,057 1,762 435 2,797 2,502 1,174 3,536 3,241 1,913 4,275 3,980 2,652 4,768 4,473 3,145

1,944 1,560

1,611 1,170

2,663 2,280 554 3,383 2,999 1,274 4,102 3,719 1,993 4,582 4,198 2,473

2,233 1,792 2,855 2,414 428 3,477 3,036 1,050 3,892 3,451 1,465

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.16 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial  Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

706 527

622 372

579 284

505 73

368

1,499 1,320 514 2,292 2,113 1,307 3,085 2,906 2,100

1,375 1,126

1,318 1,023

1,224 841

990 548

2,129 1,879 757 2,882 2,633 1,511

2,057 1,762 435 2,797 2,502 1,174

1,944 1,560

1,611 1,170

2,663 2,280 554

2,233 1,792

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 14 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.18 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Air Leakage Supply Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 6” 8” 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1,103 924 56 1,896 1,717 911 2,689 2,510 1,704 3,482 3,303 2,497 4,671 4,492 3,686 5,861 5,681 4,876 7,050 6,871 6,065 7,843 7,664 6,858

998 749

949 654

865 481

679 230

311

175

1,752 1,502 381 2,505 2,256 1,134 3,259 3,009 1,887 4,389 4,140 3,018 5,519 5,270 4,148 6,649 6,400 5,278 7,403 7,153 6,031

1,688 1,393

1,584 1,201

1,301 859

671 283

455 24

2,427 2,132 804 3,166 2,871 1,543 4,275 3,980 2,652 5,384 5,089 3,761 6,492 6,197 4,870 7,232 6,937 5,609

2,304 1,920 171 3,023 2,639 914 4,102 3,719 1,993 5,181 4,798 3,072 6,260 5,877 4,151 6,980 6,596 4,871

1,922 1,481

1,031 643

735 323

2,544 2,103 79 3,477 3,036 1,050 4,410 3,969 1,983 5,343 4,902 2,916 5,965 5,524 3,538

1,391 1,003

1,015 603

1,930 1,542

1,435 1,023

2,470 2,082 336 3,010 2,622 876 3,369 2,982 1,236

1,854 1,443 2,274 1,862 2,554 2,142 290

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A CAGE CONTROL TRIM GRAFOIL PACKING, FLOW DOWN, No.18 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Initial  Leakage Air Trim Size Class Pressure 1" 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 6” 8” 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

1,103 924 56 2,292 2,113 1,307 3,482 3,303 2,497 4,671 4,492 3,686

998 749

949 654

865 481

679 230

311

175

2,129 1,879 757 3,259 3,009 1,887 4,389 4,140 3,018

2,057 1,762 435 3,166 2,871 1,543 4,275 3,980 2,652

1,944 1,560

1,611 1,170

851 463

595 183

3,023 2,639 914 4,102 3,719 1,993

2,544 2,103 79 3,477 3,036 1,050

1,391 1,003

1,015 603

1,930 1,542

1,435 1,023

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 15 ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A PLUG CONTROL TRIM, TEFLON PACKING FLOW UP, Direct Actuators, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Leakage Class

No 12 Direct Actuator 1.5" 2" 3" 4"

Trim Size No 16 Direct Actuator 1.5" 2" 3" 4"

1.5"

No 18 Direct Actuator 2" 3" 4" 6”

8"

II 1160 990 630 410 1980 1700 1080 700 2970 2550 1610 1060 650 300 18 IV 580 530 290 190 1000 910 500 320 1500 1370 750 480 320 90 II 1290 1100 700 460 2200 1890 1200 780 3300 2830 1790 1170 720 330 20 IV 970 890 490 310 1660 1520 840 530 2490 2280 1250 800 540 150 II 1410 1210 770 500 2420 2080 1310 860 3640 3110 1970 1290 800 360 22 IV 1360 1240 680 430 2330 2130 1170 740 3490 3200 1760 1120 750 220 II 1540 1320 840 550 2640 2260 1430 940 3970 3400 2150 1410 870 400 24 IV 1750 1600 880 560 2990 2740 1500 960 4490 4110 2260 1440 970 280 II 1740 1490 940 620 2970 2550 1610 1060 4460 3820 2420 1580 980 450 27 IV 2330 2130 1170 740 3990 3650 2010 1280 5990 5480 2260 1910 1290 370 II 1930 1650 1050 680 3300 2830 1790 1170 4960 4240 2690 1760 1090 500 30 IV 2910 2660 1460 930 4990 4570 2510 1590 5990 5480 2260 2390 1610 460 II 2120 1820 1150 750 3640 3110 1970 1290 5450 4670 2960 1940 1190 550 33 IV 3490 3200 1760 1120 5990 5480 3010 1910 5990 5480 2260 2390 1610 550 II 2250 1930 1220 800 3860 3300 2090 1370 5780 4950 3140 2050 1270 580 36 IV 3880 3550 1950 1240 6650 6090 3340 2130 5990 5480 2260 2390 2150 620 Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP RATINGS FOR 2700A PLUG CONTROL TRIM, TEFLON PACKING FLOW UP, Reverse Actuators Initial * Air Pressure

Leakage Class

No 12 Direct Actuator 1.5" 2" 3" 4"

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size No 16 Direct Actuator 1.5" 2" 3" 4" 1.5"

No 18 Direct Actuator 2" 3" 4" 6”

II 1160 990 630 410 1980 1700 1080 700 2970 2550 1610 1060 3 IV 580 530 290 190 1000 910 500 320 1500 1370 750 480 II 1350 1160 730 480 2310 1980 1250 820 3470 2970 1880 1230 6 IV 1160 1070 590 370 2000 1830 1000 640 2990 2740 1500 960 II 1540 1320 840 550 2640 2260 1430 940 3970 3400 2150 1410 9 IV 1750 1600 880 560 2990 2740 1500 960 4490 4110 2260 1440 II 1740 1490 940 620 2970 2550 1610 1060 4460 3820 2420 1580 12 IV 2330 2130 1170 740 3990 3650 2010 1280 5990 5480 2260 1910  The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 3-15 has an initial pressure of spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures. //data/public/pdf/valve-sizing-maual.doc

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8"

650 300 320 90 760 350 650 180 870 400 970 280 980 450 1290 370 3 psi. The


Table 16 ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.9 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

Leakage Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.125” 6,199 5,560 2,679 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size .187" .250" .375" .500 2,684 1,470 618 327 2,257 1,150 404 167 337 5,220 2,896 1,251 684 4,792 2,576 1,038 524 2,872 1,136 78 7,754 4,322 1,885 1,040 7,328 4,002 1,672 880 5,408 2,562 712 160 >10000 5,748 2,519 1,397 9,863 5,428 2,306 1,237 7,943 3,988 1,346 517 >10000 7,887 3,470 1,932 >10000 7,567 3,256 1,772 >10000 6,127 2,296 1,052 >10000 >10000 4,420 2,466 >10000 9,706 4,207 2,306 >10000 8,266 3,247 1,586 >10000 >10000 5,371 3,001 >10000 >10000 5,158 2,841 >10000 >10000 4,198 2,121 >10000 >10000 6,005 3,358 >10000 >10000 5,792 3,198 >10000 >10000 4,832 2,478

