Page 1

R E P O R T P 1

Name First Mentor Second Mentor

Reza Ambardi Pradana Ir. Els Bet Dr. Ir. Gregory Bracken


FOREWORD

“How to create cities for people, from scratch?” Over the past five years, I have been interested in seeking the answer to this question. Starting from my architecture bachelor’s graduation project where I used the idea of observing the relationship between people’s behavior and the built environment to design a semi-military boarding school masterplan; continued to how it is practiced in the realm of urban design & planning consultancy in Asia; and further studied it here in TU Delft’s Urbanism Department in various projects i.e., understanding it through city metaphor in Tilburg, urban acupuncture interventions in Rotterdam, circular economy’s bottom up initiative in Amsterdam, implementation of pedestrian oriented masterplan in Singapore (as part of internship work in KCAP Architects & Planners), to observing public life in Vondelpark Amsterdam; all related to this topic of ‘cities for people’. This pursuit reached its turning point in the summer of 2017 when I went to Paris (France) and Tianducheng (China) where I incidentally found two Eiffel Towers, one obviously tried to copy the other. This striking phenomenon depict the very idea of this graduation project – as I will explore in this report to juxtapose the two topics: Gehl’s ‘cities for people’ (depicted by Paris old town and many other old towns) and Le Corbusier’s ‘the city of tomorrow’ (Tianducheng new town and many other new towns) hence the name of this graduation project: Cities for People -of Tomorrow. This report is part of the series of iterations for a graduation project in TU Delft master of Urbanism track. As the first iteration of this graduation project, this report is intended to demonstrate: the main background behind the chosen topic of the graduation project – from self-motivation to the preliminary hypothesis; the methodology on how to systematically do this graduation project – from the research questions to the time planning; and the relevance of this project towards a wider context – social, scientific and ethical. As the first iteration, this report will possess many uncertainties and will surely evolved in the future yet hopefully become the first milestone in the pursuit of creating cities for people.

Delft, November 2nd, 2017

Colophon Faculty : Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environments Department : Urbanism Studio : Design of the Urban Fabrics Full Name : Reza Ambardi Pradana Student Number : 4622553 E-mail : rambardip@yahoo.com Website : issuu.com/rezaambardipradana First Mentor : Ir. Els Bet Second Mentor : Dr. Ir. Gregory Bracken Project Title : Cities for People -of Tomorrow Case : Ecopark New Town, Hanoi, Vietnam 2

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TABLE OF CONTENT

1 Introduction 

5

1.1  Study Motivation 

7

1.2  Problem Field 

9

1.3  Preliminary Investigations 

19

1.4  Hypothesis 

27

2 Methodology 

29

2.1  Research Questions 

30

2.2  Theoretical Framework 

32

2.3  Methods 

39

2.4  Design Goals 

43

2.5  Time Planning 

44

3

49

Project Relevance 

3.2  Social Relevance 

50

3.1  Scientific Relevance 

50

3.3  Ethical Paragraph 

51

3.4  Theory Paper Abstract 

51

4 Bibliography 

52

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This chapter will introduce this graduation project through the motivation behind the project, the problem field of the chosen topic, the preliminary investigation of the chosen site, and the preliminary hypothesis to move forward. First, the motivation behind the project is derived from the question, ‘how to create cities for people, from scratch?’ where the two opposing views of the ideal city is opposed, Jan Gehl’s ‘cities for people’ and Le Corbusier’s ‘the city of tomorrow’, hence the name of this graduation project: Cities for People -of Tomorrow. Second, new town is chosen as the topic with the argument of its sometime overlooked significance as the driver of urban growth in many Asian cities. The problems of many Asian new towns are investigated to be the lack of urban vitality and flaws in its masterplanning process. Next, preliminary investigation for the chosen site: Ecopark New Town in Hanoi is done. The site is chosen for its indication to be an anomaly among many failing new towns in Hanoi. The masterplanning process and development logic is investigated and the central area of the masterplan is chosen as the focus area of this project. Finally, based on the motivation, problem field and site investigation, 4 (four) hypothesis are derived with the keywords of: diversity, development process, design governance, and design transition.

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1 INTRODUCTION

1.1  ST U DY M OT I VAT I O N 1. 2   P RO B L E M F I E L D 1. 3   P R E L I M I N A RY I N V E ST I GAT I O N S 1.4   H Y P OT H E S I S

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“how t o cr eat e c i t i e s f o r p e o p l e , f r om s c r a t c h? ”

Paris (FR)

Tianducheng (CN)

6

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1.1  ST U DY M OT I VAT I O N

Future Masterplanning?

Future Cities for People?

“It used to be that the best architects did the biggest work while the smaller work was left to all the other ones. Now, it is the opposite. While Pritzker Prize-winning architects are designing vodka bottles and necklaces, unknown developer-architects are building entire cities from the ground-up in the Middle East and China. In the age of the ‘scratch-built metropolis’ the call for (good) architects to return to big design is more critical than ever.” (Visionary Cities: vol.1)

“As cities are increasingly densifying, are the lessons of Western and Northern Europe still relevant?”, asked the interviewer.

First, I need to define the motivation and the problem why new town is chosen as my graduation project topic. My motivation is simply to answer questions that I had and still have when doing a new town masterplanning project in a design consultant. While I have done several new town masterplanning projects, I have never had any formal education on how to formally or ideally do a masterplanning process. It is understood that new town masterplanning is a product of Western urban design paradigm ties back to the 1930s e.g., Ebenizer Howard and Le Corbusier, which is arguably not relevant anymore in the Western urban environment. Although the masterplanning pedagogy is absent in most of the Western school of architecture/urban design/urban planning, current market for masterplanning design consultancy is still high especially in emerging cities e.g. Asian and African cities (Keeton, 2011). Although new town isn’t the most progressive driver in the always-changing urban fabric, it is certainly place on the top driver. Hence, responding to the gap between the pedagogy absent and the current professional market in masterplanning, it is in high relevance to take this topic as my graduation project general topic. Moreover, being in the Netherlands will give me an advantage on learning the best practice of new town masterplanning to practice in the Global South i.e., Asian cities.

