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PA O LA T RA F E RRO

GET

PAOLA TRAFERRO

D A E AH naziona Preparazione all a prova

le di INGLE SE

IN VA L SI ESA ME DI S TATO

GET AHEAD

CON PERCORSI CLIL

Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado

Science Technology Art Geography History Literature Citizenship Music Physical Education PROVE IN VERSIONE

COMPUTER BASED


Per esercitarti con la versione computer based e scaricare tutti gli ascolti audio in formato MP3 accedi al sito www.raffaellodigitale.it/geah, cerca il testo GET AHEAD e digita il CODICE sotto riportato. A disposizione per i docenti il CD audio e l’edizione annotata con le soluzioni e le trascrizioni audio scaricabile da: www.raffaellodigitale.it/geah

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inquadra la pagina.

ATTIVA I CONTENUTI DIGITALI CON IL CODICE RIPORTATO QUI


GET

PAOLA TRAFERRO

D A E AH ale di ING n io z a n a v ro p a ll a e n io Preparaz

L E SE

IN VA L SI ESA ME DI S TATO

CON PERCORSI CLIL

Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado

Science Technology Art Geography History Literature Citizenship Music Physical Education PROVE IN VERSIONE

COMPUTER BASED


INTRODUZIONE Il testo GET AHEAD è un valido e completo strumento per la preparazione alle prove INVALSI e al nuovo Esame di Stato; si caratterizza per una serie di percorsi CLIL di Scienze, Tecnologia, Arte, Geografia, Storia, Letteratura, Cittadinanza, Musica, Educazione Motoria. Il materiale proposto rappresenta un nuovo approccio allo studio delle discipline e mira a consolidare e potenziare le competenze attraverso l’uso della lingua inglese. Ogni unità è dedicata a una materia ed è sviluppata in 3 macro argomenti che, oltre ai contenuti, offrono esercizi di listening e reading per l’esercitazione INVALSI, e di comprensione e produzione per l’Esame di Stato. Le varie sezioni sono contrassegnate da etichette: INVALSI READING, INVALSI LISTENING, ESAME DI STATO e indicano esercizi validi per l’una o l’altra prova. Al termine di ogni unit, le pagine dedicate alla presentazione orale delle tematiche trattate e/o alla revisione degli argomenti (ORAL PRESENTATION – LET’S RECAP) sono un valido aiuto per il ripasso; alcuni argomenti infatti potrebbero risultare difficili da riferire, avendo come base il livello linguistico A2 richiesto alla fine della Scuola Secondaria di I Grado. Pertanto, in questa ultima parte, le mappe concettuali fungeranno da “bussola” per il colloquio pluridisciplinare e aiuteranno gli studenti nell’argomentazione e nella risoluzione di problemi, oltre a sviluppare il loro pensiero critico e riflessivo. Inoltre, ai fini dell’inclusività, saranno un ottimo sistema per facilitare la comprensione dei contenuti. Per la parte relativa agli ascolti INVALSI, tutte le tracce degli ascolti sono disponibili on line, al link www.raffaellodigitale.it/geah Allo stesso link è possibile esercitarsi per la prova computer based – CBT. Non rimane altro che augurare a docenti e studenti un buon lavoro, prendendo a prestito le parole di Benjamin Franklin: “Tell me and I forget, teach me and I may remember, involve me and I learn”. L’Autrice


CONTENTS

1

SCIENCE

Miss Mitchell’s Comet .............................................. 4 The Sun . ..................................................................................... 8 The Moon .................................................................................. 12 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 16

2

TECHNOLOGY

Solar Energy ........................................................................ 18 Materials .................................................................................. 22

6

LITERATURE

The Romantic Age in Britain: Historical Background ............................................ 76 English Romantic Poetry: the First Generation . ................................................. 80 The Victorian Age: Historical Background ............................................ 84 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 88

7

CITIZENSHIP

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz .................................. 26

The Italian Constitution ......................................... 90

Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 28

Being Active Citizens Means...

3

Volunteering . ....................................................................... 98 ART

Impressionism .................................................................. 30 Cubism ........................................................................................ 36 Street Art and Keith Haring ............................. 40 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 44

4

94

....................

GEOGRAPHY

Unusual but Interesting Facts about the USA . ................................................. 46 Canada ........................................................................................ 50 Australia and the Outback ................................. 54

Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap .............. 102

8

MUSIC

Music during the Romantic Era ................ 104 Jazz . ............................................................................................. 108 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap .............. 114

9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The History of Running ....................................... 116 Doping in Sport . ............................................................ 120 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap .............. 124

Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 58

5

GLOSSARY

...................................................................

126

HISTORY

The First World War .................................................. 60 The Second World War and the Concentration Camps ................................... 64 WWII: Other Phases ................................................... 70 Oral Presentation - Let’s Recap ................. 74

3


1

SCIENCE

Miss Mitchell’s Comet Maria Mitchell was born in 1818 in Nantucket, Massachusetts. Her father, William Mitchell, owned a small telescope. Thanks to it, William and his daughter conducted observations which helped the young girl become fascinated with astronomy and physics. When she was 12, Maria helped her father when he calculated the moment of a solar eclipse! On the night of 1st October 1847, Maria went to the roof of the bank where William worked. There, she began observing the skies and to her great surprise, she discovered a comet, invisible to the naked eye. On 3rd October, her father wrote a letter to Cambridge University informing this institution about his daughter’s discovery, which was designated as C/1847 T1, but commonly known as “Miss Mitchell’s Comet”. In 1848 she became the first female member elected for both the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In 1849 she became one of the first female members of the American Philosophical Society. In 1865 she was the first professor at the new Vasser College, as well as the director of the college observatory. She liked teaching and her students were inspired by her experience and competence. Maria retired in 1888 because she had health problems. She was single and so she died, aged 70, at her sister’s in 1889. The Nantucket Observatory was named after her, as well as, a crater on the Moon and a World War II liberty ship. She is in the National Women’s Hall of Fame. She always said: “We have a hunger of the mind. We ask for all of the knowledge around us and the more we get, the more we desire.”

4


1

SCIENCE INVALSI READING 1

Read the text about Miss Mitchell’s comet. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Maria Mitchell was born A . in the USA. B. a Quaker. C. an astronomer. D. in Cambridge. 1. Maria helped her father William Mitchell A. to study the Solar System. B. to study solar eclipses. C. to recognise a solar eclipse. D. to study the skies. 2. When she discovered a new comet she

4. In 1848 Miss Mitchell A. became an elected member of two

B. became a member of the American Philosophical Society. C. started teaching. D. left the American Philosophical Society. 5. In 1865 A. she was the first professor at the new Vasser College. B. she retired. C. she was both the first professor at the

A. was on top of a building.

new Vasser College and the director of the college observatory.

B. was in the local bank. C. was in the Nantucket Athenaeum. D. was outside. 3. Miss Mitchell’s Comet was formally named

associations.

D. she visited the USA and Europe. 6. According to Maria, our minds A. are always curious to know more. B. aren’t willing to know anything else after her discovery.

A. Naked Eye. B. the Comet.

C. are never curious to know anything.

C. the Unknown Comet.

D. cannot store too much information.

D. with numbers and letters.

2

......... /6

Answer the questions (1-4). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What did Maria’s father do as soon as she discovered C/1847 T1?

He wrote to Cambridge.

1. When did she become a member of the American Philosophical Society? 2. Who were inspired by Maria? 3. Was Maria married? 4. What was named after her? (give one example) .........

/4

5


1

SCIENCE ESAME DI STATO

3

Now write an email to Tom. Say: - HOW Maria Mitchell was; - WHY Maria is famous; - YOUR OPINION about her life.

4

INVALSI LISTENING

1

Write a summary of “Miss Mitchell’s Comet”. The answers given in the previous activities can help you.

5

Listen to Karen talking to her friend John about the American astronomer Maria Mitchell. Choose the correct answer (A-B-C-D) for questions 1-4. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Maria Mitchell died A. in 1888.

3. Miss Mitchell’s comet

B. in 1889. C. in 1847.

A. was discovered in the morning.

D. in 1865.

C. was discovered in the evening.

1. What did she discover? A. A comet

B. was discovered in the afternoon. D. was discovered at night. 4. A comet

B. A frozen mass

A. orbits around the Sun.

C. A frozen mass invisible to the naked eye

B. orbits around the Moon.

D. A comet made of rock and gas

C. orbits around the Earth.

2. Miss Mitchell’s comet

D. doesn’t orbit around the Sun.

A. is the only name the comet has. B. has another name. C. can be called telescopic comet. D. has a name stating who discovered it.

1

6

......... /4

Listen to the recording again and answer the following questions. Use a maximum of 4 words. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Where was Maria on 1st October 1847?

On the roof.

1. What time did she go onto the roof of the bank? 2. What did she use to “sweep the sky”? 3. Who did she inform about her discovery? ......... /3

6


1

SCIENCE ESAME DI STATO

The Stars 7

Read the following text about the stars and choose the correct word (A-B-C) for each space. The Sun is a ….....1. It is the closest star to the Earth. Scientists study other stars too. Stars are huge balls of glowing gas in the sky. There are over 200 billion stars in the sky. Some are …..... 2 than the Sun and others are …..... 3 than the Earth. They all look tiny because they are so far away from the Earth. This distance is measured in ….....4, not in miles or kilometers. One light-year is equal to the distance that light travels in ….....5 year. This is about six trillion miles or ten trillion kilometers! It seems they are twinkling because when we see them, we are looking at them through thick layers of ….....6 air in the Earth’s atmosphere. That is why an English song says Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star. Stars have lifetimes of billions of years. They are held together by their own ….....7. Over half of the stars in the sky are in ….....8 of two. There are also larger groups of stars called ….....9. These clusters of stars form ….....10. Our Solar System is in the Milky Way ….....11. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

A. planet A. larger A. small A. years A. two A. moving A. weight A. couple A. clusters A. planets A. planet

B. star B. large B. smaller B. sun-years B. four B. still B. gravity B. pair B. groups B. galaxies B. galaxy

C. comet C. largest C. smallest C. light-years C. one C. bright C. light C. groups C. couples C. comets C. comet ......... /11

INVALSI READING 8

Now answer the questions (1-4). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Do scientists study the stars?

Yes, they do.

1. What are stars? 2. How many stars are there in the sky? 3. Do they look big? 4. How long do they live? .........

/4

7


1

SCIENCE

The Sun Thanks to scientists, we know a lot about the Sun. The Sun is really old: it is about 150 million kilometers far from the Earth. The Sun is so large that its diameter is 109 times the Earth’s. The Sun is made up of 75% hydrogen and 25% helium. Hydrogen is the simplest and lightest of all of the known elements. When you combine hydrogen with oxygen, you get water. You probably know what helium is. It is the gas that can be put into balloons to make them stay in the air and float. The surface of the Sun is about 5,600 degrees Celsius. That might sound hot, but the Sun’s centre is even hotter. The core is the central region where the temperature reaches about 15 million degrees Celsius. The Sun is the centre of our Solar System, where we also have other planets, moons, asteroid belts, comets, meteors, and so on. Our Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun which is very important because, without it, we would have constant darkness. So, our planet, would be really cold and we wouldn’t have liquid water! You can imagine there wouldn’t be any people, animals, plants as they live if they have sunlight and water. The Sun also gives out dangerous ultraviolet light which causes sunburn and may cause cancer. That is why you need to wear sunscreen and clothing to protect yourself from its rays. Scientists study the Sun using special tools or instruments such as telescopes. One thing they do is to look at the amount of light from the Sun and the effect of the Sun’s light on the Earth’s climate.

8


1

SCIENCE

ESAME DI STATO 9

Read the text about the Sun. For questions 1–4, decide if each sentence is true or false, then for questions 5 and 6 choose the answer A-B or C, finally answer questions 7-10. 1. The Sun is not too far from the Earth.

T F

2. The Earth is smaller than the Sun.

T F

3. Hydrogen is less than helium.

T F

4. When we mix hydrogen and helium we get water.

T F

5. Helium is known because A. it is the simplest element. B. it is the lightest element. C. it is used to blow up balloons. 6. The Sun is A. as hot as the Earth. B. not as hot as the Earth. C. colder than the Earth. 7. Why is it important for the Earth and other planets to revolve around the Sun?

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................………….................

8. What do people and animals need to live?

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................………….................

9. Can the sun rays be harmful? Why?

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................………….................

10. What can scientists study, using telescopes?

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................…………................. ......... /10

10

Write an email to your friend Sue (use around 150 words) telling her what you have studied with your Science teacher. In your email you should: - inform her when you studied the Sun; - its main features; - its position; - positive and negative aspects; - your opinion on the lesson; - end your message properly.

9


1

SCIENCE INVALSI LISTENING

2

The Lady of the Stars

11 Listen to Peter and his dad talking about the Italian astrophysicist Margherita Hack, also known as “The Lady of the Stars”. While listening, choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-7. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. How old was Margherita Hack when she died?

5. Where was the observatory?

A . 91

A. In Rome

B. 92

B. in Venice

C. 93

C. In Florence

D. 94

D. In Trieste

1. When did she die? A. 2014

6. What was she able to do? A. She was able to talk about astrophysics to people in a simplified way.

B. 2013 C. 2015 D. 2016

B. She was able to talk about astrophysics to people in scientific terms. C. She couldn’t talk about astrophysics

2. What was her nickname? A. The Astronomer

using simple terms. D. She never talked about astrophysics to

B. The Lady of Astronomy C. The Astrophysicist D. The Lady of the Stars 3. What was special about her? A. She studied stars. B. She was an astronomer. C. Asteroid 8558 was named after her. D. She wrote a lot. 4. What happened to her in 1964? A. She became the first Italian woman

to be the director of an observatory.

B. She moved to Trieste. C. She became a writer. D. She bought an observatory.

10

people. 7. What do Peter and his dad decide to do? A. They decide to go to the library. B. They decide to surf the net for more information on Mrs Hack. C. They decide to visit an observatory. D. They decide to buy some books by 

Mrs Hack. ......... /7


1

SCIENCE

ESAME DI STATO

A Scientist Called Margherita Hack

12 Read the following text about Margherita Hack and re-order it. The first one is an example. A. In 1964, she moved to Trieste and started teaching at the local university. She later became the director of the observatory and this was really significant because she was the first Italian woman to get such a position. The observatory in Trieste was one of the most important research centres in Italy. B. Margherita Hack was born in Florence on June 12th 1922. She was an important astrophysicist who made scientific concepts easy to understand. She studied the stars and analysed the different types of radiation they emitted. She was also a television personality and fought for civil rights. C. In 1945, after getting her degree in Physics, she worked in Florence, then she moved to Milan because she got a job at the Merate site of the Brera Astronomical Observatory. D. She wrote books and more than 200 scientific papers. She was often on TV because she liked explaining new findings in astronomy and physics. E. She was a strong intellectual, whose nickname was The Lady of the Stars. She was a

vegetarian and wrote a book explaining her choice. In 2013 she died aged 91.

F. In 1995 the asteroid 8558 Hack was discovered by Luciano Tesi and Andrea Boattini at the

Pistoia Astronomical Observatory. It was named in her honour. .........

/5

.........

/5

INVALSI READING 13 Read

the text about National Astronomy Day. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. When is Astronomy Day?

It’s on

th

May.

1. What time does it start? 2. What time does it finish? 3. Are there any presentations? 4. Who is performing “Music from Earth and Space”? 5. When is the community stargazing?

11


1

SCIENCE

The Moon The Moon orbits the Earth and the side that points towards our planet is always the same. It is the second brightest object in the sky. We use the term “object” because we can describe it as a huge ball of rock. Its surface is dry, in fact there is no water, and there are craters made by meteorites. There are also big mountains and valleys. There are no living creatures on the Moon as the temperature varies a lot because of the lack of atmosphere. So, it can be 120°C during the day and -230°C at night. Light is not present on the Moon: we see it, because light from the Sun falls on it reflecting back to Earth. If we look at the sky at night, the Moon sometimes “shimmers”. This word means shining softly or with a flickering light or glow. We see the Moon because the Sun is shining on it! When the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, its shadow falls on the Earth and we can see some parts of the Sun covered by the Moon. This is called a “solar eclipse”. Solar eclipses take place twice a year. There is a “lunar eclipse” too. This happens when the Moon passes through the Earth’s shadow and this blocks the sunlight from hitting the Moon. It can happen more than twice a year. The astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin flew on the Apollo 11 rocket and landed on the Moon. On 20th July 1969, they were the first people to walk on it. Another astronaut, Michael Collins, was with them but he stayed in orbit around the Moon, and didn’t walk on it. They also brought back some rocks to study. Scientists discovered that they were similar to the rocks on Earth but really old: they were 4 billion years old!

12


1

SCIENCE INVALSI READING

14 Read the information about the Moon. Are the sentences (1-7) true, false, not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. The Moon circles the Earth. 1. The side of the Moon we see from the Earth isn’t always the same. 2. The Moon can be described as a big round object. 3. There are a lot of watercourses on the Moon. 4. There are more than one thousand craters. 5. The Moon has no atmosphere. 6. In the morning the temperature can be freezing cold. 7. At night the temperature can be boiling hot. .........

/7

15 Now read the text again, then answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Is there any light on the Moon?

No, there isn’t.

1. What does the word “shimmers” mean? 2. What happens when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth? 3. What happens when the Earth’s shadow blocks the sunlight from hitting the Moon? 4. How often does it happen? 5. Who were the first men on the Moon? 6. When did they walk on it? 7. Were the rocks taken on the Moon different from the rocks on Earth? 8. How old were they? ......... /8

ESAME DI STATO

16 Referring

to the text and your answers to the questions in the previous activities, write a summary of “The Moon”. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

13


1

SCIENCE INVALSI READING

17 Read the text about the celebrations of the 50th anniversary of the historic Apollo 11 landing. Answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. What’s the name of the event?

First Man Festival

1. When is the event? 2. What kind of show is there? 3. Can you experience a rocket launch? 4. What planets can you see? 5. What else can you enjoy? 6. Is there a competition? 7. Where does the event take place? 8. Where can you get more information? ......... /8

ESAME DI STATO

18 You are going to the event above to celebrate the anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing. Write an email to your best friend. - Begin and end in a friendly way. - Tell him/her how you are going there, who you are going with, where you are going to stay, why you are going there. - Tell him/her what you are going to do.