.750 128 21

1.000 62

286 180

151 71

445 338

240 160

603 496 16 841 734 254 1,078 972 492 1,316 1,209 729 1,475 1,368 888

329 249 463 383 23 597 517 157 730 650 290 819 739 379

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

Initial  Air Pressure 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.9 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Leakage Trim Size Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.125” 6,199 5,560 2,679 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

.187" 2,684 2,257 337 6,487 6,060 4140 >10000 9,863 7,943 >10000 >10000 >10000

.250" 1,470 1,150

.375" 618 404

.500 327 167

.750 128 21

1.000 62

3,609 3,289 1,849 5,748 5,428 3,988 7,887 7,567 6,127

1,568 1,355 395 2,519 2,306 1,346 3,470 3,256 2,296

862 702

365 259

196 116

1,397 1,237 517 1,932 1,772 1,052

603 496 16 841 734 254

329 249 463 383 23

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 17 ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.12 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring

Air Supply Pressure 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

Leakage Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.187" 6,487 6,060 4,140 >10000 >10000 9,210 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Trim Size .250" .375" .500 .750 3,609 1568 862 365 3,289 1355 702 259 1,849 395 6,461 2,836 1,575 682 6,141 2,626 1,415 576 4,701 1,663 695 96 9,313 4,104 2,288 999 8,993 3,890 2,128 893 7,553 2,930 1,408 413 >10000 5,371 3,001 1,316 >10000 5,158 2,841 1,209 >10000 4,198 2,121 729 >10000 7,272 4,071 1,791 >10000 7,059 3,911 1,685 >10000 6,099 3,191 1,205 >10000 9,174 5,140 2,267 >10000 8,961 4,980 2,160 >10000 8,001 4,260 1,680 >10000 >10000 6,210 2,742 >10000 >10000 6,050 2,635 >10000 9,902 5,330 2,155 >10000 >10000 6,923 3,059 >10000 >10000 6,763 2,952 >10000 >10000 6,043 2,472

1.000 196 116 374 294 552 472 112 730 650 290 998 918 558 1,265 1,185 825 1,532 1,452 1,092 1,711 1,631 1,271

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

Initial  Air Pressure 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.12 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Leakage Trim Size Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.187" 6,487 6,060 4,140 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

.250" 3,609 3,289 1,849 7,887 7,567 6,127 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

.375" 1,568 1,355 395 3,470 3,256 2,296 5,371 5,158 4,198 7,272 7,059 6,099

.500 862 702

.750 365 259

1.000 196 116

1,932 1,772 1,052 3,001 2,841 2,121 4,071 3,911 3,191

841 734 254 1,316 1,209 729 1,791 1,685 1,205

463 383 23 730 650 290 998 918 558

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Table 18 ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.16 Direct Actuator, 3 to 15 psi Spring Air Supply Pressure 18 18 18 20 20 20 22 22 22 24 24 24 27 27 27 30 30 30 33 33 33 36 36 36

Leakage Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.250" 6,665 6,345 4,905 >10000 >10000 9,794 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

Allowable Pressure Drops Trim Size .375" .500 2,926 1626 2,713 1466 1,753 746 5,099 2,848 4,886 2,688 3,926 1,968 7,272 4,071 7,059 3,911 6,099 3,191 9,445 5,293 9,232 5,133 8,272 4,413 >10000 7,127 >10000 6,967 >10000 6,247 >10000 8,960 >10000 8,800 >10000 8,080 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 9,913 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

(PSI) .750 705 598 118 1,248 1,114 662 1,791 1,685 1,205 2,335 2,228 1,748 3,150 3,043 2,563 3,964 3,858 3,378 4,779 4,673 4,193 5,323 5,216 4,736

1.000 387 307 692 612 252 998 918 558 1,303 1,223 863 1,762 1,682 1,322 2,220 2,140 1,780 2,678 2,598 2,238 2,984 2,904 2,544

Usually direct acting actuators use a 3-15 psi spring. With an 18 psi air supply pressure, there is a 3 psi (18-15=3) net closure force on the trim, or for a 27 psi supply the net closure force is 12 psi. If a 6-30 psi spring is used in a direct acting actuator, add 15 to pressure in the air supply column.

Initial  Air Pressure 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9 9 12 12 12 

ALLOWABLE PRESS. DROP RATINGS FOR UNBALANCED TRIM TEFLON PACKING, FLOW UP, No.16 Reverse Actuator Allowable Pressure Drops (PSI) Leakage Trim Size Class II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V II IV & VI V

.250" 6,665 6,345 4,905 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000 >10000

.375" 2,926 2,713 1,753 6,186 5,973 5,013 9,445 9,232 8,272 >10000 >10000 >10000

.500 1,626 1,466 746 3,460 3,300 2,580 5,293 5,133 4,413 7,127 6,967 6,247

.750 705 598 118 1,520 1,413 933 2,335 2,228 1,748 3,150 3,043 2,563

1.000 387 307 845 765 405 1,303 1,223 863 1,762 1,682 1,682

The Initial air pressure is actuator diaphragm pressure when the valve begins to open. For example, a 315 has an initial pressure of 3 psi. The spring may have additional compression to provide the 6, 9 & 12 psi initial pressures.

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Actuator Air Volume Valve applications may need to determine the amount of air, gas or liquid to actuate an actuator to its rated travel. The first segment of Table 18 is the 2700A Actuator Air Chamber Volumes at initial travels and at final travel. The choice of final travel depends on the size of the valve trim. The required added air to actuate the actuator is the amount of air, of gas, to be added to the atmospheric pressure in the actuator and may be calculated from the following equation or found in the last four segments of Table 18. Req'd Added Air to Actuate =

(Actuator Volume) (Actuator Air Pressure)  Std Ft 3 (14.7)

Table 19 - Actuator Air Chamber Volume & Required Added Air to Actuate Actuator Size 9 12 16 18

Actuator Size 9 12 16 18

Actuator Size 9 12 16 18

Actuator Size 9 12 16 18

Actuator Size 9 12 16 18

0” 0.035 0.053 0.076 0.371

2700A Actuator Air Chamber Volume (Cubic Feet) Travel 0.625” 0.75” 1” 1.25” 1.5” 2” 0.046 0.048 0.052 0.073 0.077 0.086 0.094 0.104 0.119 0.109 0.116 0.132 0.146 0.167 0.192 0.477 0.512 0.547

2.75”

4”

