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IMPRESSUM Professional Journal WATERS OF MONTENEGRO Volume 4 I 29 September 2019 PUBLISHERS: PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”/ PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast” “Javno preduzeće za upravljanje morskim dobrom”/”Public Enterprise for the Montenegrin Coastal Zone Management” FOR PUBLISHERS: Goran Jevrić Predrag Jelušić CO-EDITORS OF THE VOLUME 4: Vladimir Taušanović, Predrag Bjelobrković, Aleksandar Krstić EDITORIAL BOARD: 1. Goran Jevrić, Director of the PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva 2. Predrag Jelušić, Director of the ”Public Enterprise for the Montenegrin Coastal Zone Management”, Budva 3. IN MEMORIAM (1948.-2019.) Prof. dr Mićko Radulović, Full professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 4. Prof. dr Zoran Stevanović, Full professor, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade 5. Stjepan Gabrić, Senior Environmental Infrastructure Specialist, World Bank, Zagreb 6. Vladimir Taušanović, Vice President of the Management Board, IAWD 7. Philip Weller, Head of Technical Secretariat, IAWD 8. Academician Petar Vukoslavčević,Montenegrin Academy of Science and Arts, Podgorica 9. Prof. dr Milan Radulović, Associate professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 10. Damir Gutić, Director, Water Administration, Podgorica 11. Mr sci. Slavko Hrvačević, Member of Engineers Chamber of Montenegro 12. Dragana Bjelobrković, Head, Utility Services Regulation Department, Energy Regulatory Agency of Montenegro, Podgorica 13. Dr Boban Mugoša, Director, Institute for Public Health, Podgorica 14. Prof. dr Saša Mujović, Dean, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 15. Prof. dr Zoran Veljović, Full professor, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 16. Prof. dr Mira Vukčević, Dean, Faculty of Metallurgy and Technology, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 17. Prof. dr Igor Vušanović, Dean, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 18. Prof. dr Marina Rakočević, Dean, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 19. Prof. dr Goran Sekulić, Full professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Podgorica 20. Predrag Bogdanović, President, UTVSI (Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering of Serbia), Belgrade 21. Vladimir Šimić, Member, Council for Water Services of the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb 22. Aleksandar Krstić, Danube Utility Benchmarking HUB Coordinator, Danube Water Program/IAWD 23. Ivan Špadijer, Technical Director, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva 24. Milan Janović, Procurement Advisor, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva 25. Marijana Zenović, Lead Engineer for Production, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva 26. Predrag Bjelobrković, Advisor for Cooperation with International Financial Institutions, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva 27. Miladin Radović, Marketing and Finance Advisor, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”, Budva



Dear readers, The past year, since 29 September 2018 until 29 September 2019, has been extremely turbulent for JP Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje, as the Company experienced the greatest challenge in its 44-year-long history and business operations. Therefore, the fourth edition of the “Waters of Montenegro” was not published according to the plan, in March this year for the World Water Day, but the publishing date had to be postponed until September, when we celebrate the Day of Regionalni vodovod. Dealing with water, which is at the core of our business, and also the central topic of this magazine, has given us at least two important life lectures so far - the strength means being able to adapt to the environment, but also capable to move forward continuously. Despite obstacles and disadvantages. So we decided to keep on flowing. And just as running water never grows stale, we hope that, with this new edition, we have managed to stay fresh, as well as catch your attention with interesting and current topics and a creative approach in design and visual presentation of our annual publication. Welcome, and let’s sail together through the fourth edition of your magazine “Waters of Montenegro” with the good wind in our sails.

CONTENTS volume 4

VLASTIMIR GOLUBOVIĆ, President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro: GUARANTEE THE RIGHT TO WATER page 6 MR MILUTIN SIMOVIĆ, Deputy Prime Minister Government of Montenegro “BY RESPONSIBLE AND SYSTEMATIC WORK TO SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATER RESOURCES” page 10 The Conference of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Organized on the Occasion of March 22 - World Water Day Municipality of Tivat and Regionalni vodovod organized a Panel on 22nd March "Water Resources Management in the Context of the Standards of EU Directives" DR SINIŠA KUSOVAC, Mayor of the Municipality of Tivat: "MONTENEGRO IS BLESSED WITH WATER RESOURCES“ page 14 MILADIN RADOVIĆ, Advisor PE "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje": “ALL WE HAVE TO DO IS TO LET THE PLANET REMAIN BLUE“ page 18 Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Managing Board Held Its 14th Session at the Premises of the Water Intake "Bolje Sestre" REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM is the largest infrastructure project implemented in Montenegro since the restoration of independence page 22 MR SCI SLAVKO HRVAČEVIĆ, ENG., member of the Chamber of Engineers of Montenegro: EU – ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND WATER MANAGEMENT page 30 THE PUBLIC ENTERPRISE FOR THE MONTENEGRIN COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION THE PROJECT OF MARINE LITTER MONITORING page 38 1. AGGREGATION FOR WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT page 47 When, Why and How, Water Supply and Utilities Companies Can Benefit from Working Together STRENGTHENING ASSOCIATION TOWARDS ACHIEVING BETTER SERVICES page 48 Chapter 2 WHAT ARE GLOBAL AGGREGATION TRENDS page 49 DR. SZILVIA SZALÓKI, Vice President for Public Enterprises of the Regulatory Agency for Energy and Public Enterprises of Hungary (HEA) EFFECTIVE REGULATION OF WATER SUPPLY COMPANIES: Introduction to Water Sector Reform in Hungary page 62 2. THE 21st CENTURY CHALLENGES IN PROTECTING WATER SOURCES page 67 University of Donja Gorica and PE "Regionalni vodovod" organized a Roundtable on "The 21st Century Challenges in Protecting Water Sources" – Bolje Sestre NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERTS DISCUSS THE 21st CENTURY CHALLENGES IN PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF WATER SPRINGS THE SCIENCE FACES A DIFFICULT TASK page 68 GORAN JEVRIĆ, Director, PE "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" IT IS TIME TO PROTECT THE HUMAN RIGHT TO WATER IN THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES BY THE CONSTITUTION page 69 PROF. DR ZORAN STEVANOVIĆ, Full Professor, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade GLOBAL CHALLENGES IN EXPLOITATION AND PROTECTION OF KARST WATER SOURCES page 70 HELMUT BLOECH, Senior Consultant for Environment and Water Management REGIONALNI VODOVOD OPERATES BY THE EU STANDARDS page 76 PROF. MIĆKO RADULOVIĆ, PhD, University of Montenegro RIVERS IN THE SKADAR LAKE BASIN WILL LOSE HYDROLOGICAL FUNCTION page 82 LUKA MITROVIĆ, M.Sc., Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology THE IMPACT OF THE CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE GROUNDWATER REGIME IN THE AREA OF THE PODGORICA-SKADAR BASIN page 84 DAMIR GUTIĆ, director of Water Administration of Montenegro WATER ADMINISTRATION ACTIVITIES IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION page 90 PROF. MILAN RADULOVIĆ, PhD, Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro WE HAVE TO MAINTAIN A GOOD STATUS OF GROUNDWATERS BODY IN MONTENEGRO page 92 ANA MIŠUROVIĆ, Ac. IACG, spec. in tox.chem. KONTAKT:



tel: +382(0) 33 451 921; +382(0) 33 451 460 I fax: +382(0) 33 451 937

CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији Национална библиотека Црне Горе, Цетиње ISSN 2337-0084 = Vode Crne Gore COBISS.CG-ID 35241488 QUALITY OF WATER OF POTENTIAL SOURCES FOR WATER SUPPLY OF THE MONTENEGRIN COAST: BOLJE SESTRE WATER SOURCE page 96 DR MARIJA JEVRIĆ THE MAN WHO KNEW THE MAGIC OF WATER page 106 DOC. DR TOMO POPOVIĆ, Assistant professor, University of Donja Gorica CONCEPT INTERNET OF THINGS in preservation and improvement of regional water supply system page 112 CONCLUSIONS of the Roundtable discussion held on 28 January 2019 on "The Protection of Water Sources from 21st Century Challenges" page 114 National Parks of Montenegro, PE Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje and Elementary school "Zarija Vujošević" on the Ocassion of 22nd March – The World Water Day MAINTAINING AND PROTECTING BOLJE SESTRE FOR THE FUTURE GENERATIONS page 116 3. 2nd BENČMARKING WORKSHOP AND CONFERENCE FOR THE DANUBE REGION CONCLUSIONS OF THE 2nd BENČMARKING WORKSHOP AND CONFERENCE FOR THE DANUBE REGION PHILIP WELLER, coordinator of the Danube Program for Waters IAWD7 REGIONAL COOPERATION ON IMPROVEMENT OF UTILITIY SERVICES

page 119 page 120 page 142


page 182

IN MEMORIAM : BRANISLAV MANOJLOVIĆ (1940 – 2019.) Technical Director of PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje“, 1989-2001 FAREWELL TO A TRUE FRIEND AND DEVOTED CREATOR

page 184

6 MR VLASTIMIR GOLUBOVIĆ President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro

PROTECTING THE RIGHT TO WATER The United Nations declared the 22 March as International Day of water with the intention to remind of importance of this essential resource for maintaining the life on Earth but also of the alarming scarcity of potable water worldwide that imposes as priority establishing a highquality management of water resources and improved level of preservation of this crucial resource. The Commercial Chamber of Montenegro supports all initiatives and activities directed towards achieving this goal as the whole community is thoroughly aware of its importance for the future. In Montenegro, the country reach in water, this resource is regarded a gift of nature and a public good that does not require a special engagement. On contrary, the Commercial Chamber assumes the attitude that this resource may be transformed into one of the basic economic and development potentials of Montenegro in the future.

The global trend of potable water scarcity in many parts of the world opens up new markets, new business possibilities and immense development potential for the countries having the resources that everybody needs- high quality water. The Montenegrin Business Community recognizes these options as a potential new chapter in the economic development of our country. By means of a visionary and responsible planning, strategies and measures that will lead towards establishing the integrated, high quality management of water potentials, Montenegro could achieve multiplied benefits in the near future. Facing the challenges that process of identifying the optimal model of management of the water sources of Montenegro imposed on, in order to secure continuous and reliable water supply, has already brought forth positive results. One of the


peculiarities of the water body in Montenegro is its uneven distribution as 35 % of its territory suffers from water scarcity, whereas approximately 10 % of it faces with the problem of the seasonal surplus. There are no sufficient water quantities in the periods of high demands which coincides with the critical period of summer, which in particular refers to the Montenegrin Coastal Region. This refers to particular consideration of the spatial arrangement, balance and quality of water, as well as to the level of water system development which meets the needs of the entire territory of Montenegro, including the construction of the regional systems which enable long distance water delivery. The Government of Montenegro recognized the importance of solving this issue for the further

development of Montenegro in 2007, so that it regulated by the Law the concept of construction of the regional water supply system through which water from the hinterland, i.e. the Skadar Lake aquifer is delivered to the six coastal municipalities. PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje� secures continuous and reliable water supply and is a positive example of the responsible model of the water resources management in particular with the aspect of further improvement and optimisation since these types of infrastructure systems enhance development through their capacity extension or by a merger to become a part of the greater whole. The issue related to protection of this highly sensitive resource from emerging global challenges


8 is getting increasingly complex and requires integrated approach of the wider community, public, commercial entities and other stakeholders with the aim to provide sustainable and optimal solutions for protection of the water body and preservation of the water quality. The prevention of pollution caused by an abrupt urban and industrial development and the activities inflicting damages to the surrounding area of the water source, the increase of the level of protection of the existing springs by introducing the additional sanitary protection measures in the inflicted areas, solving of the issues related to the space limitations and ownership issues, control within the sanitary protection zones of the springs and water resources systems, prevention of the extensive use of water, mitigation of the global climate change consequences, as well as, the tariff policies that would, inter alia, include the cost of protection of the water resources systems (in particular the costs of protection of the springs and the water catchment areas), represent solely several of many questions which need to be additionally addressed and improved by the law. This may be achieved by means of harmonisation with EU acquis, institutional frameworks, and standards and a good practice which would

create preconditions for the sustainable management and adequate protection of water resources in our country. The Ministry of Sustainable Development has initiated activities on preparation of the Law on Communal Activities and the Law on Water Services for which we believe that they will define the direction of the further development of the system of water services in Montenegro, solve all detected deficiencies and create a sustainable bases for further improvements in this field. Recognizing the importance of this issue, the Commercial Chamber, jointly with its members, provides its contribution to improvement of legislation. Opening of the Chapter 27 – Protection of the environment and the climate changes that took place in December 2018, which is one of the most complex and from both financial and technological aspects the most demanding chapter, the Commercial Chamber considers very important as it will enhance Montenegro to integrate in institutional manner the environmental issues in every sector of economy and in the decision making processes into the key commercial ventures, as well as to pay special attention to investing into the efficient prevention and control of pollution, reduction of waste and ecology risks and integration of the ecologically sustainable practises. Rational and adequate use of the natural water resources, management of waters, wastewater treatment, etc. are deemed crucial challenges Montenegro will have to face in the future on its way to protect its rich biodiversity and ecological stability. Reaching the environmental quality standards implies significant infrastructure investments (potable water distribution plants, a network of wastewater treatment plants, plants for com-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO munal and hazardous waste management) and investments in adjustment and improvement of the industrial techniques and technologies, as well as personnel and administration capacities on both national and local level. This will require significant financial investments that will contribute to improvement of the living conditions and preservation of biodiversity, which will be difficult to assess. At the same time, investments in this field will impact the increase in revenues and the decrease in costs in other sectors of economy. It is assessed that by the year 2025 more than two billion euros would be allocated for various environmental projects mainly from EU funding support. The Commercial Chamber shall continue with activities on informing and fostering entrepreneurs to invest into these, strategically important projects for Montenegro especially in light of the availability of the EU funding. The exchange of knowledge and experience among the members of the Commercial Chambers and the broader business community with respect to procedures for applying the projects to be financed from EU funds are of a key importance, as well as recognizing the needs of commercial entities for improvement of business operations through harmonisation with the goals of the local community in which they perform their business operation, but also with those of a broader society . While preparing and implementing the activities within the scope of environmental protection the member states are not prevented from maintaining and introducing the introductory measures that are more stringent than the measures applied in EU as far as they are compatible with their overall goals. Such approach in creating and implementing these strategies, as well as its

volume and the costs of harmonisation, are considered a special challenge for the state that is about to become a member. When speaking of Montenegro, being the world’s first ecological state, such attitude of EU opens up additional possibility to reconsider the status of water as one of the strategic state resources, the preservation of which crucially defines the directions of further economic development of the state, as well as the possibility of the protecting the right for water by Constitution, thus providing permanent protection and availability of this indispensable resources to next generations.



Deputy Prime Minister of Montenegro

MR MILUTIN SIMOVIĆ, Deputy Prime Minister of Montenegro

„BY ACTING IN A RESPONSIBLE AND SYSTEMATIC WAY TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT” The Conference of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Organized on the Occasion of March 22 - the World Water Day


pening the Conference dedicated to the World Water Day, organized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in cooperation with the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) and the Global Water Partnership (GWP), the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development of Montenegro, Milutin Simovic, emphasized that careful management freshwater resources, which are essential for life is a great joint responsibility and obligation. "This is a good opportunity to recall global and lo-

cal challenges, while at the same time pointing to everything we do to ensure sufficient water quantities, water protection and protection from water," said Minister Simovic. World Water Day, 22 March, is celebrated in accordance with the UN Resolution of 1993. The celebration of this Day should remind us of the need to constantly raise awareness about the importance of water protection and the lack of drinking water in many parts of the world. This is indicated by the fact that around 1.5 billion people still do not have access to safe and adequate drinking water supplies, and 3 billion lack proper sanitary



facilities. This year's theme of the World Water Day is "Leaving no one behind". Montenegro is rich in water resources and, as mentioned by DPM Simovic, it is one of the water richest areas in the world relative to its size. "Even 95 percent of the river flows in Montenegro are formed on its own territory. Water supply is provided from groundwater in as much as 90 percent cases." As he said, "Montenegro belongs to the Dinaric karst terrains, whose basic characteristic is uneven dispersion of springs and depths to the level of groundwater, which results in an uneven distribution of water in the territory of Montenegro." He pointed out that groundwater in Montenegro’s karst terrains is particularly susceptible to various pollutants, as well as the impact of climate change, and great attention is paid to its protection. The Government of Montenegro, together with domestic and international partners, is implementing numerous projects and activities for the purpose of sustainable water resources management and provision of quality water supply, responding in that way to the global challenges that

The Government of Montenegro is implementing numerous projects and activities for the purpose of sustainable water resources management and provision of quality water supply are reflected in Montenegro as well, he stressed. "The floods that hit Montenegro in 2010, with huge material consequences, and the repeated floods in 2012, 2014 and 2016 are visible consequences of an increasing impact of climate change," said DPM Simovic. To avoid the repetition of such negative experiences, a number of measures and activities have been and are undertaken, first of all, to develop adequate flood protection plans. Among other things, February 2017 marked the beginning of implementation of a project suppor-



ted by EU pre-accession funds, entitled "Strengthening the capacities for implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Montenegro". Within this project, "Hydrological Studies Program for the Establishment of Groundwater Monitoring" was carried out in the course of 2018, said DPM Simovic. "In addition to the establishment of groundwater monitoring, exploration drilling carried out within this activity, at 1,200 meters, helped us to detect groundwater in many waterless areas. Let us recall positive exploration wells in: Banjani, Golija, Cevo, Radovce, Cijevna basin, Vucji Studenac and Danilovgrad". DPM Simovic expressed particular satisfaction by the fact that funds for the continuation of the project and new 1,500 meters of exploration drilling were provided within the new IPA project. High commitment to the implementation of all these activities is evidenced by the fact that over the past two years, over 2 million euros were allocated from the national budget for the implementation of more than 100 water supply projects in

20 municipalities, he underlined. DPM Simovic also focused on the rehabilitation of embankments along the Bojana (Buna) River. With the help of the GIZ, a preliminary assessment of the flood risk was made and the hydraulic model of the Bojana River, where all the flood risk zones were detected. "This data will help us to further implement a new regional project in the Drim (Drin) River Basin, prepared by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development with UNDP, with the financial support of the Adaptation Fund. We have received confirmation that it was approved, as the first regional project in Eastern Europe". He pointed out that this project envisaged $ 1.2 million for Montenegro and that these funds will be used for the preparation of the main design for rehabilitation of embankments on the Bojana River and for infrastructure works on the construction of embankments on priority sections. The Government also had a systemic response to the decades-long degradation of river flows, due to uncontrolled sand exploitation, said DPM Simovic:

WATERS F MONTENEGRO "In April 2017, we introduced a moratorium on the exploitation of materials from rivers. Preparation of new plans for the sustainable exploitation of those materials is in progress. With the support of the World Bank, the Ministry of Agriculture is implementing a project to regulate Grncar and Lim rivers in the amount of 500,000 euros, within which the Plans for sustainable exploitation of materials from these two rivers have already been prepared, and by the end of the year the main deigns for the dam construction will be completed, to ensure flood protection, followed by infrastructure works on the construction of an embankment". For these infrastructure works, it is planned to use the funds foreseen for Montenegro through the new international "Sava and Drina River Corridors Integrated Development Program": DPM Simovic announced another important regional project that will be implemented from April, in cooperation with UNDP and UNESCO. The pro-

ject is called DIKTAS SAP, with a total value of 5 million euros, and should contribute to greater integration of domestic experts and training of young people, as well as valorisation and better exploitation of the Dinaric karst groundwater. Deputy UNDP Resident Representative in Montenegro, Miodrag Dragisic, greeted the participants of the meeting on behalf of UNDP and emphasized that it represents an ideal opportunity to define solutions for challenges in the area of water exploitation and protection through dialogue. He emphasized that water management is extremely important in the regional and cross-border context, and that UNDP is implementing important regional projects with the Ministry of Agriculture. GIZ representative for Montenegro, Nenad Rakocevic, also welcomed the participants, noting that this organization implemented numerous projects in Montenegro in the past seven years aimed at water and flood protection, primarily in the Skadar Lake area and a wider basin around it.

"Sava and Drina river corridors program� • is a new and one of the largest regional initiatives in the recent years in the field of integrated water resources management. On the occasion of program launching, a recent meeting was organized in Brcko of representatives of the Drina and Sava River Basin States - Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia and Montenegro, with representatives of the World Bank. The project envisages that out of the total project value of EUR 220 million euros, 20 million will be allocated to Montenegro. Through the Sava and Drina river corridors program, projects of importance for the sustainable management of water resources, related to water protection, water supply for all, flood protection and better cooperation between the countries in the river basins of these rivers will be implemented. It is expected that the implementation of the projects foreseen by the Program will start next year.

"These projects result in the achievement of common objectives towards establishing sustainable management of these resources. By implementing past projects and new ones that will deal with the protection of the Adriatic Sea from waste, GIZ remains a partner to the relevant institutions in Montenegro in the field of water sector improvement, meeting the EU requirements and strengthening cross-border cooperation", said the GIZ representative.


14 The Panel on "Water Resources Management in the Context of EU Directive Standards" in celebration of World Water Day DR SINIŠA KUSOVAC

DR SINIŠA KUSOVAC, the Mayor of Tivat

Major of Tivat


Municipality of Tivat and Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast of Budva organized a public debate on "Water resources management in the context of EU directive standards" to celebrate World Water Day. The forum, which was organized in Tivat, gathered representatives of enterprises and institutions in charge of water resources, as well as a part of the university public. Opening the forum, the mayor of Tivat, Dr. Sinisa Kusovac, pointed out that "Montenegro is a country blessed with water resources." Therefore, he

said, "Tivat must utilize rich natural resources, in accordance with the principles of sustainability, by putting them in the function of implementing development projects in order to achieve faster economic development of the municipality and the whole country." "In line with European directives, our management of water resources implies the sustainable use of natural resources, goods and energy, the introduction of energy efficient technologies, the use of renewable natural resources and the use of products, processes and technologies that are

WATERS F MONTENEGRO endangering the environment less. It also implies measures for the prevention and elimination of consequences of environmental threats and damage, control of the activities and operation of facilities that may pose a risk or cause threat for the environment and human health, as well as other measures," said the mayor. The municipality of Tivat has permanent water supply throughout the year without cuts and restrictions. Tivat has a water supply network that covers almost the entire territory of the municipality (95%) and has an updated connection record. "Our plans are to continue the construction of the sewerage system, modernize the existing software systems: financial, technical and invoicing software. We can say that we have a well-developed management information system as a business tool. We provide continuous education for our staff, and expect that we will improve water supply through replacement of worn water network and construction of new water reservoirs," added the mayor. An Austrian water expert with years of experience in the field of water resources, and consultant for the negotiating chapter 27, Helmut Bloech, pointed out that Montenegro is the leader in the EU accession negotiations process. As a water-rich country, in particular rich in drinking water, Montenegro needs to take all measures for the sustainable management of its water resources, and can count on significant support from the funds that the EU has committed to supporting projects for environmental protection and water management. He was particularly pleased by the fact that, on this year's World Water Day, he is having a presentation in Tivat, a city supplied by high quality drinking water from the Bolje Sestre


source, but also a city with a modern wastewater treatment plant. "The biggest challenge from the aspect of water and meeting the standards in that area in Montenegro will be the issue of wastewater treatment. But, if it took some 14 years, starting from 1991, to the rich EU to provide the necessary plants for the treatment of wastewater in its territory, a similar deadline should now be also given to Montenegro," said Bloech. According to him, since Montenegro hopes to join the EU by 2025, this means that the latest wastewater treatment plant should be put into operation by 2035. "It would be a treatment similar to that given to Croatia. As for the bathing sea water in Montenegro, it has been confirmed that the quality of water is very good in the Bay of Kotor, but also along the whole coast, so that tourists can freely come," Bloech added.



Asked how to ensure the continuous protection of the Bolje Sestre source, which supplies almost the entire Montenegrin coast with water, and avoid the negative impact and possible consequences of human activity in the immediate vicinity, as well as in the wider zone around the source, such as the exploitation of sand on private agricultural land and drawing the sand out from the Moraca River, Mr. Bloech cited the example of the city of Vienna, which is also provided with water from a karst source, and solved the problem of protection by becoming the owner of the whole mountain on which the source is located. Many stakeholders from various institutions took part in the discussion, pointing to the unequivocal success that Montenegro achieved by opening Chapter 27 Environmental Protection and Climate Change, but also to the obligation of the state

to find sustainable solutions to the demands and challenges Montenegro faces in the protection of water resources through negotiation and amendment of the legal framework. The reputed Professor Micko Radulovic underlined the significance of the Bolje Sestre water source in terms of meeting the very high standard of drinking water quality, as well as the fact that UNESCO included this source on the Map of 150 most important karst springs in the world, and thus obliged the decision makers even more to work towards preserving and protecting this and other natural water resources that our country has.




Advisor, PE Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje, Budva

”ALL WE HAVE TO DO IS LET THE PLANET REMAIN BLUE” Plato (427 - 347. B.C) Dear colleagues, Dear readers, The fourth edition of the magazine “Waters of Montenegro” is right in front of you. Originally, this edition was planned to be released on 22 of March to commemorate the International Day of Water. However, due to unfortunate developments caused by the enforced preservation of accounts of the PE Regionalni Vodovod Crnogorsko primorje (Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast) that lasted from 14th of August 2018 until 9 May 2019, we were not able to provide the release of publication within the planned time. It was only when we succeeded to unblock the company’s account by investing exceptional efforts, supported by the Government and competent ministries, that we were finally capable of financing the release of this prestigious publication. The Editorial Board owes you apologies and extends its gratitude for your understanding and patience. The theme of this number is exactly the above stated Plato’s saying, made long time ago, though topical and more pertinent than ever today. During preparation of this edition, we seek to take into account all your proposals, suggestions and comments when selecting the topics and the way of their elaboration. To preserve our planet to remain blue is a very res-

ponsible and a complex assignment which asks for participation of all competent institutions on both global and local scene and includes the commitment of all of us as individuals. Through offering an exchange of experiences and an update of the activities taken by various stakeholders, our publication strives to provide its contribution to these goals. These were the reasons why we decided to dedicate a significant part of this edition to marking the International Day of Water as we wanted to send out a message on importance of preserving water, the bases of life, and thus the existence of our planet. Marking of the International Day of Water which was constituted by a UN Resolution in 1992 has given us an opportunity to highlight one more time the importance of water and to warn of the fact that a great deal of the world suffers from water scarcity. The fact that approximately 1,8 billion of people uses poor quality water, that 748 million of people worldwide do not have access to potable water and that 2, 5 million of people struggle to meet basic needs for life, speaks for itself. Actually 80 % of the total number of diseases that strike the Third World Countries are caused by polluted water. The state of Montenegro, being aware of significance and requirements of preservation of water, approaches these issues with utmost responsibility and in institutional manner. Certain activities, i.e.



20 the already implemented projects and those to be initiated, which refer to providing the additional water quantities, preservation of water and protection from water, were addressed by Milutin Simovic, the Deputy Prime Minister at the Conference dedicated to the International Day of Water organized by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in cooperation with the United Nation Development Program (UNDP), German Association for International Cooperation (GIZ) and Global Water Partnership. The Commercial Chamber of Montenegro joined the event of marking the International Day of Water by the decision of its president setting forth that the Assembly of the Commercial Chamber of Montenegro would be held at the water intake Bolje Sestre which was, within the Worldwide Hydrogeological Mapping and Assessment Programme (WHYMAP), enlisted in the Map of the 150 most important karst springs in the world (World Karst Aquifer Map- WOCAM). The municipality of Tivat, as well, provided its contribution to marking the International Day of Water by having organized jointly with Regionalni Vodovod Crnogorsko primorje a public discussion titled “Water Resources Management in the context of EU Directives”. In the period between two editions, Regionalni vodovod has implemented a whole range of activities which shall contribute to both better water supply and water preservation. On 28 January, at the Bolje Sestre water intake, Regionalni Vodovod organized, together with the Ministry of Sustainable Development and University of Donja Gorica, a Round Table named Protection of Water Springs from the challenges of the XXI Century. The gathering brought together the international and local experts in field of water resources protection with the goal to raise and additionally promote the importance of protection of the water resources from big challenges ranging from the the global ones such as climate changes to the local challenges immensely affecting

the quality and reliability of water supply. Deliberating and finding adequate solutions to the challenges imposed by the XXI century, due to which water is deemed a resource for the future, are of great significance. A recently opened negotiation in Chapter 27 of the EU accession process refers to this. It was the first time in Montenegro and in other Western Balkans Countries that there had been a public statement made that water should be recognized as a human right by the Constitution. In the previous period, the management of the Regionalni Vodovod in cooperation with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the municipalities of Bar, Ulcinj, Kotor, Tivat and Herceg Novi has intensified the activities on the project of extension of the regional water supply system for the Montenegrin Coastal Region. The project consists of the following three components: connection of the municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system, the connection of the parallel Budva -Tivat pipeline, construction of the water and sewerage network for the settlements Dobra Voda and Veliki Pijesak in the municipality of Bar. Two meetings with high representatives of EBRD were held with the aim to identify further activities that would result in providing financial support for implementation of the development projects of Regionalni Vodovod- the first one in Bar which was attended by Mrs. Lyn O’ Grady, the Deputy Head in EBRD’s Sustainable Infrastructure Group, and the second one in Budva which was attended by Mr. Jurgen Rigterink, First Vice President of EBRD. Regionalni Vodovod marked 29 September, the day of Regionalni Vodovod and the 43rd anniversary of its operation. The twenty-minute film that was played on the occasion reminded the audience of the problems the inhabitants of the Montenegrin Coast had to face due to water shortages, but also of all visionaries and enthusiasts who designed and implemented the Project that changed Montenegro. The program of the ceremony was enriched by the

WATERS F MONTENEGRO concert of Mrs. Charlotte de Rothschild, the renown British soprano who was accompanied by the guitar duo – Darko Nikčević and Srđan Bulatović. After the first benchmarking workshop for the Danube River Water Catchment Area (that covers the region of 19 countries of the Danube Water Catchment Area including Montenegro) which was held in March 2018 in Zabljak and Tivat, the conference titled „Vision of sustainable management of water resources in XXI century“, accompanied by the second benchmarking workshop for the Danube River Catchment Area “Joining Forces to Reach Better Services”, was organized in Subotica . Thanks to immense understanding and unconditional support of the business partners, “Regionalni Vodovod Crnogorsko Primorje” has succeeded, in the most demanding period in its history and though exposed to very difficult working conditions, to defend highly sensitive state interests which reflect in providing continuous and reliable water supply to the Montenegrin Coastal Region, which is undisputable the precondition for development of tourism on the Montenegrin Coast and the whole state. The management of the Regionalni Vodovod organized a business gathering at Bolje Sestre at the beginning of July with the intention to extend its thankfulness to the business partners who provided their support to Regionalni Vodovod throughout immensely

difficult times. Business partners were handed the letters of appreciation. Besides all these topics that found their place in the publication, the special attention was paid to a “searching- for -answers” segment such as the definition of global aggregation and transfer of knowledges in this field from Hungary. To our regret, the member of our editorial board, the esteemed prof. dr. Mićko Radulović, a regular professor at the Civil Engineering Faculty, University of Montenegro, and a regular member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of Montenegro passed away on 18th of April 2019 at the age of 71. Through this publication, with the deep piety, we will at least try to give back to Micko for all he did for science and profession, as well as for the regional water supply system in foundations of which he gave away a part of himself. More importantly, it gives us opportunity to remind ourselves of Micko’s unique and kind personality we all admired. Dear colleagues and readers, with utmost pleasure and delight we would like to invite you to become a part of our editorial board through your proposals, suggestions and articles. Thus, you will actively impact the content of publication and become its creator. This Article begins with Plato’s words, let’s have it finished with Benjamin Franklin’s saying “When well is dry, we know the worth of water.”



Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Managing Board Held Its 14th Session at the Premises of the Water Intake "Bolje Sestre"

“REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IS THE LARGEST INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECT IMPLEMENTED IN MONTENEGRO SINCE THE RESTORATION OF INDEPENDENCE” Opening the meeting, President of the Management Board and President of the Chamber of Commerce Vlastimir Golubović congratulated the World Water Day, pointing out the importance of water and preserving it from all the challenges that the modern age brings. He briefly presented the Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast, emp-

hasizing its importance for solving the problem of water supply of the Montenegrin coast and enabling intensive tourism development. On that occasion he underlined: "The regional water supply system is the largest realized infrastructure project in Montenegro since the

WATERS F MONTENEGRO restoration of independence and the second biggest by the investment cost of about 107 million euros. It is a complex technical and technological system, which includes: Bolje Sestre water intake facility, four pumps, five transformers and two chlorine stations, 25,000 mÂł of reservoir space in 15 facilities, 135 km of pipelines, 90 km of optical cable, 20 distribution extensions, Sozina hydrotechnical tunnel

"Water intake Bolje Sestre is the largest constructed water intake at the Mediterranean over the last 25 years. The water from this spring is classified as class A1 potable water."

Goran Jevrić, Director of Regionalni vodovod handed the President of the Management Board and President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Vlastimir Golubovic the Map of the Regional Water Supply System.



of 4.2 km and over 400 smaller facilities. Bolje Sestre intake facility is the largest in the Mediterranean built over the last 25 years. The water from this source is of high quality and belongs to class A1. " In addition to members of the Management Board, the meeting was attended by Chairman of the Chamber Assembly Vojo Banovic, Vice-Presidents Ljiljana Filipovic, Ivan Saveljic and Danilo Gvozdenovic and Secretary General Pavle D. Radovanovic. At this meeting, the Management Board: - established proposals for the Activity Report for 2018 and the Financial Report; - made decisions on amendments to the Regulation on the organization and systematization of the Expert Service of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro, the establishment of different committees and the announcement of election for their members;

- amended decisions on the election of the president, deputy president and judges of the Court of Honour, and the list of arbitrators of the Arbitral Tribunal at the Montenegrin Chamber of Economy. The proposed Activity Report stated that the Montenegrin Chamber of Economy marked nine decades of successful work in 2018, uniting the interests of the entire business community, providing a strong contribution to the improvement of business environment, and enhancing the competitiveness of domestic enterprises, the economic growth and the country's progress towards the European Union. The oldest Montenegrin business association has entered the tenth decade of its existence with new energy. In January, reputed businessman Vlastimir Golubovic was appointed the president of the Chamber, and the new Law on the Chamber of Economy became effective. The bodies of the Chamber discussed topics of im-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO portance for the economy, contributing to the creation of conditions for a more favourable business environment. From 47 meetings of the various committees, numerous proposals were given to decision-makers regarding, among other things, the optimization of the use and development of the electricity system, the formation of clusters of metal structure producers in the construction industry, the improvement of new qualifications required by the labour market in the metallurgy sector, the definition of a new concept of forest management, investments in agriculture, activities of the Centre for education in road transport, dual education system, preparation of tourist season, electronic communications market and other topics. Discussions also covered the development of women's entrepreneurship, energy efficiency projects, pharmaceutical bu-

siness, health tourism and quality standards. The central celebration of the 90th anniversary of the Chamber of Economy was held in the presence of distinguished officials - the Head of State, Assembly and Government, representatives of EUROCHAMBRES, regional chambers of commerce, numerous companies, local administrations, diplomatic corps, academic community. The jubilee awards were presented to the President of Montenegro Filip Vujanovic, the president of EUROCHAMBRES Christoph Leitl, former President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Velimir Mijuskovic, and posthumously to Mico Stijovic, the founder and first president of the Chamber of Commerce and Trade. The annual awards of the Chamber of Economy



were given to the most successful businessmen in 2017 Tehnomax, Cerovo, Mesopromet and Dr. Zoran Vukcevic. The Conference on Economy - Montenegro 2018, the most important economic gathering in the Region, had more than 850 participants, including decision-makers, representatives of the business and academic community of the Western Balkans, as well as international institutions. The topic of the conference "Balkans and the European Union - the five-year cycle of the Berlin Process" has contributed to the strengthening of regional cooperation and to the further process of EU integration of this area. The conference was opened by Vlastimir Golubovic,

President of the Chamber of Economy, Sebastian Kurz, the Austrian Chancellor - the country that chaired the Council of the European Union, and the President of Montenegro, Milo Djukanovic. The results of the Berlin Process, the vision of the future of the Balkans and the progress in the reforms that will integrate the Region into the European Union have been addressed through six panels. Speakers included representatives of the governments of the countries in the region, including Montenegrin Prime Minister Dusko Markovic and Kosovo's Ramush Haradinaj, then the European Commission, the Association of Chambers of Commerce of Europe and the Balkans, international financial organizations and investors, negotiators in the integration pro-


cess and companies that are achieving outstanding business results. The following conferences were also organized: "Trade facilitation in the CEFTA region towards a common EU market", "Smart specialization: innovation, entrepreneurship and competitiveness", "Contemporary road transport and business logistics", "Power of the Montenegrin economy" and "Employment opportunities for Roma in agriculture and tourism ". At the traditional annual meeting of businessmen with Prime Minister Dusko Markovic and ministers on 26 December 2018, the analysis of "Montenegrin economy in 2018" prepared by the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro was presented. Businessmen then pointed to the most common business



28 obstacles: gray economy, unfair competition, high and multiple taxes at the state and local levels, expensive commercial bank loans, and lack of skilled staff. Prime Minister Markovic invited businessmen to work with the government on combating the gray economy, especially in the labour market, and added that employees must be in the focus of policies. In order to further improve communication with businesses, exchange of information on business, barriers, and information about the services of the Chamber and the support it can provide, the Chamber visited about 1,400 economic entities in 2018 and conducted a survey on business operations that covered 1162 companies.

ign countries, the attraction of foreign investors and the strengthening of competitiveness of Montenegrin companies in foreign markets was one of the goals of the Chamber of Economy in 2018. This association has been very active in the work of international and regional chamber associations - EUROCHAMBRES, the Forum of the Adriatic and Ionian Chambers of Commerce, the Association of Balkan Chambers, the Chamber Investment Forum. Business forums were organized with businessmen from Slovenia, Hungary, Turkey, Vojvodina, France, Kosovo, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Danubian, Nordic and Arab countries.

During 2018, about 50 regulations were analysed in the Chamber in terms of their impact on the performance of the economy. The adoption of new or amendments to the applicable laws and bylaws was initiated in order to eliminate restrictions and strengthen the competitiveness of the domestic economy. Among other things, the focus was on labour laws, laws on companies, public procurement, bankruptcy, foreigners, fiscalization of products and services, public-private partnership, spatial planning, as well as numerous by-laws.

The Secretary General of the Chamber of Economy is the head of the negotiation team for Chapter 3: Right of establishment and freedom to provide services, while for other chapters, businessmen and employees of the Chamber's expert services actively participate in this process. Recognizing the opportunities offered by NATO membership for the economy and companies, the Chamber has implemented a series of educational and informative activities, which, among other things, related to informing members timely about calls for NATO procurement.

The Chamber of Economy, in cooperation with the line ministries and the Investment and Development Fund, realized four very successful fair presentations of our producers in Budva, Novi Sad, Celje, Prishtina and Tirana, who presented themselves successfully and received numerous awards for product quality. Within the framework of the International and Regional Fair of Business and Tourism in Subotica, President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Vlastimir Golubovic was awarded the "Captain Misa Anastasijevic" Award for the promotion of cross-border cooperation. The promotion and development of economic cooperation of the Montenegrin economy with fore-

The Chamber organized 56 educational activities attended by 3,282 participants, and actively participates in the promotion and implementation of the dual system of education, and provided scholarships for students for deficit occupations. It participates in the implementation of more than 20 projects, among which particularly distinguished are: Good from Montenegro, Buy domestic, Homemade flavours, Excellent SME, HISTEK, SMART ADRION, Development of low-carbon tourism in Montenegro etc. Based on public authority, the Chamber issued 1,579 documents in 2018. The Centre for Education within the Chamber organized 14 trainings for managers and 37 trainings for drivers, which were attended

WATERS F MONTENEGRO by 419 managers and 2,117 drivers. The Centre also organized 23 exams for managers and 32 exams for drivers, with 346 managers and 1.512 drivers receiving the certificate. President Vlastimir Golubović emphasized in the Report that with the new Law on the Chamber this association became an institutional partner to decision makers at the national and local level, and that much was done with intensive activities in 2018 to improve the regulatory framework, which contributed to the improvement of the business environment. At the meeting, the Management Board was informed about the laureates of the Award of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro for 2018. The award committee decided that the winners will be: for successful business – National Electricity Company of Montenegro (EPCG) and Gradir Montenegro, for social responsibility - Glossarij, for innovation - Crnogorska Komercijalna Bank, and for improvement of management - Ivan Karadzic, executive director of Mercator-CG. The Management Board decided to donate funds for daily allowances of its members in the total amount of EUR 2,000 for humanitarian purposes - to the First Association of Parents of Children and Youth with Developmental Disabilities from Podgorica and the Association of Parents of Children and Youth with Developmental Disabilities "Puzeva Kucica" from Budva. After the meeting of the Managing Board, the film "How a Project that Transformed Montenegro Was Made" was presented.

Goran Jevric, Director of the Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast, after the film, expressed his gratitude to the Management Board and the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro for fruitful cooperation and decision to hold their meeting at the Bolje Sestre water source, which is included on the UNESCO list, on the occasion of 22 March - World Water Day, as one of the 150 most important water sources in the world. The results achieved by the Chamber in 2018, as Jevric pointed out, show that the Chamber has "strong professional capacities and leadership with a vision", and contributes to the prosperity of the business community and the state as a whole. He particularly emphasized the important role of the Chamber in improving the education system, developing cooperation with NATO, and promoting arbitration as an out-of-court, efficient method of resolution of commercial disputes, which is fully supported by the Regional Water Supply Company. He emphasized the determination of the Regional Water Supply Company to form a water factory, seeing NATO forces as potential clients. - The Chamber of Economy has a secure future, and Montenegro has an elite business community, thanks to whose contribution we will not be unprepared for integration with the European Union - concluded Jevric. On this occasion, Director Goran Jevric handed the President of the Management Board and President of the Chamber of Economy of Montenegro Vlastimir Golubovic the Map of the Regional Water Supply System. A tour of the Bolje Sestre water source was organized for those present at the meeting of the Management Board of the Chamber of Commerce of Montenegro.



Member of the Chamber of Engineers of Montenegro

EU – ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND WATER MANAGEMENT SUMMARY The Water Framework Directive represents the final result of years of negotiations and discussions held among a large number of experts and politicians, and represents a detailed regulation with clear quality objectives concerning all waters in the European space. The Water Framework Directive includes terrestrial, transit and coastal waters. Characterisation of surface water body implies an assessment of hydrographic, geological and hydrogeological conditions of the terrain. It is very important to note that the pressures on the chemical quality are being specially considered, as well as the pressures on the quantity. Hydromorphology is a new term that has emerged in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, which means “physical characteristics—shape, boundaries and content of the water body.” Hydromorphological quality parameters (hydrological regime, river continuity of

flow and morphological conditions) are used to assess the ecological status / potential of surface waters. The introduction of hydromorphological quality as a measure of water status requires a new way of thinking, which must be a compromise between the “engineering” and “environmental” approach to water management.

1. INTRODUCTION The implementation of the Water Framework Directive of the European Union (2000) is an important task for all Member States but also for those that wish to become one. The harmonisation of water legislation with the Directive is supposed to contribute to decreased pressure on water resources, their rational exploitation, improved quality and better protection against pollution. This would also create more favourable preconditions for overall sustainable development in the entire European area.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO The integration processes in Western Europe during the 1970s and 1980s logically included the process of integrating or at least aligning the legislations of individual countries. The fate of earlier European regulations—whose main goal was a better protection of water and especially potable water—was not particularly successful. The goal of Directive 80/68/EEC was to prevent the discharge of toxic substances into groundwater. Two lists were established: full prohibition of discharge and strictly limited direct discharge into groundwater. Still, the quality of most European waters continued to deteriorate, mainly due to intensive agricultural activities (especially when accompanied by an increased nitrate concentration in water). The Water Framework Directive (WFD) of the European Union was adopted in October 2000 (2000/60) and to this day it still represents a key document which defines in more detail the principles of water management and monitoring and which directly affects not only EU Member States but the entire European area as well. The basic EU concept in the environmental field is directed primarily at the preservation, protection and improvement of the quality of the environment, in the sense of a prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources which should be based on precaution and on preventive actions in order to rectify potential damage and to sanction the polluter. In the Directive, water is defined as the Earth’s heritage which should be protected, and its non-commercial character is underlined. The need for high-quality water for different purposes was increasingly great because of the Union’s continuous economical development, but at the same time awareness grew of the importance of water and the need to protect it against pollution. The Directive prescribes that environmental protection for river basins of an international

character—and especially protective measures—should be coordinated in the entire river basin district. Regarding basins which are located outside EU borders, Member States undertake to ensure an appropriate cooperation with non-Member States. Another precondition for environmental protection is a greater integration of qualitative and quantitative aspects of both surface waters and groundwaters, within the natural conditions of the hydrological cycle. A definition of “water status” has been established in relation to its quality and quantity. In principle, the expectation is that the status of surface waters and groundwaters will improve or that there will be no further deterioration at the least. WFD also stipulates the duty of states to conduct an analysis of the characteristics of all river basin districts, determine the impact of human activity and the pressures on the quantity (exploitation level) and quality of water, and to conduct an economic analysis of the conditions of use. States have undertaken to establish a register of all areas which require special protection. What does in fact “good” water status mean? Groundwaters are monitored in terms of the chemical and quantitative status (in the case of surface waters, the ecological status is substituted for the chemical one). The initial step is the so-called characterisation of water bodies, starting with surface waters which are then joined with the accompanying groundwater bodies, while it is also possible to group groundwater bodies together. The characterisation implies the definition—description and quantification of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the terrain, especially the geometry of the water body, the character of the overlying and underlying strata, the rate of water exchange, the dependence of the terrain surface ecosystem on infiltrated or discharged groundwaters. Special consideration is given to pressures on the chemi-


32 cal quality: dispersed and concentrated sources of pollution as well as to pressures on the quantity: scope of exploitation and artificial recharge (if appropriate). When determining the chemical status, there is the problem of non-defined maximum allowed concentrations which has been a hot topic in the EU for a long time (Almássy & Buzás, 1999). For the purpose of achieving the goals, it is required that—if remediation, and thus “good” status, is not possible—the chemical status must remain as it was at the time when the regulations were adopted, i.e. at the time when work on their implementation commenced. States should also determine those groundwater bodies for which lower goals need to be set, because the establishment of “good” status is often impossible without huge financial investments. A water body must be a coherent sub-unit in the river basin to which the environmental objectives of the Directive apply. Hence, the main purpose of identifying water bodies is to enable the status to be accurately described and compared to environmental objectives (WFD CIS Guidance Document No. 2). The environmental protection prescribed by the Directive provides for the achievement of “good” status of surface waters and groundwaters and for the prevention of their further deterioration. The attainment of such a status of waters is considered to be the basic precondition for securing the drinking water supply for the population. If water bodies are identified so that an accurate description of the status of ecosystems is not possible, Member States will be unable to apply the Directive’s objectives correctly. However, an endless sub-division of water bodies should be avoided in order to reduce administrative burden if it does not fulfil any purpose as regards the proper implementation of the Directive. The aggregation of water bodies may, under certain circum-

stances, be quite useful in the administrative context, in particular for smaller water bodies. The Directive only requires sub-divisions of surface water and groundwater that are necessary for the clear and effective application of its objectives, while sub-divisions of surface water and groundwater into smaller water bodies that do not support this purpose should be avoided.

2. BASIC CONCEPTS Body of surface water means a discrete and significant element of surface water such as a lake, a reservoir, a stream, river or canal, part of a stream, river or canal, a transitional water or a stretch of coastal water. Hydromorphology is a new term that has emerged in the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, which means “physical characteristics—shape, boundaries and content of the water body.” Hydromorphological quality parameters (hydrological regime, river continuity of flow and morphological conditions) are used to assess the ecological status / potential of surface waters. Hydromorphological changes (alteration of the water and deposition regime, of the hydrological and hydraulic characteristic of the watercourse, loss of floodplains and similar) are a result of human activity, i.e. the construction of hydrotechnical facilities (dams, sluices, embankments, regulation facilities, etc.) for the purpose of various types of utilisation and/or protection against the harmful impact of water.


WATERS F MONTENEGRO According to the same guidance, each water body should be clearly identified on the basis of its discreteness in the context of the Directive’s purposes, objectives and provisions. A surface water body must not be split between different surface water categories, and must belong to only one category in accordance with Annex II 1.1. (i) of the Directive which states: “The surface water bodies within the river basin district shall be identified as falling within either one of the following surface water categories—rivers, lakes, transitional waters or coastal waters—or as artificial surface water bodies or heavily modified surface water bodies.” A surface water body must not cross the boundaries between surface water body types. It must be of one type or another since one purpose of

characterising surface water bodies is to differentiate them into types (CIS 3.2.3). Hydromorphological features can significantly influence surface water ecosystems and their vulnerability to human activities. These features can also differentiate discrete elements of surface water. For example, the confluence of one part of a river with another could clearly demarcate a hydromorphologically distinct boundary to a water body. The Directive does not exclude other elements, such as a part of a lake or part of transitional water, from being considered as water bodies. If part of a lake is of a different type to the rest of the lake, the lake must be sub-divided into more than one surface water body. The above-mentioned criteria represent a basis for a first identification of water bodies in the river basins. However, if said criteria do not lead to a meaningful delineation of water bodies, other criteria need to be used as well.



34 The process of surface water body identification and delineation can only be applied for rivers or tributaries with a catchment area of over 10 km2 and for lakes (reservoirs) with a surface of over 0.5 km2. Smaller water units are not subject to delineation as separate water bodies. Surface water bodies identified within the river basins belong to one of the two surface water categories: rivers or lakes. For each surface water body category, the relevant surface water body within the river basin is differentiated according to a specific type. These types are defined in accordance with Annex II 1.1. (ii). For each surface water category, the relevant surface water bodies within the river basin district shall be differentiated according to type.

These types are defined using either system A or system B identified in section 1.2. Therefore, at the very beginning of the differentiation of the water bodies, it is necessary to choose which system will be the basis for the differentiation of the water bodies in the river basin district. Let us, for example, differentiate the water bodies according to system A. If system A is used, the surface water bodies within the river basin district shall first be differentiated by the relevant ecoregions in accordance with the geographical areas identified in section 1.2 and shown on the relevant map in Annex XI. The water bodies within each ecoregion shall then be differentiated by surface water body types according to the descriptors set out in the tables for system A (Annex II 1.1.)


WATERS F MONTENEGRO In accordance with the Management Plan, 9 water bodies were differentiated in Montenegro. It is very important to remind that the surface water body differentiation for the Sava River Basin Management Plan was performed on the basis of the data provided by the Sava River basin countries. A detailed analysis will be necessary to verify the accuracy of these results.

4. EXAMPLES OF HYDROMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES The most significant hydromorphological changes in bodies of surface water occur as a result of the utilisation of water for the purpose of hydropower, navigation, water supply, agriculture,

urban planning, etc. as well as because of the construction of flood protection systems. The hydropower utilisation of watercourses implies the construction of dams and reservoirs. These structures lead to significant hydromorphological changes in the water body which result in adverse effects on the ecosystems and their habitats such as: disruption of the continuity of water, sediment transport and migration of fish, alteration of the watercourse morphology, riverbed composition, modification of the riverine landscape amenities. Of course, equal or similar impacts are also exerted by other facilities which impound waters (dams, sluices, weirs, barriers) and which are constructed for the purpose of protection from waters (flood protection and flu-



36 vial erosion control), water supply, navigation conditions. The construction of longitudinal facilities for protection from waters also represents a significant pressure on the water body. In case of regulation works on watercourses, there are certain changes in the hydrological regime and the deposition regime, morphological changes, loss of aquatic habitats. The construction of embankments narrows the river corridor, reduces natural floodplain areas and alters the flood regime.

5. ACTIVITIES TO DATE The issue of water management is gaining momentum in the modern world. This topic is becoming especially relevant during the process of new EU accessions, because problems connected to water management and water protection are more prominent in economically less developed countries. That is why the fulfilment of requirements and the meeting of EU standards in the field of water policy is an increasingly important condition for European integration. The surface water body delineation process—as a segment of the Framework Directive which needs to be implemented—has not yet started

in Montenegro, so it is very important to establish a clear hierarchy of activities which need to be conducted until the full implementation of this part of the Directive. This paper points out one possible method for the initial differentiation of the surface water bodies, which should be carried out according to the following scheme: Also, it is above all important to pay attention to the definitions of river basin, sub-basin and river basin district referred to in Article 2 of the Framework Directive. For further progress in this field, it will be necessary to define in this manner the start of the implementation of the part regarding the water body differentiation based on the CIS Guidance Document on the identification of water bodies and their delineation. Within the regional CARDS project “Pilot Sava River Basin Management Plan in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro,” significant hydromorphological changes have been defined. During the construction of facilities which can cause hydromorphological changes, it is necessary to reduce their adverse environmental impact to the lowest possible degree already in the planning period.


LITERATURE: [1] DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL 2000/60/EC, ESTABLISHING A FRAMEWORK FOR COMMUNITY ACTION IN THE FIELD OF WATER POLICY, Luxembourg, 23 October 2000; [2] COMMON IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY FOR THE WATER FRAME-WORK DIRECTIVE (2000/60/EC), Guidance Document No 4: Identification and Designation of Heavily Modified and Artificial Water Bodies, Produced by Working Group 2.2 – HMWB; [3] Group of Authors, 2013: “Water body identification and typology AKHURYAN PILOT BASIN, ARMENIA”. [4] Group of Authors, 2013 : “Sava River Basin Management Plan”. [5] Slavko Hrvačević (2015), Izdvajanje površinskih vodnih tijela prema okvirnoj direktivi o vodama u Crnoj Gori;







WATERS F MONTENEGRO Javno preduzeće za upravljanje morskim dobrom (the Public Enterprise for the Montenegrin Coastal Zone Management) has been implementing two international projects aiming at data collection of the marine litter. One of these projects is IPA CBC "WELCOME" which implies collection, analysis and measurement of litter at designated beaches in order to identify the most prevailing type and quantities of litter and to define jointly with Albanian and Italian partners the measures that would enhance the decrease in quantity and recycling of this type of litter. One of the examples that is tested through this project is the use of wood that is found on beaches for the purposes of protection of the sand dunes from erosion. Within scope of the second project "UNEP Marine Litter" Javno preduzeće za upravljanje morskim dobrom has implemented a program "Adopt a beach" which implies the application of UNEP and EU methodology for monitoring of the marine litter with the aim to identify the most dominant litter on the Montenegrin beaches. Following the analyses made so far by Marine Biology Institute the most prevailing litter items on Montenegrin beaches are: cigarette butts and plastic packaging. This project implied as well analyses of legislation framework and the current practice applied in Montenegro with respect to PET recycling.


The Public Enterprise for the Montenegrin Coastal Zone Management has already implemented four project activities of litter collection and analysis at designated beaches within the "WELCOME" IPA Interreg CBC Italy-Albania-Montenegro Project.

Waste collection and selection activities, carried out in line with the predefined transects at the sections of Velika plaža in Ulcinj, Bečićka beach in Budva and Igalo beach in Herceg Novi, started in 2018, have been continued in 2019. The waste from these beaches has been selectively collected to enable the recycling of materials (wood, plastic, glass and aluminum).

The waste collected in these actions will be further analyzed and categorized by the Institute of Marine Biology, which is one of the partners in the WELCOME project. The results of the research will enable monitoring of waste from the sea over the 2 year period, as well as comparison of data and identification of the type and origin of waste coming to the beaches from the sea and from the river estuaries.



IPA CBC WELCOME Project “WELCOME” (WatEr LandsCapes sustainability through reuse of Marine litter) – which is implemented within the scope of Interreg IPA Program of transboundary cooperation between Italy, Albania and Montenegro and is exclusively focused on sustainable management of marine litter as well as on strengthening the cross-border cooperation between these countries which would foster solving of the emerging problem of marine litter in this area. Activities within the scope of this project are directed to removal of litter, rehabilitation and fencing the dunes by using the wood waste found on beaches and drawing up the Transboundary Marine Litter Management Plan, which shall contribute to establishing the sustainable and long-term marine litter management system. The main goal of the project “WELCOME” is to provide back- up to a long-term litter management through development of the guidelines, testing the soft methods for consolidating the coastal dunes by using the wood waste from the sea and raising the

public awareness on sustainable development (environmental protection). The main outcomes of the project shall be establishing the integrated initiatives in the field of prevention of the coastal ecology risks and biodiversity protection, creation of the sustainable value chain based on the marine litter reuse by artists and architects who will design the coastal anti - erosion system and development of the joint plans for upgrading and preservation of water landscapes. The project that started in April 2018 and that will last until 2020 have brought together 6 partners from three countries – Italy, Albania and Montenegro. The leading partner is the National Interuniversity Consortium for Marine Sciences – CoNISMa from Italy, whereas other participants are Municipality of Lecce (ML), Italy, National Coastline Agency (NCA), Albania, University of Tirana - Faculty of Geology and Mining (F.GJ.M.), Albania, University of Montenegro - Institute of Marine Biology (UNIME), Eco Partners for Sustainable Development (ECOP), Albania.





"UNEP Marine Litter" - ADOPT A BEACH The project Adopt a Beach, identified two transects of two beaches in the Montenegrin Coastal Region, that were pre-defined by the Contract on implementation of the project activities with the goal to assess the quantity, type and abundance of litter. The first project site is at Jaz beach („Svetionik “– The Lighthouse) which belongs to the municipality Budva and is located in the vicinity of Jaska rijeka, whereas the second one belongs to municipality Herceg Novi – Blatna plaza situated in the surrounded area of the river Sutorina. The collection of the litter found on both beaches occupied the transect extending 100 m in length, whereas the

attempted width of the transect went along the line of the coast to the hinterland of the beach, that is to the headland. Methodology of litter collection and categorisation developed under the MEDPOL Marine Litter Beach Form. The activities of litter collections were conducted in three sequences during the autumn in 2018, winter 2018/2019 and spring 2019. Starting and ending coordinates and average transect area subject to litter collection are presented in the table 1, while the investigated transects are shown in the photos 1-2.


Table 1. Coordinates for investigated transects and areas Photo 1. The Jaz Beach Transect The whole amount of collected litter has been classified at site into the main categories; plastics, rubber, textile, glass, ceramics, processed wood, metal, paper, sanitary waste, medical waste, paraffin/wax. The detailed categorization (sub- categorization) within the stated group and each item of waste has been identified in the laboratory of the Marine Biology Institute in accordance with the MEDPOL Marine Litter Beach Form. Photo 2. The Blatna Plaza Transect




RESULTS The results point out that the investigated beaches are exposed to solid waste pollution. Along the 100 me long transect at Jaz Beach over the three periods of the year, 4227 items of litter weighing 48.4 kg were collected, whereas 3831 items of litter of overall weight of 85 kg were found on the Blatna beach transect. The calculations made has exhibited that 0.35 item of litter per m2 was found on Jaz Beach, or 0.85 per m2 at Blatna beach. The highest percentage rate of the litter found on both transects were plastic. Out of the total amount of waste collected at the Jaz beach transect, 90. 6 % was plastic, whereas the share of plastic in the total amount of litter found on Blatna beach occu-

Chart 1: A percentage share of main litter categories found on 100 m long transects of both beaches throughout tree- season collection period

pied 79.11 %. The litter that was ranked second at Jaz Beach was metal accounting for 2.48 %, while at Blatno beach second prevailing litter was wood occupying 5.58 % (chart 1). The most dominant category, that is a subcategory at the Jaz Beach transect, are cigarette butts, followed by plastic and polystyrene items of a size ranging from 2,5 to 50 cm and plastic plugs and tops (including plastic bottle rings) (Chart 2). The most prevailing category, i.e. subcategory on the Blatna Beach transect were, as well, cigarette butts, followed by the plastic and polystyrene items of a size ranging from 2,5 to 50 cm and plastic plugs and tops (including plastic bottle rings) (Chart 3).

WATERS F MONTENEGRO Chart 2 Top 10 most dominant items of litter found on the Jaz beach throughout the three-season collection period

Graph 3. Top 10, most dominant items of litter found on the Blatna beach transect during the three-season collection period

IMPORTANCE Throughout the activities within these international projects, Javno preduzeće za upravljanje morskim dobrom Crne Gore provides its contribution to closing of the chapter 27 which involves the harmonisation of the Montenegrin Legislation with EU Directives dealing with, inter alia, the solid waste management. A new regulation shall bring forth a significant improvement and upgrade efficiency of the local water utilities competent for collection and

disposal of waste but also for development of mechanisms for recycling the plastic, glass, metal and other types of packaging, including the mechanisms for control and decrease of the waste generated (productive waste) such as ban of single use plastic (plastic bags, straws, single use plastic packaging, etc.). These measures will contribute to reduction of litter found on beaches and other public areas.

When it comes to marine litter, drifted in particular either by sea or river, the special relevance is paid to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive recognizing the marine litter as one of the good environmental status indicators.





48 When, Why and How, Water and Sanitation Utilities Can Benefit from Working Together


This text is a product of the work of World Bank staff using additional resources. This report was produced by a team led by Mr. David Michaud, which included Maria Salvetti, Carlos Diaz, Gustavo Ferro, Michael Klien, Berenice Flores and Stjepan Gabric. David Michaud is Director of the Water Sector for Europe, Central America and Haiti in a part of the World Bank called Water Global Practice. In his current position, he is responsible for overseeing the World Bank's water portfolio and banking staff operating in these regions.


Chapter 2

What are Global Aggregation Trends? This chapter presents the main findings of the review of international aggregation trends, which was conducted by collecting data and information for 111 countries around the world (table 3.1), exhibiting a diversity of income levels (table 3.2) and covering 88 percent of the world’s population (map 3.1). Information was collected exclusively from publicly available sources (international databases such as the World Bank World Development Indicators and the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme), regional and sector databases such as those of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development or a regional study on countries in the Danube region (World Bank 2015), and national publications and websites. All data were validated by Bank staff and are available in the online toolkit.


50 TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS AND SERVICE DELIVERY RESPONSIBILITY When contrasting the level of the jurisdiction in charge of service delivery against water coverage, the trend is clear (figure 3.1): The lower the water coverage, the higher the level of the jurisdiction in charge of service provision. For example, for 50 percent of countries that have water coverage of less than 25 percent, service delivery is a national responsibility. For 43 percent of countries that have water coverage ranging from 26 to 50 percent, service delivery is a regional respon¬sibility. For 56 percent of countries with water coverage of more than 76 percent, service delivery is a municipal responsibility. In countries with greater coverage, and thus higher levels of water infrastructure development, service provision appears to be more decentralized. A similar trend is observed when looking at the jurisdic¬tional level that is responsible for service delivery and the level of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (figure 3.2). Hence, for the 39

percent of countries where incomes are less than US$5,000 per capita, service delivery is a national responsibility. For the 52 percent of countries where incomes are more than US$20,000 per capita, service delivery is a municipal responsibility. Finally and unsurprisingly, countries that have decentralized service provision to regional and local levels have much lower aggregation indices (figure 3.3). In countries where aggregation has happened (with or without a supporting legal frame¬work), water sector fragmentation is lower than territorial fragmentation. On average, these countries exhibit an aggregation index of 77 percent, with a minimum of 15 percent for Colombia and a maximum of 100 percent for Algeria, Armenia, the Arab Republic of Egypt, and Niger (map 3.2). Unsurpris ingly, the minimum number of utilities is encoun¬tered in countries where services have aggregated into one single national provider. The maximum number of water utilities is more than 34,000, in France, where aggregation reform is still in progress.