14


1

SCIENCE INVALSI LISTENING

3

19 Listen to a person talking about the Apollo 11 mission. While listening, choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-4. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Apollo 11 mission was organized by:

A

B

C

D

1. How many astronauts were there inside Apollo 11?

3 A

4 B

2 C

1 D

2. Who walked on the Moon?

Armstrong A

Armstrong and Aldrin

Collins B

C

Collins and Aldrin D

3. Where did people from all over the world watch this event?

A

B

C

D

4. What was the Moon landing like?

They used parachutes. A

The astronauts landed on the Moon without any problems. B

The whole rocket landed safely. C

There was a big explosion. D ......... /4

15


1

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

1 1

3

2

3

1

3

16

Miss Mitchell’s Comet Read the passage about Maria Mitchell again, then discuss the questions. Make notes and prepare a short oral presentation. You can use the mind map below to help you. 2

Who was Maria Mitchell?

Why was she famous?

4 What do you think

What are the most important phases of her life, after the discovery of C/1847 T1?

about Maria?

The Sun By answering the following questions, try to give a talk about the Sun. You can add other information. - How old is the Sun? - How far is the Sun from the Earth? - Describe it. - Give its position. - What do the Earth and other planets do around the Sun? - What does the Sun give out?

The Stars By answering the following questions, try to give a talk about the stars. You can add other information. 2

What are the stars?

Why do the stars twinkle?

4

How is the distance of a star measured?

5

How many are there?

What else can you say about the stars?


SCIENCE

4

The Lady of the Stars You are in an English school and you have to explain to your new mates and teacher who Professor Margherita Hack was. Listen to the recording again (page 10) and follow the mind map. 1

stellar spectroscopy and radio astronomy

5

more than 200 scientific papers

5 1

4

2

Italy

3

1

4

6

astrophysicist

asteroid 8558 Hack

7

1964 director of the Trieste Observatory

2013 death

The Moon Look at the mind map. Answer the questions to talk about the Moon.

What does the Moon do?

What’s a lunar eclipse?

2

What are its characteristics?

5

Who are Armstrong, Aldrin and Collins?

3

What’s a solar eclipse?

6

What did they do?

Now, write your answers using connectors to prepare an oral presentation about the Moon.

17


2

TECHNOLOGY

Solar Energy The sun produces energy in the form of light which comes as ultraviolet, visible and infrared rays. When we see the spectrum of colours, we see visible sun rays. Ultraviolet and infrared ones cannot be seen. Solar energy is a renewable source of energy which does not damage the environment. As long as there is sunlight, we will be able to get power from it. This kind of energy doesn’t release carbon dioxide and pollution into the air, so it can be defined as a clean source of energy which reaches the Earth with its solar radiation. Solar radiation gives also power to all living things through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place when plants use the sun's energy to make its own food, and then of course, all other living organisms eat the plants receiving that energy indirectly from the sun. Collecting solar power to create electricity and heat is not as easy as photosynthesis. One way is to use sunlight that hits solar thermal panels. In this way solar energy can be converted and used efficiently to heat and light things like buildings, swimming pools, hospitals, schools.

18


2

TECHNOLOGY INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about solar energy. Are the sentences (1-7) true, false, not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. The light produced by the sun is invisible. 1. We can see visible sun rays at midday. 2. Solar energy is dangerous. 3. We can have power from sunlight. 4. Sunlight releases carbon dioxide. 5. Photosynthesis takes place at the end of the week. 6. The process used to get electricity is more complex than photosynthesis. 7. Buildings can be heated thanks to solar panels. ......... /7

INVALSI LISTENING

2

4

Listen to Camilla and her friend talking about solar panels. While listening, match the pictures (A-H) with the teenagers’ names (1-5). There are two pictures you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

0. Camilla

3. Dirk

1. Mark

4. Barbara

2. Oliver

5. Bridget

0 H

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

ESAME DI STATO 3

Now read “Solar Energy” again, then write to your American friend Ben. In your letter say: you had an interesting lesson yesterday; you studied solar energy; the characteristics of solar energy; your opinion about the lesson and solar energy.

19


2

TECHNOLOGY INVALSI READING

Some Facts about Solar Power for Electricity 4

Read the following text on solar power for electricity. Answer the questions (1-7). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. When we think about solar power, we think about the solar cells that turn the sun rays into electricity. Solar cells are also called photovoltaic cells. “Photovoltaic” derives from the words “photons”, the parts that make up sunlight, and “volts”, the measurement of electricity. Solar cells are used in small devices like calculators and wrist watches. They are also used for buildings and homes because they are a more efficient way to get electricity. In fact, if we place solar cells on the roof of a building or a house we can have green electricity: the solar cells convert the energy of photons from the sun into electricity. We need a lot of solar cells to power a house, so a lot of them are connected together producing a large amount of energy. The photovoltaic cells were invented in 1954 and mainly used in small objects like calculators. Then, they were used for spaceships and satellites. In the 1990s people received incentives to buy them because they were considered a clean and renewable source of energy for their houses. 0. Can the sun transform its energy into electricity? Yes, it can. 1. What’s another name for solar cells? 2. What are volts? 3. Are they used for big devices? 4. Are they used for houses? 5. Where are they in a house? 6. When were solar cells invented? 7. When did people get incentives to buy photovoltaic cells? ......... /7

Let’s Know More about Energy 5

Read about the following sentences (A-F) and match them with the types of energy (1-4). There is one letter you do not need. The first one (0) is an example. 0. nuclear energy

A. Your voice or musical instruments use this kind of energy.

1. chemical energy

B. This energy comes from fire.

2. electric energy

C. It comes from the movement of light.

3. solar/radiant energy

D. It is the energy in the nucleus of the atom.

4. thermal energy

E. It comes from very small particles called electrons. F. When we eat food we use this kind of energy.

0 D

20

1

2

3

4 ......... /4


2

TECHNOLOGY INVALSI READING

Types of Energy 6

Read the text about energy. Match the missing words with the gaps (1-5). There is one word you do not need. The first one (0) is an example. If we want to study ….....0, we must know that there are two kinds: kinetic energy and potential energy. The first one is energy ….....1. The other is ….....2 energy, also called latent. So, if there is something in motion, we know kinetic energy is used. Think about a ball, when we throw it, it moves. The ….....3 is the kinetic energy. ….....4 is kinetic energy because it involves electrons moving in a conductor. Potential energy is latent energy which can be transformed into kinetic energy. ….....5 is an example of stored energy because, if we burn it, it releases latent energy. Coal, wood and gas are other examples of stored energy. A. energy B. Electricity C. stored D. “moving” E. water

0

F. Oil

A

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

G. in motion

ESAME DI STATO 7

Complete the dialogue between Emma and John. Write what John says using the Italian suggestions. E: Hi John! Did you like the lesson about energy this morning? J: Rispondi di si e aggiungi che è stata molto interessante. …................................................................................. E: Yes, I agree. I loved the second part of the lesson, when Mr Smith told us about the two kinds of energy. J: Dì che anche a te è piaciuta questa parte. …................................................................................................................... E: Well! Kinetic energy is essential in our daily life... J: Sei d’accordo e dici che è energia legata al movimento, fai l’esempio di una palla: quando viene lanciata compie un movimento. …............................................................................................................................. E: What about potential energy? J: Spiega che l’energia potenziale è anche chiamata latente. Fai l’esempio del petrolio. Quando brucia rilascia energia latente. …...........................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................................

21


TECHNOLOGY 2 Materials Objects are made of a material. Some are made of glass, others of metal or wood. We can also find items made of cloth or plastic. These are basic materials. Metal is really heavy, hard and strong. If we touch it, it’s cold. There are a lot of objects made of metal. Think about our keys or when we eat. Don’t we use knives, forks and spoons? If we analyse glass, we immediately see that it’s smooth. If we touch it, it’s cold. It’s hard but not as heavy as metal. It’s really fragile. We use it for its transparency. An example of an object made of glass? Well... a glass! In our daily life, we have objects made of wood too. Wood is not as heavy or strong as metal. But it’s stronger than glass. Chairs, tables and even our pencils are made of wood. They are light, hard and strong. Cloth is another important material. It’s really light and soft. We can make clothing and blankets with it. Last but not least, plastic. It is very light, it can be soft but it can also be hard. Today there are a lot of plastic objects like bags, bike helmets... our list could be very long!

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2

TECHNOLOGY INVALSI READING 8

Read the text about materials. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-5. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Basic materials are

3. Cloth is used to make

A. glass, cloth and wood.

A. chairs.

B. glass only.

B. glasses.

C. glass, wood, metal, plastic.

C. forks.

D. glass, wood, metal, cloth and plastic.

D. shirts.

1. Metal is

4. Plastic can be

A. heavy.

A. fragile.

B. brittle.

B. soft.

C. clear.

C. hard.

D. soft.

D. both soft and hard.

2. Glass is

5. In our daily life

A. heavy.

A. we have a lot of plastic items.

B. brittle.

B. we have just few plastic items.

C. transparent.

C. we haven’t got any plastic items.

D. soft.

D. plastic items are dangerous to use. ......... /5

INVALSI LISTENING 5

9

Listen to Mark and Miranda talking about a school project on recycling. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What is Mark and Miranda’s project about?

It’s about recycling.

1. What can we protect if we recycle? 2. What does Mrs Long do when she enters the classroom? 3. Apart from reducing the use of raw materials, what else does recycling reduce? 4. Does recycling decrease the quality of air and water? 5. What does recycling fight? ......... /5

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2

TECHNOLOGY

6

INVALSI LISTENING

The Shard of Glass: a Vertical City

10 Listen to Marie talking to her friend Samuel about the Shard. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-5. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Has Samuel ended his project? A. Yes, he has. B. No, he can’t finish it. C. He wants more time. D. He finished the project a month ago. 1. At the beginning of the 21st century A. there were a lot of skyscrapers in London. B. the Shard was the only skyscraper in London. C. they started building a lot of skyscrapers in London. D. the only skyscrapers were along the River Thames. 2. When was the Shard opened to the public? A. In April 2012 B. On 5th April 2012 C. In July 2012 D. On 5th July 2012 3. In order to design the Shard, where did Mr Piano take his inspiration from? A. From Italy B. From Christopher Wren C. From ships and churches D. From St. Paul’s Cathedral 4. The Shard is a vertical city inside a skyscraper A. where you can enjoy yourself. B. where you can do a lot of activities. C. with a museum for tourists. D. where you can work. 5. The Shard is made of A. glass. B. steel. C. both glass and steel. D. glass shaped like a pyramid. ......... /5

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2

TECHNOLOGY

ESAME DI STATO

Stockholm: a European Green Capital

11 Put the paragraphs of the following text (1-3) in the correct order. The first one is an example. Paragraph …..... Years of successful environmental work have turned Stockholm into one of the world’s cleanest cities. More than 90% of the population lives within 300 metres of a green area and the pure lake water, which makes up over 10% of Stockholm’s surface area, supplies drinking water. Just south of the city centre, the Hammarby Sjöstad residential area is the perfect example of a sustainable city run on renewable sources: 100% of its household waste is converted into heating and electricity. Paragraph …..... The European Green Capital Award promotes ideas such as sustainable mobility, modern waste management, sustainable land use, eco-innovation and other green technologies which drive towards sustainable development and more resource-efficient life. Stockholm met the challenge, winning the inaugural award in 2010. Paragraph …..... It also means thinking about the air we breathe, the water we drink and the noise that affects us. It means integrated long-term plans for the cities of tomorrow and the people who will live and work there. Paragraph …..... At a time when many of the world’s great cities are facing chronic environmental problems, we need inspirational examples showing what cities can do to deal with them. Most of the environmental challenges facing our society happen in urban areas and it is these areas that have the potential and the resources to bring together the commitment and generate the innovation needed to solve these challenges. We have to think beyond traditional problems. Caring for the urban environment doesn’t just mean cutting CO2 emissions. ......... /3

INVALSI READING 12 Read the text again. Are the sentences (1-8) true, false, not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. The 21st century is facing environmental challenges. 1. Urban areas are full of foreign people. 2. C02 emissions are dangerous for the environment. 3. The European Green Award is a global initiative. 4. The first European Green Award was given in 2010. 5. Stockholm recycles a lot. 6. 90% of the population in Stockholm is close to a green area. 7. Hammarby Sjöstad is a part of the city of Stockholm. 8. Heating and electricity aren’t based on renewable resources. ......... /8

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TECHNOLOGY

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig (Germany) on 1st July 1646. He …..... 0 a scholar who wrote mostly in French and …..... 1. He played an important role in both philosophy and …..... 2. He was famous because he invented calculus independently of Newton. He also invented the …..... 3, foundation of modern computers. He …..... 4 Law and Philosophy at university. He worked for two important German families: one became the British royal family while he served it. Leibniz …..... 5 significant roles in the European politics and diplomacy of his day. In philosophy, he was an …..... 6 person. In fact, for him our Universe is the best. His philosophy anticipated modern logic and analysis. He didn’t agree with Descartes’ theories linked to mechanics. He studied what were effectively …..... 7 energy and potential energy. Leibniz also made contributions to physics and technology, and anticipated ideas in the field of biology, medicine, geology, probability theory, psychology, and information science. He even …..... 8 poems. His contributions are in journals and in thousands of letters and unpublished …..... 9. He died in Hannover, Germany on November 14th 1716.

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2

TECHNOLOGY INVALSI READING

13 Read the text about Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Match the missing parts (A-K) with the gaps (1-9) There is one part you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. A. manuscripts B. Latin C. studied D. was E. mathematics F. wrote G. optimistic H. had I. nuclear

J. binary system

0

K. kinetic

D

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 ......... /9

ESAME DI STATO

14 Imagine Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is still alive. You are a journalist who must write an article on him. Change the first paragraph of the text using the present simple and present perfect for your introduction. The beginning has been given to you: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is a German scholar who...

Now, following the hints below, write a dialogue between you and Prof. Leibniz. Tu: Saluti il prof. Leibniz. L: Ricambia e chiede come stai. Tu: Dici bene. Spieghi che sei un giornalista e che vuoi fargli delle domande sul sistema binario. L: Accetta con piacere. Tu: Chiedi che cosa ha studiato all’università. L: Risponde Filosofia e Legge. Tu: Chiedi se è una persona ottimista. L. Risponde di si e che proprio per questo motivo crede che il nostro Universo sia grandioso. Tu: Dici che sai che ha appena completato uno studio sull’energia. Chiedi di che cosa si tratta. L: Risponde che ha appena capito che cosa siano l’energia cinetica e quella potenziale. Tu: Chiedi quali sono i suoi progetti per il futuro. L: Pensa di scrivere articoli sulla biologia e la medicina. Vorrebbe anche scrivere delle poesie. Tu: Ringrazi e speri di leggere il suo prossimo articolo. Saluti. L: Ricambia il saluto.

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2

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

1

Solar Energy You have to talk about solar energy. Look at the sun and its key terms and try to summarise what you have read on page 18. 1

4

6

28

2

2

energy

renewable source of energy

photosynthesis

THE SUN

7

3

light

collecting solar power vs photosynthesis

5

ultraviolet, visible and infrared

clean source of energy

8

solar thermal panels

Types of Energy Now let’s talk about the various types of Energy following the mind map.

thermal energy

nuclear energy

solar energy

chemical energy

electric energy


TECHNOLOGY

2

Materials 3

4 1

3

5

Now, let’s recap “Materials” through the following pictures. You can use the text on page 22 to help you.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Look at the mind map. Answer the questions to talk about Leibniz. 2

Where and when was he born?

4 What did he study at

What did he invent?

What did he think about our Universe? What else did he do and study?

Where did he play an important role?

university? What did he do after that?

6

Where and when did he die?

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3

ART

Impressionism Impressionism started in France where some very good painters created a new style against the famous art critics belonging to the “Salon”. These artists wanted to capture a moment in time. For the art critics this was really negative because their paintings were just “impressions” of reality. The word “impressions” was used to give the name to this movement which started in the 1860s. Moreover, a very famous painting by Monet was entitled Impression Soleil levant (1877), considered the manifesto of the movement. These artists wanted to paint a moment in time, so, they were interested in the light and colour of that particular moment. The details of what they were painting were not as significant as the previous aspects. For these reasons, they painted outside - en plein air - and were very fast when painting, in order to capture the light before it changed. To do so, they had to give quick brush strokes of unmixed colours because they couldn’t waste time. Another characteristic was their position: they used original visual angles and their subjects were in an everyday setting. If we analyse some paintings, we can have a clear view of what we have said so far. For example, Pierre-Auguste Renoir in his Dance at Le moulin de la Galette painted a scene which took place on a Sunday afternoon in Paris. In this work, we can see that some people are dancing outdoors and the afternoon light filters from the trees. Renoir certainly captured a moment in time, in fact Dance at Le moulin de la Galette became one of the most famous Impressionist works of art.

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ART INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about Impressionism. Are the sentences (1-7) true, false, not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. When Impressionism started it was summer. 1. The art critics of the time were really enthusiastic about the movement. 2. They liked painting both inside and outside. 3. Light and colour were extremely important. 4. Details were as essential as colour and light. 5. The strokes of colour were fast. 6. Renoir painted Dance at Le moulin de la Galette at 3 pm. 7. Renoir portrayed everyday subjects. ......... /7

Let’s Know More about History of Art 2

Read what five people (1-5) say about some paintings and match them with their art movements (A-G). There is one art movement you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. “The painting had some small touches of pure bright colour.” 1. “The painting has a lot of small dots of colour. It seems to vibrate when you look at it from a distance.” 2. “The painting showed movement and speed. It was great!” 3. “The painting appeared fragmented and abstracted with several points of view at the same time.” 4. “The painting by Dalí I saw last year was stunning. The artist represented a dream world with deformed objects.” 5. “The painting I admired yesterday showed a very simple still-life full of bright colours and a “wild” way to use the paintbrush.” A. Futurism

E. Cubism

B. Impressionism

F. Art Nouveau

C. Surrealism

G. Fauvism

D. Pointillism

0 B

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

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ART

INVALSI LISTENING

Gran’s Old Painting 3

7

Listen to Laura’s grandmother describing a painting in her loft. There are four children portrayed, write their names. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

2. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

Sheila 0. .........................................................