The next question is in which part of this new town masterplanning process that I want to focus on? Here’s where my long-standing passion comes in: understanding cities from the perspective of people. In the existing studies of creating ‘cities for people’, the main focus is on the existing cities, which entails to revitalization, observation of the existing users, tweaking the existing system, and so on. Tie back to the roots movements (notably by Jane Jacobs, Christopher Alexander, Willam H. Whyte, Edward T. Hall, and Jan Gehl), they come from cities with existed urban fabric, generally opposing the redevelopment movement e.g., the famous fights of Jane Jacobs and Robert Moses. If these movements are brought to today’s urban condition, especially to Asia’s expanding cities, the interesting question is: “how to create cities for people, from scratch?”

“Yes, because I see no signs that homo sapiens will not be homo sapiens in the future”, Jan Gehl replied. (Q&A: Jan Gehl on Making Cities Healthier and the Real Meaning of Architecture. Metropolis Magazine. August 11, 2015. Mikki Brammer)

Figure 1.  Paris, France (above), Tianducheng New Town, China (below)

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Jakarta, Indonesia

366 new towns

km2

(Firman, 2004)

158

km2

slums

(Schellekens, 2015)

Hanoi, Vietnam

444 new towns

km2

(Luan, 2014)

84

km2

existing urban areas (Vien et al, 2005)

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1. 2   P RO B L E M F I E L D

Urban Population (Developing Region)

New Town as Part of Urban Growth

57

% new towns +others

43 slums

%

(UN-Habitat, 2001)

Almost 50% of people in Asia live in cities today (UN, 2014). This number is predicted to raise up to 64% in 2050 urbanizing faster than the other regions i.e., Northern and Latin America, Europe, the Carribean and Africa (UN, 2014). In response to this prediction, many studies and agendas in urban development field have been raised e.g., Sustainable Development Goals, The New Urban Agenda, UN-Habitat Human Settlements, etc. with one of the main focus of creating a more sustainable urban development (UN-Habitat, 2016; Habitat III, 2016). In Asian cities context, the focuses are more towards the extended metropolitan regions (Firman T, 2017; Robinson, 2011), peri-urban region (Winarso et al, 2015), decolonisation (Rimmer and Dick, 1998), and urban slums i.e., informal settlements (Tunas, 2008). Studies about the latter in particular, have a lot of spotlight from many institutions as the living conditions on the informal settlements are generally far from ideal and many urban population growths are allocated in these informal settlements around the inner city (Tunas, 2008). However, when growth in informal settlements takes up to 30% of the total urban population (UN-Habitat, 2004), and 43% in the developing region (UN-Habitat, 2001) it means that the rest will be catered in other urban areas i.e., suburban and new towns in the peri-urban regions. For example, area ratio of informal settlements and new towns is almost double in Jakarta: 158 km2 of slum (Schellekens, 2015) and 366 km2 of new towns (Firman, 2004), where in Hanoi the area of new towns (2012) is 444 km2 (Luan, 2014) while the existing Hanoi urban area itself is only 84 km2 (18% of the new towns) (Vien et al, 2005). Yet, study about these development areas, particularly about new towns in Asian context are still lacking (Zhou, 2012; Hartog, 2010; Provoost, 2010; Keeton, 2011). Although new town isn’t the most progressive driver in the always-changing urban fabric, it is certainly place on the top driver. Hence, responding to this gap, it is in high relevance to explore this topic in my graduation project.

Figure 2.  Hanoi new towns and exiting settlements (source: Google Earth)

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P r ob le m S ta te m e nt “The two main factors of promoting urban vitality in a new town are in the product i.e., urban vitality and in the process i.e., masterplanning process.”

Urban Vitality in Asian New Towns Some studies that have been done about new towns in Asia focuses on: stakeholder dynamic and implemented results (Hartog, 2010); development theme and implementation process (Keeton, 2011); dynamic between planned and the unplanned cities (Provoost, 2010); similarities with capitalist first world city (Rimmer and Dick, 1998); and urban vitality (Zhou, 2012). The latter study in particular (Zhou, 2012) mentioned the common problem of many recent new towns to be “the difficulty of making a town into a socially, culturally and economically balanced city”. The tendency is for the new town developer to focus on form, image, speed and profit and resulted in lack of urban vitality in many new towns, especially in the emerging cities e.g., Asian and African new towns (Zhou, 2012; Hartog, 2010; Provoost, 2010; Keeton, 2011). This lack of urban vitality is what usually mentioned as ‘ghost town’ phenomena. Based on the study by Zhou (2012), one of the main factors of promoting urban vitality in new town lies in the relationship between the place, people, and program – as what she illustrated as urban vitality triangle (Figure 3). The relationship among the three factors are not equal, with each factor influencing each other factors along with the agents i.e., private initiatives, urban governance, and spatial planning. Understanding the dynamics of these factors is arguably the key to promote urban vitality in a new town. These dynamics is derived based on the generalized definition of urban vitality for in her research. For this definition, she referred majorly to Montgomery (1998), Canter (1977), Jacobs (1961), Lynch (1960) and Punter (1991). For this graduation project, definition of urban vitality needs to be clearly defined (see Chapter 2.2).

Apart from the urban vitality, the common problem of new towns in Asia lies in the masterplanning process. Hartog (2010) and Keeton (2011) extensively discuss the masterplanning process of Shanghai new towns, especially in the stakeholder dynamic, implementation process, and the implemented results. Based on their studies, the problem is not on the spatial design form (the masterplan, urban design, and architecture), but more on the implementation process and the implemented result. They demonstrated that clearly in the case study of Sonjiang New Town (Figure 4), where the forms are ‘inspired’ by British old towns (which supposedly have a good urban vitality), was implemented exactly like it, and yet the town suffered to be a ‘ghost town’ with less people living there than was originally planned. This problem in the implementation process and results happen in many Asian new towns e.g., Jakarta, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh, Seoul, Shanghai, etc (Hartog, 2010; Keeton, 2011). Existing studies about new town as mentioned above become the starting point of defining the problem field of this graduation project. In short, the two main factors of promoting urban vitality in a new town are in the product i.e., urban vitality and in the process i.e., masterplanning process. These two factors are two sides of the same coin: to make a new town vital, the two factors needed to be thoroughly addressed. Hence, these two factors needed to be further investigated especially relationship between the two, and how it links to the context of Asian new town, specific for this graduation project: Hanoi.

