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Santa Cruz Visible Unitary Urban Research and Design of Community Urban Action Plan


Santa Cruz Visible Unitary Urban Research and Design of Community Urban Action Plan


SPRING SEMESTER 2013 PARSONS TEAM: Studio Professors: Alessandro Angelini and Quilian Riano. Students: Alexandra Castillo-Kesper, Sabrina Dorsainvil, Lara Furtado, Troy Hallisey, Cristina Handal, Jonathan Lapalme, Luisa Munera, Aubrey Murdock, Joel Stein, Andrew Tucker, Anže Zadel. Studio Coordinator: Jesseka Mae Emerick. Consultants: William Morrish and Teddy Cruz. Design and Urban Ecologies Director: Miguel Robles-Durán School of Design Strategies Dean: Alison Mears Parsons The New School for Design Executive Dean: Joel Towers PARTNERS: URBAM, EAFIT: Alejandro Echeverri, Natalia Castaño, and Camilo Restrepo Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente (Casa Amarilla): Jorge Blandón and Erica Muriel Consulado General de Colombia en New York Book Editors: Quilian Riano and Alessandro Angelini, assistance by Jesseka Mae Emerick designurbanecologies.com sds.parsons.edu eafit.edu.co/urbam nuestragente.com.co/organizacion.html


Introduction Introducción

Pg. 4 Introduction Project Overview Contextualization

Co-Creation Day Día De Co-Creación

Introducción Descripción Del Proyecto Contextualización

Pg. 18 Block Ecologies Trueque de Amor Mapping Community

Unitary Urban Research Investigación Urbana Unitaria Communal Processes Social Infrastructure Political Economies

Community Urban Action Plan Plan de Acción Comunitaria Knowledge Ecologies Exchange Ecologies Power Ecologies

Ecologías de la Manzana Trueque de Amor Mapeo de la Comuna

Pg. 30 Procesos Comunales Infraestructura Social Economías Políticas

Pg. 62 Ecologías de Conocimiento Ecologías de Intercambio Ecologías de Poder


Index Indice


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Introduction Introducci贸n

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This book documents the work from Santa Cruz Visible, a Spring 2013 studio offered at the Design and Urban Ecologies program at Parsons, The New School for Design (New York) co-taught by anthropologist Alessandro Angelini and architect Quilian Riano. This studio is the first in a series of collaborations with community organization Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente (Casa Amarilla), situated in Comuna Santa Cruz -- a neighborhood in the north of Medellín -- and URBAM, an urban studies program from EAFIT University. We developed a studio curriculum around research and community engagement with the potential of creating self-sustaining improvements in economic and socio-spatial dimensions of the city of Medellín. We framed our investigations within the mission of Nuestra Gente’s Community Development Project (Comuna 2): “Strengthen the social fabric in Comuna 2, Santa Cruz, by promoting existing collective community leadership and support and contribution to the emergence of new leadership groups, based on community participation, solidarity, equity and advocacy, projecting the Commune to the city and to the world.” In the initial phase of the project our team engaged in developing community relationships and commenced exhaustive research of Santa Cruz and surrounding areas. In April 2013, the team also conducted field research to confront the realities that condition the city, experience the sites to be intervened and to reinforce the dialogue between project participants. During the Unitary Urban Research phase the objective was to develop research and fieldwork frameworks that have a capacity to grasp and operate inside the deep structures of a highly complex urban condition. Here we used design as a tool to uncover and understand the invisible systems that affect Comuna Santa Cruz. In the Design of Community Urban Action Plan phase we defined the necessary components and processes for identifying strategic physical, social, economic and political ruptures to the existing complex, as well as assessing the real impacts of the recommended operations. It should be noted that it was not the goal of the studio to develop final designs. Simply put, the overall goal was to understand and speculate on complex urban conditions. The following thematics formed points of departure for the research teams: Communal Processes, Social Infrastructures, and Political Economies. Students developed lines of research and eventually re-assembled teams and their investigations under new paradigms, or “ecologies.” These ecologies formed the basis for the design strategies proposed at the end of the studio to a panel of critics in New York and our partners in Medellín.