3. ......................................................... ......... /3

8

A Phone Call from Alice 4

Alice is phoning her friend. Listen to them, then answer the questions (1-7). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What did Alice study this morning?

The Impressionist movement/Impressionism/History of Art

1. Who is Mrs Carlton? 2. Was the lesson boring? 3. Did Alice like the lesson? 4. When did the movement begin? 5. Where did it begin? 6. What did the artists study in order to have the perfect colour and shade? 7. Write two famous painters. ......... /7

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ART 8

5

Listen to the recording again and choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Manet is

4. Degas painted

A. a European artist.

A. dancing girls.

B. a French technician.

B. ordinary people dancing.

C. a painter. D. a French citizen.

C. landscapes.

1. The Impressionists

D. old women dancing. 5. A leading exponent of Pointillism was

A. didn’t paint outdoors.

A. Signac.

B. didn’t paint inside.

B. Gauguin.

C. painted both outdoors and indoors.

C. Toulouse-Lautrec.

D. painted indoors.

D. Seurat.

2. The Impressionists A. caught the colour and light of the scene painted.

6. Matisse was part of A. Impressionism. B. Divisionism.

B. caught the scene painted.

C. Neo-Impressionism.

C. caught the people in the scene.

D. Pointillism.

D. caught both the people and the landscape in the scene. 3. The paintings were A. full of details with dull colours. B. without detail but with vibrant colours. C. with detail and vibrant colours. D. without detail with dull colours.

......... /6

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ART INVALSI READING

Bircham Gallery 6

Read the leaflet below. Answer the questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. Where are the art exhibitions?

At Bircham Gallery

1. How many exhibitions are there? 2. What can you see on June 30th? 3. What can you see on May 25th? 4. Is there a Facebook page? 5. What’s the email address? 6. Can you visit Bircham Gallery on Friday at 6 pm? ......... /6

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ART

3

ESAME DI STATO 7

Imagine you are phoning Bircham Gallery because you’d like to visit the Early Summer mixed show. Write a dialogue between you and the employee. Employee: Saluta e dice che è la Bircham Gallery e come può essere utile. You:  Ricambi il saluto e dici che stai chiamando dall’Italia. La informi che sarai nel Regno Unito le prime due settimane di luglio. Vorresti avere delle informazioni sull’evento “Early Summer mixed show”. Employee: Ti chiede che cosa vorresti sapere. You: Vorresti sapere che tipo di evento è. Employee: Ti dice che è una mostra con dipinti, ceramiche e stampe di famosi artisti contemporanei. You: Chiedi quando terminerà la mostra. Employee: Dice che terminerà il 17 luglio. You: Chiedi quanto costa il biglietto d’entrata. Employee: Ti informa che non devi pagare, è gratis. You: Dici che vorresti visitare la mostra di domenica. Chiedi se sono aperti di domenica. Employee: Dice che le dispiace ma Bircham Gallery non è aperta di domenica. Ti informa che sono aperti dal lunedi al sabato dalle 9 alle 17. You: Dici che andrai il sabato 6 luglio prossimo. Ringrazi e saluti. Employee: Ricambia il saluto. ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

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ART

Cubism Cubism started in France in the 20th century. It was really innovative. In fact, this style of art wanted to show the different viewpoints of a person or an object all at once. The word cubism derived from the fact that the works of art belonging to this movement were made out of cubes or other geometrical shapes. The first cubist works were the ones by Pablo Picasso and George Braque. At the beginning, there was Analytical Cubism because artists used only one colour. In this way, while observing a cubist work of art, people didn’t pay attention to colour but to its forms and shapes. An example of Analytical Cubism can be Violin and Candlestick by George Braque. In the painting we can see the broken pieces of both a violin and a candlestick, in particular a lot of angles and blocks of them. Braque affirmed that in this way a person could “get closer to the object”. In 1912, Picasso started using colours and collages, that is to say gluing various cut-up pieces of paper to make an artwork. This kind of cubism was called Synthetic Cubism. As Picasso wanted to add something new to his works, he invented collage. Picasso’s Synthetic Cubism period ended in 1919. An example of Synthetic Cubism is the painting by Picasso called Three Musicians. At first glance, it seems to be a picture made out of cut up pieces of coloured paper, but then if we look carefully, we can see it is a real painting in which isn’t easy to understand where one musician ends and the others begin. An explanation can be that music is in harmony when the musicians play together.

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ART INVALSI READING

8

Read the text about Cubism. Answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. It began in France.

0. Where did Cubism begin? 1. When did it begin? 2. What were the Cubist works made out of? 3. Who were the first Cubist artists? 4. How many colours did Analytical Cubism use? 5. What were the most important elements in an Analytical Cubism painting? 6. When did Synthetic Cubism start? 7. Why did Synthetic Cubism start? 8. What did Picasso invent?

......... /8

Cubist Paintings 9

Match the paintings (A-D) with the sentences (1-5). You can use a painting more than once. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

D

0. In this painting by Picasso we can see a man playing cards. 1. In 1907, Picasso painted this very well-known example of Cubism. It belonged to Analytical Cubism; pink is the predominant colour. 2. It’s a Cubist still life with shapes and fragments. Braque wrote the letters JOURN. 3. This Picasso’s painting is the portrait of a man. It belongs to Analytical Cubism. 4. This painting by Braque shows a musical instrument with a newspaper. 5. This work of art shows distorted female bodies and geometric forms.

0 C

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

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ART

INVALSI LISTENING Guernica 9

10 Listen to the description of the famous painting Guernica. While listening match what we can see in the work of art (1-5) and their meaning or description (A-H). There are two descriptions/ meanings you do not need. The first one (0) is an example.

9

what we can see:

description/meaning:

0. bull

A. hope

1. woman

B. flower

2. horse

C. Spain and brutality

3. soldier

D. happiness

4. lightbulb

E. dying

5. lady with lamp

F. switched on

G. despair

H. war

0

1

2

3

C

4

5 ......... /5

11 Listen to the recording again. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What’s Guernica?

A town in Spain/a Spanish town

1. Who painted Guernica? 2. What does it show? 3. How can we consider Guernica? 4. How many colours has the painting got? 5. What are they? ......... /5

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ART

3

ESAME DI STATO

A Man called Pablo Picasso

12 Read the following text about Pablo Picasso and choose the correct word (A-B-C) for each space. Pablo Picasso …..... 1 born on 25th October 1881. His father …..... 2 a teacher, who …..... 3 him to draw. When he was ten years old, he …..... 4 to Barcelona with his family. After taking an exam, he …..... 5 the prestigious art school La Llonga. Then, he …..... 6 to Paris. During that time, he …..... 7 a lot: he was in his “blue period”. The period was called “blue” because he often used this …..... 8 for his paintings. In 1907 he …..... 9 “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”: the first masterpiece in the modern art movement. Lots and lots of painters admired it. Together with George Braque, he created …..... 10. In the 1920s, in fact, his paintings were considered modern, surreal, neo-classical and ….....11. In 1937 a terrible bombing …..... 12 in the Spanish town of Guernica. Picasso created a masterpiece: a mural named after “Guernica”. Later, he started taking up print making and lithography. He always …..... 13 innovative ideas and for this reason he …..... 14 use different art …..... 15 in a traditional way. He …..... 16 on etchings and engravings too. When he was 87, he ended the “347 Series”, where he …..... 17 pieces of etching and engraving work in just 7 months. He was the first painter to be famous during …..... 18 life. He was well-known all over the world and we consider …..... 19 one of the most outstanding artists of the …..... 20 century. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

A. is A. is A. encouraged A. moves A. enter A. moves A. paints A. colour A. paints A. Impressionism A. impressionist A. taken place A. had A. don’t A. techniques A. work A. creates A. his A. his A. 19th

B. was B. was B. encourage B. move B. entered B. move B. paint B. blue B. paint B. Cubism B. cubist B. takes place B. have B. didn’t B. movements B. works B. created B. its B. its B. 20th

C. has C. has C. encouranges C. moved C. enters C. moved C. painted C. period C. painted C. Surrealism C. surrealist C. took place C. has C. doesn’t C. paints C. worked C. is creating C. him C. him C. 21st

......... /20

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ART

Street Art and Keith Haring At the end of the 20th century and beginning of the 21st Street art became a complex interdisciplinary art movement involving graffiti, stencils, prints, murals, large paintings and street installations. So, we can affirm that it is a very important part of contemporary art. Graffiti was one of the first expressions of Street art which appeared on cars and walls during the 1920s and 1930s in New York. It was made by gangs. Then, in the 1970s and 1980s it developed a lot. In fact, it was the period when young people created a movement which contested the social and political aspects of their society. All this led to an illegal activity consisting of various forms of artistic expression. Surprisingly enough, these works found a place in art galleries and the art market. Now Street art is connected to socio-political activism because street artists express their own opinions about today’s social and political issues through their works which are significant creative expressions of contemporary art. Keith Haring was an important exponent of New York street culture. He was born in Pennsylvania in 1958. He started drawing very early because his dad taught him. He loved cartoons so he went to an art school but the soon quit. He continued to develop his own style and in 1978 he moved to New York and enrolled in the School of Visual Arts. He found the place great because the people there didn’t only do their art at school but also around the city, so New York became his own “canvas”. He started making chalk drawings in underground stations. His art was something you could see all over New York as he wanted to be a public artist. He became famous when he was seen in the underground: he was drawing on the walls and ceiling. His style of outlining is well all over the world. In 1986 he opened his shop called “POP shop” where the walls were covered with his art. There you could buy T-shirts and other items with his most famous images. He organised a lot of initiatives like workshops for kids, he did murals and helped charitable foundations for children and adults. He died in 1990 when he was only 32.

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ART INVALSI READING

13 Read the first part of the text. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-5. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Street art is

3. These forms of Street art were

A. visual art created in museums.

A. forbidden by law.

B. visual art created in public locations. C. visual art for religious purposes.

B. legal.

D. visual art for students.

D. OK.

1. Street art appeared

C. not always legal.

4. Street art

A. in vehicles and brick or stone structures.

A. makes people laugh.

B. under bridges.

B. is a sad form of art.

C. in museums and art galleries.

C. has a social-political meaning.

D. in art schools.

D. is meaningless.

2. In the 70s - 80s young people used Street art

5. Street art can be considered

A. to take a stand against traditional art.

A. a traditional form of art.

B. to take a stand against cultural issues.

B. a significant form of neoclassical art.

C. to take a stand against politicians.

C. an outstanding form of modern art.

D. to take a stand against social and

D. an important form of contemporary art.

political issues.

......... /5

ESAME DI STATO

14 Read the second part of the text. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C) for questions 1-6. 1. Keith Haring was

4. How did he become famous?

A. English.

A. He passed his exams with mention.

B. American.

B. One of his teachers saw his paintings.

C. British.

C. Someone noticed him creating his art

2. When he was a child A. he couldn’t draw. B. he couldn’t stand painting. C. he was good at drawing. 3. What did he do in New York? A. He attended the university. B. He studied and drew in unusual places. C. He painted portraits for rich people.

in particular places. 5. What did he do in 1986? A. He retired. B. He went to draw abroad. C. He opened his own store. 6. Keith Haring A. helped people. B. liked cooking. C. started playing a musical instrument. ......... /6

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ART

INVALSI READING

Banksy, the Most Famous Anonymous Artist

15 Read some facts about Banksy. Are the sentences (1-7) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. Banksy is a street and graffiti artist from the UK. We don’t know who he is but we can see his work in public places like buildings or railway stations. His paintings are mainly about war and politics. His art is satirical, and for his graffiti he uses the stencilling technique. Banksy started his art in the underground in Bristol. We can admire Banksy’s art on public surfaces. He doesn’t sell anything linked to his work, for example photos of his graffiti. Talking about his identity, we can say that according to Tristan Manco, a graphic designer, Banksy was born in 1974 in Bristol. He began working as a butcher but then became interested in graffiti in the late ‘80s. Simon Hattenstone a journalist from The Guardian, interviewed him face to face. He is one of the very few people who has met him. Hattenstone described him as “a 28-year old male who wore jeans and a T-shirt with a silver tooth, silver chain, and one silver earring.” On his website, Banksy said: “I am unable to comment on who may or may not be Banksy, but anyone described as being ‘good at drawing’ doesn’t sound like Banksy to me.” True

False

Not given

0. Banksy is British. 1. We know his true identity. 2. His art can be seen in public places. 3. His art isn’t ironic. 4. The stencilling technique isn’t used very much in his graffiti. 5. Banksy has a twin brother. 6. A journalist interviewed him in a hotel. 7. Banksy has got his own website. ......... /7

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ART

INVALSI LISTENING Murals 10

16 Listen to Rob describing a mural to his friend Kate. Write the names you hear (1-4). You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

Robert 0. .........................................................

2. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

3. .........................................................

4. ......................................................... ......... /4

ESAME DI STATO

17 Write an email to your Australian friend Barbara. In your message you should: - tell her what street art is; - tell her why the artists started it; - tell her what today’s artists want to express; - tell her who Haring and Bansky are; - end the message with the correct greetings.

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ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

Impressionism 1

Look at these famous paintings and try to talk about Impressionism for one minute.

1

2

3

4

5

Cubism 2

44

You are about to take the oral exam before starting High School. You have chosen to prepare a presentation on Cubism. Read the text concerning it again, look at the two paintings by Braque and Picasso, then outline this art movement.


ART

3 1

Pablo Picasso Look at the mind map. Answer the questions to talk about Picasso. 2

When was he born?

3 What happened when

What did he do when he was young?

4

What did he do with Braque?

he was in Paris? And then in 1907?

5

3

6

What did Picasso paint in 1937? What did he do later on?

What do you think about his art?

Street Art

4

Now you have to explain what Street art is and talk about Haring and Banksy. What would you say? Look below to help you.

1

Explain the start of the movement.

3

What about the movement now?

2

4

Who was Keith Haring? What did he do?

5

Why did it start?

Who is Banksy? Why is he famous?

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GEOGRAPHY

Unusual but Interesting Facts about the USA The United States of America is one of the biggest countries in the world both for its population and for its land area. Its history is not as ancient as ours. The American economy is one of the most powerful, so America is really influential at international level. In the USA, there are 50 states: the largest state is Alaska with the longest American coastline, while the smallest state is Rhode Island. Its official flag has got three yellow sides, a yellow anchor surrounded by 13 yellow stars, representing the original 13 colonies. Under the anchor there’s a blue ribbon with HOPE written on it. In California, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, New Mexico and Arizona we can find the most ancient living things in the world: the famous Bristlecone pine trees, the oldest of them, is in California. A very curious fact is that there’s only one royal palace used by a king in the USA. It’s the Iolani Palace in Honolulu, Hawaii. King Kalakaua and Queen Lili'uokalani lived there until the monarchy ended in 1893. Then, it was the capitol building until Hawaii became a state in 1959. Now, we can visit it because it has become a museum. As the most important American mountain ranges go from the North to the South, they have a big influence on the climate. Another amazing fact is linked to the English language which is used by the Government and all over the Country, but the USA has no official language! Talking about lakes, Crater Lake is the deepest in America. It’s in Oregon and it’s the 7th deepest lake in the world. It was formed by rain and melted snow which went into a crater created by Mount Mazama, an ancient volcano which erupted 8,000 years ago.

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GEOGRAPHY INVALSI READING

1

Read the text, then match the pictures (A-F) with the facts (1-4). There is one picture you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

D

E

F

0. English is the language spoken in the USA but it isn’t the official one. 1. This large area of water in Oregon was formed when an explosion took place. 2. This is the oldest wood perennial plant in the world.

2

3. Once it was the residence of a monarch.

0

4. This flag belongs to the smallest American State.

E

1

2

3

4 ......... /4

Read the text again and answer the following questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Is the history of the USA as old as the one of Europe?

No, it isn’t.

1. How many states are there in America? 2. Has Alaska got a long coast? 3. Where is the oldest bristlecone pine tree? 4. Where did King Kalakaua and Queen Lili’uokalani live? 5. When did Hawaii become an American state? 6. What’s the deepest place in America? ......... /6

ESAME DI STATO 3

You are on holiday in the USA. Write an email to your cousin Marco and tell him: - you are enjoying the holiday in the USA; - who you are with; - you are improving your English; - you have learnt some curious facts about this country; - the fact which is the most interesting for you; - when you are coming back.

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GEOGRAPHY INVALSI READING

A Trip to New York 4

Read the text about a bus trip to New York. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. How do you get to New York?

By bus/coach

1. When is the trip? 2. What time does the bus leave? 3. What can you do in New York? (give one answer) 4. How much does it cost? 5. What’s the phone number to get more information? ......... /5

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GEOGRAPHY INVALSI LISTENING

11

Kathy’s Family 5

Listen to Kathy talking about some relatives who live in New York. While listening, choose what they do (A-H). Write your answers in the boxes (1-5). There are two activities you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

0

1

2

3

4

5

0

A. primary school teacher

E. tour guide

B. doctor

F. student

C. musician

G. shop assistant

D. receptionist

H. chef

1

2

3

4

5

H

11

6

......... /5

Listen to the recording again. While listening, answer the questions below. Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What’s Kathy’s uncle’s name?

Luigi

1. Where does he work? 2. What’s the name of the restaurant? 3. Where is it? 4. How well does Paul play the guitar? 5. How does Rachel go to work? 6. How old are Jeff’s pupils? ......... /6

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GEOGRAPHY

Canada Canada is a huge country, the second largest country in the world, after Russia. It is the largest North American country. “The Great White North”- its nickname - consists of ten provinces and three territories, so there isn’t just one time zone, there are six! Canada extends from the Pacific to the Atlantic and north to the Arctic Ocean. The border dividing Canada and the United States is the largest in the world and the majority of Canadians live there. 10% of the world’s forests are in this country and it is also full of lakes. Ottawa is the capital, other important cities are Toronto - the capital of Ontario; Vancouver – a famous sports centre and Montreal, the second largest city. Canada has been a country since 1867, so we can say it’s a young country. Its national colours are red and white, they are in the national flag too. If we read about the history of Canada, we know that it was first discovered by a French explorer called Jacques Cartier, but there were already indigenous people living there and we can still meet them today. The beaver is Canada’s national animal, while the maple leaf is its symbol. English and French are the national languages: English is widely spoken, French is officially spoken in two provinces: Quebec and New Brunswick. Like people in Australia, Canadians celebrate the Queen of England as their Queen.