0.615

0.731

Required Added Air to Actuate at 18 PSIG (Standard Cubic Feet) Travel 0.625” 0.75” 1” 1.25” 1.5” 2” 2.75” 0.056 0.059 0.064 0.089 0.094 0.105 0.115 0.128 0.146 0.133 0.143 0.161 0.179 0.205 0.235 0.584 0.627 0.669 0.754 Required Added Air to Actuate at 24 PSIG (Standard Cubic Feet) Travel 0.625” 0.75” 1” 1.25” 1.5” 2” 2.75” 0.075 0.078 0.086 0.119 0.126 0.140 0.154 0.170 0.195 0.178 0.190 0.215 0.239 0.273 0.313 0.779 0.837 0.892 1.005 Required Added Air to Actuate at 30 PSIG (Standard Cubic Feet) Travel 0.625” 0.75” 1” 1.25” 1.5” 2” 2.75” 0.093 0.098 0.107 0.149 0.157 0.175 0.192 0.213 0.244 0.222 0.238 0.269 0.299 0.341 0.391 0.974 1.046 1.115 1.256 Required Added Air to Actuate at 36 PSIG (Standard Cubic Feet) Travel 0.625” 0.75” 1” 1.25” 1.5” 2” 2.75” 0.112 0.117 0.128 0.179 0.189 0.210 0.230 0.255 0.292 0.267 0.285 0.322 0.359 0.410 0.469 1.169 1.255 1.338 1.507

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4”

0.895

4”

1.193

4”

1.491

4”

1.790 10/10/2008


APPLICATION GUIDE FOR CAVITATION, FLASHING AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW SERVICES Valve applications involving cavitation, flashing and noise reduction of compressible flow require special sizing and application considerations and, in most cases, special trims are required. This guide discusses these phenomena with a definition, a list of possible countermeasures, instructions on application of Norriseal's 2700A Trims, and a technical discussion of the phenomena. Cavitation and flashing are in the "Liquid Flow" Section and compressible flow noise reduction is in the "Compressible Flow Noise" Section. Liquid Flow Cavitation and flashing applications require accurate prediction to determine when they occur and proper valve selection to supply the best trim for the application. Cavitation Cavitation Definition Cavitation is a two stage phenomena with liquid flow. The first stage is the formation of vapor bubbles in the liquid as the fluid passes through the trim and the pressure is reduced below the fluid's vapor pressure. The second stage is the collapse of the vapor bubbles back to liquid as the fluid passes the vena contracta and the pressure recovers and increases above the vapor pressure. The collapsing bubbles are very destructive when they contact metal parts and the bubble collapse may produce high noise levels. Cavitation Countermeasures There are several ways to deal with cavitation.

Method 1: Cavitation avoidance: Cavitation can be avoided by selecting a valve style that has FL (rated) values greater than required for the application. This is an especially useful advantage of globe valves over ball and butterfly valves. Norriseal's options are the use of the CAV II that has a higher FL value than the standard port and cage control trims. Cavitation can also be avoided with the installation of an orifice plate downstream of the valve that shares the pressure drop. The valve's pressure drop is reduced to the point of avoiding damaging cavitation. The downstream orifice plate also should be sized to avoid damaging cavitation. This may not be suitable for applications with a wide flow range as the low flow condition may put the entire pressure drop on the valve. Method 2: Cavitation Tolerant: Standard trim designs can tolerate mild cavitation applications. These applications will have increased flow noise from the mild cavitation but should not have damage from cavitation. Method 3: Cavitation Containment: A trim design that allows cavitation to occur but in a harmless manner can be effective in preventing cavitation damage and reducing cavitation noise. Cavitation containment designs are limited to cavitation applications of moderate intensity. Method 4: Cavitation Prevention: A trim design that takes the pressure drop in several steps or stages can avoid the formation of cavitation. These trim designs are more expensive than other methods but may be the only alternative in the more severe cases of cavitation. Graph 4 shows how a three stage trim can eliminate cavitation that would occur in a single stage trim. The total pressure drop is taken in three stages instead of one. Notice none of the vena contracta pressures of the three stage trim are below the vapor pressure.

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Application of Norriseal Trims in Cavitation Service Cavitation Avoidance: The Plug Control and Cage Control 2700A trims both have relatively high FL values and can avoid choked flow at significantly high pressure drops. The CAV II trim, with a higher FL value, will avoid cavitation with a 10% higher pressure drop than the Plug or standard Cage Control Trims. Cavitation Tolerant: All of our 2700A Cage Control Trims are tolerant to cavitation service where the FL (required) exceeds the FL (rated) and the inlet pressure is 50 psig or less for standard materials or 200 psig or less with stellited valve seat and plug's guide & seat. At this inlet pressure, the severity of cavitation will be small enough to use any Cage Control Trim in the flow down direction. The unbalanced Plug Control Trims with tungsten carbide or ceramic materials can withstand cavitation up to an inlet pressure of 2000 psig. These trims will not reduce noise. Oversized bodies are recommended to avoid body erosion. Cavitation Containment: The 2700A CAV II trims are appropriate where the FL (required) exceeds .94 and the inlet pressure is 1000 psig or less and the pressure drop is 500 psi or less. For a FL(required) between .90 and .94, cavitation will be avoided. Above a FL of .94, the flow will cavitate but the CAV II trims will not be damaged by cavitation in these conditions. See table 4 for FL values of Norriseal trims. The flow noise from cavitation will be reduced by the amount shown in Graph 3. Determine the Critical Pressure Drop Ratio by dividing the actual pressure drop by the critical pressure drop. Use the

Critical Pressure Drop Ratio to determine the SPL Attenuation Value from Graph 3. Subtract the SPL Attenuation Value from the predicted flow noise level for standard trims. Notice the CAV II trims will reduce flow noise even when there is no cavitation. The flow noise calculation for CAV II trim is automatic with Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program. The CAV II trim will make multiple small cavitation plumes that will not as readily cause erosion damage and will generate less noise than a trim with plug or cage port control. The CAV II trim is used only in the flow down direction. Cavitation Prevention: Special trims with two or three stages can be designed for the 2700A valve to suit a particular application. These trims will cost significantly more than the other trims discussed but will be applicable in conditions beyond the others. Consult with Application Engineering for multiple stage applications. Application Summary If FL(required) is less than FL(rated): No special considerations are required. If FL(required) is greater than FL (rated) and P1 is 50/200/2000 psig or less: Use any Cage Control Trim in the Flow down direction. If P1 is 50 psig or less or stellited valve seat, guide and cage if P1 is between 200 and 50 psig. Unbalanced Plug Control Trims with carbide or ceramic materials may be used up to a 2000 psig inlet pressure. If FL (required) is between .90 and .94 and the standard 2700A Cage Control Trims have choked flow: Use the CAV II Trim in the flow down direction to avoid choked flow. If FL (required) is greater than .94, P1 is 1000 psig or less and the pressure drop is 500 psig or less:

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Use the CAV II Trim in the flow down direction. If the application is outside of the above options: Consult with the Application Engineer. The Cavitation Phenomena FLUID AND PRESSURE PROFILE A control valve creates a pressure drop in the fluid as it controls the flow rate. The profile of the fluid pressure, as it flows through the valve, is shown in Graph 1. The fluid accelerates as it takes a pressure drop through the valve's trim, It reaches its highest velocity just past the throttle point, at a point called the vena contracta. The fluid is at its lowest pressure and highest velocity at the vena contracta. Past the vena contracta the fluid decelerates and some of the pressure drop is recovered as the pressure increases. For globe valves, the pressure difference from the inlet pressure P1 to the vena contracta pressure PVC is about 125% of the P1 to P2 pressure drop. The pressure in the vena contracta is not of importance until it is lower than the fluid's vapor pressure. Then the fluid will quickly form vapor bubbles and, if the pressure increases above the vapor pressure, the vapor bubbles instantly collapse back to liquid. This is cavitation. It will occur when the vapor pressure, shown as "PV Cavitation" in Graph 1, is more than the vena contracta pressure but less than the outlet pressure, P2. When the Vapor pressure, shown as "PV Liquid" in Graph 1, is less than the vena contracta pressure, there is full liquid flow with no cavitation. Cavitation in control valves can have four negative effects;  Restricts fluid flow  Causes severe vibrations  Erodes metal surfaces  Generates high noise levels.