Figure 3.  Urban VItality Triangle (Zhou, 2012)

Figure 4.  Songjiang New Town / Thames Town (source: http://lazerhorse.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/Thames-Town-China-Ghost-Town-Authentic.jpg)

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EU/US definition of urban vitality

12

ASIAN definition of urban vitality

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Ur b a n Vita lity

...‘the extent to which a place feels alive or lively’. Montgomery, 1998

The Product: Urban Vitality In order to address urban vitality as the intended product, it is critical to first clearly define the term for this graduation project. Urban vitality as the parameter of an ideal city has been advocated by many scholars e.g., Montgomery (1998), Gehl (1996;2010;2013), Jacobs (1961), Alexander (1965), Lynch (1960) and Cullen (1971) although with slight differences on its definition (Figure 5). These scholars are mainly advocating against the status quo at that time which was modernism, advocated majorly by Corbusier (1925). Montgomery (1998) clearly use the term ‘urban vitality’ in his research with the general definition of ‘the extent to which a place feels alive or lively’. Moreover, to see the full extent of the definition of urban vitality, it is important to also understand scholars that criticize the mainstream scholars, namely Crawford (1995; 2005) and Marshal (2012). Crawford (1995) argued that the mainstream scholars e.g., Jacobs (1961), Gehl (2013) and Montgomery (1998) were mostly talking about ‘feel good city’, in the sense that there is a loss of narrative in their definition. On the other hand, Marshal (2012) argued that scholars like Jacobs (1961), Alexander (1965), Lynch (1960), and Cullen (1971) are advocating urban design as ‘pseudo-science’ in the sense that their studies are rarely proven empirically.

Additionally, since the chosen site is in Hanoi, urban vitality need to be defined from different perspective: the Asian and Hanoi perspective. Some scholars defined the parameter of urban vitality in Asian context (Figure 6) as: urban informality (Roy, 2005); mixed-use sidewalk (Kim, 2012); spatial justice (Lim, 2013); common space (Kusumawijaya, 2013); and street vendor as ‘out of place’ element (Yatmo, 2008). In compare to the mainstream definition of urban vitality, a glimpse of definition from the Asian perspective shows that there is a little relation between the two and the interpretation in urban form is different. In summary, it is important to interpret the mainstream definition of urban vitality to Asian and Hanoi context, since it will have major difference though the two can still learn from each other. This elaboration will be further explained in the theoretical framework chapter (See Chapter 2.2).

Figure 5.  Mainstream definition of urban vitality (left) (source:http://gehlpeople.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/TimeSquare_Before_After_Credit_DOT_story_www.png)

Figure 6.  Asian (Hanoi) definition of urban vitality (right) (source: http://namsandwich.fr/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/dsc00954.jpeg)

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CARMONA (2014) Place Shaping-Continuum

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M a s te r p la nning P r oc e s s Carmona’s place-shaping continuum model (2014) and urban design governance (2016;2017) will be used as the model to investigate masterplanning processes and masterplanning outcomes.

The Process: Masterplanning Process As mentioned earlier, the common problem of new towns in Asia lies in the masterplanning process i.e., the implementation process and implemented results. Hence, to investigate this masterplanning process, there is a need to have a proper framework to refer to. In order to have this framework, new town masterplanning needs to be seen as the sub-field of urban design field as Lang (2005) have defined. One of the ongoing discussion about urban design is regarding the components of urban design process, mainly discoursing on how urban design is actually implemented. Matthew Carmona as one of the frontrunner of the discussion, put forward some aspects of urban design process; urban design value (Carmona, 2002); stakeholder views in urban design (Carmona et al, 2010); design coding (Carmona, 2009); design governance (Carmona, 2016, 2017; Barnett, 2017; Lang, 2017); and place-shaping continuum (Carmona, 2014). In the discourse of urban design as the place-shaping continuum, Carmona (2014) argued that one of the main problem of urban design as a field of practice is that urban design projects are rarely subjected to post-occupancy review and almost never a systematic view of the whole process. Most studies focus on either part of the whole process (as Carmona (2014) suggested: design, development, management, or use of space) and not to the relationship to the final design outcome (Banerjee & Loukaitou-Sideris, 2011).

Apart from Carmona (2014), urban design process model has been discussed by many scholars e.g., Shirvani (1985), Lang (2005), and Madanipour (2006). Align with these three scholars, Carmona’s (2012) urban design process model combined the three models: breaking down into its components, seeing it from the lenses of the urban designer, and seeing it from the lenses of other actors i.e., producers, regulators, and users (Figure 7). Moreover, Carmona’s (2012) urban design process model break down the process into four categories based on the self or un-self-conscious design and knowing and unknowing place shaping (Figure 8). For its associative value with the other scholars, Carmona’s (2014) urban design process model is chosen for this graduation project. Moreover, Carmona’s discourse of urban design governance (Carmona, 2016;2017) is considered potential to be further investigated as the outcome of this graduation project because of its role in the whole urban design processes (design, development, management, and space in use). Further investigation will be done in the theory paper (see Chapter 2.2).

Figure 7.  Urban design processes based on the role (Carmona, 2014) Figure 8.  Urban design processes based on place-shaping and design (Carmona, 2014)

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preliminary investigations 16

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Figure 9. Ecopark New Town under construction year 2017 (source: Google Earth)

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HANOI HUNG YEN New Urban Areas

18

Red River

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1. 3   P R E L I M I N A RY I N V E ST I GAT I O N S

The Case: Ecopark New Town, Hanoi, Vietnam

HANOI

HUNG YEN

Similar to many Asian cities, Hanoi experienced major boost in its urban population in recent years, especially since the economic reformations in 1987. Catering to this population boost, Hanoi has put enormous effort to house these populations, mainly rural immigrants (Geertman, 2007; Labbe, 2010). Hanoi promoted new kind of development: New Urban Areas (NUA) that are located around the city intertwined with the existing periurban areas (Figure 10) with more than 152 New Urban Areas in the areas of more than 444 km2 (Luan, 2014). These new urban areas are characterized by private-led large-scale development, mono-functional, excessive productions and speculations, lack of urban vitality, and lack of flexibility (Calabrese et al, 2015). Some studies have been done in relation to this type of development, with focus on the tradition in land and housing (Geertman, 2003); self-organizing development (Geertman, 2007); planned and spontaneous urbanization (Labbe, 2010); and flexibility as alternative development strategy (van Faassen, 2014) (Figure 10). The latter study in particular has done an extensive study on how to counter the main issue of flexibility in typical new urban areas in Hanoi with tools that foster flexibility. Van Faassen (2014) proposed a new model of corporation between the developer and the collectives; a more incremental approach of development; and new housing typologies. Ecopark New Town is located in Hung Yen province, just outside the boundary of Hanoi province (Figure 10,11,12). The geodesic distance from Hanoi old town to Ecopark is approximately 10 km although driving distance is approximately 15 km (30 minute-drive, based on Google Maps). There is one collector road connecting Hanoi’s city loop highway and going through Ecopark. Red river as the major river flowing through Hanoi is located on the western site of Ecopark (approximately 4 km far).