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GEOGRAPHY INVALSI READING

7

Read the text about Canada. Are the sentences (1-7) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. Canada is not as big as Russia. 1. Its nickname derives from the snow. 2. There are 13 territories in Canada. 3. A lot of Canadians live near the USA. 4. In the forests there are bears. 5. Canada isn’t an ancient country. 6. The national flag is yellow. 7. English and French are the national languages. ......... /7

8

Read the text again and answer the questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What percentage of the world’s forests is in this country?

0%

1. What are the colours of the national flag? 2. What nationality was the explorer who discovered Canada? 3. Were there indigenous people living there? 4. Are there indigenous people now? 5. What’s the national animal? 6. What language do people living in Quebec speak? ......... /6

Where am I? 9

Read what some people (1-5) say about the sites they have just visited in Canada and match them with the places (A-H). There are two places you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. “WOW! They are incredible! The most famous and beautiful waterfalls in the world.” 1. “I think this city is one of the most beautiful centres in the world. It hosted the 2010 winter Olympics.” 2. “This great city is the capital of Ontario. It’s near the well-known waterfalls.” 3. “It’s the largest city in the province of Quebec. It’s the second largest one in Canada.” 4. “It’s the capital city of Canada. It’s full of museums, galleries and festivals.” 5. “Here people speak French. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site.” A. Québec City B. Montreal C. Victoria D. Ottawa

E. Toronto F. Vancouver G. Niagara Falls H. Lake Louise

0 G

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

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GEOGRAPHY ESAME DI STATO

More about Canada

10 Reorder the text, and fill in the gaps using the words given.

The first one is an example. governor - general Inuit descendants

leader laws Queen of England

The federal Government makes ......................................... .  irst of all, we can say that in Canada there are ......................................... of British, French, other F European and Asian immigrants.  hen, talking about government and economy, we know that the ......................................... is the T Head of State of Canada. A ......................................... represents the monarch. He/She has limited powers.  oday, Canada is a T technologies.

................................................

in agriculture, telecommunications and energy

In the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, we find ......................................... people. They are native Canadians. They live on their lands, but many of them went away. ......... /4

......... /6

An Email from Canada

11 You are in Canada on holiday. Write an email to your friend Antonio. In your message you should include the aspects you think are the most significant to describe this country. Give your opinion on the holiday.

……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................…………............. ……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………..............................................………….............

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GEOGRAPHY

12

4

INVALSI LISTENING

A Lesson about the Northwest Territories and Nunavut

12 Listen to Mrs Cooper talking about the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. The Northwest Territories is also called A. TNW. B. NTW. C. WTN. D. NWT. 1. This territory A. isn’t big. B. is big. C. is tiny. D. is as tiny as Nunavut. 2. When was Nunavut created? A. In 1999 B. In 1870 C. In 1892 D. In 1990 3. Nunavut is A. taiga. B. boreal forest. C. arctic tundra. D. grass.

4. In 1877 A . French became the official language in the Northwest Territories. B. English became the official language in the Northwest Territories. C. French and English became the official languages in the Northwest Territories. D. an indigenous language became official. 5. In 1892 A . French became the official language in the Northwest Territories. B. English became the official language in the Northwest Territories. C. French and English became the official languages in the Northwest Territories. D. an indigenous language became official. 6. How many languages does the Northwest Territories' Official Languages Act recognise? A. 2 B. 1 only C. 9 D. 11 ......... /6

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GEOGRAPHY

Australia and the Outback Australia is situated in the Southern Hemisphere and it’s both a country and a continent. It belongs to the region known as Oceania. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world, divided into six States: Southern Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania and two selfgoverning territories: Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory where the capital city Canberra is located. Sydney, Melbourne, Perth, Brisbane, Darwin, Adelaide, Hobart and Canberra, which are the most important cities in Australia, are situated on the coast or near it, while the outback covers a large part of Australia. The term “outback” refers to any sparsely populated regions, so the inland and most of the north and north-west of Australia. We often think that the Outback is the area near Alice Springs and Ayers Rock, but we are wrong because this region, called “The red centre”, is only a very small part of the Australian Outback which has got a lot of climate zones and temperatures. Think about the central deserts with 50 °C in summer and -10 °C at night in winter. It rains heavily in the area as well as in the Northern Australian Outback where there’s a tropical monsoon climate. Remember, since Australia is in the Southern Hemisphere the seasons are the opposite to those in Northern Hemisphere: it’s summer from December to March, autumn from March to June, winter from June to September and Spring from September to December.

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GEOGRAPHY

ESAME DI STATO

13 Read the text about Australia and its Outback. For questions 1–4, decide if each sentence is true or false, then for questions 5-8 choose the answer A-B or C, finally answer questions 9-16. 1. Australia isn’t located in the Southern Hemisphere. T F 2. Australia is a country and a continent.

T F

3. It is a part of Oceania.

T F

4. Australia is not a huge country.

T F

5. Australia has got A. 5 States. B. 6 States. C. 7 States. 6. Has Australia got extra territories? A. Yes, it has. B. No, it hasn’t. C. I don’t know. 7. What’s its capital city? A. Canberra B. Sydney C. Melbourne 8. Where are the biggest Australian cities situated? A. They are all near Canberra. B. They are mainly in the Outback. C. They are near the ocean. 9. Write at least two important Australian cities. ………………………….…...................................…………………….…………………… 10. What is the Outback? …………………………...................................…………………………………….………….……..………....………………................. 11. Are Alice Springs and Ayers Rock in the Outback? ……………………..………............................................……………………… 12. What’s the name of the region where Alice Springs is?

……………………………........................................…………………

13. Is there only one climate zone in the Outback? …………………………….....................................………………..……......…………. 14. What’s the temperature like in the central deserts at night in winter? …………………....….………..................... 15. When is summer in the Southern Hemisphere? ……………………………....................................……......………………..………… 16. When is summer in the Northern Hemisphere? ………......…………………….......................................….……..…………....…… ......... /16

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GEOGRAPHY ESAME DI STATO

Antarctica Fact File

14 Fill in the gaps using the words given. 1. iron ore 2. Southern Ocean 3. weather 4. sets

5. stations 6. bigger 7. biggest 8. comes

9. a few 10. windiest

NAME: The name Antarctica ................................ from the Greek word Antarktikos, meaning south of Arktos, the constellation known as Ursa Major, or the Great Bear, in the Northern Hemisphere. LOCATION: Antarctica is the southern-most continent on Earth, surrounded by the ................................ The continent covers nearly 9% of the Earth’s surface, and it is 25% ............................... than Europe and double the size of Australia. It is the fifth largest continent after Asia, Africa, North and South America. LAND: 98% of the surface is covered with a vast ice sheet, which represents the ........................ resource of fresh water in the world. The remaining 2% is arid rock with mountains. NATURAL RESOURCES: The main resources are coal, ..............................., oil and natural gas. The Antarctic Treaty (1959) preserves these resources and the ecosystem for strictly scientific purposes. So, people can’t extract them. CLIMATE: It is the ................................, driest and coldest continent with severe low temperatures and very low precipitation. Seasons are the opposite to the seasons in the Northern Hemisphere. The sun ................................ in March and rises in October. POPULATION: Because of the extreme ............................... conditions, there are no permanent inhabitants. The only people who live there are the staff from different countries who work at the scientific research ................................ FAUNA: Antarctica has ............................... tiny land animals but a great number of marine animals, such as emperor penguins, whales and seals. ......... /10

15 Now read the text again. For questions 1-5, decide if each sentence is true or false. For questions 6-9 answer the questions. 1. The name “Antarctica” derives from the word “ant”.

T F

2. Antarctica is half fertile land and half ice.

T F

3. It is the largest water reserve on Earth.

T F

4. Antarctica isn’t a flat country.

T F

5. Gold is present in Antarctica.

T F

6. What’s the weather like in Antarctica? …………...........................................................……….…………………………….………….……… 7. What are the seasons like there? …………......................................................................…………….……………………….………….……… 8. Who are the people living in Antarctica? ….………......................................................…………………………………….………….……… 9. Are there any animals in Antarctica? If so mention some. ….……...…...................................………………………………… ......... /9

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GEOGRAPHY

13

INVALSI LISTENING

Great Barrier Reef in Danger

16 Listen to the text about the Great Barrier Reef. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What’s the Great Barrier Reef? A . It’s the biggest living organism in the world. B. It’s the tiniest living organism in the world. C. It’s just as large as other living organisms. D. It’s a living organism.

4 The loss is due to A. sharks. B. seahorses. C. whales. D. large starfish.

1. Where is the Great Barrier Reef? A. In the north of Australia. B. In the north-west of Australia. C. In the west of Australia. D. In the north-east of Australia.

5. Coral bleaching is the result of A. pollution. B. ocean warming. C. climate changes. D. floods.

2. What is happening now? A. All is OK. B. Coral is in danger. C. Fish are in danger. D. Tourism is in danger.

6. In order to prevent further destruction, scientistis A. say there should be a specific type of fish. B. say there should be a reduction in the population of a type of fish. C. say a lot of fish should populate the area around the Great Barrier Reef. D. haven’t got any clues to solve the problem.

3. Where is the problem exactly? A. In the north. B. In the east. C. In the west. D. In the south.

......... /6

13

17 Now listen to the recording again and answer the questions below (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. How do we know the Great Barrier Reef is in danger?

Because of a study

1. How long has the Great Barrier Reef been losing its coral? 2. Can hurricanes be beneficial to the Great Barrier Reef? 3. What’s the Great Barrier Reef? 4. What happens from ocean warming? 5. Is there a solution to the problem? ......... /5

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ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP 1

Unusual but Interesting Facts about the USA You have one minute to talk about the USA, referring to the images below. What would you say about this Country?

1 One of the biggest

2

countries

4

Alaska

5

Economy

Rhode Island

3

6

50 states

Interesting facts

Canada 2

58

In order to present Canada, look at the mind map, consisting of words and images linked to the reading on page 50. What would you say?


GEOGRAPHY

3

4

The Australian Outback You have just come back from a great experience: you visited the Outback. Tell your Geography teacher and friends something about the place you went to. 1

2

What is the Outback?

Size

3 Areas included

in the Outback

4 Alice Springs

and Ayers Rock

5

4

Climate, temperatures, seasons in the Southern hemisphere

After outlining the characteristics of the Australian Outback, tell your teacher and friends your opinion about this experience.

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HISTORY

The First World War The First World War, also called the Great War, broke out on 28th June 1914 and finished on 11th November 1918. Russia, France, Britain, and in 1917 the United States, were the Allied Powers. The Central Powers started with an alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary. Later the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined them. There were a lot of reasons why WWI began: some countries were too powerful, some others didn’t want to lose their economic or political position in the world. The event which started the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. After the Archduke’s death, his country declared war on Serbia and this began a long chain reaction: Russia defended Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia to help protect Austria, and France declared war on Germany to help protect Russia. So, Germany invaded Belgium to reach France and Britain declared war on Germany. In only a few days the Great War spread to 30 countries. This was a European War until the United States entered it in 1917. There were two main areas of fighting: the Western Front, where the trenches ran from the coast of Belgium to Switzerland; the Eastern Front, where Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria fought against Russia and Romania. The USA joined the war later and this was linked to a disaster which happened in 1915: a German submarine sank the Lusitania, a British passenger ship, killing all the passengers. Among them, there were 128 Americans. This terrible episode upset the country, eventually leading President Woodrow Wilson to enter the war, in order to restore peace in Europe. The USA joined the Allied Powers. The Central Powers weren’t as strong as their enemies and, in the operation known as the Hundred Days Offensive, they were forced to go back to the border of Germany. The United States and the rest of the Allies won the war. On November 11th, 1918 an armistice put an end to the Great War. The Treaty of Versailles was signed in 1919 to make it official.

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HISTORY INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about the First World War. Answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Has the First World War got another name?

Yes, it has.

1. When did the First World War start? 2. When did the USA enter the war? 3. Who were the Allied Powers? 4. Which two countries were the first Central Powers? 5. Were there many causes to start the war? 6. Who died causing the start of the war? 7. What happened after this event? 8. How many countries were involved in the war after a few days? ......... /8

2

Read the text again. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. One of the reasons why the First World War started was A. Archduke Franz Ferdinand wanted it. B. the USA wanted to restore peace in Europe. C. some countries were afraid of losing their wealth. D. a mystery. 1. After declaring war on Serbia A. a series of events caused Franz Ferdinand’s death. B. Russia defended Serbia. C. Germany declared war on France to help protect Austria. D. Europe declared war on the USA 2. The fighting was A. in 30 countries. B. on the Western Front only. C. on the Eastern Front only. D. on both Fronts.

3. The Lusitania was A. a British ocean liner. B. a British fishing boat. C. a British dinghy. D. a British warship. 4. What was the American reaction to the sinking of Lusitania? A. There was no reaction. B. Americans were really annoyed. C. Americans were put at ease. D. Americans forgave Germany. 5. The USA A. was with the Central Powers. B. was with the Allied Powers. C. was with both Powers. D. fought alone against all the others. 6. The end of the war was officially marked by A. a party. B. an armistice. C. a formal agreement. ......... /6 D. a friendly handshake.

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HISTORY

3

INVALSI READING

Lusitania Sinking Bad News Read the following page from a newspaper. Answer the questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. What sunk the Lusitania?

A submarine.

1. What’s the name of the newspaper? 2. What day was the article written? 3. How many people died? 4. Was the sinking slow? 5. How long did it take the passenger ship to sink? 6. Was the USA distressed? ......... /6

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HISTORY INVALSI LISTENING

14

Trench Warfare 4

Listen to Mr Mitchell talking about trench warfare. While listening, match the pictures (A-G) with the information linked to them (1-4). There are two pictures you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

D

E

C

F

G

0. During the First World War trenches were dug. They were long narrow ditches. 1. Soldiers built the trenches. 2. After building them, they fought the war in the trenches. 3. Soldiers lived in terrible conditions with the trenches always full of mud and water. 4. They spent their time inside the trenches, even when they didn’t fight the enemy. 0

1

2

3

4

D

14

5

......... /4

Listen to Mr Mitchell again and answer the questions below (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Were the trenches long ditches?

Yes, they were.

1. Were they narrow? 2. Where were the soldiers when they fought the enemy? 3. Was life good in the trenches? 4. Was water another enemy in the trenches? 5. Could soldiers go out when they didn’t fight? ......... /5

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HISTORY

The Second World War and the Concentration Camps During the Second World War there were two groups of countries: the Allies and the Axis. The first consisted of Britain, France, Russia and the United States, while the second was formed by Germany, Italy and Japan. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party wanted to rule Europe, so on 1st September 1939 Germany invaded Poland. Hitler didn’t want to stop here, and this led Britain and France to declare war on Germany. At this point World War II started. In 1941 Germany invaded France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Greece, Yugoslavia (a country consisting of modern-day Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and BosniaHerzegovina) and the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or the Soviet Union. It consisted of modern-day Russia, Ukraine, Estonia and other socialist states). Hitler’s dream was to create the perfect race. He believed in the superiority of the Aryan race and according to him, Jews, Gypsies, disabled people, homosexuals couldn’t be part of this new and perfect race. They had to be eliminated not only in Germany but also outside it. So, 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis including 1 million children. Gypsies, people with handicaps and others considered not good enough for the new race were murdered, an estimated 17 million innocent people. Many of them died in concentration camps dreadful prisons, where Jews and other inmates had to do forced labour. Some died because they didn’t get enough food. Those who weren’t able to work anymore were sent to the horrible gas chambers and killed by poison gas.

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HISTORY

ESAME DI STATO 6

Read the text about the Second World War and concentration camps, then for questions 1-3 decide if the sentences are True or False, for questions 4- 7 choose the answer A, B or C, finally answer the questions 8-14. 1. During the 2nd World War there were the Allied Powers and the Central Powers.

T F

2. Germany, Italy and Japan belonged to the Axis.

T F

3. Adolf Hitler wanted to be the leader of Europe.

T F

4. Germany invaded Poland in A. 1938. B. 1939. C. 1940. 5. What happened after that? A. Britain and France entered the war. B. Britain and France became neutral countries. C. The USA declared war on Germany. 6. Yugoslavia was A . a country with today’s Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. B. a monarchy with Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. C. a neutral country during the Second World War. 7. In 1941 Germany A. lost the war. B. was able to invade other European countries. C. invaded a lot of countries as well as the Soviet Union. 8. What was Hitler’s dream? …………………………….....................................…………………………………….………………………………………......... 9. What did he believe in? …………….………………...................................…………………………………….………………………………………................ 10. Could Jews, Gypsies, disabled people be members of the Aryan race? ….……………………............................. 11. What did Hitler and the Nazi Party decide to do? …………………………....................................…………………...………………….

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

12. How many people died during the Second World War? ………................................…………................................……... 13. What were concentration camps? ………………………...............................……...................................…………………......…….………… 14. What killed people in the gas chambers? ….....................................……....................................………………….....……………… ......... /14

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HISTORY INVALSI READING

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas



7

Read the text. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. Where is the Holocaust Memorial Day?

It’s at Kettering Library.

1. When is it? 2. What time is the Holocaust Memorial Day? 3. Do people have to pay? 4. Can a 10-year-old-child participate? 5. Can teenagers go alone? ......... /5

ESAME DI STATO 8

Read the following text about the first part of the plot of the book “The Boy in the Striped Pajamas”. After reading it, complete the other text using the past simple or past continuous. The story is set in Germany in the 1940s. Bruno comes home from school. Maria, the maid, is preparing some suitcases. Bruno’s family must move from Berlin. When Bruno reaches his new house, he sees that it is smaller than the old one and it isn’t in the city centre. He also notices that near it there is a big wire fence as well as a soldier he doesn’t like. There is a terrible place, beyond the wire fence, with some buildings, children and adults. They are wearing the same striped pajamas and striped cap. He doesn’t know that it is the Auschwitz concentration camp. Bruno …………...........................……… home from school. Maria, the maid, …………...........................……… some suitcases. Bruno’s family …………............................……… move from Berlin. When Bruno ……............................……… his new house, he ………….............................… that it …………..........................……… smaller than the old one and it ………............................……… in the city centre. He also …………............................……… that near it there …………............................……… a big wire fence as well as a soldier he …………...........................……… . There …………...........................……… a terrible place, beyond the wire fence, with some buildings, children and adults. They …………............................……… the same striped pajamas and striped cap. He …………...........................……… know that it …………...........................……… the Auschwitz concentration camp. ......... /14

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HISTORY INVALSI LISTENING

15

9

Holocaust Heroes Listen to Andrew talking to his father about some people considered heroes of the Second World War. While listening, match these people (1-3) to what they did (A-F). There are two sentences you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. people

what they did

0. Giorgio Perlasca

A. He saved Italian Jews.

1. Nicholas Winton

B. He saved a lot of Gypsies.

2. Johan van Hulst

C. He saved 669 Jewish children.

3. Oskar Schindler

D. He saved Hungarian Jews.

E. He saved 600 Jewish children.

F. He saved 1,100 Jews.

0

1

2

3

D ......... /3

Nicky’s Children 16

10 Listen

to Andrew describing a photo. The picture shows some of the children saved by Sir Nicholas Winton. Write the names in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. Ivan 0. .........................................................