The level of decentralization of WSS services increases in countries with higher levels of development and overall service coverage.


52 WHERE, WHEN, AND HOW AGGREGATIONS HAPPENED This section, unless mentioned otherwise, focuses on those countries in which aggregaÂŹtions have taken place, whether mandated (top-down), incentivized, or purely voluntary (bottom-up). Countries in which no aggregation reform is in place and where bottom-up cases of aggregation are not observed are excluded from the analysis. Among all countries in the global data set, aggregation happened in 35 (32 percent). In 23 countries (21 percent), aggregation was formalized through a reform that is either in place or in progress; 79 percent of these reforms were passed during the past 15 years (figure 3.4). As such, aggregation appears to be a relatively recent trend; only a few reforms were conducted before the end of the 20th century. Indeed, the decades before 2000 were characterized by a strong decentralization trend in the water sector.

Aggregation is a recent trend, observed in the countries of Africa, Europe and Latin America.


Aggregation is more predominant in countries where local governments are responsible for WSS service delivery. Decentralization was perceived as a way to increase the autonomy and accountability of local governments, result¬ing in the transfer of competences from central govern¬ments to local elected authorities. From a geographical perspective, 43 percent of aggrega¬tions are observed in European countries, whether from Western, Central, or Eastern Europe; 17 percent in Sub-Saharan African countries; and 14 percent in Latin America (map 3.3). Fewer aggregations are also observed in South and East Asia. When looking only at reforms in countries where a legal framework is supporting aggregation, 57 percent are happening in Europe-



The predominant aggregation type is a top-down, mandated process, targeted toward economic efficiency, encompassing all functions and services, following administrative boundaries, and taking the form of a merger.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO an countries and 24 percent in African countries (table 3.3). In 47 percent of the countries analyzed in the data set, the municipal level of jurisdiction is responsible for WSS provision; in 24 percent, regions are in charge of WSS provision; in 28 percent, services are the responsibility of a national proÂŹvider; and 1 percent fall under the responsibility of a river basin authority. However, when focusing only on the countries where aggregation has happened, these proportions change. n 29 percent of these countries, the municipal level is responsible; in 39 percent, the regional level, and in 34 percent the national level (figure 3.5). Aggregation logically appears to be more prevalent in those countries where local governments are formally responsible for service delivery. Among the 111 countries in the data set, aggregations were observed in 35 (figure 3.6). In countries where aggregations happened, 60 percent of the processes were mandated. The remaining processes were voluntary (26 percent) or voluntary and incentivized (14 percent). Almost two-thirds of aggrega-tions are implemented through a full merger of service providers (figure 3.7). This type of goverÂŹnance arrangement implies a stronger integration, which often translates into a principle of soliÂŹdarity across the operating area through a harmonized water tariff and through cost and revenue sharing (see chapters 5 and 6). Delegated contracts (whether pu-


56 blic-public or public-private) represent 24 percent of aggrega¬tion governance arrangements, whereas special-purpose vehicles are less frequent. The scope of almost all aggrega¬tion processes covers both services and functions (86 percent), whereas the findings on the scale of aggregation are more nuanced. Some 56 percent of aggre¬gation processes followed administrative boundaries, 33 per¬cent had no predominant scale, and only 11 percent sought to match watershed limits (figure 3.8). The predominant purpose of aggregation was to achieve better economic efficiency (46 percent); 20 percent aim at improving performance, 17 percent at enhancing profession-alization, and 17 percent did not have a predominant purpose (figure 3.9). Whether mandated (45 percent) or voluntary (50 percent), aggregation processes primarily aim at


Aggregations are happening in a diversity of contexts but are more frequent in countries with high WSS services coverage.


58 improving economic efficiency (figure 3.10). This is somewhat surprising, as one might have expected that voluntary processes largely aim at economic efficiency (internalities) while mandatory pro¬cesses largely focus on externalities such as cost sharing or environmental benefits. However, this result is less surpris¬ing when bearing in mind that aggregations are more fre¬quently observed in European countries with high coverage and good service quality.

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CONTEXT, PURPOSE, AND AGGREGATION DESIGN Whether supported by a legal framework or not, aggregation is happening in countries of varying economic development levels and varying degrees of urbanization or fragmentation (figure 3.11). There is a positive relationship between the probability of an aggregation reform and the extent

of water infrastructure: aggregation reform is more common in countries where WSS coverage is high (figure 3.12). This is par-ticularly true for aggre¬gations that occur where there is a policy frame¬work mandating or incentivizing aggrega¬tions (top-down pro¬cess). Most aggregations with a policy framework are clustered in coun¬tries where coverage is high. Moreover, this finding is consistent with the fact that half of the aggregations happened in European countries that exhibit high levels of coverage. Economic efficiency is the purpose targeted by 65 percent of the countries where water coverage into premises is higher than 75 percent. As such, aggregation appears to be a means to lower costs for services that already have a good level of performance (figure 3.13). Aggregations that aim at improving economic efficiency are more frequent in countries with higher GDP per capita, with higher shares of urban popu-





Countries with smaller utilities and more fragmented water sectors pursue voluntary aggregations more frequently.

lation, and with higher coverÂŹage levels (figures 3.14 and 3.15). This finding is consistent with the fact that half the aggreÂŹgations happened in European countries that exhibit higher GDP levels, shares of urban population, and coverage levels. It also reflects the fact that in countries with low income and low coverage, aggregation focuses on priorities other than economic efficiency, such as expanding coverage or access to services, for instance. Regarding the process of aggregation, countries with smaller utilities on average (measured by population per utility) and more fragmented water sectors pursue voluntary aggregations more frequently. This is true for purely voluntary aggregations, but also for voluntary and incentivized aggregations (figure 3.16).



Vice President for Public Enterprises of the Regulatory Agency for Energy and Public Enterprises of Hungary (HEA)

THE EFFECTIVE REGULATION OF WATER UTILITY SUPPLY An introduction to the Hungarian water sector reform 1. THE HISTORY OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE HUNGARIAN REGULATORY FRAMEWORK - in 1989: 33 sub-regional and 5 regional operators - privatisation in the 90’s - more than 400 water utility supplier companies by 2010 - in 2012, the 33 largest water utility supplier company were carrying out 84 % of the total consumer

equivalent* in the country - fragmented water utility service market *(1 consumer equivalent = 1 household’s access to drinking water and/or to wastewater) - recognizing this trend, the Hungarian Parliament adopted Act CCIX of 2011 on Water Utility Supply on 30 of December 2011 - the Act vested HEA with the supervision of the water utility sector - one of the main objectives of the Act is the effecti-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO ve use of water resources - one of the key instruments to achieve this goal is the integration of market players - a vice-president responsible for public utilities had been appointed Ěś two departments under the supervision of the vice-president: a. Regulatory Department: price regulation, codification, regulation of waste management b. Department of Water Utility Licensing and Supervision: licensing, monitoring, development - number of employees: 50

2. THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE HUNGARIAN REGULATIONS a. To protect national property and settle the ownership structure

- a significant proportion of the public water utilities have been transferred into public ownership - nearly 90% of the water utility systems are in state or municipal ownership b. Price regulation / tariff setting: - the Minister determines in a decree the prices of the water utility supply and the HEA will supervise the application of prices - HEA submits a proposal on utility tariffs to the minister - the aim of the price regulation is to approximate the differences and to develop a balanced system (based on solidarity) by establishing common basic principles regarding the fragmented tariff-setting c. Integration (to redefine and to make more transparent the fragmented water utility service market)


64 - the most important tool of integration is the competence of the HEA of granting operational licences d. Data gathering on public water utilities and the setting up of public registers e. To supervise water utility developments and reconstructions f. Professional supervision and control – The primary task of HEA was to establish the licensing process with a deadline of 31st May 2013 and oversee the requests for licence of operators in order to ensure long term sustainable, high quality and efficient operations-

3. THE MOST SIGNIFICANT ADMINISTRATIVE POWERS OF HEA a. Price supervision - HEA is entitled to supervise, control and regulate the prices of public water utility service b. Submitting a proposal on utility tariffs - HEA is entitled to submit a proposal on the utility tariffs each year tothe minister responsible for water utility supply c. Licensing powers - supplying drinking water and managing wastewater can only be behoved in the possession of the license granted by HEA - HEA also has the right of granting the application of prices differing from the utility tariff d. Approving authority - it is also the right of HEA to approve the “rolling development plans” [long-term (15 years) development plans] - the HEA also approves the operational agreements between the responsible entity and the operator e. Designation of the operator of last resort - HEA - in the favour of public interest for supply shall designate an operator of last resort to provide water utility supply, in case the supply has been endangered and the responsible entity has not ensured to provide water utility supply service

f. Approving changes governed by company law - The consent of HEA is required for the merger, division (transformation), reduction of the registered capital or equity capital by at least 25 % of the water utility supplier g. Monitoring authority - HEA is entitled to control the supplier company’s adherence to the granted license and the application of lawful prices - HEA also supervises whether the general operation of the supplier is adherent to the law h. Other important responsibility of HEA is the management of public registry of water utility systems, water utility suppliers, and responsible entities. The registry was set up on 1 September 2014 and is publicly available. Beyond the above mentioned powers, HEA exercises more than 30 regulatory rights and it has a controlling duty in the field of data disclosure of the public water utility suppliers.

4. MARKET INTEGRATION THROUGH THE OPERATIONAL LICENSING PROCESS - the property of water utility works can be owned only by the state or the local government - it is the right and the obligation of the state or the local government (the responsible entity) to provide public water utility service - to execute this task the state or the local government shall sign an operational agreement with the water utility supplier company on the management of drinking water supply and wastewater service - supplying drinking water and managing wastewater can only be conducted in the possession of the operational license granted by HEA - the primary task of HEA was to conduct the licensing process during 2013 and oversee the requests for licence of the water utility supplier companies in order to ensure the long-term sustainable, high quality and efficient operations

WATERS F MONTENEGRO - those business associations in the form of limited liability company and private limited company shall receive an operational licence for water utility supply, which has an operational agreement for the supply area and water utility sector that has been marked in the application for licence and complies with the criteria determined by law. The Act regulates the following types of operational agreements: (1) asset management agreement, (2) concession agreement, and (3) operating and leasing agreement. The rules regarding consumer equivalent: - one of the main instrument of integration is the introduction of the unit called ‘consumer equivalent’. - one consumer equivalent equals to one household’s access to drinking water and/or to wastewater. - HEA may issue the operational licence for the operator for the first time, if the consumer equivalent reaches 50 000, and the water utility supplier fulfils the conditions of the law - the operational agreement shall be withdrawn in case, the total consumer equivalent a) does not reach 100 000, by 31 December 2014, b) reaches 100 000, but it is less than 150 00), by 31 December 2016 - 84 water utility suppliers submitted a request for operational licence, and HEA have granted license to 47 of them - it means that the total number of the water utility supplier companies in the country has been reduced from 400 to 47 (45 multi-sector operators and 2 wastewater operators) - as the result of integration the number of water utility suppliers has been decreased and is to be continuously decreased, which generates a change of quality of supply, because the remaining water utility suppliers are going to operate along more transparent conditions

5. DETERMINATION OF PRICES - all water supplier companies in the sector meant a natural monopoly on their own service area, and in case of lack of regulation the consumers may affect the market events in a very limited extent - prior to present regulations, a great number of public water utility supplier companies were applying different service prices - there are extreme price differences: there is a municipality in Hungary where the drinking water price is 1 893 HUF/m3 (6,3 EUR/m3) and at the same time there is another municipality, where the sum of net drinking water is 102 HUF/m3 (0,34 EUR/m3) - HEA is entitled to submit a proposal on the utility tariffs each year to the minister responsible for water utility supply - HEA calls on the operators with a tariff gathering datasheet to provide information of prices on their service area, and the content of those prices - according to recent regulations, the operator, the responsible entity, and the owner of the water utility system supplies all data and information to the HEA, which is necessary for setting up a tariff system - the minister passes a directive by taking into consideration the proposition of HEA and determines the government-regulated price - the first government-regulated prices will be applied from the year of 2015





68 Round table on "The Protection of Water Sources from 21st Century Challenges" – Bolje Sestre



On Monday, 28 January 2019, a round table on "The Protection of Water Sources from 21st Century Challenges", initiated by the University of Donja Gorica and Regional Water Supply Company in cooperation with the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, was held in the premises of Bolje Sestre abstraction facility. The event gathered together international and domestic experts in the area of water resource protection with the aim of reviving and spurring a comprehensive discussion of the issue of protecting water sources from major global challenges such as climate change, as well as local ones that have a significant impact on water supply security and quality. The review and identification of adequate solutions to the challenges of the 21st century, due to which water has been considered a resource for the future, are crucial. This is also indicated by the recently opened Chapter 27.


Director, PE “Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje”



hat challenges are we facing today in our efforts to protect the water sources? These are, above all, climate change, then human economic activity and ultimately the increasing human need for water due to a better standard of living, as well as the fact that Montenegro is becoming an increasingly recognized tourist destination on the global map. Water is our strategic national resource that needs to be managed in a sustainable way, but we also have to do our best to protect it from the challenges I have mentioned. I want to emphasize the challenge brought by the speed of climate change and the threats provoked by it, which we can feel in our affairs. This global change is asking for local responses... Also, I want to share with you another dilemma at the level of a constitutional category! Is it time for us to protect the human right to water in Montenegro and other Western Balkan countries by the Constitution? Therefore, dear friends, in the presence of representatives of the Government and its institutions, Mr. Bloech, but also all of you, I would like to say that the challenge of protecting the water sources may be the issue of Montenegro's survival! The Bolje Sestre water source is not directly threatened at this time, but by acting irresponsibly people are actually doing everything to make it happen. On your way to here you have seen the craters, separa-

tions, regulation, and what should not be seen in the 2nd protection zone around a water source. However, we are still on time to prevent what our realistic concerns are in the water sector! Today I am looking forward to hearing the questions and answers that will be help us all, and especially us in the Regional Water Supply Company, to protect this pearl of Europe. And finally, let me point out another curiosity of today's gathering. It is important to raise the question of protecting waters in security terms and see realistically if the Western Balkan countries have enough resources to deal with these security challenges of the 21st century? We, therefore, need to develop partnerships and in that respect I emphasize the importance of cooperation with our friends from Kosovo, Albania, Serbia and Croatia, Vienna and Brussels. Our commitment to working in resolute partnerships towards building joint capacities for managing water resources and addressing the major challenges that endanger our water source and water resources in the overall context, is crucial for our countries and our future. Finally, dear friends, distinguished guests, allow me to partially quote my advisor, Predrag Bjelobrković: To resolve these, but also other challenges that you will most likely become aware of during your work today in a responsible and successful way, we may need some true magic!



PROF. DR ZORAN STEVANOVIĆ Full Professor, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade


IN EXPLOITATION AND PROTECTION OF KARST WATERSOURCES I've been a member of an expert group involved in a research project and putting the watersource Bolje Sestre into operation since the very beginning. Twelve years ago I came to this watersource together with my younger colleague Milan Radulović to implement the idea first suggested by professor Mićko Radulović – to include the watersource Bolje Sestre in the regional water supply system after 30 years of previous seeking of a suitable solution to this problem and thus change Montenegro and ensure its economic and touristic prosperity. At that first occasion it took us three hours to pass over that crag that separates the karst plateau from Lake Skadar and get to the flooded watersource whose quality or quantity could not be assessed, and begin the implementation of a complex project that to the satisfaction and pride of Montenegro and us all will provide water for Montenegrin Coast. Complex watersources in complex terrains of Mon-

tenegrin rocks require a special engineering approach and attention to be paid due to sensitivity and vulnerability to the elements that endanger quality and sometimes quantity of water resources. I have had the honour to take part in many projects, and now even exceptional duty and satisfaction to chair the Karst Commission of International Association of Hydrogeologists. During the 50-year long history of that body, this has been the first time that someone from our region chairs it, although it is us that in fact represent the cradle of karst, an area of the greatest significance in the world, where karst, or rocks as we call it, should be learned about. The karst area covers about 20 percent of world territories, however, the latest analyses have shown that this figure is lower and amounts to about 15%. The first karst explorer who established the karstology in international terms is Jovan Cvijić. In 1893, through his doctoral thesis defended in Vienna he

WATERS F MONTENEGRO became a founder of an entire scientific area and laid the foundations of a new science. Within a project recently implemented under UNESCO, a world karst map has been produced, whereby Montenegro is classified in the group of countries with more than 50 percent of territory covered by carbonate rocks – karst and with extremely significant water balance, where over 90 percent of population is supplied by underground water through captured sources. Two watersources from Montenegro have found their place among 150 most significant karst sources in the world: Bolje Sestre and Glava Zete. Analyses of karst cover have shown that 14.5% territory not covered by eternal ice is under karst. In the area of the Mediterranean there is a large number of significant sources and many cities were established at the places where the greatest karst sources were located. It is the case with the entire Adriatic coast. Rijeka, Split and Dubrovnik are located near large sources that in fact facilitated the establishment of these cities. Entire area of South-Eastern Europe has specific climate conditions, hydrography and hydrology, and it is very difficult to control water resources in that area and many significant projects including the construction of surface impoundments sometimes ended up with exceptionally successful results, and sometimes created permanent problems of water sustainability that even today we find difficult to overcome. Such case is, for example, with impoundments in Nikťićko Polje that facilitate the generation of the largest part of electricity in Montenegro. Specific geomorphology, the contact of surface and underground waters cause permanent losses of water in the underground, problems in regulating such resources, and many tests and routings are required to define basin areas and zones of sanitary protection. The sources give special charm to such areas, and also create significant problems. The world map of

karst sources show that the region of the Dinarides and South-Eastern Europe is the richest in significant karst sources, to the extent that we had to do density-dependent selection so the map would have a relatively balanced representation. The source Sopot near Risan is one of the world record-holders as regards the quantity of water at the source in its maximum. In the extreme, it exceeds even 100-150 m3/s and such quantity would be sufficient to supply the area of entire South-Eastern Europe. However, it is extreme maximum, and in engineering terms it is almost impossible to capture water and stop the energy emerging at the source, given that in the period of lower rainfall on Orjen, the source almost dries up, waters flow out only in the undersea, as submarine sources, and in that period the inner cave system channels can be accessed only by speleologists and divers. Any attempt of capturing such sources that would be pumped over would result in increased salinity and impossibility of exploitation. It is a classic example of high contrast between water availability and impossibility of its abstraction and exploitation. Therefore the whole concept of water abstracting and supplying the Montenegrin Coast would have to be based on stable sources as are the ones along the edge of Skadar basin including Bolje Sestre. In the area of South-Eastern Europe a large number of cities rely on karst sources, and others are almost non-existent. In addition to Podgorica, there are Tirana, Sarajevo and Skopje whose entire systems for drinking water supply rely on sources, and they are successful in doing it. In fact, ever since the Roman period source capturing has been the main way of water supplying. For Rome at the peak of empire, it was necessary to supply the city with 13 m3/s, which exceeds the water demands of a city with 4-5 million citizens under modern conditions. At that time water was brought from about 90 kilometres of distance from 11 aqueducts, which was maybe not the only but was the





best way of supply. Split with source Jadro (50 meters above the sea level elevation point and with 2 m3/s at minimum) facilitated the city to be established at the place where it is. The most beautiful and leading suppliers of cities from karst include Vienna with Kaiserbrunn and a closed circular piping system that brings waters from the distance of over 150 km to the city. So, the city that is located at the bank of the Danube and can abstract water directly at the river itself, even at the time of emperor Franz Joseph, opted for bringing the water from the most qualitative sources that are in operation even today, and their qua-

lity is such that they can be directly bottled without any treatment. Even Rome supplies more than 60% of its citizens from the karst source Peschiara. When we were doing an analysis of relations and proportions between available quantities of water and the water demanded and used from those sources and how many people use water from the karst, we found that previous analyses hadn't been realistic saying that 20 percent of the world population were supplied by drinking water in that way, but that percentage amounts to about 10. However, currently there are 7.500.000.000 people on the pla-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO net meaning that 750 million people use water from karst. Even where karst is limited and is not widely spread it provides an opportunity for water supply from such sources. A long list of cities in EU countries that rely on underground waters in supplying water to over 2/3 of their citizens indicates the significance that Europe attributes to the need that they as a secure and qualitative resource are primarily used for supply. Analyses that we have sporadically done in particular parts of the world show that there is substantial quantity of water used in the USA from karst terrains by around 50 million inhabitants. Even in India which is poor in karst terrains more than 20 million people receive drinking water from karst sources. The percentage of exploitation of underground sources varies, and Montenegro, Malta, Caribbean Bay countries... are among leaders. Not only that water is a significant resource, but water balance is such that according to some analyses it brings Montenegro to the top position in the

European area, however it is only what we see as middling balance. We are all aware that in the period of low waters it is impossible to reach water on the karst plateaus on the surfaces of Durmitor or Lovćen. However, if the quantity of generated water was used realistically and ways were found for its usage, with 11.1 l/s per square kilometre of underground outflow only, Montenegro would be a leader in the group of such countries. In comparison to Serbia, Montenegro has five times more intensive underground water balance, and much higher balance than numerous countries of arid climate where I had an opportunity to work, where it amounts even less than 1 l/s per km2. What proportions are in question shown is by the datum that if within the circle covering 1 km2 around us there were a possibility to abstract only that one litre of water in a second, it would not be even sufficient to irrigate two hectares of land. As regards availability of water per inhabitant per day, Montenegro is again the leader in the group. Al-




bania (the Albanian Alps), B&H (source Buna among the leading sources as regards yield), Croatia, Serbia (eastern and western parts), Greece (nearly 50% of entire territory), Turkey (before flooding and constructing a surface impoundment Dumanli used to be the strongest source in the world, at minimum it provided over 50 m3/s) are rich too. (The problem of our, i.e. South-Eastern Europe area is a large number of transboundary aquifers, transboundary waters that we have to take care of and establish adequate management and balanced exploitation projects. Some of those projects have been completed or their continuation is planned. One such project is the Dinaric Karst Transboundary Aquifer System Project where MNE took part together with B&H, Croatia and Albania. Under this project we built a database and mapped a corresponding digital map of space in accordance with contemporary software solutions in GIS. What we’ll have to pay more and more attention to is the impact of climate change. One of such projects is implemented in Montenegro in its northern part and subsequently it will expand. Climate change has an adverse impact on already existent problems of low yield of sources in the dry period of the year. So, the research under the CCWaterS project (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply in South-East Europe) showed a descending

trend of capacities of the most significant sources in Serbia. By the end of 21st century some sources will under the most favourable conditions have about 6% less water on average, and under unfavourable conditions even up to quarter water less than they do today. Therefore, the results of hydrodynamic models and stochastic forecasts show that negative trend. What concerns us even more is in fact the constant threat of pollution since the karst sources are very vulnerable, every pollutant brought in spreads very quickly to the outflow point and thus threatens local population. Some vulnerability maps have already been produced in the region. Serbia is one of the first countries that has produced a national vulnerability map of underground waters, and Montenegro is to get one soon and this map will facilitate realistic spatial planning and thus the possibility of realistic planning of exploitation of water resources, and also reserving of space that will ensure that we do not threaten alternative sources that can provide alternative water supply under the conditions of climate change. The problems of water intrusion in coastal areas are present in the entire Mediterranean region, karst is particularly sensitive, and the karst also results in the presence of numerous submarine water sources (vrulje) on the coast, and they are very difficult to

WATERS F MONTENEGRO capture. The problem on global level is enormous growth of population, which, regretfully is not related to Montenegro or most neighbouring countries. Trends show that karst cannot meet the water demands in those areas of mega population, therefore alternative solutions will have to be sought. Engineering solutions are still possible: 1. Pump over system in the period of low waters. Some of the projects implemented in the Mediterranean such as the project for Montpellier from the watersource Lez facilitate minimum watersource capacity to increase up to four times by pumping over from underground and ensuring so called environmental flow. So, it is an example how to provide water and not to threaten natural sources but return the water that we pump on the outflow point to the watersources, and at the same time distribute much larger quantity of water to the city. That project initiated many others that we implemented in the region. Thus, in Serbia a solution was found for supplying water in the Timok region, where we managed to increase natural minimum capacity by six times through wells and avoid construction of an expensive surface impoundment. As needed, we return a portion of water to the watercourse by pumping as to ensure environmental flows. Another significant project has been implemented for the city of Niš where we provide specific quantity of water from deeper karst in the underground in an artificial way. 2. Construction of underground dams is one of engineering endeavours that is very specific, it enables retaining of water in specific parts of the terrain which would otherwise naturally flow out by underground and we wouldn’t be able to manage it. Some of those solutions have been proposed, many successfully executed in the south-eastern part of China. One such solution is proposed for regulation of the watersource Ombla that supplies the city of Dubrovnik where an underground hydro power

plant with capacity of about 50 megawatts could also be constructed, by creating corresponding curtain injections and retaining water underground. The construction of such dams, by separating alluvions in some parts of the world provides good results. To a certain extent it is due to the water flow through such terrains that there is no possibility for finding a different solution but the citizens are forced to move as nomads from one point to another where some water is still retained in the riverbeds. However, the construction of such underground impoundments can frequently provide supplying of drinking water to population. *** The construction of the watersource Bolje Sestre was preceded by a complex research project. It didn’t take long, we invested an enormous research effort to reach a solution, and huge funds in water supply infrastructure. Today the situation is that “the project that changed Montenegro” ensured water supply for the entire Montenegrin Coast. Currently we are facing a no less obligation – to preserve the watersource and also to complete appropriate research procedures: We have to consider if there are additional possibilities to increase capacity on the very site of the source, to establish what alternatives would be for potential connecting of other sources in a joint piping system towards the Coast and to reach an optimum solution for supply through continuation of that research procedure. Finally, I’d like to remind that since 2017 the source Bolje Sestre has served as a polygon where within a corresponding course under UNESCO, organised by University in Belgrade, we bring students and young professionals in this area from the whole world to study together, to get to know the features of the space, research procedures, projects implemented on the territory of eastern Herzegovina and Montenegro and to jointly make new steps in preserving this precious resource that we possess.



Independent consultant and lecturer

REGIONALNI VODOVOD OPERATES BY THE EU STANDARDS This round table here at Bolje Sestre is dedicated to challenges of the 21st century. Montenegro has, as State Secretary Radulović underlined, taken on just another challenge, by opening the environmental chapter, chapter 27, within the negotiations on EU accession. The principles and objectives of the Regional Water Supply for the Montenegrin Coast are not least fully reflected in the EU's policy and legislation on water protection and water management - safe drinking water in quality and quantity for citizens, businesses and tourists, - prevention of pollution, not repairing pollution afterwards, - precautionary principle. And all these principles are established from the constitutional framework (the Treaties) to the key elements of EU water legislation, the Water Framework Directive, the Groundwater Directive and the Drinking Water Directive, not least with an obligation of transboundary cooperation and protection (see annex with selected quotations) Montenegro is with the Regional Water Supply for the Montenegrin Coast well prepared for EU acce-

ssion, and the prevention and protection measures established by Montenegro will in the future also be valid and enforceable under EU law. This is of particular importance because of the very sensitive character of karstic springs - open to all sorts of impacts from human activity: commercial, industrial, urban pollution, interrelation with surface waters, atmospheric and climate impact etc. From a more personal perspective, I would like to add experience, within the EU, with a large-scale water supplies from karstic springs: I was born in Vienna (Austria), and this town with its now 2 million inhabitants, is - like the municipalities along the Montenegrin coast more or less completely dependent on karstic springs for the drinking water supply of citizens, businesses and tourists. Two large-scale karstic water sources were linked to Vienna by two main carriers, constructed 18691873 (95 km length) and 1900-1910 (180 km length) respectively. Similar to the planning and development of the Montenegrin coast water supply, several options have considered and scientific advice fed into the


MAP 1: WATER SUPPLY MONTENEGRIN COAST Scale (Montenegrin coast) 50 km




decision-taking process. Sources protection has been achieved from the very beginning by the City of Vienna's property ownership of the sources and its surrounding mountain ranges.

TREATY ON THE FUNCTIONING OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Article 191 (Environment) 1. Union policy on the environment shall contribute to pursuit of the following objectives: - preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment,

- protecting human health, - prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources, - promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change. 2. Union policy on the environment shall aim at a high level of protection taking into account the diversity of situations in the various regions of the Union. It shall be based on the precautionary principle and on the principles that preventive action should be taken, that environmental damage should as a priority be rectified at source and that the polluter should pay.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO WATER FRAMEWORK DIRECTIVE (DIRECTIVE 2000/60/EC) Recital 1 Water is not a commercial product like any other but, rather, a heritage which must be protected, defended and treated as such. Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Directive is to establish a framework for the protection of inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater which: (a) prevents further deterioration and protects and enhances the status of aquatic ecosystems and, with regard to their water needs, terrestrial ecosystems and wetlands directly depending on the aquatic ecosystems; (b) promotes sustainable water use based on a longterm protection of available water resources; Article 4(1) (Environmental objectives) 1. In making operational the programmes of measures specified in the river basin management plans: (a) for surface waters (i) Member States shall implement the necessary measures to prevent deterioration of the status of all bodies of surface water, . . . . .; (ii) Member States shall protect, enhance and restore all bodies of surface water, . . . . . , with the aim of achieving good surface water status at the latest 15 years after the date of entry into force of this Directive, (b) for groundwater (i) Member States shall implement the measures necessary to prevent or limit the input of pollutants into groundwater and to prevent the deterioration of

the status of all bodies of groundwater, . . . . . (ii) Member States shall protect, enhance and restore all bodies of groundwater, ensure a balance between abstraction and recharge of groundwater, with the aim of achieving good groundwater status at the latest 15 years after the date of entry into force of this Directive, . . . . . (iii) Member States shall implement the measures necessary to reverse any significant and sustained upward trend in the concentration of any pollutant resulting from the impact of human activity in order progressively to reduce pollution of groundwater. Article 7 (Waters used for the abstraction of drinking water) 1. Member States shall identify, within each river basin district: - all bodies of water used for the abstraction of water intended for human consumption providing more than 10 m3 a day as an average or serving more than 50 persons, and - those bodies of water intended for such future use. 2. For each body of water identified under paragraph 1, in addition to meeting the objectives of Article 4 in accordance with the requirements of this Directive, for surface water bodies including the quality standards established at Community level under Article 16, Member States shall ensure that under the water treatment regime applied, and in accordance with Community legislation, the resulting water will meet the requirements of Directive 80/778/EEC as amended by Directive 98/83/EC. 3. Member States shall ensure the necessary protection for the bodies of water identified with the aim of avoiding deterioration in their quality in order to reduce the level of purification treatment required in the production of drinking water. Member States may establish safeguard zones for those bodies of water.