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Studio Overview Descripción Del Taller Este libro documenta el trabajo de “Santa Cruz Visible”, un taller de Primavera 2013 ofrecido en el programa de Diseño y Ecologias Urbanas en Parsons, The New School for Design (Nueva York) impartido por el antropólogo Alessandro Angelini y el arquitecto Quilian Riano. Este taller es el primero de una serie de colaboraciones con la organización comunitaria Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente ( Casa Amarilla ) -- situada en Comuna Santa Cruz en Medellín -- y URBAM un programa de estudios urbanos de la Universidad EAFIT . Hemos desarrollado un currículo de investigación y co-creación con la comunidad, creando el potencial de crear mejoras autosostenibles en las dimensiones económicas y socio-espacial de la ciudad de Medellín. Enmarcamos nuestras investigaciones dentro de la misión del plan de “Desarrollo Local Comuna 2: Un Mapa Abierto a Las Propuestas de Vida de la Gente 2007-2009” liderado por la Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente: “Fortalecer el tejido social en la Comuna 2, Santa Cruz, promoviendo el liderazgo comunitario colectivo existente y el apoyo y la contribución a la aparición de nuevos grupos de liderazgo, basado en participación comunitaria, la solidaridad, la equidad y la promoción, la proyección de la Comuna a la ciudad y al mundo.“ En la fase inicial del proyecto, el equipo creó relaciones en la comunidad y comenzó la investigación exhaustiva de Santa Cruz y sus alrededores. En abril 2013, el equipo también llevó a cabo investigación de campo para hacer frente a las realidades que condicionan la ciudad, la experiencia de los sitios a intervenir y reforzar el diálogo entre los participantes del proyecto. Durante la fase de Investigación Urbana Unitaria el objetivo fue desarrollar marcos de investigación y trabajo de campo que tienen capacidad para entender y operar dentro de las estructuras profundas de la condición urbana muy compleja. En la fase del Plan de Acción de la Comunidad Urbana hemos definido los componentes y procesos necesarios para identificar rupturas estratégicas físicas, sociales, económicas y políticas al complejo existente, así como la evaluación de los impactos reales de las operaciónes recomendadas. Debe tenerse en cuenta que no era el objetivo del estudio a desarrollar diseños finales. En pocas palabras, el objetivo general fue conocer y especular sobre las condiciones urbanas complejas. Las siguientes temáticas forman puntos de partida para los equipos de investigación: Procesos comunales, Infraestructuras Sociales y Economías Políticas. Los estudiantes desarrollan líneas de investigación y, finalmente, los equipos fueron re-ensamblados bajo nuevos paradigmas, o “ecologías”. Estas ecologías constituyeron la base de las estrategias de diseño de propuestas al final del estudio a un grupo de críticos de Nueva York y nuestros socios en Medellín.

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Santa Cruz Visible Studio Methodology

Performance in Casa Amarilla / Obra Teatral en La Casa Amarilla

Rendering Visible: From Theater To Design Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente’s way of engaging the community is a deeply sensory one, utilizing theatrical performance to encourage inhabitants to re-imagine their surroundings. This studio took inspiration and developed exercises and methodological insights from this dynamic, embodied, and inclusive approach to representing the city. Through exposure to the dramaturgical forms developed by Augusto Boal in Brazil and Europe for the Theater of the Oppressed, we elaborated connections between performance and design practice for social justice. The notion of “spect-actors,” or an active audience, presented a method not only for participation, especially among young residents, but also opened the realm of possibility for expressing urban space as a matter of embodied affect and memory. Research Processes: Home-stays Several families, coordinated through Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, offered to host the visiting Parsons students for the duration of their stay in Medellín. For several students this was their first voyage outside of their home country, and for most it was their first exposure to a Latin American society. The generosity and warmth of the host families was a vital part of the students’ positive experience during this studio. Students forged immediate personal ties to the community through their host families. Home-stays also held immense value as part of urban research: first hand observation and participation of domestic life, leisure activities, and daily routines formed part of the studio’s scope. The families who opened their homes to visiting students became indispensable to the ethnographic and human aspect of the studio’s work.

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Research Team in Casa Amarilla / Equipo de Investigacion en La Casa Amarilla