4. .........................................................

3. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

2. ......................................................... ......... /4

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HISTORY

INVALSI READING Liliana Segre: As Long As My Star Shines 11 Read the following text about Liliana Segre focusing on paragraph one. Are the sentences (1-5) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. Liliana Segre is an Italian Senator, but she is more than this. She is an Auschwitz survivor. She was born in Milan in 1930 and belonged to a rich family. When the Fascist Racial Laws passed in 1938, she couldn’t go to school anymore and her family lost everything they had. In January 1944, when she was only 13, together with her dad Alberto, she was taken to Milan railway station and from there to the hidden platform 21. It was all very fast... just three minutes. She was afraid because she didn’t know that place and because all this was the beginning of a great negative change. There were a lot of German and Italian soldiers. She left on a train with another 605 people to go to Auschwitz. The journey wasn’t comfortable because the people were in cattle carriages. After a week, she arrived at the death camp. She was tattooed with the number 75190 and had to do forced labour. She was freed on May Day 1945. Liliana then started living again. She published books about her terrible experience. An example is As long as my Star Shines. In this volume she describes that night, in the Auschwitz concentration camp, she chose one star in the sky. She thought she was that star and if the star shone, she couldn’t die and if she was alive the star was alive too... Liliana’s message to people, especially to the young is about hope, tolerance and the importance of living because for her, life is beautiful! True

False

Not given

0. Liliana Segre is a member of the Italian Parliament. 1. She didn’t die in the Auschwitz concentration camp. 2. She didn’t belong to a rich family. 3. Her dad was a doctor. 4. In 1938 she attended school without any problems. 5. She had a beautiful house. ......... /5

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HISTORY

12 Answer the questions (1-7) focusing on paragraph 2. Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When was she deported?

In January

944.

1. How old was she? 2. Who was with her? 3. What platform did the train leave from? 4. Could people find platform 21 easily? 5. How many people were deported? 6. Was the train comfortable? 7. How long did the journey last? ......... /7

13 Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-4 focusing on paragraph 3. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. 0. 75190 was A. the Auschwitz postcode. B. Liliana’s phone number. C. Liliana’s identification number. D. just a number. 1. When was Liliana released? A. She was released on 25th April 1945. B. She was released on 1st May 1945. C. She was released on 21st January 1944. D. She was released on 2nd June 1945. 2. What’s “As long as my Star Shines”? A. A film B. A book C. A newspaper article D. A documentary 3. Why was the star important? A. Because if the star was shining, Liliana wasn’t dead. B. Because if the star was shining, Liliana was in the gas chamber. C. Because if the star was shining, Liliana wasn’t sleeping. D. Because if the star was shining, Liliana was dead. 4. What does Liliana think about life? A. She doesn’t mind. B. She hates life. C. She doesn’t like life. D. Life is worth living.

......... /4

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HISTORY

WWII: Other Phases What about Italy during the Second World War? In Italy Benito Mussolini ruled the country and in 1939 he signed the Pact of Steel: a defensive alliance with Nazi Germany. Italy declared war on Britain and France on June 10th, 1940. In October 1940 Mussolini attacked Greece and Albania. The campaign was a disaster. Germany helped Italy in this part of Europe as well as in the north of Africa. Italy went to Russia to help Germany in 1941, but it was another horrible catastrophe. Meanwhile, Japan attacked the USA at Pearl Harbour in Hawaii and America declared war on Japan. In Italy, after September 1943, partisan Resistance groups fought Mussolini and his Fascist party all over Italy. They fought in order to free the country from Mussolini and his ally Hitler. In 1944 the Allied Armies continued to advance through Italy from the south, despite increasing opposition from the Germans. The final Allied victory over the Axis came in 1945 and led to the surrender of German forces as well as the Repubblica Sociale Italiana (RSI) – the Italian Social Republic in Italy. On the European front, in 1944, an army belonging to the Allied Forces went from Britain to France to free this country and in 1945 the Allied Forces invaded Germany, leading it to surrender. Japan surrendered too, after the terrible nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. When the conflict ended the countries involved, Italy included, were destroyed. Everybody could understand how tragic all this was because about 64 million people died during the war.

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HISTORY INVALSI READING

14 Read the text about Italy’s role in WWII. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Who governed Italy in 1939?

4. Italy

A. Hitler

A. always won even in north Africa and Russia.

B. Mussolini C. Partisan Resistance groups

B. won in north Africa only.

D. The Axis

C. won in Russia only. D. never won.

1. The Pact of Steel was an alliance A. between the Axis and the Allies.

5. The USA was attacked by Japan

B. between France and Britain.

A. in 1940.

C. between Albania and Greece.

B. in 1941.

D. between Italy and Germany.

C. in 1942. D. in 1943.

2. When did Italy enter the war? A. In 1940

6. Where was the USA attacked?

B. In 1941

A. In Hawaii

C. In 1942

B. In New York

D. In 1943

C. In New Orleans D. In Los Angeles

3. What happened in October 1940? A. Germany attacked Poland. B. Japan attacked the USA. C. Italy attacked Albania and Greece. D. Greece attacked Albania.

......... /6

ESAME DI STATO

15 Write a letter to your friend Patty. In your letter, say: - you have just studied the Second World War; - it was a terrible conflict; - why; - what Italy did during the conflict; - if she has studied the Second World War; - end the letter properly.

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HISTORY INVALSI READING

16 Read the text. Answer the questions (1-9). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. Who is organising the event?

Royal British Legion

1. When is the event? 2. What time is the event? 3. Where is it? 4. What’s the address? 5. Is the event for everyone? 6. What time is the Memorial Service? 7. Can the people eat there? 8. Who is entertaining the people? 9. Do the people have to pay? ......... /9

ESAME DI STATO

17 You are at D-DAY 75th Anniversary celebrations in Poole. Text a message to your friend in Italy. Tell him: - where you are and why you are there; - what you are doing at the moment; - what you are going to do at 3.30 pm; - if you are having fun.

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HISTORY INVALSI LISTENING

17

Pictures from the Second World War

18 Listen to a teacher describing some photos connected to the Second World War. While listening, match the pictures (A-F) with the events which took place during the conflict (1-4). Write your answers in the boxes. There is one picture you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

D

E

F

0. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaghi 1. A war ceremony 2. Mussolini and Hitler 3. The Italian partisans

0

4. Pearl Harbour attack

C

1

2

3

4 ......... /4

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ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

World War I - Remembrance Day

1

You have just come back from the UK where you saw a series of celebrations for Remembrance Day. Tell your friends about this important memorial day. Use the information below to speak.

1

It’s on 11th November. On 11th November 1918 the Great War ended.

2

Remembrance Day is a day to remember all the people who died in wars, so not only World War I.

4 People wear a poppy

on Remembrance Day.

74

2

3 It’s celebrated in the UK,

Canada, Australia. Other countries too, like Italy, remember the people and soldiers who died in wars.

5

Poppies were chosen as a symbol because they often grew in battlefields.

The Second World War Read the texts about the Second World War again. Look at the years below to give an oral presentation of the conflict. 1

1939

2

1940

3

1941

4

1943

5

1945


HISTORY

3

Concentration Camps Answer the questions below to talk about concentration camps. Look at some previous activities to help you.

1 What are concentration

2 Who went there?

3

4

camps?

Can you give some examples of famous deported people?

4

5

Why were Jews and other people persecuted?

Holocaust Heroes Now look at these holocaust heroes and give some information about them. Look at the listening activities on page 67.

Giorgio Perlasca

5

Nicholas Winton

Johan van Hulst

Oskar Schindler

Who is Liliana Segre? Read the text on page 68 again, then look at the pictures and information below. Give an oral presentation about Senator Liliana Segre.

1930

75190

May Day, 1945

1938 and January 1944

Her Shining Star

after Auschwitz

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6

LITERATURE

The Romantic Age in Britain: Historical Background During the Romantic Age (1760-1837) three revolutions involved Britain: the American Revolution (1775), the French Revolution (1789) and the Industrial Revolution. Three kings ascended the throne. The first one was King George III (1760-1815). He wanted to control the Country, choosing conservative policies both at home and abroad. America’s War of Independence is a clear example: the conflict started in 1775, the 13 British colonies declared their independence from Great Britain on 4th July 1776. The conflict ended in 1783 with the king who officially recognised the independence of the USA, signing the Treaty of Paris. In 1789, the French Revolution began and, at the start British poets like Blake, Wordsworth and Coleridge supported until it became a fierce conflict. From 1792 to 1815 the Napoleonic Wars took place. Britain won the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 and the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. At the Congress of Vienna, England together with Austria, Prussia and Russia created a new Europe. In this context the Industrial Revolution, which began in 1760, developed more and more, transforming Britain from an agricultural to an industrial nation. Two new social classes emerged: entrepreneurs, who owned factories, and workers. Workers were exploited by entrepreneurs: they had to work in extreme conditions. They didn’t get enough to live. So, their children had to work too. When George III died in 1820, his son George IV became king, followed, after 10 years, by William IV. Under this last monarch, three reforms passed: - in 1832 the First Reform Bill extended the right to vote to the new middle classes; - in 1833 the Factory Act made the employment of children under 9 illegal; - in 1834 the Poor Law Amendment Act established terrible workhouses: places for poor people who didn’t have anything.

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LITERATURE

6

INVALSI READING

1

Read the text and match the sentences (1-4) with the events which took place during the Romantic Age (A-F). There is one event you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Some British poets supported this rebellion but then they understood it was too cruel. 1. This document about freedom and independence announced a significant separation. 2. In 1805 Britain won an important conflict. 3. Thanks to this, two social classes appeared. 4. From that moment children under 9 couldn’t work. A. The Battle of Waterloo B. The Industrial Revolution C. The Factory Act D. The French Revolution E. The Battle of Trafalgar F. The Treaty of Paris

0

1

2

3

4

D

2

......... /4

Match the kings (A-C) with the sentences (1-5) You can use a name more than once. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example 0. “Thanks to my Act, I created places where poor people can sleep and eat. They can also work.” 1. “Since my father’s death, I rule the country. It’s changing a lot.” 2. “Our colonies don’t want to pay taxes. They also want independence.” 3. “Now, the new middle classes have the right to vote.” 4. “Under my reign a lot of reforms have passed.” 5. “After the victories of two important battles, we drew a new political map of Europe.” A. King George III B. King George IV C. King William IV

0

1

2

3

4

5

C

......... /5

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LITERATURE

ESAME DI STATO

Romantic Age: the Literary Context 3

Read the text, then for questions 1-4, decide if each sentence is true or false, for questions 5-8 choose the answer A-B or C, finally answer the questions 9-13. In the second part of the 18th century, rationality was replaced by sensibility and imagination. With all the historical events which took place in that period, writers wanted to find new ways to express their ideas. In Germany the literary movement “Sturm und Drang” (Storm and Stress) preceded the English Pre-Romantic and Romantic inclinations. German Romantic poets started focusing on the individual, feelings and nature. In this context, British writers too began looking for new ways of expressions. Emotions, imagination, dreams and visions became extremely significant. The poet’s inner self could interpret reality. He was a prophet or a teacher who had to be clear so that people could understand him. Nature and childhood were the main topics. Before analysing the Romantic Age, we must examine Pre-Romanticism which was a period of transition. Thomas Gray and William Blake were the most important representatives. Gray wrote Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard which is classical in form but with a new interest in the lives of humble people. Blake wasn’t only a poet but also a painter and an engraver. His poetry isn’t difficult to understand but it has visionary elements and symbolism. Songs of Innocence and of Experience is his most famous work. 1. Rationality was important during the Romantic Age.

T F

2. Sensibility and imagination were important for the Romantic poets.

T F

3. The movement didn’t start in England.

T F

4. Nature was an important topic.

T F

5. British writers and poets of that period were interested in

7. The poet was

A. rationality, sensibility and imagination.

A. a politician too.

B. dreams, visions, imagination and emotions.

B. an artist and writer too.

C. rationality and emotions.

C. a teacher.

6. The inner self

8. When he wrote, the poet

A. could interpret reality.

A. was difficult to understand.

B. could interpret dreams.

B. wasn’t difficult to understand.

C. could interpret emotions.

C. wasn’t easy to understand.

9. Who were Thomas Gray and William Blake? …….......……………………….........................................……………..…………………… 10. What did Gray write? …….………………………...................................…………………………......………….………………………………………............... 11. Was Blake a poet only? …….………………………...................................…………………………………….…………………......…………………….......... 12. What did he write? ….……………………..……...................................................…………………………………….………….....……………………………... 13. What’s special about his poetry? …….………………………...................................………………………………..........…….……………………... ......... /13

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LITERATURE INVALSI LISTENING

18

A Literature Lesson 4

Listen to Mr Perkins describing pre-Romantic and Romantic poets. Write their names in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

William 0. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

2. .........................................................

3. ......................................................... ......... /3

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6

LITERATURE

English Romantic Poetry: the First Generation The English Romantic Age consists of the first generation with William Wordsworth (1770-1850) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) and the second generation with Byron, Shelley and Keats. In 1798 Wordsworth and Coleridge published Lyrical Ballads, considered the Manifesto of English Romanticism. These two poets were different: - in Wordsworth’s poetry childhood, the life of humble people, memories and emotions recollected in tranquillity are the main themes and the poet is a prophet and a spiritual guide for all men. His language is clear and can be understood by everyone; -C  oleridge’s poetry is linked to imagination and supernatural elements. His main work is The Rime of the Ancient Mariner which was present in Lyrical Ballads. Both Wordsworth and Coleridge shared the same goal: they wanted to define a new kind of poetry. In 1800, for the second edition of Lyrical Ballads, Wordsworth added the famous “Preface”, where he underlined the aims when writing this work, refusing the previous style of poetry and analysing the role of the poet. For him, the English language had to be the same both for poetry and for prose.

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LITERATURE INVALSI READING

5

Read the text about English Romantic Poetry: the first generation and other literary forms. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. The English Romantic period

4. Wordsworth wrote about

A. consists of two main poets.

A. childhood.

B. consists of three main poets.

B. poor people.

C. consists of one important author.

C. emotions and memories recollected in

D. consists of two different groups of poets. 1. The first generation of Romantic poets A. consisted of Wordsworth and Keats.

tranquillity. D. all the above topics. 5. Coleridge wrote about

B. consisted of Wordsworth and Coleridge.

A. imagination.

C. consisted of Coleridge and Keats.

B. supernatural elements.

D. consisted of Byron and Shelley.

C. both the above topics.

2. Lyrical Ballads is an important work A. published at the end of the 17th century. B. published at the beginning of the

18th century.

C. published at the end of the 18th century. D. published in 1800. 3. The “Preface� was written by A. Coleridge. B. Wordsworth. C. Keats.

D. sailors. 6. For Wordsworth and Coleridge A. poetry had to be different from the one during the Age of Enlightenment. B. poetry had to be the same as the one during the Age of Enlightenment. C. poetry had to be against revolutions. D. poetry had to contemplate Beauty. ......... /6

D. Byron.

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LITERATURE INVALSI READING

The Second Generation of Romantic Poets and other Literary Forms 6

Read the text and answer the questions (1-9). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

Lord Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley and John Keats belonged to the second generation of Romantic poets. They were revolutionary and died young far from their country. Lord Byron was against any social and moral norm. Shelley was against any form of tyranny both political and ideological, while Keats used a refined language to write verses contemplating Beauty. Three different poets who shared the same objective: fighting for a better world of justice, freedom and beauty. Fiction wasn’t the main literary form of the Romantic Age. However, the Gothic novel developed, showing the Romantic passion for the supernatural and mysterious. There are very well-known works, an example is Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. It’s important to mention Jane Austen and Sir Walter Scott too. Jane Austen was one of the most significant authors of the novel of manners and Sir Walter Scott was considered the father of the historical novel.

0. Who belonged to the second generation of Romantic poets?

Byron, Keats and Shelley

1. How can you define these poets? 2. Did they die old? 3. Who was against any social and moral norm? 4. Who was against any form of tyranny? 5. Who described Beauty in his poems? 6. What did the three poets fight for? 7. What did Romantic fiction develop? 8. What were the elements of these books? 9. Who wrote Frankenstein? ......... /9

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LITERATURE

ESAME DI STATO

The Historical Novel 7

Now read about the historical novel and choose the correct word (A-B-C) for each space. The historical novel is set in the …..... 1. The characters are taken from the …..... 2 too. The author, after studying the specific …..... 3 period, tries to describe specific …..... 4 details in his work. Sir Walter Scott is considered the father of the …..... 5 novel because he wanted to recreate an authentic atmosphere, so that he …..... 6 be free to invent a plot which wasn’t suitable for a contemporary setting. A lot of Gothic novels are set in the …..... 7 but their details of setting and time aren’t accurate or truthful. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

A. past A. past A. cultural A. literary A. historical A. can A. future

B. present B. present B. literary B. historical B. cultural B. could B. present

C. future C. future C. historical C. cultural C. literary C. may C. past ......... /7

19

INVALSI LISTENING

Sir Walter Scott and Alessandro Manzoni 8

Listen to a teacher comparing and contrasting Sir Walter Scott’s writing style with that of Manzoni. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions (1-4). Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When we read a novel by Scott A. we don’t know where we are. B. we can’t follow the plot. C. we feel we are in the past. D. we want to stop reading. 1. Ivanhoe is a novel by A. Scott. B. Manzoni. C. Flaubert. D. Balzac. 2. What did Manzoni and Scott have in common? A. They wrote about history. B. They mixed history and fiction in their novels. C. They created fictional characters only. D. They didn’t have anything in common.