Hanoi New Urban Areas Figure 10.  Municipal context of Hanoi & news headlines of Hanoi new urban areas

Figure 11.  Regional context of Hanoi Figure 12.  Masterplan context of Ecopark

Hanoi new urban areas are failing, characterized by private-led large-scale development, mono-functional, excessive productions and speculations, lack of urban vitality, and lack of flexibility (Calabrese et al, 2015).

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500

50

ha

total area

64

ha

ha

phase 1 area

phase 2 area

phase 1

change typology

phase 2

change typology

phase 1

phase 1 constructed

phase 2

300

/ha

target density

20

195

/ha

phase 1 density

325

/ha

phase 2 density

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150

.000

target population

Masterplanning Process of Ecopark

phase 1

design change

Landuse Plan

next phase added uses phase 2

Illustrative Plan

phase 1

Built

land clearence

phase 2

9.175

current population

Ecopark New Town is chosen as test-site of this graduation project because it shows some indications of being an anomaly from typical new urban areas in Hanoi. Based on the preliminary investigation, some of the indications are: multi-functional development, with great attention to mix between residential uses and amenities; production of the housing products is not excessive, with minimum speculations guided by the developer; great attention to urban vitality with carefully phased development; and attention to typology flexibility in relation to the market demand. However, Ecopark is currently in the phase of developing its most dense urban area comprising mix of uses i.e., residential, commercial, education, transportation, and open spaces, and public uses which will possess more complexity in compare to the relatively mono-functional housing estates that Ecopark have been developing before. The development transition (Figure 13) shows the transition in Ecopark masterplanning from the period before 2012 (the project was commissioned in 2005) until the year 2016. The masterplan was regularly amended as can be seen for example in 2013-2014 (Figure 13, top row) on the southern part of the masterplan i.e., change from water villa to a typical gated community. Some of these changes occurred because of the market demand change as studied by the developer. Despite the regular amendments in the masterplan, what actually being developed (Figure 13, bottom row) shows different regularity. The developer developed the masterplan incrementally flanking the northern part as phase 1 and the southern part as phase 2. However, in the year 2016, the developer commenced the development of the whole masterplan (Figure 13, bottom right) hence a clear development guideline will be critically needed.

Critical Phase Ecopark is currently in the phase of developing its most dense urban area which will possess more complexity in compare to the relatively mono-functional housing estates.

Figure 13.  Ecopark Masterplan evolution (source: CPG Consultants)

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22

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Ecopark’s Strategy The strategy of urban vitality is differed in each phase, regarded as housing typology, urban greenery strategy, public space strategy, and temporary uses.

Development Logic of Ecopark Preliminary investigation shows how Ecopark strategized to instil urban vitality in each phase of the development. The strategy of urban vitality is differed in each phase, regarded as housing typology, urban greenery strategy, public space strategy, and temporary uses. The difference in each phase in terms of sub-processes of urban design i.e., design process, development process, management process, and space in use shows the priority in each phase and can be related to the overall phasing strategy (Figure 14, middle row). The main strategy in phasing is to create a mature town in each phase with housing, amenities, and public green as the main offerings. For example, in the first phase (Figure 14, topleft) the main strategy is to make the development feel ‘green’ (hence the name/brand ‘eco’park). This strategy is also related to the effort of making the new town vital – lively, vibrant, or anti-ghost town. Then this strategy is translated into housing typologies (shophouse/rowhouse, semi-detached/detached house, and apartment), distinct streetscapes (alfresco dining), and most importantly the use of already mature trees (grown in the local tree nursery) for the street-side and public open spaces. These translations combined have promoted urban vitality through the idea of endorsing diversity: diversity in social class through housing typologies; diversity of activities through activated streetscape; and diversity in public open space typologies.

Figure 14.  Ecopark masterplan evoluton in relation to urban vitality and urban design process

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Phase 1

Central Area

Phase 2

Figure 15.  Possible focus area in the masterplan context

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Central Area’s Importance Aligned with the topic of urban vitality, this central area needed to be more vital in compare to the built Ecopark developments. which are mainly residential area (which not necessarily need to be vital). University

Landed Houses

Public Waterfront

Central Area 25 0 m Golfcourse

Public Waterfront Public Waterfront Phase 2

Graduation Project Focus Area As mentioned earlier, since 2016 the developer has commenced the development of the whole masterplan by first clearing up the land. The next phase that will be developed in the near future is the central area (Figure 15 & 16, red-dashed boundary) comprising the mix uses of: high-rise to low-rise residential; offices; hospital; school; and public works. This central area is adjacent to the supporting uses like: universities (north); public transport hub (north); public waterfront (west); golf courses and landed housings (east); and high-rise housings in phase 2 development (south). This central area is envisioned to be the centre for activities of the whole Ecopark new town. Ecopark is considered successful until today because of the effort in community building. The complex part has yet to come i.e., the central area which the developer themselves admit that they don’t really have the required capability (interview with Nguyen Do Dung/Principal Planner in CPG Consultants, October 25th, 2017). Hence, planning in advance this future development will be critical. Moreover, aligned with the topic of urban vitality, this central area needed to be more vital in compare to the built Ecopark developments which are mainly residential area (which not necessarily need to be vital). In summary, this central area is considered fit to be the focus area of this graduation project.