80 Article 9 (Recovery of costs for water services) 1. Member States shall take account of the principle of recovery of the costs of water services, including environmental and resource costs, . . . . . Member States shall ensure by 2010 - that water-pricing policies provide adequate incentives for users to use water resources efficiently, and thereby contribute to the environmental objectives of this Directive, - an adequate contribution of the different water uses, disaggregated into at least industry, households and agriculture, to the recovery of the costs of water services, based on the economic analysis conducted according to Annex III and taking account of the polluter pays principle. Member States may in so doing have regard to the social, environmental and economic effects of the recovery as well as the geographic and climatic conditions of the region or regions affected. GROUNDWATER DIRECTIVE (DIRECTIVE 2006/118/EC) Recital 3 Groundwater in bodies of water used for the abstraction of drinking water or intended for such future use must be protected in such a way that deterioration in the quality of such bodies of water is avoided in order to reduce the level of purification treatment required in the production of drinking water, in accordance with Article 7(2) and (3) of Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Recital 5

In order to protect the environment as a whole, and human health in particular, detrimental concentrations of harmful pollutants in groundwater must be avoided, prevented or reduced. Article 1 (Identification of significant and sustained upward trends and the definition of starting points for trend reversals) 1. Member States shall identify any significant and sustained upward trend in concentrations of pollutants, groups of pollutants or indicators of pollution found in bodies or groups of bodies of groundwater identified as being at risk and define the starting point for reversing that trend, in accordance with Annex IV. 2. Member States shall, in accordance with Part B of Annex IV, reverse trends which present a significant risk of harm to the quality of aquatic ecosystems or terrestrial ecosystems, to human health, or to actual or potential legitimate uses of the water environment, through the programme of measures referred to in Article 11 of Directive 2000/60/EC, in order progressively to reduce pollution and prevent deterioration of groundwater. 3. Member States shall define the starting point for trend reversal as a percentage of the level of the groundwater quality standards set out in Annex I and of the threshold values established pursuant to Article 3, . . . . . 4. In the river basin management plans to be submitted in accordance with Article 13 of Directive 2000/60/EC, Member States shall summarise . . . . . DRINKING WATER DIRECTIVE (DIRECTIVE 98/83/EEC) (5) Whereas Community standards for essential and preventive health-related quality parameters in wa-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO ter intended for human consumption are necessary if minimum environmental-quality goals to be achieved in connection with other Community measures are to be defined so that the sustainable use of water intended for human consumption may be safeguarded and promoted; (6) Whereas, in view of the importance of the quality of water intended for human consumption for human health, it is necessary to lay down at Community level the essential quality standards with which water intended for that purpose must comply; (8) Whereas to enable water-supply undertakings to meet the quality standards for drinking water, appropriate water-protection measures should be applied to ensure that surface and groundwater is kept clean; whereas the same goal can be achieved by appropriate water-treatment measures to be applied before supply; (13) Whereas the parametric values are based on the scientific knowledge available and the precautionary principle has also been taken into account; whereas those values have been selected to ensure that water intended for human consumption can be consumed safely on a life-long basis, and thus represent a high level of health protection; Article 4 (General obligations) 1. Without prejudice to their obligations under other Community provisions, Member States shall take the measures necessary to ensure that water intended for human consumption is wholesome and clean. For the purposes of the minimum requirements of this Directive, water intended for human consumption shall be wholesome and clean if it: (a) is free from any micro-organisms and parasites and from any substances which, in numbers or con-

centrations, constitute a potential danger to human health, and (b) meets the minimum requirements set out in Annex I, Parts A and B; and if, in accordance with the relevant provisions of Articles 5 to 8 and 10 and in accordance with the Treaty, Member States take all other measures necessary to ensure that water intended for human consumption complies with the requirements of this Directive. 2. Member States shall ensure that the measures taken to implement this Directive in no circumstances have the effect of allowing, directly or indirectly, either any deterioration of the present quality of water intended for human consumption so far as that is relevant for the protection of human health or any increase in the pollution of waters used for the production of drinking water. Article 5 (Quality standards) 1. Member States shall set values applicable to water intended for human consumption for the parameters set out in Annex I. 2. The values set in accordance with paragraph 1 shall not be less stringent than those set out in Annex I. As regards the parameters set out in Annex I, Part C, the values need be fixed only for monitoring purposes and for the fulfilment of the obligations imposed in Article 8. 3. A Member State shall set values for additional parameters not included in Annex I where the protection of human health within its national territory or part of it so requires. The values set should, as a minimum, satisfy the requirements of Article 4(1) (a).


82 PROF. DR MIĆKO RADULOVIĆ Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro

RIVERS IN THE SKADAR LAKE BASIN WILL LOSE THEIR HYDROLOGICAL FUNCTION A reputed karst explorer, a world-renowned scientist Jovan Cvijic said: "There is no deeper or more compact karst than this Montenegrin-Herzegovinian one, where not even a drop of water flows away on the surface." All atmospheric water deposits get lost through numerous sinks and pits, and in the deeper parts of the ground, fragmented karst aquifers are formed. He was referring to the karst area between the Neretva valley, the Skadar Lake, the Bay of Kotor and the Niksic field. It is no wonder then that we are known as the karst land, and that the Bolje Sestre water source found its place on the map of the world's most famous karst springs. More than 60% of the territory of Montenegro consists of carbonate rock masses, represented by limestone and dolomite, in which the process of karstification has come to full expression. The mean flow of water from the territory of Montenegro, not counting the Bojana River, is about 600 m3/s. The minimum yield of karst springs is about 50 m3/s. All settlements in Montenegro use about 5 m3/s for water supply, which means that we have exploited only 10% of the available potential of karst water sources.

THEN WHAT'S THE PROBLEM? The problem is that karst flowing regime is dominant in our country, i.e., large amplitude of fluctuation between minimum and maximum water. The

following characteristic examples can be mentioned: the source of the Crnojevica River has a minimum yield of about 300 l/s and a maximum discharge of over 180 m3/s. Oscillations of groundwater level in the Cetinje Field are over 100 meters. The depth to the level of groundwater in the Cetinje Field is from 80 to 100 meters in the summer period, in July and August. However, it is well known that the Cetinje Field is periodically flooded. For example, on 2 September 1986, the water level reached the house roofs in Cetinje! This is a big problem, which, besides the enormous damage, can potentially cause groundwater pollution. Another problem is that a large number of springs in the coastal belt have been submerged by the water of the Adriatic Sea (about 5 m3/s), as well as of the Skadar Lake. Only in Malo Blato, 14 little lakes get sunk, which are of high quality and can be used for water supply. To the south from the Bolje Sestre water source, there are two little springs - Brodic and Biosko Oko. It is not difficult to include them into the water supply system, if needed one day. A large number of sources are submerged by artificial reservoirs - e.g. in the Niksic field, Poklonci, Zabica, Krupacko Oko and others. In figures, at least 20 m3/s are submerged in the waters of the lake or the sea. The problem that I see in our karst is that all the rivers of the Skadar Lake basin will lose their hydrological function in due course. Let us recall that

WATERS F MONTENEGRO a river used to flow through Cetinje once. On the banks of the Cetina River, the Vlaska Church was built. Today the river is disintegrated, lowered into the underground, and its remains are the Obodska Springs, the source of the Crnojevica River. The Karucka River, mentioned by my colleague Ana Misurovic, dried up; so did the Sinjacka River that flowed towards Kaludjerovo Oko; the upper stream Moraca river dries in the summer along the section from Duga Monastery to Bioce; the Cijevna River sinks from the canyon exit in Dinosa to the mouth of the Moraca River, while the minimum flow measured at the Trgaj measurement station is about 3 m3/s! These 3 m3/s are lost in the plane extending from the exit from the Cijevna canyon to the confluence with the Moraca River. Upper Zeta descends from the confluence of the Susica and the Rastovac Rivers to the Brezovacki bridge. All the rivers in the Skadar Lake basin will lose their hydrological function in due course, i.e., they will not run at a hydrological minimum. Why? Because the process of karstification is faster than river erosion. This is not the case with rivers belonging to the Black Sea basin. They come from flysch waterproof terrains. During 2005, 2006 and 2007, multidisciplinary studies of Bolje Sestre water source started, involving numerous companies and institutions: Geoprojekt-Podgorica, CETI, Hydrometeorological Institute -Podgorica, Institute for Geological Research - Podgorica, IK Consulting and Design - Belgrade, Sinisa Stankovic Institute - Belgrade, expert teams of the Regional Water Supply Company and others. In the hinterland and a wider area, complex hydrogeological explorations were carried out: hydrogeological mapping, geophysical studies, 11 wells, 4 groundwater marking tests, speleo scuba diving tests, laboratory geomechanical and hydrochemical tests... Only from one well, located on about 30 meters away, coloured water appeared at the source. We have come to the conclusion that this is a generous source (more than 2 m3/s) and of a very good quality.

Numerous analyses performed by CETI - Podgorica, Sinisa Stankovic Institute - Belgrade and an institute from Germany have shown that the water from the Bolje Sestre water source is of excellent quality, and excellent chemical and microbiological composition. The suspicion that it is the water from the Moraca River has been rejected through the tests - the Moraca water was tainted, and also there is a great temperature difference between the Moraca River and Bolje Sestre, sediments differ, and the Bolje Sestre source throws out tiny white dolomite sand, which is not present in the Moraca River in the zone of Grbavci. Conclusion: A smaller part of the water from this source comes from the Zeta Plain and Grbavci aquifer, while a larger part comes from limestone paleo-relief, and it is a part that flows as a spring, at the elevations below the sea level.

WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS THEN? Considering natural conditions, this is a good source, but there is a danger of the Moraca watercourse being artificially brought into the Bolje Sestre source. How? If the uncontrolled exploitation of gravel in the Moraca River and on the agricultural land of Grbavci continues, the paleo-relief limestone may be exposed and flows to the source may be redirected. I hope this will not happen, because the gravel can be exploited elsewhere, and the Bolje Sestre source is a jewel that needs to be preserved. There is another problem that we need to pay attention to: one of the variants of the Bar-Boljari highway forecasts a route between the Bolje Sestre source and Grbavci. It is not appropriate to project the highway route in the immediate hinterland of the water source from which the entire Montenegrin coast is supplied and which is recognized as one of the best and most important in the region and included in the 150 most important karst springs in the world. But I hope that this problem will be resolved timely, by properly choosing the highway route.



Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology


ON THE GROUNDWATER REGIME IN THE AREA OF THE PODGORICA-SHKODER BASIN Climate change in Montenegro has in recent years caused more frequent extremely high maximum and minimum temperatures, more frequent and longer heat waves, an increased number of tropical days and tropical nights. In addition, it is characterized by a smaller number of frosty days, as well as a more frequent occurrence of drought. It is concerning that the spring is characterized by the greatest precipitation deficit of about 20% almost across the whole territory of Montenegro. The sectors most vulnerable to climate change are agriculture, forestry and water resources. According to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Report, the Southeast Europe regi-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO on is among the most vulnerable ones and includes the part of Eastern Mediterranean. Projections of the future climate for the SEE region show a decrease in precipitation in the summer, and therefore we will have the appearance of so-called "water stress". This water problem will cause an imbalance in the environment, economic and material damage as well as potential social problems in most of the SEE region. There will be very large deviations of almost all climatic elements from the normal climate numbers. The temperature rising trend will continue; there will be more heat waves and longer dry periods. The summers will be extremely dry with a rainfall deficit, which will cause major problems and damages in all branches of the economy (especially those that depend on available water resources) and the occurrence of fires. The winter part of the year is also marked by extreme values, intense precipitation, sudden replacement of dry periods with severe rainfall, erosion, torrential currents, floods and landslides. The World Meteorological Organization declared the decade from 2001-2010 A Decade of Climate Extremes. During this period and in the next 8 years, all extreme weather events occurred in Montenegro as well - the highest temperatures were measured on 24 August 2007, with new absolute air temperature records in almost all Montenegrin cities, such as 44.80C in Podgorica. This period also reported the longest heat waves in 2003, 2011, 2017, 2018, then large floods in 2010, heavy snowfall in 2012 and of course droughts in 2000, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018, which caused major damage to agriculture and problems caused by deficits and the reduction of water resources, both on the surface and in record low levels of groundwater. The most prominent agricultural and hydrological droughts were recorded in 2011, 2017 and 2018, when the lowest water levels at Morača River were measured at -23 and on Shkoder Lake

-13 in relation to the "0" elevation. It is important to point out that we are going to experience sudden weather changes as a result of climate change in the territory of Montenegro as well, sudden increase or decrease of air temperature, air pressure, strong and intense rainfall and strong winds of the stormy and even hurricane speed. So, we will have longer dry periods, we will have a precipitation deficit for all parameters from 5 to 10%, relative air humidity decrease from 5 to 15%, and therefore we will have a problem with water shortages, especially in the summer period. This year already, we had a water shortage in many parts of Montenegro; some permanent watercourses had interruptions in the surface runoff of water (Morača, Cijevna, etc.); the yield of karst springs in the whole Adriatic basin was significantly reduced, and the level of groundwater was significantly reduced, so that some wells in the Podgorica-Shkoder basin and the Niksic field were dry for the first time ever. It can be confirmed as a fact without doubt that climate change has already caused negative effects, primarily on available water resources in the area of ​​the Podgorica-Shkoder basin. Negative trends are evident both in the quantity and quality of the ground waters and surface waters. In a very short interval of more than ten years (2005-2018), since the yield of the Bolje Sestre water source has been measured, one can notice a steady decline in the yield, especially in 2017 and 2018, which had a long-lasting drought period and a high rainfall deficit in the summer and in the autumn. Due to such trends and projections of the future climate in the area of ​​the Podgorica-Shkoder basin, the competent institutions need to monitor, with the greatest degree of attention, every hydro-construction activity throughout the area and be able to ban such activities in time and prevent potential threats to the Bolje Sestre water source and the entire Malo Blato aquatorium. It is necessary to establish a permanent hydrological


86 Maximum temperature in Podgorica for the month August 1949- 1999

By 1999, high tropical temperatures of 35℃ to 40℃ were involved by only 25% and temperatures of 40℃ and above were frequent at the level of 1%

WATERS F MONTENEGRO Maximum temperature in Podgorica for the month August 2000 - 2017.

Since year 2000, high tropical temperatures of 35℃ to 40℃ were involved by up to 43% and temperatures of 40℃ and above increased the frequency from 1% to 6%


88 monitoring of the Bolje Sestre water source, as well as scientific research in the wider catchment area of ​​the Shkoder Lake, and to determine the underground hydrological connections and define a wider protection zone for the water source. As largely known, the Project entitled "Strengthening Capacity for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Montenegro" began in early 2017 and will last for 3 years. The project will cover the entire territory of Montenegro, divided into two main river basins, and the main goal is creating conditions for the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and all water-related directives. This is to be achieved also through the establishment of an operational and efficient network for the monitoring of surface and groundwater, as one of the basic preconditions, along with river basin management plans. Bearing in mind that the more recent monitoring of groundwater in Montenegro has been neglected for years, the network of stations envisaged through this project represents enormous progress in relation to the current situation regarding the monitoring of the quality and quantity of groundwater, which is, to put it mildly, far from satisfactory. The plan is to start the new observation groundwater system in 2019. It is clear that the groundwater monitoring system will play a key role in defining the concept of future protection of karst springs in Montenegro, as part of an integral monitoring system with the monitoring of surface and atmospheric waters, and the monitoring of water quality. After all, the organizer of this meeting, in the sent invitation, clearly emphasizes "connection and openness to atmospheric and surface waters", as well as the increasingly undesirable effects from that side on the groundwater of karst springs. The past activities of our institution have resulted in the creation of important preconditions for un-

derstanding the general picture of the balance and regime of surface and atmospheric waters, as well as the impact of climate change on the territory of Montenegro, so we are sure that the establishment of groundwater monitoring will complete the picture of water resources and how possible causes with adverse effects may be detected in time, and necessary actions taken to prevent their adverse impacts on the aquifers. It should be particularly noted that without proper groundwater monitoring, it was practically impossible to study, objectively, the future impacts of climate change on groundwater reserves, that is, on the basic resource for public water supply in Montenegro. In the future, it will be much easier to interpret the impact of the expected, changed climate parameter regime in the light of climate change, on all our sources, including the karst sources, as the most numerous ones.

Establishment of the groundwater monitoring will complement the picture of water resources and ways of timely detection or identification of possible causes with adverse impact, as well as undertaking the necessary measures to prevent their harmful impact on the springs.




Director, Water Administration of Montenegro


IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCE PROTECTION Water and aquatic land management in Montenegro is based on the principles of water irreplaceability as a resource, the principle of integrated water management, and promotion of sustainable water use based on long-term protection of available water resources. It is true that water management in Montenegro involves a large number of institutions, but competencies are delineated and clearly defined. Thus, the Water Law, as the umbrella law in the field of water management in Montenegro, recognizes the Water Administration as the main institution for its implementation. The Water Administration, in accordance with the Decree on the organization and manner of work of the state administration, carries out tasks related to, inter alia, the provision and implementation of measures and works on water and watercourse regulation, protection against harmful effects of waters and protection of waters against pollution; provision of water use,

materials from watercourses, aquatic land and water facilities under state ownership, through concessions, leases, etc.; management of water facilities for protection against harmful effects of water... It should be noted that by adoption of this Decree (Official Gazette of Montenegro No. 87/2018 of 31 December 2018), the Water Administration ceased to be a body within the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and became an independent authority, and therefore we are even more obliged to engage and contribute to solving very complex and demanding tasks when the water management area is in question. The natural wealth of Montenegro is widely known in Europe and beyond its borders, and only with hard work, with a strong management unit, we can improve the water management system and create conditions for responsible behaviour towards natural resources. In order to undertake the measures for achieving

WATERS F MONTENEGRO the protection of water against pollution, it is necessary to create certain preconditions and bases for their implementation. In the previous period, Montenegro transposed the EU legislation that treats water management into Montenegrin legislation, but implementation of all the prescribed is a process that requires a certain period of time, as well as significant financial resources. The key preconditions and measures for achieving water protection against pollution are: • Adoption of a secondary legislation act on the water quality standard and the criteria for determining the status of waters; • Development of Management Plans for river basins of the Danube and the Adriatic Sea; • Characterization and analysis of water areas of the river basin in Montenegro; • Economic analysis of water use; • Establishment of a water information system; • Water Cadastres (cadastre of water resources, cadastre of endangered areas, cadastre of water facilities and systems, cadastre of water use, cadastre of pollutants, cadastre of technical documentation); • Upgrade of water monitoring system; • Adoption of a monitoring program in accordance with the WFD requirements. Most of the items listed will be completed through or during the project "Strengthening Capacities for Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in Montenegro". The project is supported through IPA 2014 pre-accession funds for the environment, in the amount of 1.9 million euros, with 100% contribution from the European Union. Article 56 of the Law on Waters stipulates that the areas where surface and groundwater sources used or intended for public water supply are located, pursuant to spatial planning documents must be protected against deliberate or accidental pollution and other effects that may adversely affect the yield of the source and health safety

of the water (sanitary protection zones). Protection of the surface and groundwater sources is carried out in the manner determined by the decision on the protection of sources, preceded by research works, and these decisions are passed by the authority in charge of issuing water acts with prior opinion of the ministry responsible for health affairs. An important measure of protecting sources of drinking water is the adoption and implementation of decisions on sanitary protection zones. Protection of drinking water, i.e. implementation of protection measures within a sanitary protection zone is hampered on all sources, especially where water supply sources are located near major cities, because they are endangered by the process of urbanization, industrialization, agriculture, unregulated waste dumps and wastewater. The sources for regional and public water supply are defined by the Decision on determining the sources intended for regional and public water supply (by public water supply system) and their borders ("Official Gazette of Montenegro", No. 36/08). It is necessary to take all possible measures to rationally use and protect the waters of these sources against deliberate or accidental pollution and against other impacts that may adversely affect the yield of sources and the health safety of drinking water. In this regard, at the end of 2018, the Water Administration announced a tender for selection of a consultant for the development of a cadastre of public water supply sources. During 2019, the task of the consultants will be to define the degree of implemented protection and warning measures at the sources where sanitary protection zones have been established, assess the degree of risk for water quality for water sources that do not have established sanitary protection zones, compare the analysed data with the prescribed requirements from the legislation, issue guideli-


92 nes with recommendations for further activities on determining the sanitary protection zones of the source, continuous monitoring and possibly additional research... Everyone is familiar with the fact that Chapter 27 is the most demanding of all. The most demanding relates to the financial part. Therefore, it is also very important to mention the financing of water management. The system of water management financing in Montenegro is such that funds for water management financing are provided from water fees, fees for acquisition of water right, fees for leasing public water resources and water facilities and systems, donations and other sources, in accordance with the law. The National Strategy with Action Plan for Transposition, Implementation and Enforcement of the EU Acquis on Environment and Climate Change for the period 2016-2020 estimated that only the cost of harmonization for flood protection until 2035 would be 128.7 million euros. Based on this example, we can see that it is very important to re-examine the way in which water management is financed, since virtually nothing can be completed with â‚Ź200,000 to â‚Ź300,000 annually despite the revenues from international funds, donations or loans, and it is concerning that the Water Administration has no insight in the way in which the funds that are by automatism paid to municipalities (70% of water fees) are spent, and which do not usually end up where necessary, i.e. for construction of infrastructure in the area of better water management, but are used to cover expenditures. A coordinated approach to integrated water management in Montenegro is very important. In addition to the ministry that implements the water management policy and the Water Administration, as the main implementation unit of what is prescribed by the legislation, a very important role is played by the Institute for Hydro-

meteorology and Seismology, which is according to the law obliged to carry out water monitoring, and inspection authorities (primarily water management inspectors) conducting inspection control, as well as local self-governments that according to the Law are established by public water supply companies. A coordinated approach is needed for urgency reasons as water is a resource that is not unlimited, and our approach is that water is regarded as a social category and therefore water utility companies use the water in a non-rational way. Losses on networks, insufficient collection, and irresponsibility in meeting obligations must be brought to minimum. A long list of operational objectives and measures is to be implemented to ensure quality protection of water against pollution - establishment of a register of protected areas, adoption of water cadastres, provision of water acts and payment of fees for water protection against pollution, reduction of pollution entries from concentrated and bulk pollutants, possible limitations in water abstraction, measures to prevent and reduce impacts of accidental pollution ... This list is even longer, and also binding, particularly now that we have opened Chapter 27 (Environmental Protection and Climate Change) and it originates from national legislation and also the EU legislation treating this area. Based on all of the foregoing it is clear that the state must provide the conditions for a strong management institution, with sufficient funds for executing entrusted tasks and with appropriate professional staff, and it is also necessary to find a mechanism of coordination and mutual communication between all stakeholders. In the forthcoming period, the Water Administration will initiate some amendments to the Laws treating water management issues. The absence of sanitary protection zones i.e. the situations where we have unprotected public water supply so-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO Public water supply is an activity which has to provide the highest level of safety for the water that we drink, which must meet all the legal requirements.

urces must not be tolerated. Public water supply is an activity that must ensure the highest level of safety for the water we drink, which must satisfy all elements of the law. It is the health of our citizens that is in question here, and we observe the whole of this process in that respect. In this process, besides the state authorities whose job and obligation it is, we need the help of all socially responsible factors, the media, the

NGO sector, the economy and the citizens. We especially appreciate the activities of the leaders in such processes as the Regional Water Supply Company, which should be a benchmark to all other companies in this field on how to behave responsibly in social terms and in what direction they should move. Such companies will also have our greatest support and understanding for all future projects.


94 PROF. DR MILAN RADULOVIĆ Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro

WE HAVE TO MAINTAIN A GOOD STATUS OF GROUNDWATERS BODY IN MONTENEGRO The project of establishing groundwater monitoring in Montenegro will be implemented during 2019. The Institute for Hydrometeorology and Seismology of Montenegro will be responsible for the measurements of quantity and quality of groundwater. Monitoring is mandatory under the Water Framework Directive. This implies that every water body in the territory of Montenegro should be covered by a program for monitoring qualitative and quantitative parameters. Currently, we do not have an adequate monitoring network in Montenegro, so it is fortunate that this project is being launched now while we still have a fairly well-preserved water quality. The Framework Directive was adopted in 2000 in the European Parliament. We know that during the industrial development of the 19th and 20th centuries, numerous lakes, rivers and sources of drinking water had been polluted. Only in the 1970s grew the awareness of the need for water protection. However, the first document that addresses the issue of

protection in a comprehensive manner is the Water Framework Directive. It has come down to us to apply it, so it would be good not to do so only formally to satisfy some administrative conditions, but to really protect our groundwater. If not for something else, then because we are to continue to use it for drinking, and not only us, but the future generations. The main goal of implementing the directive is to achieve a good status of water - qualitative, quantitative and ecological status. Where the status is undermined, it is necessary to take measures in order to achieve good status, and where we already have a good status (and fortunately such is the case with most water bodies in Montenegro) it is necessary to preserve it. The water management plan is adopted every six years. It displays data on the current state and prescribes measures for improving or preserving the water status. The first plan will be adopted most likely in 2020, and until the end of the next

WATERS F MONTENEGRO cycle of six years, by 2026, we are obliged to achieve the water status stipulated in the first plan. One of the first steps is to define water bodies within river basins. It is also necessary to separate surface from underground water bodies. Groundwater bodies represent areas where groundwater is present in sufficient quantity. One of the criteria for definition is that 10 m3 of water per day can be taken from these water permeable rocks, i.e. such water can be supplied to more than 50 inhabitants. A complete area built of water permeable rocks should be divided into suitable units that can be protected in a satisfactory manner. For example, the area that extends from Brajici to the north to Golija Mountain, viewed on a regional scale, is one karst aquifer (the type of permeable rocks) that needs to be divided into smaller areas. Because of, say, the pollution of the Crnojevic spring source, we cannot say that the complete area is of ​​deteriorated quality and should be declared a water body of poor status. For example, the catchment area of ​​Karuc and Malo Blato, where the Bolje Sestre source is located, can be one of the underground water bodies for which we are obliged to maintain a good status, while the catchment area of Crnojevic ​​ River is the second water body where we are obliged to undertake measures in order to repair the existing status within six years. Again, it is fortunate that for most of the underground water bodies we have a good status, but it is very important now to make efforts to preserve such status. The main expert for hydrogeology on the project of identification and separation of underground water bodies is prof. Stevanovic; I am an associate. We used the existing geological and hydrogeological maps and all the other hydrogeological documentation that we were able to collect. From these materials we received a great deal of quality data that gave us the baseline for further analysis. The first iteration of the allocation of water bodies was carried out in 2015 as part of a small project

financed by UNDP. At that time, water bodies were only defined for the Skadar Lake catchment area. According to the latest iteration conducted within the Institutional Capacity Building Project for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive, for which the Ministry of Agriculture is competent, about 30 underground water bodies have been preliminarily allocated for the entire territory of Montenegro. Based on this map, a final plan for the monitoring of underground waters will be developed. For the first phase of the project, we plan to set up over 60 stations from which we will receive information on both the quality and the quantity of groundwater. These stations will be managed by the Institute of Hydrometeorology and Seismology and we will be able to get precise data in real time (online). This means that if excess pollution occurs, we can notice changes in parameters on the same day and react to stop further water quality degradation. Also, if groundwater has been over-exhausted, the level in the piezometer well (equipped with an automatic station) would fall sharply and that would be a signal to react. During the dry season, the coastal stations would be able to register the beginning of the salinization of coastal aquifers, i. the first signs of intrusion of seawater, which we usually notice in the sources in mid-June, so we could promptly suggest to the waterworks to reduce the pumping capacities in order to stay below the maximum allowed concentration of chloride in drinking water. During 2020, the second phase of improving the monitoring network will be implemented, when we will get 30 more stations. With a total of 90-100 stations, we will have a very good network for groundwater monitoring, which is one of the prerequisites for their adequate protection. It is fortunate that we are starting in the right time, as the groundwater in Montenegro has a fairly good qualitative and quantitative status, and the groundwater is the main natural resource on which we rely in the water supply for the whole country.


96 AC. IACG, ANA MIŠUROVIĆ spec. in tox.chem.

THE QUALITY OF WATER OF POTENTIAL SOURCES FOR WATER SUPPLY OF THE MONTENEGRIN COAST -FINAL CHOICE: BOLJE SESTRE WATER SOURCE As early as in the 1970s, in the former SFRY, a project for the construction of a regional water supply system for the Montenegrin coast from a single source from the hinterland was initiated in order to eliminate the risk of lack of drinking water in the municipalities of the coastal area, in order to achieve unhindered tourism development. The Montenegrin coast did not have sufficient quantity of quality water from local water sources to supply the population, especially in the summer period. Over the previous 40 years, very detailed studies were carried out of potential sources that could serve as a source for the Regional Water Supply System for the Montenegrin Coast. Those were: the springheads in the Shkoder Lake - Radus, Karuc and Volac, Bazagur, springs in Malo Blato running off through the Bisevina River, the Bojana River and the underground aquifer near the Bojana (Anamalsko Field-Lisna Bori), underground aquifer of Zeta plain - wells in Tusko Field, the Plat water intake, etc. Many of those surveys were done very thoroughly at

the level of conceptual designs, and also parts of detailed designs, which were even the basis of passing the Law on the Identification of Location and the Protection of Water Source Zones, as was done for the Karuc source and for the Skadar/Shkoder Lake, for the purpose of which the waterpipe tunnel through Sozina mountain, including pumping stations and surge tanks and reservoirs, were built. Since my arrival in Montenegro, I had participated in all these surveys and they will always remain as the most beautiful memories of my professional career. Therefore, I will comment on the quality of the tested waters of potential sources: • The Raduš spring, the sublacustric spring in the Skadar Lake, was investigated in the period 19831985 by the Institute of Hydrotechnics of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Sarajevo and the ZZZZ from Podgorica (where I worked then). Water quality met the required criteria, but the yield of the springs at a minimum was below 300 l/s, which was insufficient for the Montenegrin Coast, so it was foreseen that

WATERS F MONTENEGRO the rest of the water be compensated directly from Skadar Lake, which is A2CII class and thus not an optimum solution with regard to possible accidental pollution, water temperature in the summer period, water biology of the lake and the provision of sanitary protection zones, so that this idea was rejected. • The water source supplying the town of Herceg Novi - Plat, taking water from the surface reservoir of Trebišnjica River – Bilecko Lake on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Republic of Srpska), although thoroughly examined, was not taken into consideration or commented, either for water quality aspects or for strategic reasons . • The third potential source examined was Lisna Bori source in the Bojana River area. It was examined from 1986-1990 as a water source for Ulcinj and as a potential source for the Regional Water Supply System. It was tested through detailed water tests from 7 wells excavated in the alluvial zone along the Bojana River. The water quality did not correspond to the drinking water quality requirements due to the total absence of oxygen, high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide, trivalent iron, amino compounds, phenols, ammonia and nitrites, which were not of anthropogenic origin due to water sterility, but originated from anaerobic conditions of peat aquifers. A number of "Jar" ​​tests and pilot devices for purification and disinfection of these waters were developed (even the water ozonisation was done in Makiš Utility of Belgrade), but without satisfactory result, which is why this water rich source was used in the summer period only, as sanitary water for Ulcinj after being mixed with local sources in order to improve its quality. The tests, conducted in July 2005 from the BN4 well of Lisa Bori continued to show the absence of oxygen-anaerobic conditions, high concentrations of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, while the concentrations of other physico-chemical parameters from the previous period that exceeded the MDK were now in the limits of normal.