3. Who is a real person in I Promessi Sposi? A. Renzo B. Lucia C. Cardinal Borromeo D. Don Abbondio 4. Manzoni was more precise than Scott writing about A. political issues. B. patriotic issues. C. historical events and his characters. D. his characters only.

......... /4

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LITERATURE

The Victorian Age: Historical Background Under Queen Victoria (1837-1901), England became the richest and most powerful country in the world. Three key words can be connected to this long period: optimism, respectability and modernity. This Age was marked by contradictions. England, the wealthiest country in the world, was full of enormous social problems like poverty. The middle class seemed optimistic, relying on progress, but progress couldn’t solve the social problems the country had. So, the Age became a period of compromise for people who didn’t want to see the problems of Victorian society: between morality and corruption, faith and science, liberalism and the conditions of the working class, industrialisation and nature. This period led people to move from the countryside to the town because there were huge difficulties in agriculture, while in big centres industry and manufacturing were developing a lot. In the 19th century, British colonialism expanded, reaching Australia, initially colonised as a penal settlement for criminals, and on to New Zealand. In 1876 Queen Victoria became the “Empress of India” and in 1900 the British Empire covered a quarter of the Earth’s surface. During the Victorian Era, there were two main political parties: the Whigs and the Tories. They both changed their names becoming the Liberal Party the first and the Conservative Party the second. At the end of this period, Britain had to find a political solution to the problems between England and Ireland. In 1829 Stephenson built the first locomotive, helping both industry and people because trains could arrive all over Britain. Apart from the transportation of goods, people travelled for pleasure reaching seaside towns, the countryside and places where important events took place like the Great Exhibition of 1851.

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LITERATURE INVALSI READING

9

Match A-E with the historical events (1-5). You can use A-E more than once. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. The Whigs became the Liberal Party.

A. Queen Victoria

1. Stephenson built the first locomotive.

B. The Victorian Age

2. The era had a complex, contradictory aspect called the Victorian Compromise.

C. British colonialism

3. The Empress of India

E. The railways

D. Political parties

4. The Tories became the Conservative Party. 5. Australia became a penal settlement. 0

1

2

3

4

5

D

......... /5

10 Now, match the pictures about the Victorian Age (1-4) with the sentences (A-F). There is one sentence you do not need. The first one (0) is an example.

0

1

3

4

2

A. The first locomotive contributed to the railway revolution. B. During the Victorian Age there were two main political parties: the Whigs and the Tories. C. People came to industrial towns where there were a lot of factories. D. In 1840 New Zealand was colonised by Britain. E. During the Victorian Age, all was perfect. Nobody had problems. F. Social problems were a lot during the Victorian Age. 0 D

1

2

3

4 ......... /4

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6

LITERATURE

ESAME DI STATO

The Victorian Age: Literary Context

11 Read the text. For questions 1–5 decide if each sentence is true or false, for questions 6-8 choose the answer A, B or C, finally answer questions 9-13. The literary genre which best represents the values of the Victorian Age is the novel. The most important novels are about the problems connected to industrialisation. The novel, belonging to the Victorian Age, is long but with an easy plot. Its characters have central roles and its aim is to be a way to understand the human condition in the modern world. Reading novels was a hobby for middle-class people and some were also published in instalments in newspapers and magazines. The reading public grew a lot during this period, and there were very famous writers, like Charles Dickens. In his works, Dickens describes and denounces the social problems of the time, but there is always a happy ending in his stories. There are a lot of characters who represent every human characteristic. Among his books, we can remember Oliver Twist, a novel set in the slums of London. Here Dickens describes the terrible conditions of the workhouses and how children were exploited. During the last decade of the 19th century Aestheticism develops. This movement wants to underline the hypocrisies of Victorian values and institutions. Its motto is “Art for art’s sake”. The most significant representative is Oscar Wilde with his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891). 1. The literary genre of the Victorian Age is poetry.

T F

2. A lot of books were about factories.

T F

3. Novels weren’t short.

T F

4. They were difficult to follow.

T F

5. Characters were essential.

T F

6. When we read Victorian novels A. we have a clear view how people lived. B. we have a clear view how rich people had fun. C. we have a clear view how locomotives worked. 8. During the Victorian Age

7. Was reading novels a hobby? A. Maybe. B. No, it wasn’t. C. Yes, it was.

A. people had to read books only. B. people could read novels divided in parts. C. people couldn’t read anything. 9. Who was one of the most important novelists during the Victorian Age? ………………….............................… 10. What did he describe? …………………………….............................…………………………….............................……………………………................ 11. What’s special about his books? ….............................……………………………..............................……………………………................... 12. Why are there many characters in his novels? ……………………….............................………………..……………........................ 13. What happens in the 19th century? ….............................……………………………..................................…………..…………………......... ......... /13

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6

LITERATURE 12 Read paragraph 3 again and complete the text below using the past simple. In his works, Dickens ………….............……… and ………….............……… the social problems of the time, but there …………......……… always a happy ending in his stories. There …………......……… a lot of characters who ………….............……… every human characteristic. Among his books, we can remember Oliver Twist, a novel set in the slums of London. Here Dickens ………….............……… the terrible conditions of the workhouses. During the last decade of the 19th century Aestheticism ………….............……… . This movement ………….............……… to underline the hypocrisies of Victorian values and institutions. Its motto ……….......... “Art for art’s sake”. The most significant representative …………......……… Oscar Wilde with his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891). ......... /9

INVALSI LISTENING

20

Working Children

13 Mr Jackson is showing some pictures to his students. Listen to him describing the children in the photos. Write their names in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

Nancy 0. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

2. .........................................................

3. ......................................................... ......... /3

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6

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

The Romantic Age in Britain: Historical Background 1

Follow the information about the Romantic Age - Historical Background and Literary Context and give an oral presentation.

1

The Age of Revolutions

2

4 3 - Battle of Trafalgar

- Battle of Waterloo - Congress of Vienna

5

6

William IV

The Romantic Age in Britain: Literary Context started to find new ways to express their ideas.

2 For poets and writers emotions,

imagination, the inner self and dreams were important.

4

Nature and Childhood were their main topic.

5 Romanticism is divided into:

- the first generation of Romantic poets - the second generation of Romantic poets

88

- With the Industrial Revolution England developed. - Two social classes emerged.

George IV

1 18th century: writers

3

George III

Pre-Romanticism preceded Romanticism.


LITERATURE

6

The Victorian Age: Historical Background 2

Follow the information about the Victorian Age - Historical Background and Literary Context and give an oral presentation.

1 England was rich but

with a lot of poor people.

2 A lot of people left the

countryside to work in factories.

4 Political parties

3 Victorian Colonialism

5 Stephenson built the

first locomotive in 1829.

The Victorian Age: Literary Context 1 Novels were important

2 They were mostly about

the problems linked to industrialisation

during the Victorian Age.

3

Charles Dickens was the most important novelist.

4 Dickens wrote

“Oliver Twist�.

5 At the end of the 19th century

Aestheticism developed. The most important writer was Oscar Wilde.

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7

CITIZENSHIP

The Italian Constitution With the referendum, which took place on 2nd June 1946, Italy became a Republic. A Constituent Assembly was also elected in order to write a new Constitution. This Assembly consisted of 556 members belonging to different political parties, but a restricted committee, known as “The Committee of the Eighteen” wrote it. On December 27th 1947, the provisional Head of State Mr Enrico De Nicola signed the Italian Constitution at Palazzo Giustiniani. The Italian Constitution came into force on 1st January 1948. The document has three main parts: - The first one, “Fundamental Principles” (articles 1-12), establishes what the country is and what it guarantees. So, from this part, we know that Italy is a democratic republic founded on labour, where sovereignty belongs to its People (Article 1). We also learn that the Constitution recognises and safeguards inviolable rights of man, the equality of all citizens before the law. Article 5 then declares that Italy is one, indivisible Republic. - The second part is “The Rights and Duties of Citizens” (articles 13-54). It establishes the rights and duties of Italian citizens under four titles: 1. Civil relations; 2. Ethical and social rights and duties; 3. Economic rights and duties; 4. Political rights and duties; - The last part is "The Organisation of the Republic" (articles 55-139), where we can read how the Italian Government works under six titles: 1. Parliament; 2. The President of the Republic; 3. Government; 4. The Judiciary; 5. Regions, Provinces, Municipalities; 6. Constitutional Safeguards. Last but not least, there are 18 transitional and final articles. The last article informed Italians that during the year 1948 they could read the whole constitution because the document was in the town hall of every single Municipality of the Republic. In this way, people became familiar with it. Like the citizens who saw the birth of the Italian Constitution, we too should know and faithfully observe this fundamental document.

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7

CITIZENSHIP INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about the Italian Constitution. Answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. On June 2 nd 946.

0. When did Italy become a Republic? 1. Who did Italians elect? 2. How many members were there? 3. Was there a smaller group working on the document? 4. What did they do? 5. Who signed the Italian Constitution? 6. When did he sign it? 7. Where did he sign it? 8. When did the Italian Constitution come into force?

......... /8

2

Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-3. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. The Italian Constitution has got A. three main parts. B. 139 articles. C. three main parts and an extra one. D. 12 fundamental principles. 1. In article 1 we know that A. Italy is a democratic republic. B. Italy is a republic founded on labour. C. Italy is a country where sovereignty belongs to its people. D. all the previous three statements are true.

2. The fundamental principles safeguard A. inviolable rights of man. B. the equality of all citizens before the law. C. both of the above. D. the Italian Constituent Assembly. 3. Article 5 declares A. Italy is one, indivisible Republic. B. Italy is a Republic with two main islands. C. Italy is a monarchy. D. Italy is a member state belonging to the European Union. ......... /3

3

Read the information about the Italian Constitution. Are the sentences (1-3) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. The first part of the Italian Constitution is “The Rights and Duties of Citizens�. 1. When the Constituent Assembly wrote the first part of the Italian Constitution, they needed a typist. 2. The first part consists of 40 articles. 3. The articles belonging to the first part are under four titles. ......... /3

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7

CITIZENSHIP ESAME DI STATO 4

Read the text again, then for questions 1-4, decide if each sentence is true or false, for questions 5-8 choose the answer A, B or C, finally answer questions 9-10. 1. The members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to various political parties.

T F

2. Mr De Nicola signed without reading the Italian Constitution. 3. The first part of the Constitution, “The Rights and Duties of Citizens”, is from article 13 to article 54.

T F

4. “Ethical and social rights and duties”, “Economic rights and duties”, “Political rights and duties” don’t belong to the first part of the Italian Constitution. 5. The second part of the Italian Constitution is

T F

T F

A. “The Rights and Duties of Citizens”. B. “The Organisation of the Republic”. C. the 18 transitional and final articles. 6. The last part is about A. how the Government works. B. the duties of Italian citizens. C. both of the above. 7. “Parliament”, “The President of the Republic”, ”Government”, “The Judiciary” are A. in part 2. B. in transitional and final articles. C. not in the Italian Constitution. 8. Regions, Provinces, Municipalities and Constitutional Safeguards A. are in part 1. B. are in part 2. C. are in transitional and final articles. 9. How many transitional and final articles are there in the Italian Constitution? ……....................…………. 10. Where was a copy of the Italian Constitution in 1948? .............…………………………........…………………..………….....……… ......... /10

5

Now write an email to your American friend Fred. Tell him: - you are studying your Constitution; - something about its history; - something about the document: its parts and what each part is about; - the part you like and why; - your opinion about the document. - Ask him if he is studying his Constitution.

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7

CITIZENSHIP

21

INVALSI LISTENING

The Signing of the Italian Constitution 6

Listen to Mr Rossi describing a historical photo, showing the signing of the Italian Constitution. Write the gentlemen’s names in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

4. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

3. .........................................................

Enrico 0. .........................................................

2. ......................................................... ......... /4

2nd June 1946: Italian Women Voted for the First Time 22

7

Listen to Louise talking about the important Italian referendum held on 2nd of June 1946. Answer the questions (1-8). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When was the female right to vote recognised in Italy?

In

945.

1. Who recognised this right to Italian Women? 2. Was Italy a Republic at that time? 3. Who ruled Italy at that time? 4. When did Italian women vote? 5. Could women be elected too? 6. Who was Teresa Mattei? 7. Was she elected in 1946? 8. Is she still alive? ......... /8

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7

CITIZENSHIP

Being Active Citizens Means... If we want to be good citizens, we must be active in order to build a better, democratic society. So being an active member of our community means to know, not only our rights and duties, but to show solidarity towards the others, therefore giving something to society. But how can we do that? Let’s see some examples! We should know our neighbours, talk to them and we should be open to people coming from abroad. Maybe they live next door, but we are not always welcoming and supportive. We should follow what our municipalities do for us, paying attention to their plans and decisions. Our participation in local public life is extremely important to start developing active citizenship. Organizing social events for the elderly, for the young or for those people who have just moved from a foreign country can be another way to be active citizens. If we are together, we can share our customs and traditions, our values and we can become friends. Being active citizens means caring about the environment and protecting it. We should increase youth participation on issues like climate change or the loss of biodiversity. The young activist Greta Thunberg has taught us to find the courage to fight for a sustainable Europe and a sustainable planet. A lot of students have joined the movement this Swedish girl founded in 2018, in order to be real active citizens and change the world. J.F.Kennedy said: ‘Don’t ask what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.’ Active citizens should always be ready to try to solve problems, to build good relationships with others and help increase democracy in order to live in a better community.

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7

CITIZENSHIP INVALSI READING

8

Read what some students do to be active citizens (1-5) and match them with the activities (A-G). There is one sentence you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. “I always read and check what our mayor and councillors do for our local community.” 1. “I went to Rome with my classmates to participate in the Climate Strike last Friday.” 2. “My neighbourhood is a melting pot full of people, coming from all over the world. I like talking to them.” 3. “I want to protect the environment, so I reduce, reuse and recycle.” 4. “With other neighbours we like organizing parties so that the older people can stay with us and have fun.” 5. “As we have new neighbours who come from Morocco, Poland and Argentina, we want to have a multicultural party with Italian, Moroccan, Polish and Argentinian food specialities.” A. He likes building a multicultural community. B. He organises a social event for the elderly. C. He likes going on holiday with his foreign friends. D. Inclusion is important to him. E. He follows what his municipality does.

0

F. He is green.

E

1

2

3

G. He follows the movement called Fridays for Future.

9

4

5 ......... /5

Read the text again. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-5. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Active citizens A . support democracy. B. study Law. C. fight to abolish human rights. D. want to cut trees.

3. Active citizens A. follow local gossip. B. follow their mayor. C. follow local political issues. D. follow international events.

1. Active citizens A. do sport. B. like dancing. C. support people in need. D. don’t do anything special.

4. Active citizens A. care for old people and the environment. B. plan holidays. C. study to become politicians. D. study Law.

2. Active citizens A. are narrow-minded. B. are shy. C. are racist. D. are open-minded.

5. Active citizens fight A. to be rich. B. for a sustainable community. C. for a community without green areas. D. for a community where all the people aren’t foreigners.

......... /5

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7

CITIZENSHIP

ESAME DI STATO

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

10 Read the text about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Choose the correct word (A-B-C) for each space. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an essential ………….............……… 1 in the history of human rights. A lot of people from all over the ………….............……… 2 representing various backgrounds worked on it. On 10th December 1948 it was ………….............……… 3 in Paris by the United Nations General Assembly and ………….............……… 4 fundamental human rights which had to be protected. In the document, we read that we are all born ………….............……… 5, we mustn’t ………….............……… 6 people who are different from us. We all have the right to live free and in a ………….............……… 7 environment. There ………….............……… 8 be slavery or torture. We have the same rights everywhere and before the law. We have the right to a fair trial, to privacy, to find a safe place to live, to have a nationality, to own ………….............……… 9, to democracy, to public assembly, to education. We also have freedom of ………….............……… 10, of expression and to move. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

A. book A. world A. proclaimed A. ordered A. free A. discriminate A. dangerous A. must A. things A. thoughts

B. document B. UK B. remembered B. wanted B. equal B. tolerate B. safe B. mustn’t B. cars B. secrets

C. paper C. USA C. commemorated C. established C. free and equal C. think C. wild C. have to C. jewels C. ideas

......... /10

11 Read the text again and answer the following questions. 1. When was the Declaration of Human Rights announced officially? ................................................................. 2. Where was it announced? …………...............................................................…………………..........................................…………………… 3. Who announced it?

………............................…......................................................………………......…...................................…………………

4. Have we got the same rights all over the world? ...............................................................................………………………… 5. Are we the same before the law? ......................................................…………………............................................…………………… 6. Are we free to attend school? …………......................................................…………………...........................................…………………… ......... /6

12 Now, write an email to your best friend and tell him/her: - who an active citizen is; - what an active citizen can do; - about the climate change and Greta Thunberg; - what the Universal Declaration of Human Rights is; - the parts in the document you like and why; - you are an active citizen and why; - ask him/her if he/she is an active citizen; End the e-mail.

96


7

CITIZENSHIP INVALSI LISTENING

23

Being an Active Citizen

13 Listen to Paul. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C, D) for questions 1-3. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What does Paul like doing?

A

B

C

D

C

D

C

D

C

D

1. What do Paul and his friends organise?

A

B 2. What do Paul and his friends care about?

A

B 3. What do they fight?

A

B

......... /3

97


7

CITIZENSHIP

Volunteering Volunteering can be a good way to show an exercise of democracy. There are a lot of organisations where we can start a process which can be defined as participatory and society-oriented citizenship. Today a lot of students, especially secondary and university ones, are engaged in citizenship learning through volunteering and community involvement. In Italy we have a wide range of associations whose activities are vital to help people and animals in danger. Being a member of one of these can lead us to be active citizens. Let’s analyse the Association of Voluntary Italian Blood Donors (AVIS), the major Italian non-profit and charitable organization for blood donation. When you are 18, you can start giving a part of you to help people in need, who could die without our blood. This means being active! This also means we want to be anonymous, responsible and we want to give something to someone else we don’t know for the pleasure of donating. It’s also important that we give blood regularly, not just once. So let’s became blood donors to save lives!