CHOKED FLOW AND INCIPIENT CAVITATION The liquid flow rate will increase as the pressure drop increases. However, when cavitation vapor bubbles form in the vena contracta, the vapor bubbles will increasingly restrict the flow of liquid until the flow is fully choked with vapor. This condition is known as "choked flow" or "critical flow". When the flow is fully choked, the flow rate does not increase when the pressure drop is increased. Graph 2 shows these flow relationships. The flow curve begins in the chart's lower left corner with fully liquid flow. The relationship of flow to P1  P2 is linear until cavitation begins to form at the point of incipient cavitation. As more cavitation forms, the more the flow curve bends until it is horizontal and fully choked with the flow not increasing with additional pressure drop. The larger the FL factor, the greater the pressure drop that can be taken before choked flow occurs. Note in table 4 that ball and butterfly valves have a relatively low FL and Norriseal's CAV II trim will produce higher flow rate without choking than standard Cage or Plug Control Trims. The point of "Incipient Cavitation" can be predicted with the P incipient in the equation in the “CV Formulas for Liquid Flow” using the KC factor. Values for KC are shown in table 4. Cavitation will begin at the point of "Incipient Cavitation" and increase in intensity to the point of choked flow. Cavitation at point of "Incipient Cavitation" is not damaging and is almost undetectable. At some point between incipient and choked, the cavitation may damage most trim styles. The location of the "Damage" point varies with trim style and material. A larger KC is preferred so the incipient cavitation range to choked flow is as small as possible. As the point of damaging cavitation is not easily defined, sizing and application

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methods use the Critical Pressure Drop and the Required FL to rate trims for cavitation service. The KC value is not used for trim selection only flow noise prediction. CAVITATION DAMAGE Cavitation damage problems are more likely to occur with water flow as water has a well defined vapor pressure and the vapor bubble collapse is instantaneous. Hydro-carbon fluids have a less precise vapor pressure and are often a compound with several vapor pressures. Cavitation damage with hydro-carbon fluids is usually less severe than water as the bubble collapse is not as sudden and can be cushioned by other vapors. However the vibration and flow noise problems remain. The fluid's inlet pressure is proportional to the amount of energy available to cause cavitation damage. Higher inlet pressures will produce more intense and more damaging cavitation. The amount of cavitation is related to the degree the required FL exceeds the rated FL. As the required FL exceeds the rated FL, the amount of cavitation increases. A valve with a rated FL of .90 in an application requiring a FL of .96 will have more cavitation than an application requiring .92. There will be more cavitation but not more flow! The generation and implosion of the vapor bubbles will cause vibration to the valve's Plug that may cause wear between the Plug and Cage or Guide and can cause Stems to break. The implosion of the bubbles when near or on a metal surface can generate extremely high shock stresses in the metal surface that usually damages the metal with severe erosion of the metal. This phenomena, when severe, can destroy trims within hours! The generation and implosion of the vapor bubbles will cause

significantly elevated flow noise in addition to vibration. The cavitation bubbles will form a vapor plume in the liquid. The larger the plume, the noisier the flow and the more likely it is to cause erosion damage. The size of the plume is dependent on trim style and severity of cavitation. The CAV II Trim with many small orifices will have significantly smaller vapor plumes with less noise and a reduced damage potential than a standard trim. There is not much positive to say about cavitation. Valves improperly applied or without adequate cavitation protection can lead to early failure. FLASHING Flashing Definition Flashing is a one stage phenomena somewhat similar to cavitation. The difference is the downstream pressure does not recover enough to be above the fluid's vapor pressure. The vapor bubbles in the liquid do not collapse and they remain in the fluid as vapor. Generally only part of the fluid vaporizes so the resulting flow downstream of the valve is two phase, vapor and liquid. Flashing is similar to cavitation in some respects but is not quite as severe. There are means to prevent or retard cavitation but not flashing! If the valves outlet pressure is below the vapor pressure, flashing will occur regardless of the valve's trim. When the Vapor pressure, shown as "PV Flashing" in Graph 1, is greater than the outlet pressure, there is flashing flow. Flashing Countermeasures There are several measures that should be made in flashing applications. Body Material: The flashing process can cause body erosion that may reduce the body's wall thickness to less than required by codes. The fluid in the valve body

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downstream of the trim is highly turbulent as a two phase flow mixture of vapor and liquid. The turbulent mixture can easily erode body materials, such as carbon steel, that may not have sufficient erosion resistance. Trim Selection: Avoid the use of Balanced Plug Control Trim in flashing applications as the flashing process may make the trim unstable. High pressure drops in flashing service is best served with a cage control trim with multiple small orifices, CAV II, that reduce the trim's vibration from the fluid's turbulence APPLICATION OF NORRISEAL VALVES IN FLASHING SERVICE Body Material: The flashing process can cause body erosion that may reduce the body's wall thickness to less than required by codes. Severe flashing service should have stainless steel or Chrome-Moly (WC6) bodies, Carbon steel may not be suitable. Trim Selection: If the pressure drop is 50 PSI or less, standard Cage Control Trim is suitable. Plug control Trim is not recommended for flashing service. For pressure drops greater than 50 psi, CAV II Trim or Unbalanced Plug Control Trims with tungsten carbide or ceramic are recommended. THE FLASHING PHENOMENA Liquids in flashing service undergo a transformation from all liquid flow to two phase flow of flashed vapor and the remaining liquid. The liquid will flash until thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved with the vapor fully saturated. Often the majority of the volume will be vapor and some of the remaining liquid will be suspended as droplets in the vapor. As the velocity of the vapor can reach as high

as sonic velocity, the liquid droplets can cause severe erosion the valve body and the downstream pipe. The flashing process is highly turbulent with the liquid impacting the valve trim at high velocity. The effects of the turbulent flashing liquid can cause trim instability if it impacts the control surfaces of the Plug. For this reason, Plug Control Trim is not suitable for flashing service. The CAV II Cage will distribute the flashing process into a large number of small jets reducing the total turbulence and reducing the vibration effects on the Plug and the erosion effects to the body. Often flashing service will be in the flow down direction through an angle style body. The object is the get the flashing through the valve without significant contact with the body. As Norriseal does not have a angle body, our best solution is flow down through the CAV II using the trim's small holes to reduce the total turbulence and protect the body. Flashing service with pressure drops less than 50 PSI will have less severe turbulence so the standard Cage Control Trims with flow down will be suitable. LIQUID FLOW VELOCITY - BODY MATERIAL High liquid flow velocities in valve bodies can cause metal erosion even though there may be no cavitation or flashing. Liquid flow velocity in valve bodies should be limited to the velocities shown in Table 6 to avoid flow erosion. The body's flow velocity, for liquid flow, can be calculated. The body flow velocity at the smallest flow passage, usually the body inlet or outlet, should not exceed the velocities in Table 20. Table 20 LIQUID FLOW VELOCITY LIMITS Body Material Carbon Steel Stainless or WC6 (Cr-Mo)