Other wells on Lisna Bora were not examined, so it is early to conclude that the water quality of this source zone is improving. Unfortunately, this water is now used as drinking water for Ulcinj. • The Bojana/Buna River was also examined in detail for a long time between 1989 and 1992 and after that within the water quality monitoring campaign from 1998-2001 for the parameters specified in the Regulation on water categorization and qualification in Montenegro (OGM 14/96). During July 2005, its water quality was tested in three locations: (1) at the entrance to our country, near the Kravarski Spring, (2) in the location of Lisna Bori and (3) in the location of St. George. By comparing the results of analyses from the period 1998-1992, 1998-2001 and from July 2005, a very uniform water quality was observed for all the parameters tested. Bojana is permanently in A2, C I or II class based on physicochemical parameters, while microbiological pollution is increased as well as nitrite and ammonium content, so that at St. George's site, it complied with A3, CII class. Although the quality of water of the Bojana River has so far been relatively good and stable, the capture of Bojana water for the water supply of the Montenegrin Coast was not to be taken into consideration due to the inability to protect sources from accidental pollution in the upstream basin of Skadar Lake, Morača, the city of Skadar/Shkoder, and particularly as it is the interstate watercourse connected with all the biggest polluters in the Skadar Lake basin, and in the Drim/ Drin river basin in the territory of Albania. • The source in Tusko Field was not thoroughly tested for organic and inorganic toxicants during the survey, nor in 2005 due to the incompleteness of exploration well. The site of the predefined source was located downstream from the Podgorica landfill, where almost all solid non-selected waste containing toxic substances had been deposited for almost 50 years. The sanitary landfill for Podgorica is situ-


98 ated at the same location, so there was a constant risk of possible pollution of the water supply source, in the regime of intensive groundwater extraction in quantities of about 2000 l/s. In addition, this source was surrounded by agricultural complexes of "Plantaže" company, as well as agricultural complexes of numerous individual farmers from Zeta. Existing wells in Tusko Filed were examined in detail within the implementation of Phase I and II of the Zeta Plain Water Quality Study in the periods 19921993 and 1994-1996. At that time, low concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found in all wells, while the presence of low concentrations of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) was found in the well of Agrokombinat company. These wells occasionally reported traces of OH-pesticides, as well as slightly increased nutrient content (N, K, P) compared to other tested wells. A detailed comment on the water quality of this source can be given only after additional detailed testing along with the long-term extraction of large quantities of water given further intensive urbanization. • Master plan for water supply of the Montenegrin Coast, which was developed in 1991 by Energoprojekt from Belgrade, identified the Karuc source. Out of all previously mentioned potential sources, this source was subject to most in-depth study in the period 1991-1993 by Energoprojekt Belgrade in cooperation with the City Institute for Health Protection of Belgrade and ZZZZ (Institute for Health Protection) of Podgorica, as well as the Biological Institute of Belgrade. During this period, the monthly tests of the sources in Karuc, Volac, Volatske Caves (without contact with lake water), Bazagurska mainstream, then the Biševina river, running our of sublacustric springs in Malo Blat and several smaller sublacustric springs („eyes“) in the Karuc bay – Djurovo Oko, Zabino Oko and Kaludjerovo Oko, in the scope of comrehensive physicochemical, microbiological and biological analyses from the two depths: 0.5m and 15m, with very extensive tests of temperature regi-

me of the spring and the lake, etc. The Karuc source had been earlier and also later for the caged breeding of trouts, as well as in Phase II of the Zeta Plain Water Quality Study. Also, samples of sediments from sublacustric springs and lakes were examined. Later tests were carried out in June 2005, when simultaneous sampling from the Biševina River in the Malo Blato area, the Bolje Sestre source and the water from the Skadar Lake at the Kamenik-Raduš Vučki site. Sediment samples were also taken at these sites. The test results of Karuc, Volac, Volacke Caves and Bazagurska springs were processed and commented in detail in the Daruc Source Study, Phase I and II in 1993, as well as in Book II, Volume 5 and Book VII of the Preliminary Project for Water Supply of the Montenegrin Coast -Tehnological Design. The quality of water from Karuc source as found in all previous studies (from 1990 to 2006) can be defined as follows: The water temperature in the source (in samples at the depth of 15m) ranged from 10-150C indicating the constant running of of water; the actual color of the water from Karuc, Volac, Bazagurska mainstream and Volacka Caves in all tests was below 5 or 5 degrees on Pt/Co scale; the pH value ranged from 6.7-8.2 in both surface and deep sammples, both on site and in laboratory conditions; the electrical conductivity of water was always low, indicating typical karstic waters. Nitrogen complex parameters: ammonium, nitrites, nitrates and Kjeldal nitrogen, were always below the MDK, indicating the water quality of A1 class without anthropogenic impact. In all samples, oxygen saturation was over 86%, and values for HPK, KMnO4, BPK5 were generally low and depended on the biological activity of the lake in the surface layer, while in depth samples these values were very low despite the caged trout breeding in the proximity. The content of heavy metals and microelements in all samples indicated the A1 class water, which

WATERS F MONTENEGRO can be used for drinking. The content of phenolic substances was also within the allowed limits below 2μg/l, mineral oils were detected in the samples during the whole period of testing (except for deep samples from Karuc), which was the result of very intensive fishing and transport by motor boats in Karuc and Volac bays, Bazagurska mainstream and Bisevina. Traces of mineral oils were also visible on the surface of the source. The content of total oils and fats depended on the biological activity in the lake. In the tests conducted during 1991-1993, the trihalomethanes (THM) content and their potential for THMFP production were tested and in no case it exceeded 100μg/l (in order to determine the possibility of disinfection of water with chlorine). These results were also confirmed by the low values​​ for UV extinction, which once again confirmd that these are pure karst waters. This parameter was not examined in 2005, but TOC concentrations were extremely low, which confirmed previous results for THM content. During all previous studies, the content of pesticides residues (organochloric, organophosphorus and some herbicides that can be found

in the waters were not found in any of the water samples, and no traces of herbicides or OH (organochloric) and OP (organophosphorus) insecticides were found. The traces of PAHs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were found in individual samples in the waters of Karuc, Volac, Bazagurska mainstream and Bisevina river, which is a logical consequence of the pollution with mineral oils from boats on the lake and from the hinterland. The concentrations found in all tests were below MDK. Water radioactivity in the previous tests in 1991-1993 and in 9982005 showed very low values ​​of both natural and artificial radioactivity (137 Cs). The results of microbiological tests of Karuc and Volac sources as well as Biševina (like in 2005 tests) indicated in most cases that the water corresponds to A1S I class – suitable for drinking water, and only occasionally A2C II class of quality according to the Regulation on water classification and categorization. Systematic biological tests of water quality of Karuc, Volac, Volacke Caves and Bisevina suggested that the number of planktonic organisms in Karuc is negligible from the aspect of water inta-


100 ke and processing into drinking water. The bioindicator plankton species in Karuč water and obtained S saprobness index in the surface layers correspond to A1 and A2 water quality class, suitable for water supply. The Volac water is also classified as A1 and A2, while the Bazagurska mainstream water is placed in A2 class. The Bisevina river was not tested in such detail, but on the basis of individual biological analyses, it corresponds to A1 and A2 quality class. It should be noted that, in addition to water quality testing, the sediments of Karuc, Volac, Bazagurska mainstream and Bisevina river were also examined, as the best indicator of possible water pollution. The content of heavy metals in Karuc's sediment (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Mo, Cu, Ni Se, Zn) was extremely low and approximately identical in both the 1992 and 2005 tests. Relatively high concentrations of Fe, Al, and K were found only, but these were of natural origin from the red soil particles from the surrounding surfaces. The content of PCBs was not found in any sediment sample, and the PAH content was also low (7-20μg/kg). The content of heavy metals and organic toxicants in the sediment of Biševina was at the same level as in the sediment of Karuč, indicating their common origin. • Bolje Sestre water source: After the adoption of the Law on proclaiming Krauc as a source for the water supply of the Montenegrin Coast, a large number of individual structures „grew up“ at the source site and the surrounding protected area. In the period 2005-2006, samples were simultaneously taken from the Bisevina River in eastern part of Malo Blato area and from Bolje Sestre source in Malo Blato area, and their physico-chemical, microbiological and biological characteristics proved to be identically good as the Karuc spring. In addition, it was established that available water quantities were at a significantly higher level than in Karuch and that the possibility of protecting the spring was incomparably more favorable than for Karuc, which was surrounded by a large number of old and newly built structures as

potential polluters. A detailed water quality testing was carried out by the Center for Ecotoxicological Testing of Montenegro - CETI and the Biological Institute of Belgrade. Due to the proximity of the Morača sinks and Aluminium Company (KAP), and the potential impact on the quality of the water source, during 20052006, CETI performed detailed comparative studies of water quality of Bolje Sestre source, the Moraca river sink, and the Karuc source. Apart from the testing of specific indicators of water quality and tracers, detailed analysis of sediments and soils in the vicinity of the mentioned sites was done on several occasions,showing that the Bolje Sestre water does not communicate with the water of the Morača river, while the Bolje Sestre and Karuc waters belong to the same basin and have water of exceptional quality, A1S I class. Based on these results, the Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, in cooperation with ITSC Montenegro company, was commissioned by the Government of the Republic of Montenegro in 2005, to make a "Cost-benefit analysis of the variant solutions of the long-term water supply of the Montenegrin Coast" with a view to making a final decision on the water source for the regional water supply of the Montenegrin Coast. This analysis defined the Bisevina-Bolje Sestre source in the Malo Blato area, in the Skadar Lake basin, as the most favorable solution. Such a result was confirmed by an independent study funded by the World Bank in the period 20052006 and implemented by the Italian consulting firms ERM and SWS. The conclusion of the Environmental Impact Assessment was that Tusko Field did not meet the required conditions, and that the sources Karuc and Bisevina-Bolje Sestre did, and as such could be used for the needs of the regional waterworks. The study was based on the conceptual design of the continental part of the regional water supply system on the basis of which the Public Enterprise for the Regional



102 Water Supply of the Montenegrin Coast provided consent for the development of the detailed design, as well as on the already developed detailed design of the coastal part of the system. Analysis of the Bolje Sestre source as a water catchment site from the environmental/ecological point of view concerned: • The Malo Blato area and the Skadar Lake basin as a whole; • Analysis of the construction of the pipelines in the area of the Skadar Lake basin from the aspect of the environmental impact; • Analysis of the construction of the pipeline in the area of the Montenegrin coast from the ecological aspect. The water quality of the Bolje Sestre source is characterized by the following: • The water temperature in the source (in samples at the depth of 8m) ranged from 11.5-150C indicating constant water running. • The actual color of the water in Bolje Sestre source was below 5 or 5 degrees of Pt/Co scale in all the tests, while the apparent color of the water was crystalline green from the reflection of shell at the bottom. Parameters such as UV extinction, KMnO4, BPK5, HPK, phosphates etc. were always far below MDK. • The pH value ranged from 7.1-7.95 both in surface and deep samples, on the ground and in laboratory conditions. • The electrical conductivity of water was always low, indicating typical karstic waters. • Nitrogen complex parameters: ammonium, nitrites, nitrates and Kjeldal nitrogen were always below MDK, indicating water quality of A1 class without anthropogenic impact. • The Bolje Sestre and Bisevina waters are moderately alkaline, with the predominant bicarbonate alkalinity. The content of Na, K, Ca, Mg and total hardness, as well as water alkalinity, were without significant changes throughout the test period.

• In all samples, oxygen saturation was over 86%, and the values ​​for HPK, KMnO4, BPK5 were low and dependent on the biological activity of the lake in the surface layer, while these values in deep samples ​​were very low. • The content of heavy metals and microelements in all samples indicated A1 class water, which can be used for drinking. • The content of phenolic substances was also well below the allowed limit of 2μg/l in all tests. • Mineral oils were not detected in the samples throughout the test period. • In the tests conducted during 1991-1993, the trihalomethane content (THM) and their potential for THMFP production were tested, which in no case exceeded 100 μg/l. Low values were found, below MDK, both in surface and deep samples. These results were also confirmed by low values for UV extinction, which again confirmed that these are karst waters. This parameter was not tested in 2005, but TOC concentrations were extremely low, which confirmed previous results for THM content. • During all previous tests, the content of pesticide residues (organochlorine, organophosphorus and some herbicides) found in water were analyzed. • No traces of herbicide, OH (organochloric) and OP (organophosphorus) insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were found in any water sample. • Water radioactivity in all radioactivity tests from 1998-2005 showed very low values both for natural and artificial radioactivity ( 137 Cs). • The results of microbiological examinations of Bolje Sestre and Bisevina source (as in 2005 tests) showed A1S I class – suitable for drinking water, according to the Regulation on water classification and categorization. • Systematic biological testing of Bolje Sestre water quality showed that the number of planktonic organisms is negligible from the aspect of water intake

WATERS F MONTENEGRO facility and processing into drinking water. Hydrobiological tests indicate that: based on chlorophyll a analysis, as a measure of produced algae biomass, according to OECD (1982) and Felföldy (1980), trophy is in the field of ultra-oligotrophy (1 g dm3), which indicates a very poorly productive aquatic ecosystem. The saprobiological analysis estimated the saprobic status in the area of oligosaprobency, indicating that Bolje Sestre water source is pure – class I. Thus, based on the biological analysis of the phytoplankton and zooplankton and the microbiological component, it was estimated that the quality of the spring, at the site of the potential Bole Sestre intake facility in the Skadar Lake area is category A1, and, accordingly, suitable for water supply in accordance with applicable legal regulations. It should be noted that in addition to water quality testing, the sediments of Karuc, Volac, Bazagurska mainstream and Bisevina-Bolje Sestre, as the best indicator of potential pollution of water were examined. The content of heavy metals in the sediment of Bolje Sestre (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Mo, Cu, Ni Se, Zn) was extremely low. No PCBs or PAH were found in any sediment sample. The content of heavy metals and organic toxicants in the sediment of Bisevina was at the same level as in the sediment of Karuc. Particular attention was paid to determining the possible difference in the origin of waters in the Bolje Sestre source, which consists of two independent sources. One part of the water comes out of the rock on the periphery of the shore, and the other, larger part, emerges as a sublacustric spring at about 5m distance from the first, at the depth of about 4-8m. Field measurements revealed a small difference in the temperature, conductivity and pH value of these waters, but these differences were very small and could not serve as a solid evidence of their different origin. The water temperature in the sablacustric spring was 12.5°C, and in the source 13.0°C, or 0.5°C colder, while the conductivity was lower by about 20-40 μS/cm. The sediment near the water

source was of powdery consistency, reddish, while the sediment around the spring was grainy-sandy close to the shore, and whitish with a visible amount of tiny remains of crushed shells in the depths. Moraca river sample was taken at the place where it was seen to submerge-sink under the right bank, where a sediment sample was also taken. Based on the comparison of the results of the physicochemical water analyses of Bolje Sestre, the Moraca river and the Karuc spring, and on the basis of the GC analysis on ECD, FID and FPD detector, it was noted that, according to their organic components, the water of the Karuc and Bolje Sestre sources were practically identical, while the water of Moraca, according to its physicochemical properties, and the content of organic components, such as: phenols, mineral oils, ammonium, TOC, and inorganic parameters: temperature, nitrites and aluminum, and UV extinctions at 254nm, differed significantly from the above. Detailed analysis and comparison of the results of heavy metal content and microelements in the sediments of Karuc, Bolje Sestre and the soil around them showed the following: sediment from the Moraca is different from sediments in Karuc, Bolje Sestre and the soil around them. Sediment samples from the springs indicate that the sediments in Karuc, Bolje Sestre and the soil around them are almost identical for most of the parameters tested. Sediment from the Moraca is significantly different from others, especially in the content of: Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, F and Cd. Based on the gas-chromatographic analysis and the GCMS SCAN identification, it is undoubtedly clear that the Moraca sediments are completely different from the sediments from the Bolje Sestre and Karuc sources. By comparing the obtained results with the results of analysis of soil and water samples taken from the springs in 1995, it wass noted that the found content of Iron, Pb, Mn and fluorine was practically identical to 2006 data. In addition to the aforementioned, during 2010 and 2011, CETI implemented the project "Exami-



WATERS F MONTENEGRO nation of the mean time of groundwater retaining in different regions of Montenegro: Support to the sustainable use of water resources" together with the Austrian Institute Technologi GmbH – ait, 2444 Vimpassing, Austria. It included the measurement of the isotope hydrogen and oxygen content in the water by means of isotop-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), which enables better understanding and exploration of groundwater and processes, as well as their origin. By analyzing stable isotopes, information on water replenishment, retention time, water origin, age of water, etc. can be obtained, because their content and proportion in water depends on the altitude where rainfall was received. And these analyses confirmed that the water from the Bolje Sestre source and groundwater from Grbavci have the same origin and composition, while the Moraca river water differed significantly. Based on all detailed testing of water quality as well as geophysical and hydrogeological surveys and experiments carried out in the area between Malo Blato and Moraca river, the following conclusions are drawn: • The Bolje Sestre source recieves part of its water a compact aquifer in Grbavci, formed in glacial-fluvial sediments, the direction of outflow stream of which, defined by geoelectric scanning and exploration drilling , has good filtration characteristics. • It is a part of the compact aquifer flow with a free level, which is infiltrated into the carbonate rock masses of the eastern circumference of Kolozub and flows out at the level and below the level of the water of Malo Blato. The fact that part of the water in Bolje Sestre originates from the compact aquifer of Grbavci was confirmed by the results of chemical analyses perfomed at the same time on samples from the wells in Grbavci and this source, as well as the sloping of the compact aquifer from well BG1 towards well BG2. • The Bolje Sestre source is not replenished by water of the Moraca watercourse surface. This is indicated

by the results of the survey made by Geoprojekt and CETI in June 2006 on the water quality of this source (as indicated by chemical analyses, spatial position and outflow mechanism). Earlier assumptions about a possible direct linkage based on the balance method did not find confirmation in the results of this survey. • Underground source of Bolje Sestre gets part of water from the karst aquifer exit stream from the direction of Grbavci-Kolozub, which was discovered by electromagnetic and geolectric tomographic tests (under quaternary glaciofluvial sediments and transitional layer of clay, there are cretaceous limestones and within them the karst aquifer under pressure. For these reasons, water from Bolje Sestre source runs out most of the time under the water level of the lake, which can be easily seen by the bubbles created by the water running under pressure from the bottom , i.e., from a depth of 8 m). • A part of the aquifer water in a hydrological minimum feeding the Bolje Sestre source, originates from a compact aquifer of Grbavci and a part comes from the paleoreleif karst aquifer. • The water from the Bolje Sestre source is of exceptionally good quality from the aspect of chemical composition, which also applies to the aquifer water of Grbavci, taken for drinking purposes from a group of drilled and dug wells. • Based on the analysis of the quality of the water of the Bolje Sestre and Karuc sources, it can be conlcuded that the waters of these sources belong to the same basin. The only message after all that has been stated above is that we MUST protect the underground water of the sources from usurpation and pollution in the protected areas around the sources, as well as urgently prohibit the exploitation of sand and gravel from the Morača riverbanks and any other activities that can lead to disruption of groundwater flows and thereby their quality.





WATERS F MONTENEGRO At the source Bolje Sestre, at the end of January 2019, a round table was held on the topic "Protection of sources against the challenges of the 21st century", which will be discussed in more detail in the fourth issue of the magazine "Waters of Montenegro". However, the main facts outlined at the round table, as well as the conclusions drawn up from the discussions, prompted me to offer readers of the magazine an insight into a different way of thinking about the problems related to this topic. The aim of this text is to brief the interested readers with the ideas of a man who is insufficiently known to the scientific and professional public, and his nickname was - The Water Wizard. Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958, Austria) came from a distinguished Austrian family whose all members had higher education. He chose a different path - capire e copiare, which meant: understand the nature and principles you observe in it, and then reflect / apply those same principles to all the activities you undertake to affect it. However, there is no understanding without long-term observation, filled with peace and deep presence; without a feeling of communion, or better to say unity, with nature - and this feeling is immanent to the human being. Knowing this, this ingenious man - a scientist, inventor, innovator, philosopher, writer... - chose a professional path of a forester rather than an academic career. He spent his working life in the beautiful forests of Holzschlag, observing natural phenomena, plants, animals, and mostly and most frequently - water! Rivers, streams, lakes, waterfalls, torrents, springs... When we look at a phenomenon instinct with spirit (deep presence), there occurs a genuine understanding of this phenomenon that goes beyond the gathering of scientific facts and laws. In this way Schauberger came to his knowledge, discoveries and inventions. Observing the streams, he discovered two forms of movement in nature: one - outwards, used for breaking (explosion, splitting) and the other one - inwards, which nature uses to build and ener-

gize something (implosion). By careful observation of a trout swimming upstream and surmounting cascades even 50m high, he realized that it is not its mass, but the shape, the time of the day and the lunation that are important for transport of cargo along a river course. However, it is not surprising that his research was abruptly interrupted, and his inventory documentation was confiscated, under the influence of powerful industrial and technological lobbies. They feared for their profits and the man who proved that there was enough energy in space around us and that it can be obtained in an easy way and by non-destructive methods annoyed them. “Scientists should give up all the ideas of violent splitting of atoms in order to get free energy released on that occasion ... More energy is stored in each drop of good spring water than it can be produced by an average electrical power plant. These energies can be generated easily and almost freely if we follow the path the Nature shows us constantly and leave the deadlocks of conventional technology. His words written in the thirties of the last century leave a strong impression on a conscious reader, primarily due to the fact that they are even today valid and true: “Today, there are more and more people who have a need to live naturally. This aspiration for a strong, peaceful and healthy Nature is an inevitable symptom of modern times and a counterbalance to the ignorant civilization that is misquoted as a culture. Today's civilization is the creation of arrogant humanity, which is not interested in the proper operation of Nature, and which has created a world devoid of meaning and foundation. Now Nature threatens to destroy us, because man by his behaviour and deeds - the one that should be its master - disrupted its inborn unity. Alienated from Nature, humankind does not understand the water from which all life springs. It believes that abolition of water’s rights and compelling it to run according to our laws, it can


108 build energy that develops from the dead remnants of former life. Water is the blood of life ... and every watercourse is an artery of Life itself, an artery that creates its path to spread its ancient life force through the ground ... man continually makes the craziest imaginable things trying to regulate these watercourses with embankments, thereby affecting the flow mechanically instead of taking into consideration the fact that the water itself is a living entity.� Schauberger warned of the dangers of drinking water sterilization, and the devastating picture of the general health status of today's society proves that its darkest forebodings have come true: The unfortunate ones who are forced to drink sterile water year after year should seriously consider how water whose natural ability to create life has been forcibly removed by chemical compounds will affect their organisms. Sterilized and physically destroyed water not only leads to physical ruining, but also to the occurrence of mental deterioration and consequently to the systematic degeneration of humanity and other forms of life. There is hardly a city where water is not disinfected or sterilized with the addition of chlorine, silver compounds or radiation. In all these processes, nascent oxygen is created that destroys all living microorganisms. If the water treated so is constantly drunk, then the same process that we want to achieve through sterilization of water must also take place in our bodies. Terrible consequences can arise from the constant consumption of such water - various forms of the disease that we jointly call cancer, whose progressive spread is evident. Relevant statistics clearly reveal that cancer is the most prevalent in those areas where there is no good, high-quality spring water. Even in places where spring water is still good and healthy, it will deteriorate as a result of being transported by tubes that are sometimes hundreds of kilometres long. When transporting water by pipelines, and especially due to its passage through pipe elbows, water is

"traumatized" and changes its basic information. The poorer water quality is, the more energy is required by organism for its molecular restructuring, so less energy remains for its other important life processes, which weakens the resistance of the organism and makes it susceptible to diseases.� On the basis of his deep understanding of nature (and) of water, the Water Wizard has patented a device that turns the tapped water into healthy, spring water. He advocated natural ways to regulate rivers. He considered that the river can and must be regulated from the inside - by laying down stone blocks in the middle of the riverbed as to draw water towards the centre of the river stream. He was opposed to the channelling of rivers in the way that the bank is fortified with stone embankments and reinforcements. When the forest on the banks of the Rhine River was cut down, and the river channelled, the water level dropped and it became turbid, whereas it was previously crystal clear. The sludge clogged the riverbed, so the water began to flow into the surrounding area and adversely affect vegetation and crops. Although he offered a solution along with scientifically substantiated evidence for his claims, city authorities remained committed to obsolete methods. What the readers might pay special attention to is Schauberger's description of a proper design of water piping. Such a tube would allow double spiral movement of water in it, which corresponds to the natural way of movement of water. In addition, in such constructed pipes, natural self-purification of water would be achieved, and because of the acceleration of the entire water body, it would be possible to transport larger amounts of water than in the present way. Schauberger considered it necessary to stop the production of devices that operate on the principle of explosion and splitting of atoms, and begin production of those that operate on the principle of implosion. He designed machines that contributed to



110 better soil treatment, for example, centripetal plough in agriculture production. However, artificial fertilizer producers have opposed the mass production of such ploughs because it would stop the use of hazardous chemicals on agricultural land and thus directly affect the reduction of huge profits that are still being generated through the sale of these toxic substances. In the mentioned examples, which make only a small part of the rich Schauberger's intellectual and innovative heritage, the same pattern characteristic of contemporary society is observed - profit is more important than anything else. Several participants in this scientific discussion held at the source of "Bolje Sestre" have raised concerns about human activities that may jeopardize this important source for citizens on the Montenegrin coast and our most important economic branch - tourism. Uncontrolled, i.e. illegal exploitation of gravel from the MoraÄ?a riverbed in the immediate vicinity of the source "Bolje Sestre" is a constant threat to the quality and capacity of the source. This is a fact that the Regional Water Supply and professional public have been warning about for years for the purpose of institutional management of this challenge. Our joint commitment to future generations is to preserve the environment and resources from the current, especially uncontrolled, economic activities. “In spite of its alleged high technological culture, the civilized world touched the ethical bottom so it became impossible not to see that its physical and moral stumbling is nothing else but a progressive cultural annulment.â€? What makes Schauberger different from other scientists who have studied natural phenomena and whose names are now more familiar than his? It is certainly his holistic approach to understanding of nature and natural laws. Nature acts as a whole, and if one part of it is threatened, it is reflected on all other parts of the whole. He considered that planet Earth was a living system whose natural balance

can be undermined by unplanned and uncontrolled use of natural resources. Unfortunately, from Descartes and Newton to this day, reductionism remains the dominant scientific paradigm and society persists on it. Reductionism simplifies and impoverishes the explanation of phenomena by reducing it to the analysis of the parts of a whole, and the (natural) whole is always more and different than the sum of its parts. Reductionistic /mechanistic understanding of a whole, universe, life, nature, water, man ... is what mind as a machine can process on the basis of given (known) facts. On the contrary, the holistic approach implies primarily the starting point that a person is not only mind, but far more than that. Those individuals who activate other aspects of their humanity / divinity can come to knowledge that overcomes known, make breakthroughs to the new (unknown) and thus change the world for the better. Schauberger was someone who managed to go beyond the mind (which analyses, dissects, separates, classifies ...) and see reality in an integrated, comprehensive and fruitful way. That is why he understood that man was inseparable from nature, and only when he achieves harmony with nature, he can progress in ethical terms. On the importance of qualitative drinking water, especially from the karstic sources such as "Bolje Sestre", the participants of the round table spoke particularly convincingly and energetically, given that such sources in the world are getting fewer and fewer, and Montenegro seems not to be aware of the kind of wealth it has. What concerns and calls for caution is the characteristic sensitivity and vulnerability of such sources, which leads to the conclusion that their systematic protection is necessary and immediate. Although it is more difficult to affect global climatic conditions, question should be asked if the profession (and law) is powerless to influence local factors and their possible devastating consequences. If in the 21st century we cannot har-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO ness knowledge and institutions to work in synergy to remove these (clear even to a layman) threats to human health, then we allowed what Schuberger called "scientific complicity" in the crime over water and nature. “Disorders of internal and external harmony with natural law lead to disruptions of the very foundations of all life-creative processes. The disappearance of water or its material transformation is a very serious warning sign, because if its internal structure and composition change, then its character changes, and therefore the character of all forms of life, including man. The decline in the quality of various forms of vegetation, the qualitative deterioration of the largest plant organism - the forest - and the increase in the physical and moral distortion of humanity are simply logical and consistent symptoms of disorder of the physical composition of water and the disturbance of the geosphere, which has been brought about by human undermining activity on an organism called Earth. The decision whether we will take the final path of collapse or save ourselves just before self-destruction - is only in ourselves, or politicians and scientists who have undertaken a truly astonishing responsibility. However, they do not take into account the se-

riousness of the situation and cannot offer any truly effective help in salvation, since for selfish motives they continue to stick firmly to their previous views and attitudes "- Sauberger's words from 1933. We should ask ourselves if something has fundamentally changed in this context for 85 years, whether human society has really progressed. Surprisingly, Schauberger made a mistake only in one – he conceived the future of mankind much more cheerful: "... in not so distant future, people will become free and learn to understand the true purpose of life through their own perceptions and insights. The means are always at hand of the mankind free from hateful, cursed greed and material slavery which has a large majority as their victims and in whose trap we are caught, because we obediently trust everything. (What is meant here is an orgone machine for which Schauberger said that it was organised nature that refines and revives, op.aut) ... Humanity - now a thief and a glutton - will slowly free itself of material needs and become once again as it used to be - the crown of Creation.” • Thanks to the publishing company Kokoro from Belgrade, we are able to read about Viktor Schauberger from two books (a collection of scientific papers): Fertile Land and Magic of Water. The quotations used in this text are taken from them.

DR MARIJA JEVRIĆ B.Sc. in civil engineering, is a collaborator at the University of Montenegro and instructor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture in the field of descriptive geometry and perspectives. She is the author of 20 research papers published in international journals and presented at international conferences and is a reviewer for two journals from the SCI list. She is the author of textbooks for two grades of secondary vocational schools (Descriptive Geometry with a Perspective, published by the Institute for Textbooks and Teaching Resources). In scientific research she is focused on geometry and its connection with different engineering areas, and in particular the improvement of the educational process when it comes to descriptive geometry - a discipline that simultaneously activates both brain hemispheres and thus significantly influences the creativity of future engineers. However, the field of her interest is very wide and includes, among other things, issues of environmental protection and improvement, with a special emphasis on environmental building methods and use of water resources.



Assistant professor, University of Donja Gorica

KONCEPT INTERNET OF THINGS in the service of preserving and improving the regional water supply system The Real-time Monitoring of Environmental Parameters Project is funded by the Ministry of Science, and was nominated in cooperation with the Regional Water Supply Company, which has initiated this idea. About 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, only a few percentages of that water are drinkable, and only about 1% is available to the human

population. The increase in water consumption by 2025 is expected to be around 60%. Motivation for environmental monitoring is well known: healthier environment, health improvement, better quality of water and food. The challenges of existing monitoring solutions are related to the current high costs, very often non-transparency of the data and

WATERS F MONTENEGRO integration problems. As for the regional water supply system, in addition to what other colleagues said about the significance of that project (extensive multiannual scientific research, money invested, the fact that it supplies water for the entire coastal area), it is worth mentioning that it comprises a groundwater source, 130 km of pipelines, 4 pumping stations, 13 facilities with reservoirs, 12 distribution facilities. We are witnessing the fact that the development of information technologies and the entire industrial revolution instigated by the IT reflects on all aspects of our lives, science and industry. IT can also be used to solve the problem of monitoring not only the environment or water quality, but generally. Our goal in this project is to design and implement a water and environment monitoring system based on internet of things (IoT) technologies, which is one of the trends of IT technology today, along with cloud computing, mobile technology, social networks and big data. Â The idea is to try experimenting with sensor devices that may be of lower prices and more accessible, with a platform based on the constant communication of objects that we observe via the Internet. The platform itself will enable collecting of data in the first place, and then on the basis of this data and the work of the platform, it would be possible to develop some expert modules or systems that could have some specific purpose depending on the application of the platform. The pilot system for this platform will be first installed for the needs of the Regional Water Supply Company and can subsequently be used for other purposes. The concept of IoT means collecting data but not connecting people to the Internet or computers as stronger computer systems, but having all things around us connected. Technology has become sufficiently affordable and inexpensive and the Internet accessible enough to have the things equipped with an electronic device

or a small computer that has both sensors and a mechanism of communication via the Internet, so that in real time we can observe those things and their parameters and create a digital virtual twin of each thing that is of interest to us, and at any moment have information about those things. In addition to sensors and data collection, one of the challenges is communication because these data must be communicated in almost real time. The data itself does not mean anything. In order to be usable, the data must be transformed into information somewhere, it must be placed in a certain concept, have a function, and that information becomes the concept of Internet of Things in the service of preserving and improving the regional water supply system, since such new knowledge about the things we are observing allows us to change or update the way we make our decisions. So our decision-making concept and the way we react will be further enhanced by the data and information we extracted from the system. As for the uses, our first scenario is to monitor the quality of drinking water in springs and wells, but that can also include environmental monitoring of river and lake purity, seafood production, beach cleanliness, observation of areas that are waste water sources etc. The expected result is to obtain a system for monitoring parameters, with at least three expert modules to support application scenarios, a prototype sensor unit, and then a pilot system that will be installed in the Regional Water Supply Company, while we, as the university, hope to have active participation of students, new master theses and new publications. The project is actually the first step towards the implementation of the vision of the Director of the Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast Goran Jevric and the UDG Rector Veselin Vukotic to establish a water centre within the UDG that would give a contribution to the overall water monitoring.