Figure 16.  Possible focus area for zoom-in

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1.4   H Y P OT H E S I S

Based on the problem field i.e., urban vitality and urban design process in new torn masterplanning, and the preliminary investigations of the Ecopark new town, 4 (four) hypothesis to be further demonstrated in this graduation project are derived as follows: 1. Diversity is one of the major key to promote urban vitality in new town masterplan (supported by interview with Michelle Provoost (International New Town Institute), October 23rd, 2017). Diversity can be in the target groups, activities & uses, housing products, and so on. Further study is needed through literature study, comparative study, and interview with expert. 2. There is a tendency that the development process of new town masterplanning has the most influence in compare to other processes i.e., design, management, and space in use. This does not mean that other processes needed to be overlooked but more in terms of priority and weighting. Further study is needed through literature study, comparative study, and interview with expert. Particularly in the comparative study, the development process of new town masterplanning needed to be carefully examined. 3. Design governance (Carmona, 2016) is the ideal outcome to guide the future masterplanning process combining the product i.e., urban vitality and the process i.e., masterplanning process. It means that the outcome of this graduation project will not be merely physical urban design but complemented with urban design guidelines. 4. Design transition as the main spatial design concept fitted with the context of Ecopark new town and Hanoi context. Transition in the sense of reacting towards the dualities that Ecopark and Hanoi possessed: formal and informal; planned and unplanned; existing peri-urban areas and new town. Observation on how people in Ecopark and Hanoi use their daily spaces will be critical to demonstrate this point.

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DIVERSITY

DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

DESIGN GOVERNANCE

DESIGN TRANSITION

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Based on the hypothesis from Chapter 1, main research question and sub research questions are generated. The main research question of this graduation project is,” How to promote urban vitality throughout the process of new town masterplanning through spatial design in Ecopark New Town central area, Hanoi?”. Then, the theoretical framework for this project is investigated. There are two main theories i.e., urban vitality and masterplanning process. Urban vitality is seen from the Western perspective (European and North American) and from Asian perspective through literature studies, systematically illustrated, and take a position out of it. The second theory – masterplanning process is investigated using Carmona’s place-shaping continuum model (2014) through three case studies. This theory will be further investigated in the theory paper. Next, methods on how to answers the research questions and proof the hypothesis are illustrated in the method chart. This graduation project method is divided into three main parts with design element in each part. Lastly, example of comparative study, expected design goal and time planning of the project are illustrated.

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2 METHOD OLO GY

2 .1   R E S E A RC H Q U E ST I O N S 2 . 2  T H EO R E T I C A L F R A M E WO R K 2 . 3  M E T H O D S 2 .4   D E S I G N G OA L S 2 .5  T I M E P L A N N I N G

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2.1  R E S E A RC H Q U E ST I O N S

How to promote urban vitality throughout the process of new town masterplanning through spatial design in Ecopark New Town central area, Hanoi?

Hypothesis

Main Research Question

Product - Urban Vitality

Aim

Diversity

How to promote urban vitality

Process - Masterplanning Process

Scope

Development Process

throughout the process of new town masterplanning

Product + Process

Design Outcome

Design Governance

through spatial design

Context

Context

Design Transition

in Ecopark New Town central area, Hanoi?

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Sub-research Question 1. What constitute urban vitality in global and local context of Hanoi? Why is it important? 2. What kind of spatial qualities that promote the urban vitality? 3. What are the classification of new town? 4. What are the elements of new town masterplanning? Which elements of new town masterplanning that have the most influence on the urban vitality? 5. What are the reasons that planned new towns are prone to the lack of urban vitality throughout the masterplanning process? 6. How can spatial design guide a new town masterplanning process? 7. What are the forms of urban design guideline? 8. What is the vision of central area of Ecopark new town? 9. How do people in Hanoi/Ecopark use their everyday space in terms of live, play, and work activities? 10. How is the relationship between planned and unplanned development in Hanoi?

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2. 2  T H EO R E T I C A L F R A M E WO R K

EU/US definition of urban vitality

Theoretical Framework I - Urban Vitality through Various Lenses As mentioned earlier, urban vitality as the parameter of an ideal city has been advocated by many scholars e.g., Montgomery (1998), Gehl (1996;2010;2013), Jacobs (1961), Alexander (1965), Lynch (1960) and Cullen (1971) although with slight differences on its definition. These scholars are mainly advocating against the status quo at that time which was modernism, advocated majorly by Corbusier (1925). Montgomery (1998) clearly use the term ‘urban vitality’ in his research. His specific definition includes: ‘the numbers of people in and around the street (pedestrian flows) across different times of the day and night’; ‘the number of cultural events and celebrations over the year’; and ‘the presence of an active street life’. Other scholar defined urban vitality or ‘urbanity’ or urban life as: interplay among life, space and building, ‘eyes on the street’ (Gehl, 2013); the presence of the ‘sidewalk ballet’,

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good mix of old and new building, mixed uses (Jacobs, 1961); legible and good imageability (Lynch, 1960); and picturesque (Cullen, 1971). These scholars constitute the mainstream definition of urban vitality especially from the context of Northern America and Western Europe (Figure 17, left-side). Moreover, to see the full extent of the definition of urban vitality, it is important to also understand scholars that criticize the mainstream scholars, namely Crawford (1995; 2005) and Marshal (2012). Crawford (1995) ‘narrative of loss’ argued that the loss narratives are for example the politic of public space, the inequality, and racism that are actually happening but not or only briefly addressed. Interestingly, Crawford (2005) herself was criticize by Speaks (2005) as ‘impractical’ from the point of view of market-driven urbanism. There is also an emerging field

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ASIAN definition of

Urban Vitality: “...the extent to which a place feels alive or lively.”

urban vitality

Montgomery, 1998

“...such qualities that Jacobs (1960) advocate; sidewalk ballet; mixed use building; mixed age building; short block-pass through alley; are actually qualities that informal settlements i.e., favela, kampung, desakota and informal economy i.e., street vendors naturally have as advocated by Yatmo (2008).”