Application Limits Pressure Drop

Infrequent

> 500 PSI 30 Ft/Sec

< 500 PSI 40 Ft/Sec

< 2% of time 50 Ft/Sec

45 Ft/Sec

60 Ft/Sec

90 Ft/Sec

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COMPRESSIBLE FLOW NOISE Compressible Flow Noise Discussion Flow noise from compressible flow is a major application consideration. The flow noise must be accurately predicted and the appropriate valve trim chosen to meet the customers requirements and assure good valve operation. Compressible flow noise is generated by fluid turbulence, the more turbulence the more noise. Fluid turbulence is increased by higher flow rates and by a higher fluid pressure drop through valve trim. As the valve's pressure drop reaches the critical condition and the speed of sound is reached in the flow stream's vena contracta, shock waves are produced that increases the noise level above that produced by turbulence alone. Compressible Flow Noise Countermeasures There are several methods to reduce compressible flow noise. Multiple Orifice Trims: A trim with a high number of small flow orifices will produce less flow noise than a trim of equal flow capacity with either four or one flow orifices. The small holes produce smaller flow jets that generate proportionally less noise as the small holes are less efficient in converting mechanical power to acoustical power than large holes. Norriseal's DB I and DB II trims have multiple small orifices and are significant quieter than standard plug or cage control trims. Backpressure Orifice: The flow noise increases rapidly with increased pressure drop especially when the critical pressure drop is exceeded. However if the total pressure drop can be shared by two devices, the flow noise can be significantly reduced. This can be accomplished with a fixed orifice plate downstream of a

control valve. At maximum flow the valve and orifice plate can have about the same pressure drop and generate less noise than taking the total drop across the valve alone. At lower flow rates, the noise from flow through the valve will probably be less than at full flow even though the valve's pressure drop increases as the pressure drop across the fixed orifice plate decreases. The backpressure orifice plate may be in the form of a cylindrical diffuser. The backpressure orifice device also should be sized for flow noise. Two Stage Trim: A two stage valve will reduce flow noise beyond the noise reduction of the DB I and DB II trims. The two stage trim is similar to two DB II trims one inside of the other. The inner stage takes the majority of the pressure drop with the outer stage acting as a diffuser to reduce flow turbulence. APPLICATION OF NORRISEAL TRIMS IN COMPRESSIBLE FLOW APPLICATIONS Low noise considerations should be applied when the predicted noise level exceeds the customers requirement or when the noise level exceed 110 dBA. Flow noise in excess of 110 dBA can permanently damage a person’s hearing and the noise induced vibrations can damage the valve’s trim and instrumentation mounted on the valve. Standard Trims: Calculate the flow noise for the specified conditions. The standard Plug Control, flow up, or the Cage Control, flow down, may meet the customer's noise requirements or our 110 dBA limit. In this case no further measures are required providing the downstream flow velocity is not excessive. DB I and DB II Multiple Orifice Trims: The DB I and DB II trims will reduce compressible flow noise in the flow up configuration.

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Determine the predicted flow noise for standard cage control trim. Calculate the valve's pressure ratio by dividing the upstream pressure by the downstream pressure, both psia, and determine the "Noise Attenuation Value" from Graph 5. To determine the aerodynamic flow noise with DB I and DB II trims, subtract the "Noise Attenuation Value" from the predicted flow noise for standard cage control trim. Graph 5 shows noise attenuation for both the DB I slotted cage and the DB II drilled hole cage. Noise attenuation for the DB I cage is less than the DB II but the cost of a DB I is also less than the DB II. Choose the cage style appropriate for the application. The DB I cage is not available in trim sizes larger than 4". The flow noise calculation for DB I and DB II trim is automatic with Norriseal’s Valve Sizing Program. Compressible Flow Velocity Limits: If flow noise is being controlled, the flow velocity in the valve body and downstream piping should be limited to 1/3 sonic velocity for DB II and 1/2 sonic velocity for DB I trims. Higher velocities will generate significant flow noise in the pipe even though a low noise trim is installed. Applications with low outlet pressures can readily have high downstream velocities. Sonic velocity at the valve's outlet can produce flow noise as high as 135 dBA as the shock waves from the sonic velocity will propagate downstream as the pipe acts as a megaphone! The body's flow velocity, for compressible flow, can be calculated using the body outlet diameter from Table 5. Two Stage Trims and Backpressure Orifices: Two stage trims and backpressure orifices require special analyses and designs not available as standard. The use of two stage trims and downstream orifices may reduce the flow noise an additional 10 dBA beyond the reduction of the DB II Trim. Consult

Norriseal’s Application Engineering for applications with DB II that have predicted noise values above the required limit. THE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW NOISE PHENOMENA A control valve's purpose is to create a pressure drop, the pressure drop creates fluid turbulence and the turbulence generates flow noise. The resultant flow noise is inevitable but can be minimized by trim and valve selection. Flow noise produced by a valve will be transmitted through the wall of the downstream pipe. Very little noise will come through the valve body wall as the area of the pipe's wall is larger than the pipe's wall thickness. High flow noise from compressible flow presents two problems. Mechanical vibrations from excessive noise levels can quickly destroy the trim and also may damage accessories mounted on the valve's actuator. The major problem from high flow noise is hearing damage to people in the vicinity of the valve. OSHA has established noise limits that vary from 115 dBA to 85 dBA depending on the length of daily exposure. the 115 dBA is for 15 minutes exposure and 85 dBA is for an 8 hour exposure. The usual requirement is 85 dBA as it is difficult to limit a person's exposure. Ear protection can help protect a person's hearing, but with today's legal liability rulings, the owner of the process is liable for people's hearing damage even if they exceed posted exposure times and do not use provided ear protection. We should be concerned if the predicted noise level exceeds 110 dBA even if the customer does not impose a limit. Flow noise exceeding 110 dBA, for any significant time can damage the valve trim and accessories. Norriseal uses both ISA's CV formulas from ISA 75.01 and ISA's Control Valve

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Aerodynamic Noise Prediction formulas from ISA 75.07.01. ISA 75.07.01 was published in 1989 and has become recognized as the best compressible flow noise prediction method. The major control valve companies, Fisher and Masoneilan, had developed, in the 1960's, empirical noise prediction techniques based on laboratory test data. Formulas

were written to fit the test data. In the 1980's ISA developed a theoretical noise prediction method, with the combined input from many valve companies, that is more accurate than the previous empirical methods. The ISA noise prediction method applies only to standard plug or cage control trims. Low flow noise designs require an additional factor to be subtracted from the ISA value.