98


7

CITIZENSHIP INVALSI READING

14 Read the text. Are the sentences (1-5) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. Active citizens can be people who are green. 1. Teaching languages is another way to be active citizens. 2. Volunteering is a way to show active citizenship. 3. In few organisations we can start a participatory process. 4. Many teens and young adults are engaged in volunteering. 5. Only rich people can take part in charitable activities. ......... /5

15 Answer the questions (1-5) Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. Secondary and university students

0. Who can be engaged in citizenship learning? 1. Are there many charitable associations in Italy? 2. Is AVIS a small organization? 3. When can a donor start giving his/her blood? 4. Does the person, who needs your blood, know you? 5. Is the donor paid for his/her blood?

......... /5

Active Citizens

16 Match the pictures (A-D) with the sentences (1-5). You can use a photo more than once. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

A

Regionale Marche

B

C

0. You have a big heart if you are a blood donor. 1. Active citizens protect the environment. 2. It’s the Italian Blood Donors Association. 3. Helping people in need means being supportive. 4. If you save the environment, you save our planet. 5. AVIS promotes solidarity through blood donation.

D

0 D

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

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7

CITIZENSHIP INVALSI READING

Blood Donation

17 Read the text about blood donation. Answer the questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. When is the event?

It’s on February 22 nd /22 nd February.

1. Where is it? 2. What time does it start? 3. What time does it finish? 4. What is the web site address? 5. What’s the telephone number? 6. Can you go there without appointment? ......... /6

ESAME DI STATO

Becoming a Donor in Italy

18 Read the text, then reorder it. After that, you need to know you aren’t paid for your donation. Second, if you decide to give blood, it’s because you want to. Nobody can force you!  inally, blood donation must be frequent and consistent. In this way the medical staff can F monitor donors regularly.  irst of all, in Italy, both blood donors and recipients are anonymous. The privacy laws F protect their identities. ......... /4

100


7

CITIZENSHIP

24

INVALSI LISTENING

A Group of Volunteers

19 Listen to Joseph describing some of his friends. Write their names in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

Natalie 0. .........................................................

3. .........................................................

1. .........................................................

2. ......................................................... ......... /3

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7

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

The Italian Constitution 1

You have to give an oral presentation about the Italian Constitution. Follow the mind map to help you. 1

2

3

4

On 2nd June 1946, Italy became a Republic.

A Constituent Assembly was elected in order to write a new Constitution.

This Assembly consisted of 556 members but a restricted committee, known as “the Committee of the Eighteen”, wrote it.

On December 27th 1947, the provisional Head of State, Mr Enrico De Nicola, signed the Italian Constitution. The Italian Constitution came into force on 1st January 1948.

5 The document has

three main parts and 18 transitional and final articles. The 18th article informed Italians that during 1948 they could read the Constitution in their town halls.

102


CITIZENSHIP

7

Active Citizenship 2

Explain what active citizenship is. You can add other information if you want.

1 Active citizens build

2

a better, democratic society.

3

Active citizens help people in need.

4

Active citizens care for the others.

Active citizens are green.

5 Active citizens organise social events

for the community and follow what the municipality does.

3

According to you who is an active citizen? What does he/she do in order to have a better society? The following pictures can help you.

103


8

MUSIC

Music during the Romantic Era During the Romantic period, music expressed feelings both positive and negative. It provoked passion and evoked stories, places and events. Nature was a significant, popular subject. Mendelssohn’s “Hebrides Overture” is an example. The composer went to the island of Staffa which inspired him. We could object that music has always expressed feelings. But, during this era, feelings were so strong and expressing them became important. If we think about earlier music, like Baroque, we can see that it was meant to be played in churches or for entertainment, while with romantic composers, music was written to show their emotional states. There isn’t a precise date when the Classical period finished and the Romantic one started. We could say around the end of the 18th century or beginning of the 19th. Peter Tchaikovsky, Edvard Grieg and Johannes Brahms belonged to this era, while Beethoven’s early music is considered classical. His later compositions were considered romantic because they used new instruments and techniques. Romantic music: - had got big orchestras performing in big theatres - they had large string and percussion sections, woodwind (flutes and piccolo oboes and clarinets, bassoons and double bassoons), brass (trumpets, trombones, French horns and tuba), last, but not least the piano, which became the most popular instrument during the era. Think about Chopin’s composition. - has got “rubato” which is a slight speeding up and slowing down of the music; - has got adventurous harmonies and modulations. All this allowed the performance of symphonies, leading to the development of instrumental music that reached a high level of skill in technical playing.

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8

MUSIC INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about Music during the Romantic era. Focus your attention on paragraph 1. Answer the questions (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What did music express during the Romantic Age?

It expressed feelings.

1. What did it evoke? 2. What subject was important for this kind of music? 3. Who wrote an overture inspired by an island? 4. Where did he go? 5. Was Baroque music similar to the one during the Romantic Age? ......... /5

ESAME DI STATO 2

Read the text again. For questions 1-5 choose the answer A, B or C, then answer questions 6-10. 1. For which occasions was Baroque music played? A. It was played in churches for religious services. B. It was played to have fun. C. It was played both for religious services and entertainment.

4. Who belong to this era? A. Antonio Vivaldi B. Peter Tchaikovsky C. Johann Sebastian Bach 5. At the beginning Beethoven was considered A. a Romantic composer. B. a Classical composer. C. a Baroque composer.

2. Romantic composers wanted A. to show their emotions. B. to show their rage. C. to show their faith. 3. When did the Romantic period start? A. In the 18th century. B. In the 19th century. C. We don’t know exactly.

6. Why were Beethoven’s later compositions romantic? ………….........................................................…………………........ 7. What are the characteristics of Romantic music? ………..….......................................................………………….................

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................………….................

8. What were often performed?

………….........................................................................…………………...................................…………

9. How often do you listen to music?

…………................................................................…………………....................................………

10. What’s your favourite music? Why? ……..……........................................................…………………..................................…..……… ......... /10

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8

MUSIC INVALSI READING

3

Read the text about a concert. Answer the questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. Who performs the concert?

Charlotte Civic Orchestra.

1. Whose Romantic music do they perform? 2. Who is the conductor? 3. How many musicians are there in the orchestra? 4. When is the concert? 5. What time is the concert? 6. How much is the admission? ......... /6

106


8

MUSIC

25

INVALSI LISTENING

Edvard Grieg 4

Listen to a music teacher talking about Edvard Grieg. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-5. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Where was Grieg from? A . Norway B. Denmark C. Germany D. France 1. What was his mum’s job? A. A teacher B. A cook C. A pianist D. A nurse 2. Where did he go to study music? A. Norway B. Denmark C. Germany D. France

3. Where did he move when he graduated? A. Norway B. Denmark C. Germany D. France 4. Where did he like composing his music? A. Norway B. Denmark C. Germany D. France 5. Where did he die? A. Norway B. Denmark C. Germany D. France ......... /5

25

5

Listen to the recording again. While listening, answer the questions below (1-5). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Where was Grieg born?

In Bergen, Norway.

1. Were the members of his family musical? 2. Was the conservatory in Leipzig the worst in Europe? 3. Who did he marry? 4. What was his wife’s job? 5. What did he do as a pianist? ......... /5

107


8

MUSIC

Jazz Jazz comes from the USA. It’s a mixture of styles of music, like gospel music, brass bands, African music, and blues. When Jazz bands play, their rhythm comes from a wide range of instruments which creates emotions. An important aspect of this original style is that the rhythm can change during a song because improvisation is a significant part of this genre. The music is often created during a song which has a basic structure and melody, but the musicians play it in a different way each time they perform it. Each musician also has the chance to perform solo during a song. This genre of music was created by African-American musicians in New Orleans, Louisiana, at the end of the 19th century, but it became popular at the beginning of the following century, especially in the 1920s. During this peak period, the centre of jazz changed from New Orleans to Chicago and New York City. As in the ‘20s, Jazz was so well liked, historians call this decade “The Jazz Age”. This age was also the time of prohibition because selling alcohol was illegal. So, clubs called “speakeasies” sold it and jazz music was performed. Needless to say, these places were against the law. During this period a lot of jazz bands and musicians became famous, like Kid Ory’s Original Creole Jazz Band, the New Orleans Rhythm Kings, Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. From this age, Jazz continued to change and evolve. A lot of forms of music derive from it, like swing in the 1930s; big band music was really popular and people loved dancing. In the 1940s a complex instrumental form called bebop developed from Jazz. Last but not least, Jazz influenced funk, rock and roll, and hip hop.

108


8

MUSIC

ESAME DI STATO 6

Read the text, then for questions 1–5, decide if each sentence is true or false, for questions 6-9 choose the answer A-B or C, finally answer questions 10-16. 1. Jazz is from America.

T F

2. Blues isn’t connected to Jazz at all.

T F

3. Jazz has got links with African music.

T F

4. In order to perform Jazz, music bands need few instruments.

T F

5. Jazz creates sensations.

T F

6. An aspect of Jazz is A. its rhythm never changes during a song. B. its rhythm changes during a song. C. its monotonous rhythm during a song. 7. The above aspects is called A. improvisation. B. rubato. C. atonal. 8. During a song, the musicians A. play it following its basic structure. B. play it while dancing. C. play it changing its basic structure. 9. Every musician in a jazz band A. must follow the basic structure. B. can stop playing when he/she wants. C. can perform a part or passage of music without the other members playing. 10. Where was Jazz created?

………………………….….....................................…………………………………….………………………………………........

11. When was it created? …………………………….....................................…………………………………….………………………………………................... 12. When did it become popular? …………………………….....................................…………………………………….………………………………………. 13. Which American cities were the centre of Jazz music during its peak period? ........................................ 14. What do historians call this period? ………………………….....................................…………………..………………….…….…………………… 15. What happened during “the Jazz Age”? …………………………….....................................…………………………………….…………………

……………………………...................................……………………………………………………………………………..............................................………….................

16. Was a “speakeasy” a legal place? ……............................……………………......................................…………………………………….…… ......... /16

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8

MUSIC INVALSI READING

7

Read the text and answer the following questions (1-6). Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

0. Who presented the event?

Patricia Music (presented it),

1. When was it? 2. Where was it? 3. How many performances were there? 4. Did people have to pay? 5. Where did they buy tickets? 6. Who performed the music? (give two examples) ......... /6

110


8

MUSIC

8

Jazz Pictures Read the sentences (1-4) and match them to the pictures (A-F). There is one picture you do not need. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

D

E

F

0. Club 21 was a speakeasy. Now it’s a famous restaurant in New York with the famous balcony adorned by statues. 1. A “solo performance” is an important feature of jazz music. 2. Ella Fitzgerald was the top female jazz singer for decades. 3. During prohibition people could listen to jazz in this illegal place. 4. The trumpeter Louis Armstrong was one of the most influential musicians in the history of jazz.

0 F

1

2

3

4 ......... /4

111


8

MUSIC INVALSI LISTENING

26

9

Jazz Musicians and Singers Listen to a boy and a girl talking about Jazz musicians and singers. While listening match the artist (1-5) with his/her name (A-H). There are two names you do not need. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example.

0

1

2

3

4

5

A. Pat Metheny B. Charlie Parker C. Ella Fitzgerald D. Miles Davis E. Sara Vaughan F. Louis Armstrong G. Billie Holiday H. Herbie Hancock

112

0

1

2

3

4

5

D ......... /5


MUSIC 26

8

10 Now listen to the recording again. While listening, choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-6. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When did the boy and the girl have their music lesson? A . In the morning. B. In the afternoon. C. In the evening. D. At night. 1. What was Miles Davis doing in the picture? A. He wasn’t doing anything. B. He was composing. C. He was playing his musical instrument. D. He was painting a picture. 2. Why was Louis Armstrong nicknamed “Satchmo”? A. Because he had a big satchel. B. Because he had a big bag. C. Because he had a tiny mouth. D. Because he had a large mouth. 3. Billie Holiday was A. a jazz musician. B. a jazz vocalist. C. a jazz composer. D. a music teacher. 4. Pat Metheny A. performs every type of music. B. sings. C. performs jazz fusion. D. improvises. 5. Who won a Grammy Award? A. Ella Fitzgerald. B. Sara Vaughan. C. Billie Holiday. D. Louis Armstrong. 6. Who was called “Sissy”? A. Ella Fitzgerald. B. Sara Vaughan. C. Billie Holiday. D. Any girl who sang jazz. ......... /6

113


8

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

Music during the Romantic Era 1

You have to give an oral presentation about music during the Romantic era. Look at the map below and talk for one minute, trying to outline the main aspects of the topic.

1

Music expressed feelings. Nature was an important subject. 2

3

5

114

We don’t know when exactly the Romantic era started.

Beethoven’s music was classical at the start. His later compositions were considered romantic.

Romantic composers wrote music to show their emotional states.

4

6

Peter Tchaikovsky, Edvard Grieg and Johannes Brahms belonged to the Romantic era.

Romantic music is performed by big orchestras and has got “rubato” and adventurous harmonies and modulations. Symphonies were performed.


MUSIC

8

Jazz 2

Read the information about Jazz and give an oral presentation.

2

1

3

- wide range of instruments - changing rhythms during a song

- Jazz origins: USA

- improvisation

- mixture of styles of music

- chance to perform solo during a song

- created by African-American musicians

4

- from New Orleans to Chicago and New York City

- New Orleans, Louisiana

- “the Jazz Age”

- end of the 19th century

- prohibition /“Speakeasies”

5

- famous Jazz bands and artists

- popular in the 1920s

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9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The History of Running Running has always been present in our society. It was already present in Ancient Greece more than 2,700 years ago, thanks to the Olympic Games. In rural areas of Europe too, there were competitive running races during religious festivals. An example is the Irish Tailteann Games. They were funeral games in honour of the deceased and the Goddess Tailtiu. They took place in summer and included different sports and running events. We don’t know when they occurred, maybe between 1800 and 632 BC. In the 16thcentury something happened in the history of running. During this period, in fact, the term “jogging” appeared, meaning the activity of running at a slow regular speed. The upper classes started to run and jog. Swordsmen used these physical activities for their training. At the end of the 19th century and during the 20th, running and jogging were really popular, in particular when athletics became a professional sport. This discipline appeared in 1896 during the first Modern Olympic Games, organised by a committee created by Pierre de Coubertin. There, the first modern marathon race was held. The race followed the legendary route of Pheidippides in 490 BC. A group of gentlemen, who saw the race, decided to organise the first edition of the Boston Marathon the following year, both for professional sportsmen and normal people. Eighteen athletes participated. Now over 20,000 people participate in this event in Boston every year! Another important event is the London Marathon, an annual appointment for people who love running.

116


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION INVALSI READING

1

Read the text about running. Focus your attention to paragraph one. Are the sentences (1-4) true, false or not given? Put a cross (X) in the correct box. The first one (0) is an example. True

False

Not given

0. Running has always existed in our society. 1. The ancient Greeks could see people running in sports event. 2. In ancient times Irish people ran during a sad ceremony. 3. The Tailteann Games took place all year round. 4. The games were forbidden to children. ......... /4

2

Read the second paragraph of the text and choose an answer (A, B, C, or D) for questions 1-4. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When did the term “jogging� appear? A. 2,700 years ago B. In 1800 BC C. In the 1500s D. In 1896 1. What does jogging mean? A. Barefoot running B. Endurance running C. High speed running D. Running at a steady, gentle pace 2. What discipline did become a professional sport at the end of the 19th century? A. Badminton B. Baseball C. Taekwondo D. Athletics

4. Why was the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th important for running? A. Because there was the re-enactment of the Irish Tailteann Games. B. Because athletics became a professional sport. C. Because the upper class wanted to organise a lot of running events. D. Because running was present at funerals. ......... /4

3. Who used running and jogging for training? A. Men who usually fought with a gun. B. Men who usually fought with a sword. C. Men who usually fought with bombs. D. Men who usually fought with a rifle.

117


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION INVALSI READING

3

Read the third paragraph of the text and answer the following questions 1-7. Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When were the first Modern Olympic Games organised? In 896. 1. Who was the head of the committee? 2. What route did the marathon follow? 3. What did a group of people do after watching the race? 4. Where and when did the running event take place? 5. How many people were there in the first edition? 6. How many people are there every year? 7. Where is another important running event? ......... /7

ESAME DI STATO 4

Write a letter to your American friend Nancy. In your message: - tell her you studied running yesterday; - write about its history; - tell her, you like it, giving reasons for your point of view; - add information on other sports you like; - ask if she likes running; End the letter.

5

How to Run Correctly Read the sentences and put the events into the order in which they take place (1-5). The first one is an example. Next, bend your arms at a 90-degree angle, swinging them forward and backward. I f we run well, we can enjoy this physical activity more. So, let’s pay attention to the following tips: Finally, while running, breathe deeply.  hen, run in an upright position with your hips stable, your knees not lifted too high and T taking short and light steps. First of all, look straight ahead of you without hunching your shoulders. ......... /4

118


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

27

INVALSI LISTENING

Long Distance Running and Marathons 6

Listen to Ray talking to his uncle Louis on the phone. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. Why is Ray phoning his uncle? A. Because he wants to run. B. Because he wants to win a medal. C. Because he has a PE test. D. Because he has to write an assignment. 1. What does Ray’s uncle do? A. He is talking to him now. B. He is a teacher. C. He is a runner. D. He is a sportsperson. 2. Long distance running is very popular because A. people like being in good shape. B. people like walking. C. people like sport. D. people like marathons. 3. In ancient times A. long distance running was useless. B. long distance running wasn’t necessary. C. long distance running was just a sport. D. long distance running was a way to keep in touch. 4. Pheidippides ran A. 30 kilometres non-stop. B. 13 kilometres non-stop.

5. He had A. to inform people that the Persian Army

defeated the Greeks.

B. to inform people that both the Persian

Army and the Greeks were winners.

C. to inform people that the Greeks defeated the Persian Army. D. to inform people that in 490 BC there was a battle at Marathon. 6. De Coubertin and the Olympic committee A. didn’t consider the marathon an Olympic event. B. recognised long distance running as a sport. C. hated Pheidippides. D. w anted to recognise Pheidippides as an athlete.