called ‘New Urbanism’ (Haas, 2008; Duany, A., & PlaterZyberk, E. ,1994) which advocates the principles that the mainstream scholars have advocated but in the context of contemporary urbanism i.e., suburbs (Figure 17, middle). On the other hand, Marshal (2012) argued that scholars like Jacobs (1961), Alexander (1965), Lynch (1960), and Cullen (1971) are advocating urban design as ‘pseudoscience’ in the sense that their studies are rarely proven empirically yet many urban designers took their studies without criticizing them. Additionally, since the chosen site is in Hanoi, urban vitality needs to be defined from different persepective: the Asian perspective (Figure 17, right-side). Some scholars defined the parameter of urban vitality in Asian context as: urban informality (Roy, 2005); mixed-use sidewalk (Kim, 2012); spatial justice (Lim, 2013); common space

(Kusumawijaya, 2013); and street vendor as ‘out of place’ element (Yatmo, 2008). In compare to the mainstream definition of urban vitality, a glimpse of definition from the Asian perspective shows that there is a little relation between the two and the interpretation in urban form is different. For example, such qualities that Jacobs (1960) advocate; sidewalk ballet; mixed use building; mixed age building; short block-pass through alley; are actually qualities that informal settlements i.e., favela, kampung, desakota and informal economy i.e., street vendors naturally have as advocated by Yatmo (2008).

Figure 17.  Urban vitality through various lenses

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“...balance between precise guides as Corbusier (1925) proposed, intangible elements as mainstream scholars proposed, and the unplanned as other scholars proposed needed to be further investigate, especially in relation to the design of urban form.”

Urban Vitality through Various Lenses: Systematically Illustrated

Urban Vitality Definition: The Need to Take a Position

In order to systematically investigate the definition of urban vitality through various lenses – from West to East, each idea from each scholar is illustrated using the same base (Figure 18, top-left): architecture, block, street, sidewalk, and open space. By doing this exercise, the ideas are ‘forced’ to be compared. Although this exercise has some limitations, some points can be derived from it:

As elaborated and illustrated, the various definitions of urban vitality from different scholars and context called for this graduation project to take a position in defining its own definition of urban vitality. Referring to Montgomery’s (1998) definition ‘...the extent to which a place feels alive or lively’, the keyword is in the term ‘lively’. This term is arguably related closely to the local culture in this case Hanoi and Ecopark. What will be lively for European or American society or even Indonesian society, might not be the same lively to people in Hanoi. Lively in Hanoi can means sidewalk eating with low seating, or the presence of market seller, or the market itself, or the presence of a lake (as Hanoi is known for its many lakes).

Corbusier (1925) has some very precise guides on how to promote his idea of urban vitality/urbanity with figures like ideal building coverage of 15% and pedestrian crossings every 1.2 km while other scholars do not propose such precise figures.

Mainstream scholars e.g., Montgomery (1998), Jacobs (1961), Lynch (1960), Cullen (1971), and Gehl (1996) ideas are not focusing on the urban form but more on the intangible elements i.e., activities, people, image, and uses (Figure 17, firstsecond row). However, Gehl (2013) proposed some observation principles in understanding public space and public life instead of precise guides.

On the other side, scholars like Crawford (1995), Kim (2012), and Yatmo (2008) focuses more on the everyday activities and the ‘unplanned’ urban form e.g., property right, sidewalk regimes, street vendor, and interaction in the parking lot (Figure 18, last row).

In summary, balance between precise guides as Corbusier (1925) proposed, intangible elements as mainstream scholars proposed, and the unplanned as other scholars proposed needed to be further investigate, especially in relation to the design of urban form.

Urban vitality and the liveliness can also be related to the real estate issue which partly contribute to the phenomena of ghost town where the form of the place itself might not be the main problem but more about for example the tenancy, property right, land and real estate speculation, or event related to the condition of local and country-wide economy at that time. Hence, investigating this definition closely from the local perspective from its stakeholders i.e., users, developer, consultants – with still learning from others, will be the key to proof the hypothesis especially in relation to the diversity as the key to promote urban vitality.

Figure 18.  Ecopark masterplan evoluton in relation to urban vitality and urban design process

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Theoretical Framework II - Masterplanning Process through the Lenses of Carmona’s Place Shaping Continuum Model

Abstract This article investigates new town masterplanning projects with Carmona’s Place-shaping Continuum urban design process framework (design process, development process, management process, and space in use) to explore the model’s applicability in the new town masterplanning field. The investigation is done based on three case studies of masterplanning projects: Sonjiang New Town, Songdo Smart City, and Tongzhou. The three case studies showed the interrelated relationship between each phase of urban design process. These case studies also emphasized the intention of this article: new town masterplanning should have an equal spotlight in the study of its process – if not more, with other urban design subsidiaries. Lastly, investigating the whole process of urban in a new town masterplanning project will give more clarity in the pursuit of understanding how urban design is actually implemented.

Introduction Urban design as a field of practice has been praised and criticized as many things such as; an integrative force (Bentley, 1998); pseudo-scientific field (Marshal, 2012); a mongrel discipline, too focused on ends rather than means (Carmona, 2014), ‘an on-going long-term process intertwined with social and political mechanisms’ (Inam, 2002), and so on. One of the ongoing discussion about urban design is regarding the components of urban design process, mainly discoursing on how urban design is actually implemented. Matthew Carmona as one of the front-runner of the discussion, put forward some aspects of urban design process; urban design value (Carmona, 2002); stakeholder views in urban design (Carmona et al, 2010); design coding (Carmona, 2009); design governance (Carmona, 2016a, 2016b; Barnett, 2017; Lang, 2017); and place-shaping continuum (Carmona, 2014). In the discourse of urban design as the placeshaping continuum, Carmona (2014) argued that one of the main problem of urban design as a field of practice is that urban design projects are rarely subjected to postoccupancy review and almost never a systematic view of the whole process. Most studies focus on either part of the whole process (as Carmona (2014) suggested: design, development, management, or use of space) and not to the relationship to the final design outcome (Banerjee & Loukaitou-Sideris, 2011). New Town Masterplanning, as part of the urban design field (Lang, 2005), has arguably even less spotlight in the study of its process. Some investigations of new town masterplanning especially in the Global South (Hartog, 2010; Keeton, 2011; Provoost, 2010; Zhou, 2012) showed that there is a tendency for the masterplanner to show hands-off attitude in the processes apart from the

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Carmona’s place-shaping continuum model (2014) will be used to investigate masterplanning process through three case studies: Sonjiang New Town, China; Songdo Smart City, South Korea; and Tongzhou, China.