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Table 21 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2200/2220 Globe Body, Modified Percentage & Quick Opening, Unbalanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

1”

2”

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel

Trim Size 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000”

Modified Percentage 10 .284 .311 .557 .752 .983 .284 .311 .592 .882 1.01

20 .506 .621 1.11 1.57 2.01 .506 .621 1.17 1.76 2.02

30 .657 .942 1.68 2.43 3.40 .657 .942 1.76 2.76 3.08

40 .767 1.28 2.26 3.42 6.12 .767 1.28 2.34 3.82 4.67

50 .875 1.64 2.92 4.58 8.90 .875 1.64 2.95 5.05 6.96

60 .989 2.07 3.62 6.08 11.7 .989 2.07 3.70 6.57 10.3

70 1.10 2.51 4.30 7.93 13.5 1.10 2.51 4.57 8.49 13.7

80 1.20 2.93 4.98 9.71 14.4 1.20 2.93 5.50 10.8 15.4

90 1.32 3.35 5.43 10.6 15.1 1.32 3.35 5.95 12.2 16.7

100 1.43 3.70 5.60 11.0 15.4 1.43 3.70 6.08 12.9 17.1

Quick Open 100 1.68 3.82 5.60 11.6 15.4 1.68 3.75 6.08 13.0 23.0

Table 22 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2275A Globe and Angle Bodies, Modified Percentage & Quick Opening, Unbalanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Globe Body Size

Trim Size

1’

0.062” 0.125” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500”

Angle Body Size

Trim Size

1’

0.062” 0.125” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500”

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel

100 .100 .407 1.36 3.45 5.22

Quick Open 100 .096 .446 1.40 3.51 5.90

100 .109 .415 1.34 3.52 6.18

Quick Open 100 .109 .421 1.38 3.59 6.20

Modified Percentage 10 .016 .050 .487 .724 .887

20 .026 .073 .588 .901 1.13

30 .033 .088 .617 1.04 1.82

40 .038 .111 .693 1.41 3.45

50 .043 .155 .802 2.27 4.24

60 .048 .258 .940 2.74 4.70

70 .058 .324 1.08 3.05 4.98

80 .072 .367 1.22 3.25 5.14

90 .086 .389 1.33 3.38 5.18

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel Modified Percentage 10 .010 .031 .505 .707 .725

20 .017 .046 .579 .978 1.15

30 .025 .068 .612 1.26 1.98

40 .034 .133 .659 1.53 3.05

50 .045 .204 .753 2.00 4.10

60 .055 .269 .885 2.48 5.11

70 .065 .328 1.01 2.92 5.70

80 .077 .377 1.14 3.23 5.93

90 .092 .402 1.27 3.44 6.08

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Table 23 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2400/2420 Globe Body, Modified Percent, Unbalanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

Trim Size

2”

0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000” 1.250” 1.500” 1.750”

10 .284 .311 .592 .882 1.05 1.60 2.02 2.14

20 .506 .621 1.17 1.76 2.10 3.17 3.51 3.81

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 .657 .767 .875 .989 1.10 1.20 .942 1.28 1.64 2.07 2.51 2.93 1.76 2.34 2.95 3.70 4.57 5.50 2.76 3.82 5.05 6.57 8.49 10.8 3.21 4.86 7.24 10.7 14.3 16.0 6.42 9.78 13.2 16.6 20.1 23.8 7.60 12.0 16.3 20.7 24.4 27.8 8.09 12.6 16.9 21.2 25.7 30.5

90 1.32 3.35 5.95 12.2 17.4 27.1 31.0 34.6

100 1.43 3.70 6.08 12.9 17.8 29.8 34.0 38.1

90 21.1 36.9 46.9 41.7 66.7 69.8 41.7 70.9 85.9 117 41.7 81.0 106 153 201 302 419 573 837

100 21.6 39.1 47.5 44.6 69.4 71.3 44.6 73.7 88.1 119 44.6 84.9 110 155 203 305 422 578 841

Table 24 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Balanced Quick Opening Cage Control Trims, Flow Down Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 4” 6” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6” 8”

10 .675 .675 1.06 .675 1.06 2.03 6.75 1.06 2.03 4.63 .675 1.06 2.03 5.47 12.4 14.7 37.9 37.9 95.9

20 2.20 2.20 6.02 2.20 6.02 9.34 2.20 6.02 9.34 14.5 2.20 6.02 11.9 21.6 40.8 50.2 114 119 257

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 6.68 11.0 15.1 17.8 19.7 20.6 6.90 12.5 17.7 23.0 28.2 33.2 15.2 24.5 33.4 40.0 43.4 45.6 6.90 12.5 17.8 24.4 31.0 37.2 16.5 26.7 37.2 47.5 56.4 62.7 24.8 40.5 52.8 59.4 64.2 67.6 6.90 12.5 17.8 24.4 31.0 37.2 16.5 26.7 39.9 53.1 61.4 67.0 25.4 41.6 57.5 69.6 78.6 83.6 37.2 65.4 86.0 100 109 114 6.90 12.5 17.8 24.4 31.0 37.2 16.5 26.7 39.9 53.1 66.5 75.2 28.2 49.8 70.6 85.3 94.9 102 48.1 77.1 104 124 139 148 85.6 128 159 179 193 199 108 165 220 258 282 295 210 287 344 384 406 415 223 325 430 500 537 561 434 596 713 777 818 833

Table 25 - Flow Coefficients, CV,2700/2720A/E Globe Body, //data/public/pdf/valve-sizing-maual.doc 36 of 43 Norriseal – P.O. Box 40525 Houston TX 77240-052–- Ph: (713) 466-3552, Fax: (713) 896-7386

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Balanced Linear Cage Control Trims, Flow Down Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 4” 6” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6” 8”

10 .355 .355 .906 .355 .906 1.51 .355 .906 1.51 3.23 .355 .906 1.51 3.60 8.57 11.7 19.6 24.8 55.3

20 1.01 1.01 3.26 1.01 3.26 4.87 1.01 3.26 4.87 8.30 1.01 3.26 7.61 12.4 21.2 31.5 55.8 75.2 125

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 2.48 5.46 8.43 11.3 14.3 16.9 2.48 5.46 8.50 12.4 16.4 20.7 7.35 13.1 20.2 27.7 34.5 39.8 2.48 5.46 8.50 12.4 16.4 20.9 7.35 13.1 20.2 28.8 37.2 46.0 11.0 20.3 30.9 41.5 50.2 57.0 2.48 5.46 8.50 12.5 14.7 22.6 7.35 13.1 20.2 29.8 40.5 50.9 11.9 22.8 34.4 46.1 57.6 69.0 19.6 37.6 55.8 73.7 88.9 101 2.48 5.46 8.50 12.4 17.4 22.6 7.35 13.1 20.2 30.4 42.4 54.2 14.6 25.6 39.9 54.6 67.8 78.2 25.7 44.3 64.9 85.8 106 122 42.7 68.5 94.0 120 145 168 66.8 103 139 175 210 246 104 152 200 248 296 339 140 203 266 331 393 457 224 324 422 521 618 705