C. 40 kilometres non-stop. D. 14 kilometres non-stop.

......... /6

119


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Doping in Sport When we talk about doping in sport, we refer to the use of drugs that athletes mustn’t take. Steroids, for example, are forbidden in professional sports because they help an athlete’s performance. In fact, if he/she takes them he/she becomes fast and strong. This is not fair in a competition! For this reason, there’s always doping testing in important sports events. So, what happens if a competitor uses a drug? Red blood cells increase in the bloodstream in order to improve his/her aerobic capacity and endurance. We have a lot of examples of unfair practises in sport. In 2000, Marion Jones won three gold medals at the Summer Olympic Games in Sydney. Then, it was discovered she had used steroids. So, her victories were annulled, she went to prison for six months and had a two-year suspension from competitions. Another doping scandal was the one linked to Ben Johnson from Canada. In 1987 he set a world record in the 100-metre dash at the world championships in Rome. In 1988 at the Summer Olympics in Seoul, he set a new world record but tested positive for steroids. “I use banned substances regularly. I used them in 1987 too: ” he admitted. So, all his records and medals were revoked. These are just two of many examples of competitors who weren’t genuine sportspeople. Sport, in fact, is connected to fair play which is a complex concept, which includes values like fair competition, respect, friendship, team spirit, equality, sport without doping, respect for written rules and unwritten ones such as solidarity and tolerance.

120


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION INVALSI READING

7

Read the text. Choose the correct answer (A, B, C or D) for questions 1-6. Put a cross (X) in the correct box. Only one answer is correct. The first one (0) is an example. 0. When a competitor takes banned substances A. red blood cells decrease.

5. What happened to Ben Johnson in 1988? A. He participated in the Seoul Olympic Games.

B. red blood cells become white. C. red blood cells multiply. D. red blood cells disappear.

B. He participated in a sprint race. C. He participated in a marathon. D. He lost all his records and

1. When a sportsperson uses banned substances A. his/her aerobic capacity and endurance

decrease.

B. his/her aerobic capacity and endurance get worse. C. his/her aerobic capacity and endurance end. D. his/her aerobic capacity and endurance

become better.

medals because he used banned substances.

6. Did Ben Johnson use steroids in 1987? A. Yes, he did. B. No, he didn’t. C. We don’t know. D. He started using banned substances

in 1988.

2. How many Olympic gold medals did Marion Jones win in 2000? A. She didn’t win any medals. B. She won three medals. C. She won two medals. D. She won five medals. 3. What happened to her when it was discovered she used steroids? A. She went to prison. B. She continued her competitions. C. She stopped running. D. She started playing tennis. 4. What did Ben Johnson do in 1987? A. He participated in a sprint race. B. He established a new world record. C. He visited Rome. D. He watched the 100 metres. ......... /6

121


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

ESAME DI STATO 8

Read the text “Doping in Sport” and answer the questions 1-5. 1. What happened when Ben Johnson tested positive for steroids? ………….……...............…………………………………..

……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………...............................................…………........

2. Are Marion Jones and Ben Johnson the only two competitors who used banned substances?

……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………...............................................…………........

3. Do you know any Italian athletes who were tested positive for banned substances?

……………………………...................................…………………………........…………………………………………………...............................................…………........

4. What’s your favourite sport? .................................................…………………………........…………………………………………….…….............. 5. Who is your favourite sportsperson? …………......................................................………………….....................................………… ......... /5

9

Write a short message to your friend inviting him/her to a sport event. Use around 35-45 words. Tell him/her: - where the sports event is; - when it is; - what time it is; - if he/she can come; - where you could meet; - what time you could meet.

28

INVALSI LISTENING

Alex Zanardi: a Symbol of Fair Play

10 Listen to Gabriel, talking about his hero. While listening answer the questions below. Use a maximum of 4 words. Write your answers in the boxes. You will hear the recording twice. The first one (0) is an example. 0. What class did Gabriel have last week?

He had History.

1. Who was mentioned? (give two names) 2. What did he have to prepare for Monday? 3. How old was Alex when he began driving karts? 4. What happened in 2001? 5. What did he do in 2010? 6. What did he win at the London Paralympics? ......... /6

122


9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION INVALSI READING

11 Look

at the newspapers below (A-C). Match them with the sentences (1-5). You can use the articles more than once. Write your answers in the boxes. The first one (0) is an example.

A

B

C

0. The article is about Ben Johnson’s victory. 1. The article is about the fact that Johnson’s gold medal was revoked. 2. The article is about the fact that Johnson took banned substances. 3. In the article we learn that Johnson set a world record. 4. In the article we learn that Johnson officially had to stop running. 5. In the article we learn that Johnson ran the 100 metres in 9.79 seconds.

0 A

1

2

3

4

5 ......... /5

123


9

ORAL PRESENTATION - LET’S RECAP

The History of Running 1

1

You have to summarise what you have learnt about running. What would you say? The mind map below should help you as well as the text “The History of Running”.

In modern competitive running we have sprints, long-distance and marathon races.

3 In the 16th century the

word jogging appeared. Swordsmen used these physical activities for their training.

5

2

Running was already present in Ancient Greece. In rural areas of Europe too, there was competitive running.

4

Only at the end of the 19th century and during the 20th, running and jogging became popular and athletics became a professional sport.

In 1896 professional athletes participated in the modern Olympic Games. The first modern marathon race was held. The following year the Boston Marathon was organised and then the London Marathon.

Doping in Sport 2

1

3

124

You should give an oral presentation on “Doping in Sport”. The mind map below helps you outline the text on page 118. 2 Red blood cells increase

Doping in sport is the use of drugs that athletes mustn’t take.

Marion Jones is an example of doping in sport.

in the bloodstream in order to improve the competitor’s aerobic capacity and endurance.

4 Another example is

Ben Johnson. He tested positive for steroids.


PHYSICAL EDUCATION

9

Modern Marathons 3

Look at the photos about the Boston Marathon and the London one. Choose the running event you’d like to participate in. Give reasons for your choice. Describe the event using the information given.

THE BOSTON MARATHON -In 2020 it is the 124th edition of the Marathon. -It takes place in April. - You can’t just register. You need a qualifying time from another marathon and you must be 18 or over. - All are welcome! In fact, there is also a programme for athletes with impairments. - The Marathon is from Hopkinton, MA, to Copley Square in Boston (26.2 miles) - The registration fees are $ 200 for American runners and $ 250 for International ones. - There are about 30,000 participants.

THE LONDON MARATHON - In 2020 it is the 40th edition of the Marathon. - It takes place in April. - Every year, there’s a public ballot entry system to participate. - You could choose to run for one of the charities who have guaranteed places in the London Marathon. - You must be 18 or over. - People with a disability are welcome to participate. - The race is from Greenwich Park and Blackheath to the Mall. (26.2 miles) - The registration fees are £ 39 for British citizens, and £ 80 for International runners. - There are about 40,000 runners.

125


GLOSSARY 1

SCIENCE

(to) be named after: intitolare, dedicare (to) be willing to: essere disposto a/essere pronto a cluster: gruppo, massa, grappolo, sciame, ammasso stellare core: nucleo, centro else: altro flickering light: luce tremula (to) float: stare a galla, fluttuare (to) give out: emettere, produrre glow: luminosità, splendore glowing: luminoso/radioso harmful: dannoso, nocivo helium: elio huge: enorme hunger: fame hydrogen: idrogeno layer: strato liberty ship: unità navali da carico utilizzate dagli Alleati durante il secondo conflitto mondiale naked eye: ad occhio nudo (to) own: possedere paper: saggio, dissertazione (to) revolve: ruotare, girare roof: tetto shadow: ombra (to) shimmer: brillare, luccicare tools: strumento di lavoro twinkling: scintillante unknown: sconosciuto whose: il cui/la cui/i cui/le cui

2

TECHNOLOGY

blanket: coperta carbon dioxide: anidride carbonica challenge: sfida commitment: impegno conductor: conduttore (to) decrease: diminuire device: congegno, dispositivo glass: vetro hint: suggerimento (to) hit: colpire household waste: rifiuti domestici incentive: incentivo infrared rays: raggi infrarossi item: oggetto kinetic: cinetica latent: latente light: leggero long-term: a lungo termine (to) make up: comporre

126

particles: particelle photovoltaic: fotovoltaico potential: potenziale power: energia (to) power: alimentare, fornire energia a raw material: materia prima (to) release: rilasciare, emettere renewable: rinnovabile/i shard: frammento skyscraper: grattacielo smooth: liscio spaceship: navicella spaziale spire: guglia steel: acciaio (to) throw: gettare, lanciare ultraviolet: ultravioletto/i wrist watch: orologio da polso

3

ART

bald: calvo/calva bombing: bombardamento candlestick: candeliere canvas: tela chalk: gesso dot: punto, puntino dull: spento, smorto, opaco employee: impiegata engraving: incisione (to) enrol: iscrivere/iscriversi etching: acquaforte great grandfather: bisnonno (to) hold: tenere ironic: ironico/ironica issue: problema, questione landscape: paesaggio lightbulb: lampadina lithography: litografia loft: soffitta mankind: umanità meaningless: senza senso outlining: disegno al tratto outstanding: eccezionale paintbrush: pennello (to) portray: ritrarre, dipingere, rappresentare portray: ritratto print making: l’arte della stampa (to) quit: lasciare rebirth: rinascita satirical: satirico/satirica shape: forma spear: lancia stencil: maschera normografica che permette di riprodurre forme, simboli, lettere in serie


GLOSSARY still-life: natura morta striking: che fa colpo, impressionante stroke: tratto, segno, linea stunning: sbalorditivo, sorprendente (to) take a stand against: prendere posizione contro (to) take place: avere luogo (to) take up: iniziare una nuova attività viewpoint: punto di vista well-known: noto workshop: laboratorio worn out: consumato, liso

4

GEOGRAPHY

(to) belong to: appartenere a border: confine bristlecone pine tree: pino dai coni setolosi coral bleaching: decolorazione del corallo crown-of-thorns starfish: stella marina flat: piatto/piatta great barrier reef: grande barriera corallina hemisphere: emisfero huge: enorme, vasta/vasto ice sheet: lastra di ghiaccio iron ore: minerale di ferro maple: acero (to) melt: sciogliersi/sciogliere nickname: soprannome outback: entroterra riferito all’Australia outline: delineare ribbon: nastro (to) rise: sorgere seal: foca (to) set: tramontare tiny: minuscolo waterfall: cascata

5

HISTORY

agreement: accordo, intesa, patto archduke: arciduca Aryan race: razza ariana awesome: eccezionale (to) be annoyed: essere contrariato (to) be distressed: essere angosciato, afflitto (to) be freed: essere liberato/liberata brave: coraggioso/coraggiosa (to) break out: scoppiare cattle truck: carro bestiame (to) declare war on: dichiarare guerra a dicth: fosso (to) dig: scavare dinghy: lancia al traino, canotto al traino dreadful: terribile (to) drop: sganciare/far cadere

eventually: alla fine forced labour: lavori forzati (to) forge: falsificare, contraffare (to) forgive: perdonare foster family: famiglia affidataria gypsies: zingari handshake: stretta di mano heir: erede hidden: nascosto/nascosta Jews: ebrei May Day: 1° maggio narrow: stretto ocean liner: transatlantico poppy: papavero (to) pretend: fingere pyjamas (BE) – pajamas (AE): pigiama (to) rule: governare, dominare (to) sink: affondare the Allies: gli Alleati the Axis: l’Asse (to) upset: turbare wealth: ricchezza/benessere wire fence: recinto di filo spinato

6

LITERATURE

Age of Enlightenment: l’Età dell’Illuminismo (to) ascend: salire a abroad: all’estero Aestheticism: Estetismo Art for art’s sake: l’arte per l’arte character: personaggio cloak: mantello contradictory: contraddittorio entrepreneur: imprenditore explotation: sfruttamento factory: fabbrica fierce: feroce foreground: primo piano forehead: fronte goods: merci hole: buco humble: umile inner self: l’Io interiore instalment: fascicolo/puntata novel: romanzo penal settlement: colonia penale plot: trama policy: politica ragged clothes: abiti logori rationality: razionalità seaside town: città di mare sensibility: sensibilità setting: ambientazione slum: vicolo sporco e affollato slums: bassifondi

127


GLOSSARY still: fermo/ferma, immobile stripe: riga, banda, striscia suitable: adatto/adatta (to) pass: approvare topic: argomento, tematica truthful: veritiero/veritiera value: valore wealthy: ricco/ricca Whigs and Tories: Liberali e Conservatori worker: operaio

7

CITIZENSHIP

birth: nascita charitable: caritatevole, di beneficenza citizen: cittadino (to) come into force: entrare in vigore Constituent Assembly: Assemblea Costituente councillor: consigliere customs and traditions: usi e costumi engaged: impegnato/impegnata ethical: etico folder: cartellina involvement: coinvolgimento learning: apprendimento mayor: sindaco melting pot: calderone narrow minded: di idee ristrette neighbour: vicino non-profit: senza scopo di lucro pinstripe trousers: pantaloni gessati pollution: inquinamento provisional: provvisorio right to a fair trial: diritto ad un processo equo right to privacy: tutela della vita privata safe: sicuro (to) safeguard: salvaguardare slavery: schiavitù sovereignty: sovranità statement: affermazione sustainable: sostenibile the elderly: gli anziani the judiciary: la magistratura the keeper of the seal: guardasigilli the rights and duties: i diritti e doveri therefore: perciò thought: pensiero through: attraverso transitional and final provisions: disposizioni transitorie finali whose: la cui/il cui/le cui/i cui (to) work: funzionare

128

8

MUSIC

bassoon: fagotto brass: ottone conductor: direttore di orchestra double bassoon: controfagotto (to) evoke: evocare french horn: corno francese hairstyle: acconciatura musical people: appassionati di musica patron: mecenate peak: picco, culmine (to) provoke: provocare, suscitare satchel: cartella slight: lieve, leggero slowing down: rallentamento, diminuzione speakeasy: attività commerciale degli anni 1920 che vendeva illegalmente bevande alcoliche e dove i gruppi jazz si esibivano durante il proibizionismo speeding up: accellerazione, aumento string: corda tiny: minuscolo woodwind: strumenti a fiato in legno, legni

9

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

ballot: estrazione banned: vietato/vietata barefood: a piedi nudi battlefield: campo di battaglia (to) bend: piegare bloodstream: circolo ematico, flusso sanguigno (to) breathe: respirare (to) deliver the news: comunicare una notizia fair: giusto/giusta forward and backward: avanti indietro hip: anca (to) hunch: inarcare impairment: disabilità, menomazione probe: inchiesta, indagine red blood cell: globulo rosso re-enactment: rievocazione rifle: fucile (to) set: stabilire (to) swing: oscillare steady: costante (to) strip: togliere, levare swordman: spadaccino the 100-meter dash: 100 metri piani the deceased: i morti tip: suggerimento upright: eretto/eretta


Redazione: Francesca Ceppi, Clarissa Coppari Revisione linguistica: Elizabeth Evans, Kate Cartwright Progetto grafico, impaginazione e copertina: Simona Albonetti Referenze fotografiche: iStockphoto, Shutterstock, archivio fotografico Gruppo Ed. Raffaello Stampa: Gruppo Editoriale Raffaello Per la versione computer based: Coordinamento: Paolo Giuliani Realizzazione: Lightbox (Roma) Audio: Double Arch (Pesaro) Un ringraziamento speciale da parte dell'autrice a: Marisa Agostinelli, Emanuela Guidantoni, Roberta Tabocchini, Simone Polacchi, Anna Maria Longhi, Lorella Camilletti, Sauro Capitanelli, Maria Cristina Lillini (per il disegno di pag. 68) Massimo Lauri, Nazzareno Pighetti

Il Gruppo Editoriale Raffaello mette a disposizione i propri libri di testo in formato digitale per gli studenti ipovedenti, non vedenti o con disturbi specifici di apprendimento. L’attenzione e la cura necessarie per la realizzazione di un libro spesso non sono sufficienti a evitare completamente la presenza di sviste o di piccole imprecisioni. Invitiamo pertanto il lettore a segnalare le eventuali inesattezze riscontrate. Ci saranno utili per le future ristampe. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. © 2019 Raffaello Libri S.p.A. Via dell’Industria, 21 60037 - Monte San Vito (AN) www.grupporaffaello.it info@grupporaffaello.it È vietata la riproduzione dell’opera o di parti di essa con qualsiasi mezzo, comprese stampa, fotocopie e memorizzazione elettronica se non espressamente autorizzate dall’Editore. Nel rispetto delle normative vigenti, le immagini che rappresentano marchi o prodotti commerciali hanno esclusivamente valenza didattica. L’Editore è a disposizione degli aventi diritto con i quali non è stato possibile comunicare, nonché per eventuali omissioni o inesattezze nella citazione delle fonti. Ristampa: 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

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G ru IS pp GE B o N E TA 97 dit H 8- or E 88 ia A -4 le D 72 Ra -3 ff 42 ae 4 - llo 6

Preparazione alla prova nazionale di INGLESE per la Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado

Livello

A1/A2

GET AHEAD è un valido e completo testo per la preparazione alle prove INVALSI ed Esame di Stato della Scuola Secondaria di Primo Grado, si caratterizza per una serie di percorsi CLIL di Scienze, Tecnologia, Arte, Geografia, Storia, Letteratura, Cittadinanza, Musica, Educazione Motoria. Le materie sono sviluppate in macro-argomenti, oltre ai contenuti, offrono esercizi di listening e reading per l’esercitazione INVALSI, e di comprensione e produzione per l’Esame di Stato. Inoltre, pagine di mappe concettuali chiare ed esaurienti hanno la duplice funzione di preparare gli studenti alla prova orale dell’Esame di Stato e di esemplificare gli argomenti del testo. Gli ascolti, relativi alla prova INVALSI sono accessibili in tripla versione: mp3 online; realtà aumentata, nella versione digitale; CD audio, per i docenti. Per l’esercitazione INVALSI Computer Based – CBT i test sono disponibili su www.raffaellodigitale.it/geah

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€ 7,50

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GET AHEAD

Questo volume, sprovvisto del talloncino a fronte (o opportunamente punzonato o ­altrimenti contrassegnato), è da considerarsi copia di SAGGIO-CAMPIONE G ­ RATUITO, fuori commercio (vendita e altri atti di disposizione vietati: art. 17, c. 2 L. 633/1941). Esente da I.V.A. (D.P.R. 26-10-1972, n° 633, art. 2 lett. d). Esente da bolla di accompagnamento (D.P.R. 6-10-1978, n° 627, art.4. n° 6).

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