OF THE ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION HELD ON 28 JANUARY 2019 ON "THE PROTECTION OF WATER SOURCES FROM 21ST CENTURY CHALLENGES" Participants, experts, coordinators, water managers and specialists from a number of SEE countries expressed their satisfaction with the organization of the meeting on this topic and the results achieved through the implementation of engineering solutions that enabled the construction of the regional water supply system for the Montenegrin coast, which has contributed to the economic and tourist development of the whole country. Protection of sources, in conjunction with other topics in the field of water and water resource protection, is a very important segment of the sustainable management of the natural resource protection, which must also be addressed by other sectors in relevant decision-making bodies. This means that the multisectoral water management, which is currently present in Montenegro and in Serbia and other countries in the region, must be synchronized,

since the practice so far has shown that diametrically opposed activities are frequently planned and implemented in parallel, which leads to decisions that have a negative impact on the sustainable management in this sector, as well as in the protection of water and natural resources. Activities in the environmental protection and sustainable management of water resources, fulfilment of conditions for sustainable management of water systems through additional studies, promotion, publication of professional publications, cooperation with scientific and educational institutions etc., carried out by the Regional water supply company should receive wider support, i.e. the support of other business entities and competent institutions, which can be used then as a radiant example in the negotiations on chapter 27 for Montenegro's accession to the EU.

Helmut Bloech, Expert on Waters, Consultant for Chapter 27

REGIONALNI VODOVOD IS A TEXTBOOK EXAMPLE OF GOOD PRACTICE IN EUROPE "This Roundtable is organized at the right time, because Montenegro started negotiations with the European Union only a month ago on Chapter 27, which deals with environmental issues. To my knowledge, Montenegro is very well prepared for these negotiations, and I do not mean only in general, through a good preparation carried out by the line Minister and other relevant ministries,

but also in terms of the operation of the company Regionalni vodovod, which is a school example of good practice in Europe regarding the planning, construction and functioning of a high quality water supply system, and which by its operation makes a significant contribution to the overall development of the Montenegrin economy. "


We Should Invest More in Staff Capacity Building in Europe It is extremely good that the representatives of the countries from our region meet and discuss these topics. We need to help each other by exchanging experiences and best practices, as well as the mistakes and failures that we have faced. At this gathering, we have learned a lot about not only Montenegro, but also about our own countries and the whole region, and how much we rely on the availability of karstic sources that make up the main source of drinking water in our countries... One of the issues that attracted me especially is related to discussion about the topic of human and institutional capacities that should address the challenges we face, but also those that are ahead of us. I mean climate change, but also challenges that cannot be foreseen, where The hydro-geological system, i.e. the wider catchment area of the Bolje Sestre water source, but also of other sources used for public water supply and other water resources in Montenegro, is not fully known, and studies should continue in the forthcoming period in order to determine the catchment areas and implement the necessary activities for their protection. Supervisory and operational monitoring of groundwater in the coming period must be better since the availability of actual and sufficiently precise data provides answers on the actual state of affairs and, consequently, groundwater protection measures and the planning of measures to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change that will be, as predicted, most pronounced in the area of Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean. It is necessary to classify existing sources in terms

we can only rely on good planning and make sure that we are ready when they occur. From the aspect of the Water Association, our work and mission is focused on improving human capacities, i.e. staff working in the water sector, in order to meet existing requirements, but also future ones. I believe that there is a lot of work ahead, but also a significant potential to gather not only the institutions that create policies and utility companies that are aiming to deliver this type of services, but us as Water Associations, in order to create and implement programs and activities that will provide support and help to the current, but also future staff in providing water services, but also in addressing the challenges we are facing. We need to work on improving human resource capacities. of their impact on the quality of life, the environment, etc., in order to arrive at conclusions as to whether any potentially negative effects of the sources in use, which are especially vulnerable due to dominant presence of karst in basins and are not so safe from the health point of view, could be neutralized with the application of appropriate measures limiting their use (the use only in cases where there is no other way of providing water, as regulated by law). Strengthening of institutional and technical capacities by increasing the number of engaged experts, as well as by raising the quality of professional staff through education and specialized seminars, is an important task for the coming period, because state institutions, in particular, do not have sufficient number of professionals who could face all the challenges in a quality way.



MAINTAINING AND PROTECTING "BOLJE SESTRE" FOR THE FUTURE GENERATIONS The National Parks of Montenegro, in cooperation with the Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast, conducted a number of activities to mark one of the most important environmental dates, 22 March - World Water Day. For the purpose of promoting the World Water Day, the National Parks of Montenegro and the Regional Water Supply Company organized a visit to the Skadar Lake and the Bolje Sestre water source for the students of the ninth grade and members of the Environmental Section of the Zarija Vujosevic Primary School. During the visit to the Skadar Lake, an educational class was organized for the students, at which the educators of the National Parks Company Marija

Roganovic and Marina Kojovic presented to the students why the World Water Day is celebrated and explained the importance of preserving water for our existence. They informed them that this year's theme of the World Day is "Leaving no one behind" under the slogan "Water for All", which places emphasis on the availability and wise use of drinking water. They were especially introduced into the Skadar Lake, its characteristics and the need for its preservation. A special experience for the students was the visit to the Bolje Sestre water source, where they were able to hear an interesting story about the history of the regional water supply system, how it was created and what it encompasses, from employees of


the Regional Water Supply Company. The plant manager, technology engineer Mirjana Planinic, took them through the plant and presented the water abstraction process, while the laboratory staff explained the need for having a modernly equipped laboratory, to check the quality and safety of water, and conduct different water quality and correctness tests, as well as other periodic analyses. The students remained impressed by the IT department and the SCADA system for supervising and monitoring the operation of the overall system that displays in real time any change that could cause interruption in water supply. With their statements, students sent a clear message to their peers about the importance of water in human life, the preservation of water resources, and responsible use and conservation of water: "It was wonderful and useful, with the educators who led us and talked about the importance of water," said Nevena Rakovic. "The message for all my peers and all people in general - water is something we cannot do without and we should do our best to preserve it," said Ajla Orahovac. "We should look at nations that save drinking water and have high hygiene standards," emphasized Nikolina Ajkovic.

After a tour of the Bolje Sestre water source, educator from the National Parks of Montenegro Marina Kojovic stated: "I think we all got a picture today about the significance of this water source that exists in the territory of the National Park, and therefore I think that we have become aware of the obligation to safeguard it for future generations, and that is precisely why I can say again, in line with the slogan that follows this year's celebration of World Water Day, that "we will leave no one behind". Mirjana Planinic, plant manager and technology engineer, gave this statement: "Water is a symbol of life. We need to wisely manage this important resource, protect it and save it - every day, everywhere and at every opportunity. Today, we have presented to our guests, primary school students, with the Bolje Sestre water source which is located in the territory of Skadar Lake National Park and has water of extraordinary quality. We explained the importance and significance of this water source for the water supply of the Montenegrin coast and the development of the state of Montenegro. We believe that such activities contribute to the continuous raising of awareness and education of young people about healthy lifestyles and the preservation of resources that Montenegro has."








Following the 1st Danube Hub benchmarking workshop that took place in March 2018 in Žabljak and Tivat, Montenegro, back to back with the conference „Vision of sustainable water resources management in 21st century“, the 2nd Danube Hub benchmarking workshop took place from February 27th until March 1st 2019, in Subotica, Serbia, back to back with the conference „Joining forces toward better services“. The workshop and the conference were organized by the International Association of Water Companies in the Danube River Catchment Area (IAWD), the City of Subotica and PUC Waterworks and Sewerage Subotica. The gathering took place in the City Hall of the City of Subotica (February 27) and at the Galleria Hotel in Subotica (February 28 and March 1). The gathering was attended by approx. 90 participants from the leading water and sewerage companies from Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia and Serbia, then benchmarking Hubs coordina-

tors for Bulgaria, Ukraine and the Danube region, as well as representatives of IAWD from Vienna from Austria, Association of Local Self-Governments of South East Europe (NALAS) from Skopje, Association of Public Water Companies of Europe from Brussels, Belgium (Aqua Publica Europea - APE), national associations from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Serbia, representatives of the Belgrade Faculty of Civil Engineering, Imperial College London and training centre TCC-Danubius from Ulm, Germany, as well as representatives of private companies that helped organize a conference such as Barthauer Software GmbH from Braunschweig, Germany, JIE-Engineering doo from Belgrade, EnPlus d.o.o. from Belgrade, Petrol d.d. from Ljubljana, Qubiqo d.o.o. from Sofia from Bulgaria and regional RENEXPO fair and conferences. Also, the event was attended by representatives of local authorities from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Srpska and the Provincial Secretariat for Agricul-



ture, Forestry and Water Management of Vojvodina, as well as representatives of the Vode Vojvodine. Finally, through the video link, colleagues from the World Bank and the Danube Water Program from Vienna and from the Water Agency from Ljubljana also addressed the gathering.

OPENING OF THE CONFERENCE AND THE WORKSHOP The conference was opened on February 27th, with a program in the City Hall of the City of Subotica. In addition to welcoming speeches by Ms. Timea Horvat, deputy Mayor of the City of Subotica, Mr. Vladislav Krsmanović, acting Secretary Assistant in the Secretariat for Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of AP Vojvodina and Mr. Sugár György, the General Manager of the PUC Waterworks

and Sewerage Subotica, during the opening event audience was also addressed by Walter Kling, the president of International Association of Water Companies in the Danube River Catchment Area (IAWD), Boran Ivanovski, the Programme Officer in the Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-East Europe (NALAS) and Mr. Philip Weller, Program Coordinator of the Danube Water Program and Head of Technical Secretariat of IAWD. President of IAWD, Walter Kling, is addressing the participants in the City Hall of the Suboticia City As a special addition to the event, Prof. Čedo Maksimović gave a presentation “Blue Green Dream – Water as the Heart of City’s Resilience, Growth and Charm”, Professor of the Civil Engineering Faculty from Belgrade and from the Imperial Colleague of London, putting a special emphasis on importance




of applying integrated planning and cooperation between local authorities and their water utility companies, but as well on new cleaner and more sustainable technologies when compared with conventional technologies, which are today available to cities and water utility companies from the region, especially those which are in the process of planning for the new wastewater treatment facilities. The highlight of the opening ceremony was the signing of the Partnership Agreement between water utility companies from Subotica and Novi Sad (Serbia), Bijeljina (Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Szeged (Hungary), as well as their cities, in the field of municipal water management, with emphases on regular exchange of knowledge and experiences on


WATERS F MONTENEGRO good practices. Specific areas of interest listed in the agreement are: 1) raising awareness of the importance of water for current and future customers, 2) strengthening the capacities of local authorities and water and sewage companies, 3) improving the operational performance of utility companies, 4) achieving an integrated management of infrastructure and assets, and 5) improving cooperation with customers and other stakeholders. By signing the Partnership Agreement, the Parties agreed to support regular semi-annual exchange meetings between the working groups composed of representatives from 4 water utility companies and their cities on at least 5 key issues related to the work of utility companies participating in the agreement: 1) organizational and ownership (re) structuring, infrastructure and asset management, financing and tariffs, 2) efficiency and quality of services, 3) communication with customers, 4) development and modernization of services and submission of projects for fundraising, and 5) cooperation with national and international associations in the field

of municipal water management. In this way, a total of 20 meetings are planned annually between representatives of the 4 water utility companies and their cities. IAWD and NALAS, as regional networks and strategic partners, encourage and commend this initiative and a positive example of cooperation between the local governments and public utility companies working in the water and sanitation sector. The agreement was signed in the presence of representatives of IAWD and NALAS, and the Partnership Agreement is open to other local authorities and public utility companies that might be interested to joining.

WORKING PART OF THE CONFERENCE AND WORKSHOPS The working part of the 2nd Danube region benchmarking workshop and conference program began with an introductory session moderated by Vladimir



124 Taušanović, vice-president of IAWD, by addressing of Walter Kling, President of IAWD. In the same introductory session in front of IAWD Philip Weller and Katerina Schilling presented the Danube Learning Partnership (D-LeaP), Aleksandar Krstić presented the Utility Benchmarking Program in front of the Danube Hub of IAWD, while Aleksandar Šotić on behalf of the Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering presented the Infrastructure Asset Management, which represent the two leading programs within the D-LeaP. Working part of the workshop and conference Special significance was given to the event by presentations from the representatives of the leading companies and associations of water utility companies from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia regarding the cooperation of the leading companies and

association, especially presentation of Srđan Kevec in front of Vodovod a.d. Banja Luka and the Association of Water Utilities from the Republic of Srpska (VRS) and Osman Čaušević from PUC Vodovod i kanalizacija d.o.o. Velika Kladuša and the Association of the Employers of Utility Companies in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (UPKP FBiH), and Ninoslav Petrović in front of the Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering of Serbia (UTVSI), and associations of local authorities and relevant ministries to establish sector regulation and to establish benchmarking for regulatory needs. Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia are the only two countries in the region that do not yet have established regulation of water and sanitation services. In this sense, the presentation of Nenad Đukic in front of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Srpska regar-




ding the organization of the water sector in B&H, followed by the presentation of Boran Ivanovski in front of the NALAS network on the work on developing a system for benchmarking of the performance of local authorities in the region of the southeast Europe, as well as presentations by colleague Elvira Broeks from the World Bank on the availability of services in the rural areas of the Danube Region and Jovana Gojković from Aqua Publica Europe about the affordability of services and the transparency of the work of public water utility companies in the EU. In the final part of the conference, Katerina Schilling gave a presentation of the work on strengthening the Young Water Professionals initiative in front of the IAWD, while Majda Adlešić, in front of the Water Agency, provided an insight in working with school children in the Danube region to raise awareness about the importance of water. The study by the World Bank on the availability of services in rural parts of the Danube regionž Među prezentacijama vodovodnih i kanalizacionih

preduzeća, pored prezentacija o ključnim indikatorima performansi vodećih preduzeća iz regiona Dunava od strane Aleksandra Krstića ispred Dunavske platforme IAWD i domaćina skupa, JKP Vodovoda i kanalizacije Subotice u vezi sa izradom hidrauličkog modela koju je dao Santa Csaba, upravljanja infrastrukturom na osnovu nemačkog modela kroz sistem BaSYS, koju su dali Nemanja Branisavljević sa Građevinskog fakulteta u Beogradu i Agi Tukacs iz vodovoda Subotica, kogeneracije električne i toplotne energije iz procesa tretmana otpadnih voda i saradnje na regionalnom projektu Dunavski vodni agent u cilju edukacije dece i omladine o važnosti vode koje je prezentovao Petar Pižurica, isticale su se prezentacije Andreea Mihai iz preduzeća APA Brasov iz Rumunije po pitanju agregacije vodovoda u Rumuniji, Jože Tomeca iz preduzeća JP Vodovod-kanalizacija Ljubljana u vezi rada hidrauličkog modela vodovodne mreže u realnom vremenu, Jasmina Mulabdića iz preduzeća JP Vodovod i kanalizacija d.o.o. Gračanica kao malog ali veoma dobro organizovanog preduzeća, Evis Gjebrea iz preduzeća UKT


126 iz Tirane u vezi rodne i starosne jednakosti u vodovodnim i kanalizacionim preduzećima iz regiona na osnovu studije Svetske banke i Veselina Dimitrova iz preduzeća Sofyske Vode iz Sofije o približavanju ovog preduzeća potpunoj energetskoj nezavisnosti zahaljujući sopstevenoj proizvodnji energije. Among the presentations of water supply and sewerage companies, in addition to presentations on the key performance indicators of the leading companies from the Danube region by Aleksandar Krstić in front of the Danube Hub of IAWD, the host of the event, PUC Vodovod i kanalizacija Subotica, gave presentations related to development of the hydraulic model, presented by Santa Csaba, the infrastructure management based on the German model through the BaSYS system, presented by Nemanja Branisavljević from the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Belgrade and Agi Tukacs from the Subotica water utility, while the cogeneration of electricity and heat from the process of wastewater treatment and cooperation on a regional project Danube Water Agent toward education of children and youth about the importance of water presented by Petar Pižurica. Further presentations from utilities where those by Andrea Mihai from the company APA Brasov from Romania on the issue of aggregation of water utilities in Romania, by Jože Tomec from the utility PU Vodovod-kanalizacija Ljubljana regarding the work of the hydraulic model of the water supply network in real time, by Jasmi Mulabdić from the company JP Vodovod i kanalizacija d.o.o. Gracanica, as a small but very well organized company, by Evis Gjebrea from UKT utility from Tirana regarding gender and age equity in water and sewage companies from the region based on a study by the World Bank and by Veselin Dimitrov from Sofyska Voda on the approaching of this company to complete energy independence thanks to its own production of energy. Group photo of participants at the 2nd Danube region benchmarking workshop and conference

Finally, the program was additionally enriched by the highly professional presentations of Professor Čedo Maksimović from the Imperial College London and Ranko Božović from EnPlus company from Belgrade in connection with the integration of all professional services and population in planning urban development with a special focus on the blue and green components that represent water and plant infrastructure of cities and innovative technologies for wastewater treatment that allow significantly less use of land and of financial resources for treatment plant construction and considerably lower operating costs of such treatment plants, followed by presentation of Heike Burghard from TCC-Danubius EEIG on the condition of wastewater treatment in Germany, as well as the fourth stage of wastewater treatment, which is increasingly present in Germany. The event ended with a visit to the wastewater treatment plant of the City of Subotica during which Petar Pižurica and Biljana Isić gave a special review of the choices during the design, construction and operation of the plant, which they would consider doing differently with the current experience. For access to presentations from the meeting and / or to join the work of the Danube Hub for utility benhmarking, please feel free to wright to t






ABOUT SUBOTICA The city of Subotica is located in the north of the Republic of Serbia, along the border that connects it with the Republic of Hungary. Usually, it is said for Subotica that it is geographically, economically and spiritually located on the threshold of the Balkans, but also at the door of Europe. In the first years of the 19th and 20th centuries, Subotica was in many ways the first in a wider area when it comes to the establishment and development of institutions, infrastructure and public cadastre, industrialization, services, culture, health, sports, education ... The first public lighting, the first macadam roads and trails, the first national theatre, the first cinema, the first cyclist and flyer (Ivan Sarić) ... Today, Subotica has about 150,000 inhabitants. In the "richness of differences" the 23 ethnic groups live together in a harmonious way.

ABOUT THE WATER UTILITY - RETURNING TO THE FUTURE • In 1882, the first well drilled in front of the Franciscan church • In 1909, Palic - the first public water supply system • In 1913, Construction of the first public water supply system in the city centre • In 1961, the first suburban city water source Vodozahvat I • In 1962, utility company "Vodovod" • In 1975, the first wastewater treatment plant was built in the city • In 1990, the first water treatment plant in Subotica • In 1991, the first Business Association of the Water and Sewerage Companies of Yugoslavia, was established and based in Subotica • In 2011, the construction of a new City Wastewater Treatment Plant was finished • In 2017, expansion of the main and collector network with EBRD credit • In 2018, the start of construction of the second water treatment plant in Subotica using EBRD loan • In 2019, the launch of the Biodiversity Conservation Project of Palić and Ludaš Lake by the donation of KfW Bank U bivšoj Jugoslaviji subotički „Vodovod i kanalizacija“ je prvi formirao Poslovno-informacioni sistem (VODIS) i Službu za evidenciju, obračun i naplatu usluga, prvi Dispečerski Call centar, prvu PR funkciju, prvu Internet stranicu, prvi HACCP, ISO 9001 i 14001 ... u interesu kvalitetnijeg i efikasnijeg vršenja usluga i dvosmernog odnosa sa potrošačima.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO In the former Yugoslavia, Subotica's "Vodovod i kanalizacija" was the first to establish the Business-Information System (VODIS) and the Service for Evidence, Calculation and Collection of Services, the first Dispatch Call Centre, the first PR function, the first website, the first HACCP, ISO 9001 and 14001... in the interest of a better and more efficient services and a two-way relationship with consumers.

Water supply in Subotica:

• The pumping of water from the aquifer horizon from the depth of 180 - 200 meters • Water production: up to 10 million m3 / year • Water treatment: the separation of iron, ammonia and arsenic • Water quality: according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization • System management: SCADA, GIS - BaSYS database and BaSYS Regie • Distribution network length: approx. 600 km • Number of connected properties: approx. 50,000 • Number of connections: approx. 35,000 • Number of water meters: approx. 40,000

Wastewater collection:

• Combined gravity sewer system • Locating damage, clogging and illegal connections: Camera Inspect • System management: GIS - BaSYS database and BaSYS Regie • Length of sewerage network: approx. 350 km • Number of connected properties: approx. 32,000 • Number of connections: approx. 17,500

Wastewater treatment:

• Mechanical, biological purification and tertiary treatment of wastewater and stormwaters • Water and sludge lines, production of own "GREEN" energy up to 45% of needs • System management: SCADA • Treatment capacity: 150,000 PE • The average quantity of inlet water: approx. 12 million m3 / year • The average quantity of treated water at the outlet: approx. 11 million m3 / year • Organic matter concentration in accordance with EU Directives Today: 200 employees, 25% professional staff with high education




130 "Open" Waterworks - Membership in Associations and Institutions:

Članstvo u asocijacijama i institucijama: • member of the International Association of Water Companies in the Danube River Catchment Area (IAWD) • Participant of the Danube Water Program (DWP) and the Danube Learning Partnership (D-LeaP) • Cooperation with international organizations (GIZ, NALAS) • Participant in the project pf GWOPA UN-HABITAT with Budapest City Waterworks • Partnership on the improvement of municipal water management and exchange of knowledge, experience and good practices with the cities and water and sanitation companies from Novi Sad, Bijeljina and Szeged • member of the Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering (UTVSI) and Waterworks and Sewerage Association of Serbia.



- We exist for consumers - not vice versa! - Healthy water - to every household and lake Palic! - Sustainable and stable development, new ideas and respect for ecological principles!


Be a leader in the Region in: • Drinking water supply • Disposal of used water and • Treatment of wastewater

We didn’t inherit water from our ancestors – in order to borrow it from our descendants!


IAWD – Glas Dunava

WATERS F MONTENEGRO IAWD, the International Association of Water Supply Companies in the Danube River Catchment Area, is the prime association of water and wastewater utilities in the Danube region. Established in 1993 and based in Vienna (Austria), IAWD has built a strong network of cooperation in the region, which goes beyond national, cultural and linguistic borders. IAWD’s work is based on the three principles: communicate, connect, capacitate. Thus, the exchange of information, the peer-to-peer networking as well as the knowledge sharing among people active in the water sector in the region is at the core of IAWD’s activities. In this sense, IAWD is a complimentary institution to the national water utility associations active in the region by providing opportunities for regional cooperation among leading utilities and associations. The “Three Cs” framework underpinning IAWD’s activities IAWD supports its members, the leading utilities of

the Danube region, directly and through its partners, the national water utility associations, (i) to make the utility services sustainable, (ii) to represent the utilities’ interests, and (iii) to act as an established and attractive platform for donors covering the entire region. A flagship activity of IAWD is the Danube Water Program, which is run in partnership with the World Bank, to promote smart policies, strong utilities and sustainable water and wastewater services in the region. The cooperation with a major international financial institution has been very complimentary to the efforts of IAWD to strengthen the utility sector – the main reason being that the World Bank has focused on improving water policy, whereas IAWD has targeted the improvement of utility service and capacity. This funding scheme of the Danube Water Program supplied by the Ministry of Finance of Austria has been complimented by other funding from the GIZ





Open Regional Fund and more recently by RCDN, the Regional Capacity Development Network, supported by the Swiss and German governments which is focused on cooperation between utilities and municipal governments. IAWD is a platform for cooperation and the organization puts considerable emphasis and value on its partners and has intensively worked over the last years on establishing sustainable partnerships within the region and beyond. As the improvement of water services requires not just technical and managerial changes at the utility level, but good management and support from the owners and ultimate managers of the utilities in most countries (municipal governments), IAWD has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Network of Associations of Local Authorities of South-East Europe (NALAS) to actively cooperate on issues related to improving the water sector.

The latest achievement in this regard has been the signing of Partnership Agreement between four cities and their utilities to improve sustainable services in the presence of IAWD and NALAS. Another important relationship focusing on expanding IAWD’s activities to the area of Integrated Water Resources Management is the cooperation between the ICPDR (International Commission for the Protection of the Danube River) and IAWD. Joint activities related to the improvement of waste water management including a the first “International Workshop on Wastewater Management in the Danube river Basin” jointly organized by IAWD, World Bank and ICPDR with the support of the Danube Water Program held in Bucharest in November 2017 has strengthened the already existing cooperation and has led to plans for further initiatives. The latest partnership established on regional level is a cooperation with Global Water Partnership Central and Eastern Europe (GWP CEE) to strengthen



collaboration in knowledge sharing and capacity building activities. Both organizations have a strong commitment to youth and will continue working further towards more active involvement of young water professionals in water governance. Another area of mutual interest is the support of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) processes in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe that will engage both networks of partners/members. On the international level IAWD is actively collaborating with the International Water Association (IWA) and acts as their regional focal point to support IWA in working with its Governing Members, which are mostly the national water utility associations, and the Young Water Professionals network in the region. Finally, IAWD has successfully established the Roundtable of Danube Region water utility associations (a representative of each utility association from

Danube countries), which is meeting regularly to exchange information and plan and carryout cooperative actions. The principle behind the cooperation has been that the national water utility associations in the region can learn and profit from products and activities of associations from neighboring countries.

D-LEAP – DANUBE LEARNING PARTNERSHIP The most important initiative emerging from the Roundtable has been the foundation of the Danube Learning Partnership (D-LeaP), established as a committee of IAWD and thus representing an integral part of the association’s governance. D-LeaP is designed as regional, integrated and sustainable capacity building initiative of national water utility associations and IAWD to provide a


134 comprehensive curriculum to the staff of water and wastewater utilities located in the Danube region. The delivery model and the overall success of D-LeaP depends on active cooperation between a number of stakeholders. These include: The D-LeaP Secretariat: This role is undertaken by IAWD and ensures both strategic direction and dayto-day management and administration. The Technical Partners: these are “knowledge partners�, typically private companies or consortia, who provide the critical set of competences for a given program. The technical partners effectively develop program materials on a regional level, conduct Training of Trainers (ToTs), support the hubs in preparation and delivery of the programs and maintain continuous contact with the local trainers. The Hubs: One of the most critical unit in the whole ecosystem, the hubs are the face of D-LeaP for active participants, i.e. this is where the capacity-building trainings get delivered in local language. Hubs are primarily established by the national water utility associations or well-performing utilities. Each hub can offer one or more of the programs. The program delivery is performed by local trainers, who are initially trained and continuously supported by the technical partners. Participating Utilities: Water utilities are the ultimate client. They participate in the programs at hub level by signing in and actively participating. Often, they get support through the program at their own premises, capture data and get it analyzed with the support of the trainers. Not least, the participating utilities are encouraged to identify and structure efficiency-driven projects while participating in a given program. D-LeaP has identified capacity-building needs at three distinct levels: (1) foundation, (2) technical, and (3) implementation level. At foundation level the performance gaps need to

be assessed and background reasons to be identified. The Utility Benchmarking Program (UBP) targets that. For Management Training (MT) a concept has been developed, but further work and financial support is needed to finalize the curriculum and delivery as D-LeaP program. The technical programs address the core functions of water utilities. They include Energy Efficiency (EE), Commercial Efficiency (CE), Asset Management (AM, in cooperation with GIZ as STA IAM), Non-Revenue Water (NRW) and Water Safety Planning (WSP). Each of the technical programs would naturally identify a series of potential efficiency projects. Structuring and commencing such projects should be supported through implementation programs such as the Access to Financing (AF) or Performance Based Contracts (PBC). For both programs initial workshops have been organized and based on this experience the further roll-out of the programs will be supported under the upcoming phase 3 of the Danube Water Program. D-LeaP aims to bridge the gap between conceptual/ methodological trainings that typically take place in a classroom environment and field-level demonstrations such as equipment installation, field measurement campaigns, etc. Thus, the programs apply learning-by-doing principles and are designed as combination of face-to-face workshops and homework to implement the acquired knowledge in the utility. In addition, a Learning Management System called the D-LeaP Academy, supports the blended learning approach, i.e. participants receive e-learning content online throughout the program. Since 2017, 60 trainers have been trained in six Training of Trainers (ToT) events. Following the ToTs, in total 12 hubs have been established in 9 countries to deliver six programs so far (UBP, EE, CE, AM, NRW

WATERS F MONTENEGRO and WSP). 175 utilities have participated in the programs in the course of the last two years Figure 4: Facts and Figures on D-LeaP (Last update: December 2018) For further information on D-LeaP, please visit


136 NETWORK OF ASSOCIATIONS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES FROM SOUTH-EAST EUROPE – NALAS NALAS is a network of associations of local authorities of South East Europe. The Network brings together 14 Associations which represent roughly 7000 local authorities, directly elected by more than 80 million citizens of this region. The NALAS Secretariat, based in Skopje, is responsible for the overall co-

OBJECTIVES OF NALAS NALAS promotes the process of decentralisation in cooperation with central governments and international organisations, considering local self-government as a key issue in the current process of transition affecting the various countries in South-East Europe. NALAS builds partnerships in order to contribute to the reconciliation and stabilisation process in the region and henceforth contributes to the process of the European integration of the whole region. NALAS initiates and carries out regional initiatives for its members and helps the associations to become viable representatives of local authorities vis-Ă -vis central government. NALAS aims to provide services to local governments for the benefit of the citizens in the region and wishes to develop itself as the knowledge centre for local government development in South-East Europe, recognised among all relevant stakeholders.


ordination and the implementation of the activities. NALAS was created in 2001 following the first Forum of Cities and Regions of South-East Europe (Skopje, November 2000), organised by the Congress of Local and Regional Authorities of the Council of Europe. The Network was established under the auspices of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe (Working Table 1) and the Council of Europe. During the first years, NALAS functioned as an informal organisation with regular meetings, seminars and training programmes. In July 2005 NALAS became an officially registered association with its seat in Strasbourg. The NALAS Secretariat was established in March 2007.

In line with its action plan, the NALAS Secretariat organizes task forces on specific themes important to local government in South-East Europe. NALAS focuses primarily on local finances, urban planning, waste management, institutional development and energy efficiency. The task forces on each of these topics develop the different projects and concrete activities. In 2016, NALAS signed a Memorandum of Understanding with IAWD, what opens possibilities for cooperation between the two regional associations in water and wastewater sector.

MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN NALAS AND IAWD During the XI NALAS General Assembly, held in Pristina on 14 and 15 April 2016, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed between NALAS and IAWD. "I am happy that I was able to attend NALAS conference yesterday and learn about the challenges


of local governments in the Region when it comes to investments. We are here to join actions, develop capacities and improve services to citizens", said Mr. Walter Kling on behalf of IAWD. "In the past several years, with the support of the GIZ Open Regional Funds - Modernisation of Municipal Services, NALAS has been working intensively to improve the conditions in the water and waste water sector, supporting municipalities to provide well managed, good quality and sustainable water services to their citizens. During this process, we have met a valuable partner, IAWD, and have started an exchange of knowledge and expertise, being aware that municipalities and their integral part, the public utilities, must work closely together in improving the services and planning investments. Today, by signing the MoU, we are bringing the existing cooperation with IAWD at a next level", said Mayor Naim Ismajli, NALAS President at that time.