90 18.6 25.0 43.5 25.6 54.8 61.4 27.8 58.4 76.9 110 27.8 65.5 87.5 135 184 271 369 502 752

100 19.6 29.2 45.5 30.2 61.3 64.8 33.1 63.0 81.5 117 33.1 72.1 94.1 145 195 284 391 523 790

90 17.8 22.7 35.5 24.4 49.7 58.5 26.3 50.7 68.0 108 26.3 55.3 70.9 131 185 249 360 472 728

100 18.9 27.3 39.2 29.9 57.5 62.0 32.2 61.7 77.2 116 32.2 63.8 82.1 142 195 269 378 508 756

Table 26 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Balanced Equal Percentage Cage Control Trims, Flow Down Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 4” 6” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6” 8”

10 .308 .308 .400 .308 .400 .643 .308 .400 .643 .906 .308 .400 .643 .906 2.83 5.34 6.84 11.8 18.1

20 .565 .565 .813 .565 .813 2.20 .565 .813 2.20 3.31 .565 .813 2.20 4.03 9.09 9.84 19.6 23.1 44.1

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 1.21 2.63 4.83 8.16 12.4 15.5 1.21 2.63 5.06 8.40 13.0 17.9 2.36 4.86 8.49 15.1 22.7 30.3 1.39 3.02 5.26 8.81 13.4 18.9 2.41 5.24 9.45 17.1 27.9 39.2 4.82 9.29 15.6 25.9 39.5 53.0 1.39 3.02 5.26 8.81 14.6 20.3 2.41 5.24 9.45 17.1 28.0 39.3 4.82 9.29 15.6 25.9 39.5 55.4 7.72 15.4 27.7 46.8 70.1 93.7 1.39 3.02 5.26 8.81 14.6 20.3 2.41 5.24 9.45 17.1 28.9 42.4 4.82 9.29 15.6 25.9 39.5 55.4 9.25 17.3 29.2 49.0 77.0 106 19.5 33.9 52.0 79.8 119 159 18.5 38.6 65.6 107 155 206 40.1 69.6 107 163 244 325 43.2 78.8 139 223 310 399 86.9 143 221 346 494 642

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Table 27 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Balanced DB I Noise Abatement Cage Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 4”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6”

10 .480 .480 1.13 .480 1.13 1.78 .480 1.13 1.78 3.04 .480 1.13 1.78 4.25 10.4 9.18

20 1.85 1.85 5.21 1.85 5.21 7.50 1.85 5.21 7.5 12.7 1.85 5.21 7.5 15.8 38.9 36.1

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 5.25 8.61 11.9 14.6 16.6 17.9 5.51 9.33 13.0 17.1 21.0 24.7 12.7 20.0 27.4 34.1 38.3 40.8 5.51 9.33 13.0 17.1 21.4 26.0 12.7 20.0 27.4 34.5 41.1 47.2 18.7 29.6 40.7 49.9 55.7 59.1 5.51 9.33 13.2 17.3 22.0 27.4 12.7 20.0 28.6 38.5 49.1 56.2 18.7 32 44.5 56.2 66.6 75.1 30.2 49.6 67.6 82.4 93.5 102 5.51 9.33 13.2 17.3 22.0 27.4 12.7 20.0 29.4 39.7 49.4 57.8 18.7 32.0 44.8 57.6 69.7 80.5 33.9 52.4 71.4 89.8 108 124 77.5 111 134 150 160 166 72.4 108 145 181 215 237

90 18.6 27.5 42.4 29.9 51.5 61.1 32.0 61.5 81.3 108 32.0 65.1 89.4 137 172 251

100 18.8 29.8 43.9 32.3 54.8 61.9 35.4 65.8 85.3 112 35.4 70.3 95.8 147 178 262

90 18.2 24.8 39.7 25.7 44.5 60.1 26.8 49.4 78.7 94.6 26.8 52.8 82.3 107 151 213 337 385 611

100 18.6 28.2 42.0 29.1 49.9 61.5 31.6 56.6 83.8 100 31.6 60.9 92.9 115 160 224 351 405 644

Table 28 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Balanced DB II Noise Abatement Cage Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 2” 3” 4” 6”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6” 8"

10 .475 .475 1.04 .475 1.04 1.60 .475 1.04 1.60 1.71 .475 1.04 1.60 4.47 7.01 9.09 23.9 24.9 47.3

20 1.59 1.59 3.46 1.59 3.46 7.33 1.59 3.46 7.33 9.93 1.59 3.46 7.33 13.7 28.1 32.4 67.3 69.2 131

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 4.71 7.80 10.9 14.0 16.1 17.5 4.91 8.13 11.5 14.8 18.1 21.5 9.93 16.3 22.2 27.4 32.2 36.2 4.91 8.40 11.8 15.3 18.8 22.3 9.93 16.3 22.2 27.7 33.3 38.9 18.0 28.6 39.2 47.8 53.6 57.5 4.91 8.40 11.8 15.3 18.8 22.4 9.93 16.3 22.2 28.2 34.8 42.0 18.0 28.6 39.2 49.4 59.8 70.5 24.5 38.8 53.3 66.0 77.5 87.2 4.91 8.40 11.8 15.3 18.8 22.4 9.93 16.3 22.5 29.1 36.5 44.7 18.0 28.6 39.3 50.1 60.8 71.7 27.2 41.2 55.8 70.0 84.2 96.9 50.4 72.9 94.2 114 129 141 60.4 87.4 115 142 170 195 117 166 215 258 292 318 118 166 220 271 317 357 220 305 389 462 524 574

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Table 29 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Balanced CAVII Cavitation Cage Control Trims, Flow Down Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 4” 6” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6” 8”

10

20

.453 .453 .890 .453 .890 1.55 .453 .890 1.55 1.66 .453 .890 1.55 4.04 6.40 8.82 21.8 28.2 45.4

1.18 1.18 2.67 1.18 2.67 7.69 1.18 2.93 7.70 9.88 1.18 2.93 7.70 15.7 26.8 31.4 66.9 77.2 128

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 4.12 4.59 8.58 4.73 9.00 17.9 4.73 10.0 18.8 23.7 4.73 10.0 20.7 30.6 48.3 55.9 115 127 213

7.12 8.45 14.5 8.95 15.7 28.2 8.95 17.0 30.0 37.4 8.95 17.0 32.1 45.1 69.9 80.0 163 176 297

10.1 12.6 20.5 13.2 22.2 38.6 13.2 23.8 41.2 51.0 13.2 23.8 42.7 58.2 88.7 105 207 227 371

13.2 16.5 26.7 17.4 28.8 46.2 17.4 30.7 51.8 63.1 17.4 30.7 52.6 69.7 103 129 239 274 428

15.8 20.2 31.5 21.3 35.3 51.9 21.3 37.0 58.8 73.0 21.3 37.0 60.7 80.0 115 150 266 320 478