Conclusion design process. This tendency can be seen for example in Chinese new towns, where the masterplanners are led by international consultants (mainly European/American) accompanied by local consultants. These international consultants are expected to export their ‘best practice’ to the local context, resulting in the ‘copycat’ new town phenomena e.g., Holland Village, Thames Town, Paris-Tianducheng, etc. The intended values from the ‘exported best practice’ tend to be diluted along the whole process, from design-development-managementto the use of space (Hartog, 2010). Align with other researches and commentaries related to Carmona’s place-shaping continuum (Lang, 2014; Elis, 2014; Anderson et al, 2015), this article is trying to investigate the stated phenomena in the new town masterplanning projects with Carmona’s Placeshaping Continuum urban design process framework (design process, development process, management process, and space in use) to explore the model’s applicability in the new town masterplanning field. The investigation will be done based on three case studies of masterplanning projects where the stated phenomena occurred: Sonjiang New Town (Hartog, 2010), Songdo Smart City (Keeton, 2011), and Tongzhou (Zhou, 2012). This article will not propose new framework of urban design process, although suggestion to Carmona’s urban design process framework might be added based on the new town masterplanning case studies. Reflecting to its scale and effect to the general users, this article is intended to argue that masterplanning field should have an equal spotlight in the study of its process – if not more, with other urban design subsidiaries.

Urban design process framework by Carmona (2012) is as expected, fitted with the masterplanning process. The three case studies showed the interrelated relationship between each phase of urban design process. Sonjiang New Town case study showed that the literal translation of urban form does not ensure the same urban quality – as the design expected. This case however showed an interesting use of space phase where the unintended uses are introduced. Songdo Special Economic Zone case study showed the intricacy of urban design process: changing stakeholders, interest, and power. This case study showed the transition between phases in relation to changing of the masterplanners resulted in the different intention with the original masterplan. Tongzhou case study showed an interesting comparison of new town masterplanning with specific criteria. These case studies emphasized the very intention of this article: reflecting to its scale and effect to the general users in the long term, masterplanning is arguably should have an equal spotlight in the study of its process – if not more, with other urban design subsidiaries. Lastly, as implicitly learnt from the case studies, investigating the whole process of urban design (design, development, management, and use of space) in a masterplanning project will give more clarity in the pursuit of understanding how urban design is actually implemented.

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I

II

III

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2 . 3  METHODS

There are three main sections of this graduation project method. The first section will be focus on investigation the new town vitality factors from the two points of view: the product i.e., urban vitality spatial design and in the process i.e., masterplanning process which resulted in the form of design governance. The second section will be focus on Ecopark’s site diagnosis and stakeholder investigation resulting in site potentials. In the first section, literature studies and comparative studies will be done for the two-theoretical framework: urban vitality and masterplanning process. Urban vitality will be investigated from several points of view, especially confronting the idea of urban vitality from European and American point of views to the idea of urban vitality from Asian point of views. Masterplanning process will be investigated using Carmona’s (2014) urban design process framework. This investigation will be further elaborated in the theory paper. Based on the literature studies, several variables from urban vitality and masterplanning process will be chosen to conduct comparative studies among several new town with similar development criteria with Ecopark. Interview will be conducted specifically for the masterplanning process factor to get practical input from the expert. These three studies will then be resulted in

a collection of new town vitality factors categorized as pattern language. Based on the patterns, combinatoric system (de Jong, 2002) will be used to generate the intended design governance i.e., design standards, design coding, design policy, and/or design frameworks (Carmona, 2016). In the second section, Ecopark as the chosen testsite will be diagnosed complemented with input from the stakeholders i.e., consultant, developer, management, and users. This diagnosis will be resulted as site potentials that will then combined with new town vitality factors from the first section to the new town masterplanning of Ecopark resulted in the development vison. In the third section, the vision will then be translated into a design framework that later demonstrated as urban design in relation to the design governance from the first section.

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I

II

III

Example Comparative Smart City, South Korea

Studies: Songdo

Comparative studies will be done by analysing some examples of new town – failed and success cases. The analysis will be done using the framework of urban vitality as the product and the masterplanning process that have been investigated through literature studies. The intended outcome of the analysis is a pattern library. One example of the comparative study is Songdo Smart City, South Korea. Based on the investigation by Keeton (2011), the new town is arguably failing in promoting urban vitality, mainly because of the development process. The process diagram (Figure 20) shows the intricacy of urban design process: changing stakeholders, interest, power; OMA’s original masterplan intention vs KPF final deliverables (Figure 19); and development phase that created certain typology based on local real estate condition. This comparative study showed the transition between phases in relation to changing of the masterplanner resulted in the different intention with the original masterplan. The OMA masterplan proposed a mixed-use and walkable environment while the built masterplan (partly by KPF) developed a mono-functional and un-walkable environment i.e., wide roads, less trees, wide distance between buildings, and so on (Figure 21). Based on this comparative study in relation to this graduation project outcome of design governance, design pattern can be made. For example, how to guide mixeduse environments in the case of masterplanner change? What are the things needed to be fixed and needed to be flexible? What are the spatial qualities in promoting mixeduse environments?

Figure 19.  Masterplan comparison of Songdo by OMA (left) and built (right) (source: author & Keeton, 2011) Figure 20.  Masterplanning process (source: edited from Keeton, 2011)

Figure 21.  Street-view of Songdo New Town (source: Google Street View, July 2016)

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‘informal’ ice cream sandwich vendor

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2 .4   D E S I G N G OA L S I

II

III

The Outcome: Design Governance Align with this graduation project’s focus, the phase that Ecopark will face is suitable to test the two main factors of promoting urban vitality in a new town masterplanning: the product i.e., urban vitality and in the process i.e., masterplanning process. As limitation of this graduation project, urban vitality as the product will be focus more on the spatial design factor instead of non-spatial factor e.g., social, economy, and cultural factor, and the process will be focus on the processes that occur in a new town masterplanning project i.e., design process, development process, management process, and space in use. The link between the product and the process can be seen in the expected outcome of this graduation project: design governance (Carmona, 2016). Example of established design governance is urban design guidelines produced by Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) Singapore that guides all Singapore’s urban development. One of the example of this guideline as can be seen in Figure 22, shows how the guidelines are written and drawn, implemented in the design (Figure 22, top-left) and built (Figure 22, bottom-left). One distinct example in this guideline is how the guideline regulate seamless transition between private lot and public area with invisible plot line (Figure 22, dashed line) and uniform ground material. This seamless transition promotes urban vitality by encouraging diverse activities inside and outside building (even with the ‘informal’ ice cream sandwich vendor).