ROLE OF NALAS IN THE FRAME OF PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT BETWEEN 4 UTILITIES AND CITIES As presented during the 2nd Danube Hub benchmarking workshop and conference by Boran Ivanovski, Programme Officer of NALAS, NALAS is developing benchmarking system with a goal to compare improvement in the process of decentralisation in the region of South-East Europe (Regional Decentralisation Observatory). The benchmarking system is significantly more complex compared to water and wastewater utility benchmarking, given a verity of competences covered by local authorities. This is precisely why cooperation between NALAS and IAWD may be of high relevance for this system. Selection and further refinement of performance indicators related to water and wastewater services in towns and municipalities by which performance of LSGs from the region should be measured is not an




easy task and inputs from the utility benchmarking system of IAWD could significantly contribute to the success of the overall LSG’s benchmarking system of NALAS. In accordance with the abovementioned, one of the conclusions of the conference and workshop in Subotica is that there is the need for further deepening of cooperation between the IAWD and NALAS regarding benchmarking, and especially in the context of the search for the leading local government units and their water and sewerage companies, which could be examples of good practice for other cities, municipalities and utility companies in the region.

UTILITY BENCHMARKING PROGRAM AS A FOUNDATION PROGRAM OF D-LEAP The Utility Benchmarking Program (UBP) is one of the Foundation Programs within the Danube Learning Partnership. This Program helps participating utilities and staff to establish their own diagnostic of high-impact issues affecting the performance of their utility companies by benchmarking the utility performance against other similar companies and international benchmarks and facilitating dialogue among practitioners on good practices.


receive comparable results.


In the initial two phases of the Danube Water Pro- BENCHMARKING gram the European Benchmarking Cooperation (EBC) acted as the Technical Partner of IAWD and There is a number of reasons to initiate a benchmarprovided the methodology as well as the IT platform king exercise, but the main division is to authority for the benchmarking exercise. Under such arran- driven benchmarking, i.e. compulsory benchmargement the Utility Benchmarking Program offered king activities, and utility driven benchmarking, three different assessment levels (basic, standard i.e. voluntary benchmarking activities initiated by and advanced). For maximum added value, partici- utilities for utilities. Further on, utility (driven) benpants are encouraged to choose the highest possible chmarking can be divided to national and interlevel. Moreover, several utilities from the Ex-YU Hub national benchmarking. As an example, European and later the Danube Hub chose the advanced le- Benchmarking Cooperation is purely international vel of participation, the same level used by the most utility benchmarking activity and it takes place in advanced Western European utilities. Utilities par- parallel with national utility benchmarking activiticipating in the advanced level benchmarking are ties in Netherlands, Finland, Germany, Spain, and water and sanitation utilities from the following number of other countries in Europe and beyond. In cities: Subotica and Novi Sad from Serbia, Bijeljina, most of these countries, in addition to utility driven Velika KladuĹĄa and GraÄ?anica from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Bitola from N. Macedonia. Which level best fits a utility depends on the availability of reliable data, benchmarking experience and ambition of the utility related to improvement of service and business improvement. In total, four national/subregional Hubs have been created in accordance with the EBC operating structure focusing on utilities in Kosovo & Albania, ExYU countries, Bulgaria and Ukraine. By establishing the Danube Hub, IAWD has upgraded the existing national and sub-regional Hubs, in order to support capacity building and the sharing of knowledge and experience among its members and other utilities located in the Danube region. The Hub concept ensures that participating utilities follow the same assessment methodology and SET-UP OF THE UTILITY BENCHMARKING PROGRAM




benchmarking activities at the national level, usually operated by the national water utility associations, there are also ongoing authority driven benchmarking activities (e.g. by regulatory agencies). The Utility Benchmarking Program of D-LeaP is fully focused on utility driven benchmarking activities. Compared to other UBP Hubs, the Danube Hub is purely international utility driven benchmarking and it is expected to fully replace former Ex-YU Hub. Nevertheless, it may be expected that national utility driven benchmarking activities will be intensified in near future and that number of new national UBP hubs may start to operate under the UBP of D-LeaP.

UNDERSTANDING UTILITY BENCHMARKING There are different definitions of benchmarking, but the one that is developed in the context of the Danube Hub is as follows: „Utility benchmarking is a quality management system tool, which utilize multidisciplinary approach to analyse all areas of utility performance and compare it with performance of peer utilities, toward setting of simulative and realistic goals for continuous performance improvement, and improvement of services toward citizens. “ (A.Krstić) From the definition provided above it may be recognized that utility benchmarking represents a foundation based on which decision makers in a utility decide on possible new structure of the company



organization, engagement of new personnel that my be needed to address certain issues where utility may be underperforming, or training for the existing team in the areas where they need to improve performance of the utility, and finally also on possible procurement of new tools, equipment or structures that may be needed in the process of performance improvemnt. Therefore, utility benchmarking program represents a foundation program of D-LeaP, which in addition offers number of technical and implementation programs. It also shows that utility benchmarking is essential for utility managers as it significantly contributes to the fundamental task of management, as defined by Peter Drucker in the quote provided below: “The fundamental task of management is to make people capable of joint performance through com-

mon goals, common values, the right structure, and the training and development they need to perform and to respond to change.� (P.Drucker)



REGIONAL COOPERATION TOWARD IMPROVING UTILITY SERVICES Provision of water supply and sewerage services is essential for residents of the Danube Region. Although the region generally has a high level of basic access to water and sewage services, the effectiveness and efficiency of these services does not always meet international standards. A recent regional survey (State of the Sector Report, World Bank, 2015) pointed to the need to strengthen the capacity of professional staff working in this sector in many countries in the region. This is partly due to the fluctuation of staff and management, and partly because of limited professional development and training opportunities. The Danube Learning Partnership (D-LeaP) is intended as part of the solution for this issue that IAWD and the national associations of water utilities from the Danube region have launched, with the aim of offering once developed training to all water supply and sewerage companies from the region, of course, with the adaptation and implementation of training through national water utility associations. The Utility Benchmarking Program for water and sewage companies is a foundation program within the D-LeaP initiative, and it is the starting point for all other trainings available to utilities in the region. We consider that it is especially important that the leading companies in the region take the initiative and become the flagships of national and regional associations in improving the work of the sector,

where we recognize the Danube benchmarking Hub as the main driver of the D-LeaP initiative. We are exceptionally grateful to all utility companies participating in the Danube Hub for benchmarking, which includes water and wastewater utility from Subotica, a company that is also a member of the IAWD. Moreover, this company, or better said its management and employees, wholeheartedly support every new initiative and work on improving the performance of not only their own company, but also of all other utility companies from the region interested in improvement, what is of paramount importance to the IAWD. With the signing of the Partnership Agreement between the four water utilities and their cities from three different countries, with the possibility of further enlargement of the number of signatories, a new chapter is opened in the possible further cooperation between the IAWD and NALAS regarding the identification and promotion of good practices in the region.



NENAD Ä?UKIĆ, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Srpska BiH

REFORM OF PUBLIC COMPANIES The reform of public companies must be viewed through three segments: Public companies that are a burden or which are seeking additional funds from the state budget, public utility companies owned by local self-government units, whose reform is urgently needed, and strategic public companies that are expected to be extremely profitable and be one of the sources of revenue for the budget of the Republic, whose reform must be carefully met with the goal of more efficient and productive business.

First and foremost, account must be taken of the satisfaction of the interests, expectations and needs of service users, but it is also important to achieve significant profit as a source of funds for investing in the development of these services. The competencies for designing and managing the water services policy and management are fragmented in several ministries and require very complex coordination that has not yet been sufficiently established, that is, the roles and responsibilities, rights and obligations of all participants at all le-


144 vels of government and local self-governments in enforcing regulations and plans, tariff policies, and provision of water services are not unambiguously defined. Therefore, in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, it would be useful to establish regulatory bodies for the water sector. In the region of the Western Balkans, such regulatory bodies are established, and Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia are the only two remaining countries where this mechanism has not yet been

established, but from the presentations we have seen, it can be concluded that the sector professionals and the competent institutions have joined in efforts to bring this kind of improvement to the work of the sectors in these countries. Of course, this final step in the institutionalization of regulation is never so simple and all the further support of national institutions and international organizations is extremely important, as well as the continued persistent work of the associations of water utilities and associations of local authorities.


WATERS F MONTENEGRO ČABA ŠANTA, Executive Director of Investments and Development of Subotica's Water and Sewerage utility

REDUCING NON-REVENUE WATER When water losses in the distribution system are observed with a "bare eye", then it can be seen that most of the water supply utilities in the region have a difference of approx. 40% and more between the water intake and the measured water consumption, and these losses can be even higher when revenue collection level is further considered. In addition to economic losses, it is necessary to approach non-revenue water systemically to enable the detection and diagnosis of hidden, avoidable water losses from distribution systems. This requires the territorial zoning of distribution networks, 24-

hour measurements, and flow and pressure management in the network. This requires the incentive funds of the state and local authorities for projects financing, provision of relatively expensive measurement and regulaton equipment and adequate software for managing the distribution system, which will, through the effects of loss reduction, provide investment funds and planned preventive maintenance of the network, which is insufficiently applied in a large number of utility companies in Serbia and the region.



146 PETAR PIŽURICA, Executive Director of the Subotica Water and Sewage Utility

THE DRIVE TO ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND INDEPENDENCE There is a small number of built, and especially functional wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in the region. There is even fewer of those utilities that treat sludge, as waste, to generate heat and electricity for their own needs on these plants. In addition to financial savings in the use of energy from the public hot water and electricity system, Subotica also contributes to environmental protection, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions in the


atmosphere, and reduction of greenhouse effects. This experience from Subotica needs to be shared with other water utilities that do not have built plants for wastewater treatment, but it is also needed to understand experiences of other utilities from the region which use heat accumulation and / or electricity from warm wastewater and from solar panels for these purposes.


STRIVING TOWARD INNOVATE WASTEWATER TREATMENT In the EU Blue Green Dream project, i.e. blue - green solutions for cities and utility companies in achieving sustainable quality of the environment, with the participation of the 5 leading European universities, research organizations and designers, an innovative methodology has been developed for planning, designing, managing, monitoring and maintaining new and revitalization of existing urban units. This methodology puts emphasis on the interaction of the blue infrastructure of urban waters and the green surface as a synergic network, with interactions with other urban infrastructure systems. In addition to the quality of urban life, the negative impacts of extreme weather conditions that result from climate change are reduced. Innovative technology for WWTP, which is complementary to the Blue Green Project, has a number of advantages compared to the conventional technology: it is cheaper for construction, lower costs of exploitation, production lines of sludge occupy much less urban land, they do not stink and can be decentralized in the city, what drastically reduces the cost of infrastructure for water transport to the plant, and solutions can also be integrated with a range of urban functions. In terms of wastewater treatment, Serbia is among lowest ranked countries in Europe. In the foreseeable future, it needs to build over 300 new wastewater treatment plants, not only because of meeting the ecological conditions for EU accession, but primarily because of the protection of the public health of own population. At this moment, in Serbia and the region, project do-

cumentation is developed massively, but unfortunately in an ad hock approach and almost exclusively based on the conventional obsolete technology of active sludge with open air basins. With the availability of the new technologies presented, and precisely due to delays in the construction of wastewater treatment facilities, Serbia today hast exceptional opportunity to save over € 1 billion only on the cost of wastewater treatment plants construction and in the process can become the leading country in the application of innovative technologies for wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, the question arises as to whether we are capable enough and bold to reorganize as a society and take advantage of this exceptional opportunity, or we will be slow and scared enough to build a large number of oversized unfunctional plants, whereby we will unreasonably shift all financial, environmental and intellectual burden to future generations. We have a choice which path we want to take, but the demonstration of cooperation among the leading water and sewage companies from the region, their local authorities, associations of utility companies and local self-governments, as well as the cooperation of representatives of the central government and international organizations we attended in Subotica these days, gives me the hope that there is still a possibility that we will choose the only right way and remain remembered as a generation that has taken decisive steps towards the rapid improvement of the lives and well-being of the citizens of Serbia and the region.


148 KATERINA SCHILLING, Knowledge Management and Capacity Building Coordinator, IAWD

INVOLVING THE COMMUNITY AND PROMOTING AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF WATER Most of the utility companies in the Danube River catchment area capture and distribute water to customers from a single and unique Danube-Carpathian basin of groundwater. At the level of this Region, it is necessary to establish co-operation in raising the capacity of utility companies to provide a good service, as well as to raise consumer awareness of the importance of drinking water and its rational consumption, through cooperation between states, national water associations, and associations of local authorities and water and sewage utility companies, because groundwater as the resource it is not inexhaustible, it is often very slowly renewed.

In addition to regulatory and tariff policies, it is necessary to establish and develop a range of educational activities, especially with young experts in the water sector, such as the Young Water Professionals initiative, but also in working with school children of a young age, because there is a synergy of knowledge between children, their teachers and parents. It is a very impressive example that has been implemented for several years through the projects of “Aquarius” of the Subotica water utility and the “Water Agent of the Danube Region”, which is being implemented by the Water Agency from Rogaška Slatina from Slovenia in several towns and schools of the Danube Region.



INCENTIVE TO INDIVIDUALS - BENCHMARKING COORDINATOR OF THE YEAR This year, honour of the Benchmarking Coordinator of the Year went to Mr. Petar Doroslovački from PUC Waterworks and Sewerage Subotica. In his long professional carrier, Petar Doroslovački coordinated benchmarking activities of Subotica utility for almost a decade, through cooperation with national and international institutions, such as International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities (IBNET), European Benchmarking Cooperation (EBC), Association for Water Technology and Sanitary Engineering (UTVSI), competent national, provincial and local authorities, etc. In that respect, Subotica utility is usually the first to join and support new capacity development activities and often the first utility to provide all requested data for benchmarking, even when participating in

the advance level of benchmarking. As part of activities on utility benchmarking coordination on behalf of Subotica utility company, Petar Doroslovački was instrumental in developing the Partnership Agreement between the 4 utilities and cities from 3 countries, which was signed on February 27 in the City Hall of Subotica, and which may be a turning point in more substantial cooperation between IAWD and NALAS at the regional level. The outstanding organization of the 2nd Danube Hub workshop and conference in Subotica further confirmed selection of Petar Doroslovački as the Benchmarking Coordinator of the Year.






152 ZETSKI DOM, CETINJE, 29.9.2018

29 SEPTEMBER 2018 CELEBRATING REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY COMPANY DAY Regional Water Supply System Montenegrin Coast celebrated its Company Day - 29 September in the Capital of Cetinje for the 6th time and at the same time celebrated the 43rd anniversary of its existence. It was an opportunity for the attendees to see a twenty-minute film and be reminded of numerous problems that the citizens of the Montenegrin coast have encountered due to water shortages, and also of all the visionaries and enthusiasts who designed and implemented the "Project that changed Montenegro". The construction of the Regional Water Supply System is the largest and most important in-

frastructure project completed in Montenegro after the renewed independence in 2006, in which 107 million euros were invested for the construction. This project, not only has sent water shortages to history and raised the quality of life of citizens of the Montenegrin coast, but has created and creates key preconditions for accelerated development of tourism industry. Among other things, owing to the Regional Water Supply, the former tourism revenue, which in 2007 amounted to 222 million euros, increased to over one billion euros in 2018, which is a sort of a record.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO The idea to build a regional water supply system for the Montenegrin Coast was born in 1975, 43 years ago. There are numerous reasons why this important infrastructure project has been waiting for such a long time to be completed: earthquake, sanctions, search for the most viable source, lack of funds .... Finally, the year 2007 turned, when Montenegro adopted a strategic decision on 15 February to intensify works on the completion of the regional water supply system, and regardless of the fact that the consequences of the global economic crisis began to be felt in the economic system of our country, from 2008, when the construction works commenced, until 2010, when the Montenegrin Coast was supplied the first quantities of water from the regional water supply system, the Government invested about 80 million euros in the completion of the first phase of this system, with the important support by the World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Abu Dhabi Development Fund, etc. In 2010, the municipalities of Budva, Kotor and Tivat were connected to the regional water supply system. Bar was connected in 2011, Ulcinj in 2012, whereas on 29 September 2013 a protocol on further cooperation related to the connection of the municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system was signed. Montenegro is a blessed country when it comes to water resources it has available and it should be our future strategic advantage in creating further policies for development of economy and a better life of citizens. However, although it was challenging to create such a demanding technical and technological system, no less challenging was to sustainably manage this valuable state property in the interest of a better life of citizens and protection of state interests. In the past few years, the Regional Water Supply Company Management has, in addition to the numerous challenges it has been facing, successfully, but not easily, resolved and significantly improved

overall operating performances, so the Regional Water Supply Company started to achieve positive financial results. These results are reflected in the increase of capacity utilization at annual level by 80%, the growth of water sales revenues by 100%, the regular servicing of large credit obligations (which amounted even to 70% of the total annual revenues of the company) and the reduction of total debt in that respect due to international financial institutions, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, by a total of 22 mill. euros for the previous period, that is, the indebtedness of the Regional Water Supply Company decreased from 36 to 14 million euros, with regular payments of all tax and other liabilities to the state of Montenegro, employees and business partners. It is interesting to note that for several years now, the PhD candidates of prestigious American and European universities participating in the UNESCO program dealing with karst research, have been visiting the source of Bolje Sestre, which represents a pearl of Europe to them, as part of their research endeavours, and the project itself causes admiration by all foreign experts, because the state of Montenegro has built such a magnificent infrastructure project that, even for much larger and richer countries, is an example of how to solve problems that limit economic growth and quality of life of population. That is precisely why the Regional Water Supply Company has important support from prestigious European and global organizations dealing with issues of sustainable water sector management. Thus, since May 2017, Regional Water Supply Company has been a full member of the International Association of Water Supply Companies in the Danube River Catchment Area, based in Vienna, and since June 2018, it has been a member of the European Association of Public Water Supply Companies based in Brussels, as the only water utility that is a member of this prestigious institution in




Brussels, not coming from a Member State of the European Union. The commitment to work by all employees of this state-owned company, and above all to the preservation of the source Bolje Sestre, as well as the new vision of the development of the water sector on the Montenegrin Coast created by the management of the Regional Water Supply Company, were given a new impetus at the end of 2017, when, after five years of global research by 30 most significant experts at the world level, under the auspices of UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), a group of experts included the Bolje Sestra source in the Map 150 of the most important karstic sources in the world. In cooperation with the Faculty of Mining and Geology from Belgrade, the Faculty of Civil Engineering

in Podgorica and the Institute for Geological Research of Montenegro, the Regional Water Supply Company from 29 to 31 May 2018 organized the UNESCO course titled "Characterization and Engineering of Karst Aquifers" in Montenegro, and during practical field work, which included additional underground stream tests within the Bolje Sestre water intake, results were confirmed on the sustainable possibilities for further increase in the capacity of the Bolje Sestre source, which in the long run eliminates the fear of Montenegro that global climate change will lead to the reduction of the yield of this important natural resource. Many invitees who attended this very important event were greeted by the Regional Water Supply Company Director, Mr. Goran Jevrić: „The year behind us brought many important bu-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO siness events and introduced new energy when it comes to Regional Water Supply Company as a kind of bloodstream of Montenegrin economy, which we had the opportunity to see in the film. These results were achieved owing to the efforts made by the employees and the Management Board, the support of the Government of Montenegro, the line Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism and other relevant state institutions. Only team commitment to the achievement of development goals can result in success on that path. We in the Regional Water Supply Company are ready for new challenges and new important achievements that will follow and which are appropriate for a project of this scope and such ambitions. On this issue, it is particularly important that the Regional Water Supply Company is committed to cooperate with the municipalities on the Montenegrin Coast to jointly solve the challenges for better water supply. I would especially like to point out the new policy of the president of the municipality of Bar, Dušan Raićević, in order to finally solve not negligible problems of water supply in one part of that municipality after several decades, together with the Regional Water Supply Company and Bar Water Supply Company, and for which we have the support of the Government of Montenegro, the line Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism, as well as the Ministry of Finance and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Also, I consider especially valuable the implementation of development projects through various cross-border programs and other bilateral arrangements that we are involved in at the recommendation of the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. I expect that in the following period, we will receive over a million euros for programs through the grants from European funds. Montenegro, as we have heard in the film, is a blessed country when it comes to water resources it

has at its disposal. It is our responsibility to manage this very important public policy responsibly and in a sustainable manner and to preserve the resources for future generations. Through established cooperation with UNESCO experts and our particularly dear friends from the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University of Montenegro, who are also with us tonight, we are on the way to create solutions for new water intakes in order to provide important additional quantities of water for the Montenegrin Coast and prevent various challenges, such as global climate change, which could in the future cause new problems of water shortages. In addition to the undisputed results achieved in the



156 previous period, 43 years of existence of the Regional Water Supply Company have been marked by numerous obstacles successfully overcome by our predecessors, who were then as we are today dominantly dedicated to the development of a regional system for the Montenegrin Coast, and thus to the protection of the most sensitive economic and overall social interests.“ The presence of Mr. Jaap Sprey, Head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development Office in Montenegro, contributed to the celebration of marking the Regional Water Supply Day, who thanked for being invited to attend this very important event, and pointed out that they were honoured in the EBRD to be related to this important project of the Regional Water Supply System and pointed out the continuity and importance of mutual cooperation: „We began cooperating with you back in 2007 when you started these projects that transformed everything, as we saw on the video. By 2010, I think we contributed to all these projects that we have just seen in the total loan amount of some 18 million euros. It is also very important that we have provided technical assistance to the company in terms of training staff to complete its projects. Recently, we have also developed a study on how the water supply organization in the coastal area could be significantly improved. As already mentioned, especially by Mr. Jevrić, and as you have seen on this promotional video, we are now in negotiations and we are talking about continuing to finance the further construction of the piping that would go to Herceg Novi, to Tivat, to certain parts of Bar, and we are also interested in building solar panels. First of all, I would like to thank Mr. Jevrić and his team on the results they have achieved and I look forward to future cooperation with this company. I wish Mr. Jevrić and his team continuous success and I look forward to our future cooperation.“ The Baroness Charlotte de Rothschild, world-re-

nowned artist with outstanding repertoire of songs from different epochs, countries and genres and Gitar Duo, which consists of internationally renowned and recognized guitarists dr Srdjan Bulatović and Darko Nikčević, gave virtuous and exciting performances that primarily included songs and music from Montenegro and thus contributed to successful and exceptional marking of the Regional Water Supply System Day. BARONESS CHARLOTTE DE ROTHSCHILD






In the past period, the management of the Regional Water Supply Company for the Montenegrin Coast conducted intensive activities towards the project: "Regional Water Supply System Expansion". The project team of the Regional Water Supply Company submitted all the necessary data and documentation required for the preparation of the Due Diligence Study by the Danish consulting company SWECO for the needs of the EBRD, which represents the final phase prior to obtaining a loan for financing this development project. The project consists of three components: the integration of the Herceg Novi municipality into the regional water supply system, the construction of a parallel pipeline from

Budva to Tivat, and the construction of a non-existent water supply and sewage network for the settlements of Dobra Voda and Veliki Pijesak in the Bar municipality. Two meetings were held with the EBRD representatives – one in Bar, attended by Lin O'Grady, Deputy Head in EBRD's Sustainable Infrastructure Group, and the other one in Budva, attended by First Vice President of the EBRD Jurgen Rigterink.


Procurement Advisor, PE "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje"

COOPERATION WITH THE EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (EBRD) A cooperation that spanned over the years between the Regional Waterworks and the European bank for Reconstruction and Development, which was the principal international lender during the construction of the first phase of the regional water supply system implemented in the period 2008-2012, as it invested 18 mil EUR including the subsequent grant provided by this institution which was aimed at drawing up the Study on the Reform of the Sector of the Montenegrin Coast Water Supply Sector, resulted in the initiation of a new major financial arrangement with this Bank, i.e. the funding for the implementation of the proposed development project of the Regional Waterworks Company. An amount of over EUR 24 million is planned in the forthcoming period for the implementation of the following projects: 1. connection of the municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system by the construction of 3.2 km long new pipeline in the territory of the municipality of Tivat; 2. the beginning of the phase 2 of construction of the regional water supply system by installing a new pipeline from Budva to Tivat, about 16 km long, which

will increase the distribution capacity for the municipalities of Kotor, Tivat and Herceg Novi from the current 330 to 750 liter per second; 3. solving the decades-old problem caused by the lack of a secondary water supply and sewerage network in the municipality of Bar (and possibly also in the municipality of Ulcinj), where there are about 20,000 individual households. During several visits of the EBRD High Representatives to Regional Waterworks Company, the interest in financing the above mentioned priority development projects was confirmed, in addition to the expressed intention of the Bank to finance, at its own expense, the following: • Technical assistance to the project, • Feasibility study for a project component related to the energy efficiency, • Preparation and implementation of water sector reform, and • Potential Financial and Operational Management Improvement Project (FOPIP) Which will strengthen the capacities of the PE Regional Waterworks.


160 The financial arrangement entails provision of a loan for funding the infrastructure projects under extremely favorable terms and conditions, including a longer grace period and a low interest rate. The funds would be withdrawn from the Bank according to the dynamics of the development of individual projects and their phases, which would further reduce the risks of regular business operations, especially in the first years of project development. The loan arrangement envisages the issuance of state guarantees by the Government of Montenegro, whereas the 2019 Budget Law included the state guarantees in the estimated amount of the first tranche of EUR 12 million. In order to connect the municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system, it is necessary to develop the water supply infrastructure that could supply up to 200 l/s of high quality water to this municipality, in such a way that 130 l/s can be delivered to the Herceg Novi Riviera, from Sveta Nedelja to Zelenika, while the additional 70 l/s will be intended for the area of ​​the Luťtica Peninsula which belongs to Herceg Novi municipality. This would solve decades-long water supply issues in the Herceg Novi Riviera, culminating in periodic restrictions on water supply during the summer tourist season, as well as create conditions for the construction of a water supply network in the Lustica Peninsula, where the water supply issue is not currently addressed and regulated. For this purpose, over the past couple of years, PE Regional Waterworks has already invested over 400,000 Euros of its own generated revenues only in the section from PK Tivat towards the municipality of Herceg Novi. Also, for this planned investment project project documentation has been prepared, property and legal relations have been resolved and a building permit obtained. With this in mind, it has been proposed to the EBRD representatives to initiate the tendering activities before the formal conclusion of the loan agreement, so that the

construction works can begin after the end of the summer tourist season. In order to achieve better quality of the executed works, shorten the deadlines for the construction of public and national interest infrastructure projects, as well as to provide savings estimated at the amount of at least EUR 3 million, the Transport Administration of Montenegro and PE Regional Waterworks have agreed on joint implementation of the projects for construction of the Boulevard on the section Jaz - Tivat Airport and the new pipeline of the regional water supply system from Budva to Tivat, in total about 16 km long. Due to the fact that both projects are implemented from the EBRD loan, a unique tender procedure will be carried out for the selection of a joint contractor under both projects. It should be noted that the implementation of the project of connecting the municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system and the commencement of the construction of phase 2 of the regional water supply system by installing a new pipeline from Budva to Tivat is certainly a priority in 2019, in terms of the commencement of the field work, while regarding particular activities on the construction of water supply and sewerage infrastructure in the southern part of the territory of the municipality of Bar and possibly in Ulcinj, it is necessary to first draw up the technical documentation and start resolving property and legal issues as a requirement before the initiation of the construction works. The implementation of the proposed development projects will, once they have been completed, improve not only the life of the local population and the development of the tourism industry, but also increase the annual utilization rate of the regional water supply system, that is, maintain and further strengthen the achieved financial stability of the company.


AN IMPORTANT STEP TOWARDS A WATER SUPPLY SOLUTION FOR BAR A delegation of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), led by Lin O'Grady, visited Bar on 3 October 2018 and, joined by the Regional Water Supply Company, had a meeting with the Mayor of Bar Dusan Raicevic. It is important to note that the delegations of the EBRD and the Regional Water Supply Company, prior to the meeting in Bar, visited the settlement of Dobra Voda, which is one of the largest non-served areas in Montenegro, and had talks with representatives of tourism industry, who expressed from their point of view the need for having the water issues in this part of the Bar municipality resolved, after a number of decades. At the meeting in Bar, the mayor Dusan Raicevic expressed his satisfaction for being able to confirm with certainty that one of the most important issues

for inhabitants of Dobra Voda will be resolved. He pointed out that this is also a continuation of successful cooperation with the Regional Water Supply Company, which was reinvigorated to the mutual satisfaction at the end of August this year, on which occasion significant joint projects were announced. He recalled that a working group was appointed at that time, which completed its tasks with success, and noted that urgent measures regarding water supply provided by the programme will be implemented very soon. Furthermore, he said that the water supply project for Dobra Voda is a great challenge for the Regional Water Supply Company, but also an obligation for the Bar municipality and the local water and sewerage company to jointly solve the problem that our citizens have been facing for many years. He was particularly pleased by the fact



that the EBRD representatives have understood the local government mission, which is the accelerated development of the city as a tourist destination, and thanked them for showing determination and taking the time to visit the relevant areas and assure themselves of the pressing need of the population. Raicevic pointed out, among other things, that the Regional Water Supply Company has the expertise and potential, by working together with the Bar municipality and the local water utility, and with the financial and any other necessary assistance of the EBRD, to implement this important project and expressed readiness to continue cooperation with the EBRD in future, towards the implementation of joint projects to their mutual benefit. The director of the Regional Water Supply Com-

pany stated that today we have made a significant step for Bar and citizens of Dobra Voda settlement towards solving their problem of water supply and expressed satisfaction by the fact that our partners from the EBRD visited this beautiful settlement. Also, Jevric pointed out that during the previous day he had meetings in the Ministry of Finance with the minister of sustainable development and tourism Pavle Radulovic and minister of finance Darko Radunovic and their teams, who gave absolute and decisive support for solving the business challenges that the Regional Water Supply Company has with the Austrian company Strabag. Minister Radunovic said that, by next Friday, their team will define the most sustainable solution that will be forwarded to the Government for further procedural treatment,

WATERS F MONTENEGRO in order to overcome the large problem of the company that still manages to operate regularly, in spite of the 51-day long blockade of their account. However, as Jevric emphasized, these challenges did not stop the company's efforts to implement development projects and he was very encouraged by the views of ministers Radulovic and Radunovic who supported the RegiLIN O'GRADY, HEAD OF EBRD DELEGATION AND DUŠAN onal Water Supply ComRAIČEVIĆ, THE MAYOR OF THE MUNICIPALITY BAR pany, encouraging them to work with the EBRD on creating a model to finance the development projects such as: connecting the Government on the construction of a boulevard Herceg Novi municipality with the regional water from Budva to Tivat, which naturally opens the way supply system, constructing the 2nd phase pipeline to the possibility for installation of the secondary piextension from Budva to Tivat and solving the wa- peline along the route of the boulevard, to expand ter and wastewater problems in Dobra Voda. These the capacity of the regional water supply system projects will be for the benefit of residents of Her- and provide additional quantities of water in line ceg Novi and Bar, and the support of line ministries, with the developmental needs of the area served by through the cooperation with the EBRD, is a signifi- this system. She was extremely impressed by the cant step towards achieving a sustainable solution scenic beauty of Dobra Voda and expressed readito the long-standing challenge faced by the munici- ness for the Bank to jointly implement projects in palities of Bar and Herceg Novi. Bar in cooperation with the Bar Municipality and Lin O'Grady pointed out that the successful relati- Regional Water Supply Company, so that signature onship between the EBRD and the Regional Water of the agreement may occur by the end of the first Supply Company has lasted for a decade and that quarter of 2019. the EBRD team is fully committed to the implementation of the projects conceived by the Regional The meeting ended with the conclusion that all parWater Supply Company, which are very important ties involved in the project should make maximum for the development of the Montenegrin Coast. That effort for all the plans to be carried out by the inincludes, in particular, the connection of the city of dicated time, in order to take advantage of the wiHerceg Novi to the regional water supply system. llingness of all of them to have the two-decade long In addition to the above, the Bank cooperates with problem of Bar finally solved.