16.9 23.5 35.2 25.0 41.2 55.8 25.0 42.7 64.0 80.9 25.0 42.7 67.0 88.6 126 166 289 353 523

90

100

17.7 26.1 38.0 28.3 45.7 58.7 28.3 47.6 68.6 87.0 28.3 47.6 72.6 96.0 136 178 309 375 565

18.5 27.9 40.2 31.0 49.3 61.3 31.0 51.9 73.0 91.7 31.0 51.9 76.7 104 146 186 328 390 603

Table 30 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Modified Percent, Balanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 2” 3” 4” 6” 4” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6”

8”

10

20

1.17 1.17 3.13 1.17 5.03 5.01 1.17 5.03 5.01 6.15 1.17 5.03 6.2 14.8 14.8 6.2 14.8 15.4 19.8 15.4 26.8 36.3

2.29 2.29 6.06 2.29 7.67 11.0 2.29 7.67 9.85 14.9 2.29 7.67 11.5 29.0 23.2 11.5 29.0 31.3 40.1 31.3 54.2 75.2

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 3.82 4.29 9.68 4.29 9.53 20.3 4.29 9.53 16.6 27.7 4.29 9.53 20.9 44.1 38.3 20.9 44.1 57.5 76.7 66.6 99.7 138

6.65 7.75 17.7 7.75 12.9 33.8 7.75 12.9 30.6 52.5 7.75 12.9 37.1 59.1 71.5 37.1 67.2 101 128 117 175 242

10.9 13.2 28.8 13.2 18.4 48.9 13.2 18.4 47.2 80.3 13.2 18.4 53.1 80.6 114 53.1 96.6 145 192 168 252 375

15.2 19.1 40.0 19.6 24.9 61.4 19.6 26.2 62.9 104 19.6 26.2 70.3 111 148 70.3 126 190 252 220 329 522

17.7 25.2 47.2 25.7 33.6 67.2 25.7 35.6 77.0 118 25.7 37.9 82.1 135 177 82.1 155 234 312 271 406 641

19.3 30.5 51.6 31.5 44.0 69.5 31.5 46.2 88.8 124 31.5 50.6 93.8 151 196 93.8 181 272 352 315 471 723

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90

100

20.2 34.1 54.0 35.1 53.4 70.8 35.1 57.0 96.4 128 35.1 62.1 104 166 207 104 195 294 378 340 510 780

20.5 36.0 54.8 37.1 59.5 71.6 37.1 65.1 101 129 37.1 67.4 110 172 211 110 210 316 400 366 548 805

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Table 31 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Quick Opening, Balanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

Trim Size

1”

1” 1” 1.5” 1” 1.5” 2” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 1” 1.5” 2” 3” 4” 2” 3” 4” 6” 4” 6” 8”

1.5” 2”

3”

4”

6”

8”

10

20

8.83 10.9 13.2 10.9 18.4 19.6 10.9 18.4 19.6 27.5 10.9 18.4 26.8 27.5 30.4 26.8 27.5 55.0 55.2 55.0 75.7 90.3

14.0 20.6 26.4 20.6 33.4 38.7 20.6 33.4 38.7 54.5 20.6 33.4 45.7 55.9 64.5 49.1 55.9 111 117 111 160 217

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 17.4 27.1 37.2 27.9 46.9 55.2 27.9 46.9 59.9 81.8 27.9 51.1 64.5 93.5 103 72.2 103 166 189 166 259 354

19.2 31.7 44.3 33.8 56.5 62.7 33.8 57.7 74.5 102 33.8 63.7 77.8 131 142 90.8 149 221 271 221 372 505

20.2 34.9 49.1 38.2 60.9 65.6 38.2 66.9 88.3 115 38.2 70.5 92.3 153 175 106 180 270 333 277 457 631

20.9 37.3 52.4 41.5 62.3 67.5 41.5 73.9 97.0 122 41.5 78.1 101 168 195 116 199 298 374 321 513 725

21.2 38.9 54.2 43.6 63.7 68.8 43.6 77.3 100 126 43.6 83.2 107 178 204 123 212 312 406 345 557 797

21.5 39.8 54.8 45.1 64.4 70.0 45.1 79.9 103 127 45.1 87.7 114 182 210 128 219 316 427 357 586 841

90

100

21.7 40.3 55.3 45.8 64.6 71.3 45.8 81.4 104 129 45.8 90.5 119 186 212 130 225 318 440 363 604 872

21.9 40.5 55.9 46.2 65.0 72.8 46.2 81.9 105 130 46.2 92.5 122 187 213 132 229 320 444 369 609 885

Table 32 - Flow Coefficients, CV, 2700/2720A/E Globe Body, Modified Percent, Unbalanced Plug Control Trims, Flow Up Body Size

1”

1.5”

2”

3” & 4”

Trim Size 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000” 0.250” 0.375” 0.500” 0.750” 1.000”

10

20

.284 .311 .557 .752 .983 .284 .311 .592 .882 1.01 .284 .311 .592 .882 .964 .284 .311 .592 .882 .964

.506 .621 1.11 1.57 2.01 .506 .621 1.17 1.76 2.02 .506 .621 1.17 1.76 1.92 .506 .621 1.17 1.76 1.92

Flow Coefficient (CV) Valve Opening - Percent of Total Travel 30 40 50 60 70 80 .657 .942 1.68 2.43 3.40 .657 .942 1.76 2.76 3.08 .657 .942 1.76 2.76 3.14 .657 .942 1.76 2.76 3.14

.767 1.28 2.26 3.42 6.12 .767 1.28 2.34 3.82 4.67 .767 1.28 2.34 3.82 5.07 .767 1.28 2.34 3.82 5.07

.875 1.64 2.92 4.58 8.90 .875 1.64 2.95 5.05 6.96 .875 1.64 2.95 5.53 9.68 .875 1.64 2.95 5.53 9.68

.989 2.07 3.62 6.08 11.7 .989 2.07 3.70 6.57 10.0 .989 2.07 3.70 6.57 11.9 .989 2.07 3.70 6.57 11.9

1.10 2.51 4.30 7.93 13.5 1.10 2.51 4.57 8.49 13.0 1.10 2.51 4.57 8.49 14.9 1.10 2.51 4.57 8.49 14.9

1.20 2.93 4.98 9.71 14.4 1.20 2.93 5.50 10.8 14.7 1.20 2.93 5.50 10.8 17.2 1.20 2.93 5.50 10.8 17.2

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100

1.32 3.35 5.43 10.6 15.1 1.32 3.35 5.95 12.2 15.5 1.32 3.35 5.95 15.0 19.3 1.32 3.35 5.95 15.0 19.3

1.43 3.70 5.60 11.0 15.4 1.43 3.70 6.08 12.9 16.3 1.43 3.70 6.08 12.9 20.9 1.43 3.70 6.08 16.2 20.9 10/10/2008


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Norriseal valve sizing reference guide  

Norriseal Controls product parts list, schematic, & operations manual, courtesy of RMC Process Controls & Filtration, Inc. & www.RegulatorPa...