Figure 22.  Example of design governance (source: URA Singapore)

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2. 5  TIME PL ANNING

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This graduation project will progress based on 5 (five) milestones presentations (P). The key things about the time planning of this graduation project are as follows. The first part of the project method is expected to be done in the P2 period. The expert interviews, stakeholder interviews and site visit will be done before and during the Christmas holiday. Based on these studies, pattern library of urban vitality factors in new town masterplanning can be completed. After P2, the vision from the site (Ecopark central area) can be derived. There will be a P2 review and stakeholder feedback after the spring break (early February). This stakeholder feedback will be done during the site visit. 2 (two) project outcomes will be produced in the P3 period with refinement, assessment, and stakeholder feedback before P4. After P4, the focus will be more on reporting and concluding the project.

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METHODOLOGY SUMMARY

Hypothesis

Main Research Question

Product - Urban Vitality

Aim

Diversity

How to promote urban vitality

Process - Masterplanning Process

Scope

Development Process

throughout the process of new town masterplanning

Product + Process

Design Outcome

Design Governance

through spatial design

Context

Context

Design Transition

in Ecopark New Town central area, Hanoi?

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Sub-research Question

Method

1. What constitute urban vitality in global and local context of Hanoi? Why is it important? 2. What kind of spatial qualities that promote the urban vitality?

Literature Study Comparative Study

3. What are the classification of new town? Literature Study

5. What are the reasons that planned new towns are prone to the lack of urban vitality throughout the masterplanning process?

Interviews

Comparative Study

6. How can spatial design guide a new town masterplanning process?

New Town Urban Vitality Factors

Project Outcome I

4. What are the elements of new town masterplanning? Which elements of new town masterplanning that have the most influence on the urban vitality?

Design Assignments

7. What are the forms of urban design guideline? Development Vision

9. How do people in Hanoi/Ecopark use their everyday space in terms of live, play, and work activities? 10. How is the relationship between planned and unplanned development in Hanoi?

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Site Potential

Scenario + Urban Design

Project Outcome II

8. What is the vision of central area of Ecopark new town?

Development Framework (Central Area)

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This chapter will examine the relevance of this graduation project in a wider context. First for social relevance, the project is expected to bridge the gap between the mainstream knowledge with the local knowledge of urban vitality. In terms of scientific relevance, this project is expected to add to the body of knowledge of Asian new town which is still lacking. Lastly for the ethical consideration, this project is expected to bridge the gap between academia, developer, consultant, and community by giving an objective view of the problem but still trying to be relevant to the real situation.

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3 P ROJ E C T R E L E VA N C E

3.1   S O C I A L R E L E VA N C E 3. 2   S C I E N T I F I C R E L E VA N C E 3. 3   E T H I C A L PA R AG R A P H 3.4   T H EO RY PA P E R A B ST R AC T

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3. 2  S O C I A L R E L E VA N C E

3.1  S C I E N T I F I C R E L E VA N C E

For Hanoi context, this graduation project is intended to complement studies that have been done about this new urban area type of development in Hanoi with the intention of finding a more sustainable new town masterplanning framework focusing on the urban vitality throughout the masterplanning process. With also expanding the study on new town masterplanning phenomena in Asia, the result of this graduation project is expected to be applicable (with careful modification) in other new town development in other cities in Asia with similar context.

As mentioned earlier, study about Asian new town is still lacking. Hence, this graduation project will add to this body of knowledge, especially as a case study. In relation to the Design of Urban Fabrics studio, this graduation project will expand the study about urban growth to the growth in a new town setting as city extensions, particularly in Asian context. In relation to urban design process, as mentioned by Carmona (2014), study about urban design process, especially thorough study about its processes is still lacking. Hence, by studying the masterplanning processes, this graduation project will add to this body of knowledge.

By investigating everyday activities of people in Hanoi, this graduation project will bridge the gap between the mainstream knowledge with local knowledge of urban vitality as have been demonstrated by Kim (2012). This investigation will also bridge the gap between the formal and informal, the planned and the unplanned, and existing peri-urban areas and new towns.

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In relation to study about urban vitality, this graduation project will broaden the mainstream understanding of urban vitality in European and North-American context towards urban vitality in Asian context, especially in the spatial design factor. Furthermore, this urban vitality aspect will be investigated not only on the design process of new town masterplanning, but also in the development process, management process, and space in use. Approach on investigating throughout the whole masterplanning process tackle the common issues of implementation process and products of new town in Asia.

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3. 3   E T H I C A L PA R AG R A P H

3.4  T H EO RY PA P E R A BST R AC T

By taking new town masterplanning as the subject of this graduation project, the ethical consideration to be taken is the objective position from the perspective of an academia. This consideration is needed because of the nature of new town masterplanning towards a marketdriven development hence the dominant powers of private parties i.e., the developer and the consultant. Feedbacks from these private parties are needed for this project to be more relevant to the real situation. Moreover, these feedbacks will be balanced by giving objective view from academic perspective. Finally, this graduation project is hoped to be relevant for both academia, practices, and communities.

This article investigates new town masterplanning projects with Carmona’s Place-shaping Continuum urban design process framework (design process, development process, management process, and space in use) to explore the model’s applicability in the new town masterplanning field. The investigation is done based on three case studies of masterplanning projects: Sonjiang New Town, Songdo Smart City, and Tongzhou. The three case studies showed the interrelated relationship between each phase of urban design process. These case studies also emphasized the intention of this article: new town masterplanning should have an equal spotlight in the study of its process – if not more, with other urban design subsidiaries. Lastly, investigating the whole process of urban in a new town masterplanning project will give more clarity in the pursuit of understanding how urban design is actually implemented.

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AR3U100 G r a d u a t i o n L A B: Ci t i e s f o r P e o p le - of Tomor row

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Profile for Reza Ambardi Pradana

P1 Report - Cities for People -of Tomorrow  

P1 Report - Cities for People -of Tomorrow  

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