Delegation of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, led by the First Vice-President of the Bank Jurgen Rigterink, paid a visit to Regional Water Supply Company on 19 February 2019, for final negotiations on the approval of a loan for the implementation of the Regional Water Supply System Expansion Project for the Montenegrin Coast. This is the sixth visit of the EBRD senior officials to the Regional Water Supply Company in the last year and represents the final mission prior to the approval of the loan intended for the implementation of development projects designed by the Regional Water Supply Company in line with the development needs of the Montenegrin Coast. Jurgen Rigterink, First Vice President and Head of Client Services Group, said that during the two-day visit to Montenegro he met with President Djukanovic and Prime Minister Markovic as well as with business entities, including Regional Water Supply Company. The reason for visiting this company was

the approval of an EBRD loan in the amount of EUR 26 million for development projects. Impressed by the results achieved in the past few years, Mr. Rigterink confirmed that he expected the first tranche of EUR 10 million loan for connecting Herceg Novi municipality to the regional water supply system before the beginning of the summer, after which the second tranche will be approved in the amount of EUR 16 million. Regional water supply system is the largest infrastructure project implemented in Montenegro since the renewal of the country independence through cooperation between the Government of Montenegro, the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In addition to traditionally good cooperation with the Regional Water Supply Company, their results achieved in the previous period, which are reflected in the improvement of overall business performance, have led the EBRD in deciding to continue to support the deve-

WATERS F MONTENEGRO lopment vision of the company. The meeting once again confirmed the justification of the slogan "A Project that Transformed Montenegro" that refers to this important project. Director Goran Jevric pointed out that he is very pleased with the results of the meeting with the First Vice President of the Bank and his associates, and that this support comes at the right moment, in view of the large challenge faced by the company a 189-day long freezing of the company account due to a dispute with the Austrian company Strabag. "The participants in the meeting highlighted the excellent cooperation with the multidisciplinary fifteen-member team of the Danish company SWECO, the EBRD's consultant for the preparation of the due diligence study, which expressed a positive opinion on the company financial standing, allowing it to implement projects within its development vision in a sustainable way. The Government of Montenegro will support these projects by sovereign guarantees,

and the project of connecting Herceg Novi municipality to the regional water supply system is seen as a priority. According to our partner, credit support for this phase of the project will be approved in the second quarter of this year, while for the other two project components, i.e. construction of the secondary pipeline for the municipalities of Kotor, Tivat and Herceg Novi, which will increase the existing capacity from 330 l/s to 750 l/s, and construction of the missing water and wastewater infrastructure for the settlement of Dobra Voda in the Bar municipality, the funds will be approved next year. This is an evidence that this reputable financial institution appreciates the results that the Regional Water Supply Company has achieved and recognizes our company as one of the key implementing agencies of the future development of the Montenegrin economy, and this impetus in the form of a loan will enable Regional Water Supply Company to get additional financial capacity needed for the forthcoming development period," said Jevric.



GORAN JEVRIĆ, Director of PE "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje"

“WE WOULD LIKE TO THANK OUR BUSINESS PARTNERS AND FRIENDS FOR THEIR UNCONDITIONAL SUPPORT” At the “Bolje Sestre” water source today, the company Regional Waterworks for Montenegrin Coast organised a business meeting with business partners who unconditionaly stood by the Regional Waterworks’ side, thus enabling its preservation, during the biggest business challenge in the 44 years of the Regional Waterworks System’s operations, which was caused by blocked transaction accounts for an unbelievably long period of 268 days, from 14 August 2018 to 9 May 2019, the company Regional Waterworks said in a statement.

“Over one hundred business partners of the PE Regional Waterworks were able—through a site visit to the “Bolje Sestre” water intake, as the largest intake structure constructed in the Mediterranean since 1975, and as of 2017 one of the 150 most important karst sources on the UNESCO Global Map, compiled by experts from UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrogeologists—to learn about the technical and technological complexity of this infrastructure project which is the largest among those implemented in Montenegro since it regained inde-


pendence in 2006,” the Regional Waterworks representatives underlined. The film “On the Beginnings of the Project That Changed Montenegro,” which was shown at the start of the meeting, further supported—as the organisers put it—the business partners’ impressions regarding their already confirmed understanding of the importance of the regional water supply system, both for all citizens in the coastal region and the tourists, and for the state of Montenegro. As a curiosity of this business gathering, they cited the initiative of the former Mayor of Podgorica, dr Jovan Kavarić, who wanted the Regional Waterworks to save two wonderful songs from oblivion—“Bolja Sestro” and “Žabljak Crnojevića” by Veselin Brnović—and they were on this occasion arranged and

performed by the famous Montenegrin musicians Mirsad and Žuti Serhatlić. Goran Jevrić, the director of the PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast” informed the partners about the current situation in this company, as well as about the vision of its future development, pointing out that they hadn’t gathered at Bolje Sestre because of the Regional Waterworks, but that the Regional Waterworks survived to that day exclusively because of their understanding of the importance of the regional water supply system for the country. “With your support, which the PE Regional Waterworks can never forget, in a sustainable manner you ensured that the employees, despite inappropriately difficult working conditions, were able



to protect the highly vulnerable national interests which are reflected in the continuous supply of water to the Montenegrin coast during the record-breaking tourism season of 2018. Would we be able to talk about tourism in 2018 and now in 2019 had the regional water supply system stopped supplying water? This didn’t happen because, together with you, our valued business partners, the employees managed to perform all business tasks, and we in the management and the Management Board succeeded, in a sustainable manner thanks to such an environment, in managing considerable business challenges during such a long period,” concluded Jevrić. He pointed out how one thing was sure: without the kind and professional support of their partners, they wouldn’t have succeeded. “For this reason, we have gathered today at the Skadar Lake, a protected natural jewel, at the “Bolje Sestre” water source, from where life and health have been flowing for centuries, and I want to believe that we are aware of this valuable water resource which is significant for the sustainable development not just of the coast, but of all of Montenegro,” said Jevrić, who pointed out especially “the decisive support of the Prva Banka which helped the PE Regional Waterworks and our families survive despite

the fact that the employees hadn’t been receiving salaries from 26 July 2018 to 10 May 2019, for which I want to express my own and the gratitude of all employees of the Regional Water Supply System to Prva Banka, who stood by the Regional Waterworks even when other banks didn’t.” The representatives of the PE Regional Waterworks’ management issued Letters of Appreciation to the business partners who decisively contributed to the functioning of the regional water supply system during the 268 when the Company’s bank accounts were blocked. The President of the Bar Municipality, Dušan Raičević, used the opportunity to congratulate, on behalf of his local administration, all employees and the management of the Regional Waterworks on successfully resolving the challenge which this company faced in the previous year. “The cooperation of the Bar Municipality and the PE Regional Waterworks continues to improve, which is reflected in increased quantities of water taken from the regional water supply system. Also, we owe our gratitude to the Regional Waterworks for accepting our strategic goal to join together for the construction of missing water supply infrastructure in waterless areas, with prominent tourism activities, or more precisely in the settlements of Dobre Vode, Veliki Pijesak and Utjeha,” Raičević said. The President of the Tivat Municipality, dr Siniša Kusovac, said that the letter of appreciation is an honour for the Tivat Municipality, having in mind that it is awarded by the company PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast.” “Through the very presentation of the film, the fact is confirmed that this is a company which has a development dimension, while the blocking they faced only posed a passing difficulty in the lifecycle of a company. And this is precisely a quality of the great, who move forward to new development projects despite major challenges,” Kusovac stated.







Within the Protocol on Cooperation with the University of Montenegro and an active participation in the scientific research projects aimed at improving the water sector, PE "Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast", as an associate partner, collaborated with the Faculty of Civil Engineering, as a partner in the Erasmus + Project SWARM (Strengthening of Master Curricula in Water Resources Management for the Western Balkans HEIs and Stakeholders). On July 17, 2019, a meeting was held between the Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Prof. dr Marina Rakočević, with associates and Goran Jevrić, Director of the PE Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast, with associates, regarding the cooperation of the two institutions on the Project SWARM. At the meeting, the representatives of the Regional Waterworks were briefed on the organizational structure and a current status of the SWARM Project, as

well as their potential role in the project. Particular consideration was given to possible ways of mutual cooperation that would contribute to a better realization of the project objectives, in the part of practical trainings and training of water sector professionals in the water and utility companies in Montenegro. It was concluded that the development and implementation of courses for the so-called "lifelong learning" of professional staff in the water sector in Montenegro is a task and goal that the two institutions can jointly achieve with other partners in the SWARM project by early 2021 (as estimated by the project), and thus make a significant contribution to enhancing staff capacity for successful management of water resources in Montenegro. In addition to cooperation on the SWARM project, the representatives also discussed the future forms of cooperation on joint scientific research projects of these two institutions.

WATERS F MONTENEGRO MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT INITIATED A PROFESSIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN THE CIJEVNA RIVER AND THE “BOLJE SESTRE” WATER SPRING The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Montenegro and the Hydrometeorological Institute, has begun testing the connection of groundwater of the Cijevna River with the water sources in the surrounding area of the riverbed, as well as with the “Bolje Sestre” spring. Groundwater flow testing was supported through the IPA 2014 project “Capacity Building for the Implementation of the Water Framework Directive” implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in cooperation with international partners. This activity has been defined as one of the duties at the recently held first meeting of the Water Council, formed by the Government, with the task of contributing, as an advisory and expert body, to the implementation of water management policies aimed at the protection and sustainable management of waters in Montenegro, as well as the resolution of numerous local and global water challenges. The assessment is performed by the standard research methods which involve the introduction of a special substance, sodium fluoroscein, which has been used for decades in the field of hydrogeology for detecting the groundwater flow directions and to understand the connection between groundwaters and surface waters. The Geological Survey has provided full scientific support for the accomplishment of this task, and additional research will be conducted by the Hydrometeorological Institute in order to monitor the tested underground flows. PE Regional Waterworks, whose experts will

monitor the status of the water spring "Bolje Sestre", is also participating in the project. If the colored water does not appear at the “Bolje Sestre” spring, it will confirm that there is no correlation of the fluvioglacial sediments of this part of the Zeta Plain with the “Bolje Sestre” water spring, due to the natural barrier of the Morača River. “Bolje Sestre” water spring There is no room for concern about the quality and safety of water, because the substance introduced is harmless to both, living beings and the environment, and it is rapidly degraded. The Ministry of Agriculture plans to conduct similar research at other locations in the forthcoming period. The plan is to map all groundwaters in Montenegro so that the underground water connections can be established with certainty, which would enable activities on their protection, as the most important natural resource in Montenegro.



PE REGIONALNI VODOVOD AT THE VIENNA CONFERENCE "DESTINATIONS ON THE RISE 2019 - MONTENEGRO" Representatives of the management of the PE Regionalni vodovod, as part of a Montenegrin economic delegation led by the deputy Prime Minister and the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, Mr Milutin Simović, as well as the president of the Montenegrin Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Vlastimir Golubović, took part in the Conference "Destinations on the Rise 2019 - Montenegro", which was held in Vienna on the 16th and 17th of May 2019, and organized by Southeast Europe Business Development Network (SEEBDN) and Grimex Consult, in cooperation with the renowned Austrian publisher "Die Presse”, and with support from the Montenegrin Government.    Through a short film made in German, the PE Regionalni vodovod presented to prominent Austrian and Montenegrin businesspeople and officials the Project That Changed Montenegro – the largest infrastructural project implemented in Montenegro since its renewed independence, the regional water

supply system for the Montenegrin Coast, as well as presented 8 development projects which totalled at around 100 million euros in investment value, and which will be implemented in the coming period with the help of the Montenegrin Government and international financial institutions. In his short address to the participants, the Director of PE Regionalni vodovod, Mr Goran Jevrić, pointed to the significance of sustainable management of water resources, especially in light of the growing global and climate change challenges present in the 21st century. He also expressed his satisfaction and gratitude to the organizers for the opportunity to speak about these issues in Vienna specifically, a city which, alongside its many landmarks and notable natural beauty, also boasts very high standards of sustainable water management.


ONE MILLION OF IPA FUNDS GRANTED Although the Regional Waterworks Company only resumed its regular operations on 9th of May, after its bank accounts were frozen for 268 days, owing to the extraordinary efforts of all its employees and crucial support from its business partners the system was, in a very short time span, prepared for functioning at its maximal technical capacity during the tourist season. PE Regionalni vodovod has been a trusted and reliable partner to the tourist industry on the Montenegrin Coast for nine years, since the vision of the Montenegrin government to solve the decades-long problem of water shortages resulted in an environment that enables a higher quality of life for the local population, as well as the development of the tourist industry. A definite priority for the PE Regionalni vodovod is providing a regular water supply of high-quality drinking water to the Montenegrin coast, although for the last three years the management of the Company has been dedicated to creating a new vision for development and implementing development programs. The continued support that the PE Regionalni vodovod receives from the Government and foreign financial institutions in this part of its work is certainly a positive indicator of the significance and capacities of this unique system. Owing to an initiative by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and with the support of the Government’s IPA Project Office, the PE Regionalni

vodovod, in a very short time period and while it was operating its system under adverse circumstances and with frozen accounts, prepared projects and received valuable international and financial support in the form of a grant of one million euros as part of the Interreg IPA Cross-Border Program Italy-Albania-Montenegro 2014-2020. Potential candidates for the funds given as part of this Program entered their projects in the fields of environmental protection, energy efficiency, culture, tourism, traffic and transportation, competitiveness and innovation. The first priority of the Program is supporting small and medium-size businesses, improving the frameworks for their business operations, cooperation and exchange of experience between Montenegro, Albania and Italy. According to the Agreement on implementing the project which was named CROSSWATER, the PE Regionalni vodovod will implement the following projects: 1- Determining the borders of protection zone III of the Bolje Sestre water source; 2 - Construction of remote monitoring stations; 3 - Researching the possibility of utilizing additional water sources and intakes in order to increase the capacities of the regional water supply system; 4 - Creating project documentation, procurement and installation of fine drinking water filters; 5 - Construction of measuring and regulation block in front of the PS Budva; 6 Procuring GPS devices; 7 - Procuring equipment for detecting and measuring leaking in the system.


176 2018 WORK REPORT:

PE "REGIONALNI VODOVOD CRNOGORSKO PRIMORJE" GENERATED INCOME OF EUR 7.67 MILLION, DESPITE THE FROZEN BANK ACCOUNTS Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast has recorded a total income of EUR 7.67 million in 2018, which is a record and the highest amount in 44 years of business operations of the company, according to the work reports of the largest infrastructure company in Montenegro. Due to the court case and litigation with the Austrian Strabag, the company account was permanently blocked for nine months, of which 139 days in 2018, which affected the business of Regional Waterworks and led to the suspension of all development activities, as well as the Public procurement plan of the Regional Waterworks company. According to the 2018 Work Report, a document that the Government positively assessed, last year Regional Waterworks delivered 25 percent more water than contracted to the local water supply companies in the south of the country.

After the representatives of Ulcinj had signed an unlimited term agreement for the annual water supply from RW at the end of September 2018, Herceg Novi remained the only coastal municipality that did not have such an opportunity. Regional Waterworks company supplied the water permanently, or as needed, to six local water supply companies. At the end of the year, Regional Waterworks income amounted to EUR 3.43 million and was the same as in 2016, i.e. 3.78 % lower than in 2017. More than a third of the total amount was accounted to the Municipality of Budva - EUR 1.29 million for water distributed from the regional water supply system. Kotor was accounted an amount of EUR 777,812, Tivat EUR 675,726 and Bar EUR 411,600, Ulcinj was accounted EUR 174,811, while the accounted water for Herceg Novi amounted to EUR 103,559 and this amount only includes the second half of the year.


On the other hand, in 2018, local water supply companies’ invoices totaled at EUR 3.67 million. For Budva, this amount is EUR 1.38 million, for Kotor EUR 832.259, Tivat EUR 701.758, Bar EUR 457.784, Ulcinj EUR 187.047, and Herceg Novi EUR 110.808. Regarding last year's and earlier receivables, in 2018, Regional Waterworks company managed to collect EUR 3.94 million. However, on the last day of last year the outstanding receivables of all companies together amounted to EUR 248,356, with the municipality of Bar which had an outstanding amount of EUR 111,442. The 2016 Law on Regional Water Supply of the Montenegrin Coast establishes a new amount of fees for investors who intend to build on the coast, at one percent of the estimated value of the investment, but not less than eight euros per square meter of gross construction area. In this case, too, special pri-

vileges are given to those who develop projects of four and five star hotels, but the report records the 18.44 percent increase in revenues collected on the basis of this fee comparing to those in 2017. Thus, through revenues from fees, Regional Waterworks generated a total inflow of EUR 4.04 million, of which EUR 1.34 million for the territory of Tivat municipality and 1.26 million for Budva. After the company accounts were blocked, due to the lack of the operational funds, the functioning of the Regional Waterworks company was hampered since the equipment failures could not be eliminated. Therefore, the system was operated in the so-called manual mode instead of remotely, which involved a significant effort but also increased operational risk. Also, the inability to maintain the system increased technical losses, still with the acceptable, low level of water leakage for Montenegro.



PUBLIC ENTERPRISE PE "REGIONALNI VODOVOD CRNOGORSKO PRIMORJE" IS TO BE TRANSFORMED IN A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY By approving the Articles of Association of the DOO "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje", at its session held on 18 July 2019, the Government of Montenegro created the conditions for the transformation of this Public Enterprise into a Limited Liability Company. Acting pursuant to the provisions of the Company Law, the Government of Montenegro, at its session of November 10, 2017, adopted the Decision on the establishment of the Limited Liability Company "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" ("Official Gazette of Montenegro", No. 79/17), setting 8 February 2018 as the deadline for adoption of the the Company's Articles of Association. This deadline could not be met until it was determined beforehand whether the Company would be established as a one-member or two-member company. Namely, the Investment and Development Fund, on behalf of the Government of Montenegro, invested some funds in the construction of the Regional water supply system and, as such, in addition to the Government, had a share in the assets of the company. By resolving the dilemma over the structure of the founders, i.e. by deciding to establish the Company with the Government a sole shareholder, the preconditi-

ons for the adoption of the Articles of Association were created. The additional delay with the passing and adoption of the Statute was due to the procedure of freezing the bank accounts of the PE "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" for several months, regarding the dispute that this company has with the company Strabag. With the removal of the said procedure, with great efforts of the management of this public company and with the full support of the Government of Montenegro and the competent ministries, all conditions for the adoption of the Articles of Association of the Company were created. The Articles of Association of the Company shall, in accordance with the law, closely specify the activities of the Company, the basis of the organization of operations, rights, obligations and responsibilities, appointment, dismissal and termination of the term of office of the bodies, publicity of work and other issues of importance for the business operation of the Company. Pursuant to the adopted Articles of Association, the core business activity of the Company shall be: collection, treatment and distribution of water in accordance with the Law on Regional Water Supply of the


Montenegrin Coast. In addition to these statutory activities, the Company is expected to carry out the following activities: production of fruit juices; production of beer, soft drinks, mineral water and other bottled water; electricity production; sewage disposal; wholesale of beverages; pipeline transport; cable telecommunications; renting and operating own or leased real estate; business entity management; engineering and technical consultancy; technical testing and analysis. The share capital of the Company, which has its registered office in Budva, shall be made up of a cash and non-cash contribution taken over from the Public Company "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje". The cash contribution shall be EUR 1,000, while the non-cash contribution shall amount to EUR 64,101,495. The Articles of Association provide that the bodies of the Company shall be: the Board of Directors and the Executive Director, as well as that the President of the Board of Directors shall act independently in performing this function.

The Articles of Association entered into force eight days after the publication in the Official Gazette of Montenegro. Activities are now underway to transform the company and appoint the Company's bodies, as well as its registration in the Central Register of Business Entities. On the day of registration in the Central Register of Business Entities, the Limited Liability Company "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" will take over employees, equipment, assets, property, documentation and rights and obligations of the Public Company " Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje". The Government Information on the Activities Required for the Initiation of the Limited Liability Company "Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" states that since the distribution of the first quantities of water since 2010, until now, PE " Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje" fully justified the reasons for its existence, that is, at all times the company managed to provide quality and continuous supply of sufficient amount of quality drinking water to the municipalities at the Montenegrin coast.



A TENDER FOR THE CONNECTION OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF HERCEG NOVI TO A REGIONAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM HAS BEEN ANNOUNCED ON THE REGIONALNI VODOVOD COMPANY DAY On Sunday, September 29, 2019, the Company Day of the PE Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast and a 9-year anniversary sinnce the regional water supply system operation

Ministry of Finance, has been preparing the tender documentation for the announcement of the public tender,” said Goran Jevric, Director of the Regional Waterworks Company.

“This year's celebration of the Company Day of the Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast was more busy than festive, considering the fact that on this day the Company announced a tender for the connection of the Municipality of Herceg Novi to the regional water supply system. Following the procedures of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, over the last few months the Regional Waterworks Company, supported by the competent ministries, the Ministry of Sustainable Development and Tourism and the

On the occasion of the Regional Waterworks Company Day, a Special Letter of Appreciation will be presented to the Minister of Sustainable Development and Tourism, Mr. Pavle Radulović, on behalf of the Government of Montenegro, for their support, understanding and joint efforts in safeguarding the public interest and running the regular business operations of the Montenegrin Coast water supply system during the period of emergency business conditions, with the Company bank accounts from August 14, 2018 to May 9, 2019, as well

WATERS F MONTENEGRO as for the up-to-date results of mutual stable and quality cooperation and professional support and understanding. On this occasion, all employees and members of the Board of Directors were also awarded a Special recognition for their exceptional effort and true dedication to performing their tasks and duties and maintaining the regular functioning of the Montenegrin Coast water supply system in emergency business conditions during the period from 14 August 2018 to 9 May 2019. With their responsible and selfless devotion, as well as endurance, they made a remarkable contribution to the successful realization of all business tasks and goals during the most challenging period of operation over the 44 years of functioning of the PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast“. A thank you note sends a message of the prevailing sense of teamwork and synergy among employees, management and the Board members, as well as the team spirit present: “You have shown corporate loyalty and professionalism that we can be proud of, because you put the public interest of the wider community ahead of your own. With an exceptional professional and personal understanding, you persisted in all the challenges during the 268-day long account lockout in the realization of an important public activity, which is reflected in the continuous supply of high quality drinking water to the municipalities at the Montenegrin coast. We are proud of the staff consisting of such individuals and we do believe that your support, strength, energy and professional ethics are the guarantee of our mutual, successful future, which makes the new vision for the development of the PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast" realistic and sustainable. " A Letter of Recognition was also awarded to the Mayor of the Municipality of Golubovci, Ms. Tanja

Stajović, for her successful cooperation in the protection of the “Bolje Sestre” water intake. At the end of his speach, Mr. Jevrić concluded: “The tenth anniversary of the operation of the regional water supply system next year, when we will also celebrate the 45 year anniversary since the establishment of the Regional Waterworks Company, will be a year of further development. After years of preparation, the Regional Waterworks Company will complete the construction of the Phase 1 of the system during 2020, start developing the Phase 2 through the cooperation with the Transport Directorate, as well as initiate activities to mitigate the water supply issues in the settlements of Dobra Voda and Veliki Pijesak within the cooperation with the Municipality of Bar. These projects will be financed from the loans granted by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. It is particularly important to point out that the joint implementation of the projects of the construction of a Boulevard and the installation of a new, double water pipeline at the section Budva-Tivat, for which the Government and the competent ministries have already provided support, will result in multimillion budget savings.“ During the year 2019, on 29th September, the PE “Regional Waterworks for the Montenegrin Coast“ has increased the volume of agreed quantities with the municipalities for this period by 19%, i.e. recorded an increase of 8% comparing to the distributed quantities at the same period of 2018.


182 IN MEMORIAM PROF. DR MIĆKO RADULOVIĆ (1948 - 2019.) full professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro

IT WAS A PRIVILEGE TO WORK ALONGSIDE THE GREATEST EXPERT IN THE FIELD OF WATER RESOURCES Full professor at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, and full member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of Montenegro, Prof. dr Mićko Radulović, passed away on 18 April 2019 at the age of 70. This prominent scientist and author in the field of engineering geology and hydrogeology was born in Nikšić, where he finished the Gymnasium. He graduated from the Faculty of Mining and Geology in Belgrade, department for engineering geology and hydrogeology, where he also obtained his PhD in 1997, in the field of karst hydrogeology. Since 1993, he had been employed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Montenegro, where he was made full professor in 2008, for the courses of Geology and Engineering Geology. The scientific work of Professor Mićko Radulović in the field of karst hydrogeology has been met with acclaim in the academic circles, both in the country and abroad. Within the scope of his scientific research activities, he managed or participated in a large number of scientific projects. He published over 80 scientific papers in national and interna-

tional journals; he was the author or co-author of 16 separate publications (books, university textbook, monographs, bibliographies, hydrogeological and ecological manuals, printed hydrogeological maps with legends, etc.). He reviewed numerous valuable books and monographs. The book Montenegrin Karst Hydrogeology, which has been quoted by many local and international researchers, deals with highly complex hydrogeological issues for the entire territory of Montenegro and represents a significant scientific contribution to the knowledge about the karst hydrogeology in Montenegro and in general. Of special importance is also the book Water Potentials of Montenegro, where he—as one of the authors—addresses the groundwaters of karst terrains in Montenegro. During his lifetime, he participated in the preparation and implementation of many complex projects in the field of hydrogeology, engineering geology, geotechnics and seismic geology. As site manager or associate, he prepared a large number of projects, studies and reports in said fields, hydrogeological and engineering geology maps of different scales and purposes, and seismic geology maps. He performed

WATERS F MONTENEGRO geotechnical supervision or participated in the performance of complex geological surveys for tunnels (Sozina, Vrmac, Ivica) and bridges on the Morača River (Union Bridge, Millennium Bridge, Moračica), the Cijevna River, the Ribnica River, the Marsenića River and others. With the implementation of hydrogeological research projects—which he managed or in which he participated as an associate—conditions were created to solve the issue of water supply for many settlements across Montenegro, including the regional water supply of Montenegro’s coast from the Bolje Sestre source. Professor Radulović was actively involved in the work of numerous professional associations in the country and abroad in the field of geology and related disciplines, either as a full member or president. He was also a member or manager of many expert teams tasked with solving complex problems in the field of water and geotechnics, such as the Executive Board of the Yugoslav Society for Rock Mechanics and Underground Works, the Executive, Organising and Editorial Board of the Yugoslav Committee for Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology, the Organisational Committee of the Congress of Geologists of Yugoslavia, the Speleological Society of Montenegro, the Expert Council for Energy, the Expert Council for the Utilisation of the Hydropower Potentials of Watercourses, the Scientific Council of the National Parks of Montenegro, the Expert Group of the Government of Montenegro for the assessment of the possibility to regulate the Skadar Lake, the Drim River and the Bojana River, the Expert Group of EPCG for the allocation of the hydropower potentials of the Bilećko Lake, the project team of the Government of Montenegro for the monitoring of the implementation of the highway construction project in Montenegro, the MASA Geology Committee, the expert team for the rehabilitation and development of geology in Yugoslavia, the Professional Exam Commission in the field of geology, the Professional Exam

Commission for exams organised by the Engineers Chamber of Montenegro, the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH), a member of the Academy of Engineering Sciences of Montenegro, the Yugoslav Engineering Academy (JINA), the Montenegrin Association for Seismic Engineering (CAI), the National Council of Montenegro for waters and other. In addition, he received many awards, letters of recognition and letters of appreciation for his contribution and achieved professional results. It was a privilege and an honour to work with Professor Radulović, a real expert in the field of water resources in Montenegro, who selflessly shared his inexhaustible knowledge and visionary spirit with his colleagues, in all projects where we worked alongside each other and where we had his unreserved professional support. Along with an incredible reputation, knowledge and ethical values, Professor Radulović was known for his kindness and directness, his sensibility and above all his generous spirit and optimism. His readiness to listen, advise and say a nice word, his genuine joy at the success of his colleagues and associates, his life energy and warmth— all of these graced this quiet, noble gentleman and our great friend. We express our deep gratitude because he assisted— through his scientific research and commitment— the development of the regional water supply system of Montenegro and decisively contributed to the Government of Montenegro’s decision adopted in February 2007, which recognised the significance and quality of the Bolje Sestre source and designated it for the Montenegrin coast’s water supply. With this—in addition to an undeniable nobility and human honour which always distinguished him—he left a tremendous legacy and an indelible mark on our collective, along with a duty to cherish his missionary journey and noble principles with deep reverence in the course of our development.


184 IN MEMORIAM BRANISLAV MANOJLOVIĆ (1940. - 2019.) Technical Director JP „Regionalni vodovod Crnogorsko primorje“ in the period 1989-2001

FAREWELL TO A TRUE FRIEND AND DEVOTED CREATOR A long-time member of the collective of the Public Enterprise “Regional Water Supply System of Montenegro’s Coast,” Branislav Manojlović, graduate civil engineer, passed away on 3 August 2019 in Kotor. Branislav was born on 7 July 1940 in Banja Luka as the youngest of four children. He completed his primary and secondary education—the latter at the School of Architecture and Civil Engineering—in Banja Luka in 1959. In the same year, he enrolled in the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Civil Engineering, which he finished in October 1964. He found his first employment in the construction company “Krajina” G.P. Banja Luka on 23 March 1966, where he worked until 14 April 1969. His restless spirit and professional ambition brought him in 1969 to Kotor, where he started working for the Municipality as a building inspector in the Department of Inspection Affairs. Because of his

demonstrated expertise, he moved in 1972 to the Company for the Development and Maintenance of Kotor “Dekaderon,” to work as the head of the technical service. In 1977, he transferred from the Municipality of Kotor to the newly established “Work organisation of the regional water supply system and sewage network for the territory of the coastal municipalities and the Cetinje Municipality,” the predecessor of the Public Enterprise “Regional Water Supply System of Montenegro’s Coast” with its headquarters in Tivat, and then in Budva, where he remained until his retirement in 2003. He held the position of the technical director of the PE “Regional Water Supply System of Montenegro’s Coast” in the period from 1989 to 2001. This was a period of the Regional Water Supply System’s intensive construction, or more precisely of its infrastructure. In this period, among other things, the hydrotechnical “Sozina”

WATERS F MONTENEGRO tunnel was dug and constructed, the surge tanks “Radanovići,” “Sveti Stefan” and “Perazića Do” were built, along with the “Đurmani” separation tank and a part of the regional pipeline. In the period from 2001 to 2003, he served as advisor to the director. When speaking of Branislav, we can rightly say that he was one of the builders of the regional water supply system and that he incorporated a part of himself in the operation and development of this system, to which he dedicated most of his career and in whose construction he invested all his knowledge and expertise. The fact that he had a planning licence enabled him to express his creativity and sense for space when, in his own unique way, he became one of the key designers in many projects. So, as a member of the work team of Monte CEP, he participated in the preparation of: the Special Purpose Spatial Plan for the Coastal Zone of Montenegro; Urban Planning Design of the Sanitary Landfill in Podgorica; Detailed Urban Plan of Škaljari (Amendments of 2005); Detailed Urban Plan of Dobrota (Amendments of 2005); Urban Planning Design of the Town of Perast (Draft of 2004) and many more. At the scientific conference “Natural Values and Protection of the Skadar Lake,” which was organised in 1995 by the Montenegrin Academy of Sciences and Arts, the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Montenegro and the Public Enterprise “National Parks of Montenegro,” together with his colleague Miomir Žikić from Belgrade, he presented the “Overview of the Regional Water Supply System of Montenegro’s Coast.” Branislav worked as a civil engineering expert witness and was also a member of the Engineers Chamber of Montenegro.

With his passing, his family suffered an irreparable loss, and the collective of the Regional Water Supply System lost one of its most genuine friends, a man who offered his love and expertise for the construction and preservation of the regional system for the supply of water to Montenegro’s coast.





Profile for Regionalni Vodovod Crnogorsko primorje

Waters of Montenegro - volume 4  

Waters of Montenegro

Waters of Montenegro - volume 4  

Waters of Montenegro


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