Representaciónes Visibles: Del Teatro Al Diseño La Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente involucra a la comunidad en sus procesos en una manera profundamente sensorial, utilizando representación teatral para fomentar habitantes a reimaginar sus alrededores. Este taller se ha inspirado y desarrollo ejercicios usando esta dinámica con enfoque integrador para representar a la ciudad. A través de la exposición a las formas dramáticas desarrolladas por Augusto Boal en Brasil y Europa para el Teatro del Oprimido, elaboramos conexiones entre el rendimiento y la práctica del diseño por la justicia social. La noción de “espect-actores”, o un público activo, presentó un método no sólo para la participación, especialmente entre los jóvenes residentes, sino que también abrió el reino de la posibilidad de expresar el espacio urbano como una cuestión de afecto y la memoria incorporada. Procesos de investigación: Alojamientos Varias familias, coordinadas a través de Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, ofrecieron estadias a los estudiantes visitantes Parsons para la duración de su estancia en Medellín. Para muchos estudiantes esta fue su primer viaje fuera de su país de origen, y para la mayoría fue su primera experiencia en una sociedad latinoamericana. La generosidad y la calidez de las familias fue una parte vital de la experiencia positiva de los estudiantes durante este taller. Los estudiantes establecieron relaciones personales inmediatos a la comunidad a través de sus familias de acogida. El alojamiento con familias de Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente tambien fue importante como parte de la investigación urbana y participación de la vida doméstica, las actividades de ocio, y las rutinas diarias formado parte del alcance del estudio. Las familias que abrieron sus casas para los estudiantes visitantes fueron indispensables para traer el aspecto humano de la obra del taller.

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Santa Cruz Visible Studio Process

UNITARY URBAN RESEARCH UNDERSTAND + DEFINE

UNDERSTAND + OBS

HISTORICAL RESEARCH

IDENTIFYING AREA

Social Infrastructure

Topics of Inquiry

Political Economies

Communal Processes

Jonathan

Hybrid Growth

Anze

Services

Lara

Education

Joel

Labor

Cristina

Informal Economies

Aubrey

Creeks

Troy

Ownership

Alex

Cultural Engagement

Drew

Mobility

Luisa

Memory & Barriers

Sabrina

Cultural Production

FIELDWORK- WORKS PreColumbian

Neoliberal

Escobar Years

New Medellin

Research Framework & Questions

Workshop with Alejandro Echeverri

The semester had two major phases. First, the Unitary Urban Research phase asked students to conduct secondary source and field research. After the students had conducted research and analyzed the context around Corporaci贸n Cultural Nuestra Gente, the students were asked to create a Community Action Plan with design strategies to be applied on the ground. Each student worked within larger groups but followed a personal question/interest, creating fluid research and design groups that changed throughout the semester to best reflect the information we gathered and the needs of Casa Amarilla.

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COMMUNITY URBAN ACTION PLAN

SERVE + DEFINE

DEFINE + IDEATE + PROTOTYPE + TEST DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR COMMUNITY ACTION PLAN

AS OF INTERVENTION

Social Infrastructure

Conociducacion Knowledge Ecologies

Political Economies

Currents of Power Power Ecologies

Communal Processes

Ecologias de Trueque Exchange Ecologies

SHOP ECOLOGIAS URBANAS- ACTORES

Fieldwork Research in Medellín

Santa Cruz Visible Studio Book

REFINE + GROUND RESEARCH

Studio Mid-Critique

Studio Final Critique

El semestre tuvo dos fases principales. En la fase de Investigación Urbana Unitaria los estudiantes llevaron a cabo investigaciónes academicas y de campo. Después de que los estudiantes investigaron y el análisaron del contexto en torno a la Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, se les pidió que crearan un Plan de Acción Comunitario el diseño de estrategias que se aplicarán en la comunidad. Cada estudiante trabajó dentro con grupos más grandes, pero tambien siguieron preguntas / interés personal. Esto creo grupos de investigación y diseño fluidos que cambiaron durante todo el semestre para reflejar mejor la información que recopilamos y las necesidades de la Casa Amarilla.

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North

Map of MedellĂ­n

12

River

Metro

City Border

Tricentenario Stop


Contextualization Contextualización

Casa Amarilla Tricentenario

Path From Tricentenario Metro Station to Casa Amarilla / Camino de la estación de metro Tricentenario de Casa Amarilla

Comunas

Centro Conceptual Section of Medellín / Sección Conceptual de Medellín

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Medellin: A City of Contrasts

January 09, 1991 New York Times Reporting on Medellín

Until recently the city of Medellín was synonymous with the violence that befell the nation of Colombia. From political upheaval to neoliberalism to a war fueled with international drug money the city of Medellín bares the scars of violence in its physical, social, economic and political infrastructures. Recently, however, Medellín’s fortunes seem to be turning around. The New York Times* now covers it as a travel destination and architectural publications from all over the world praise how the city has changed its infrastructure. The congratulatory articles, however, do not question how Medellín’s seeming success came to be and how it is affecting low-income communities such as Comuna Santa Cruz. Founded in 1986 in a former brothel, Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente is a community arts center located in Comuna 2- Santa Cruz that produces programs in music, theater, and plastic arts. The organization promotes culture that reinforces the social, territorial, and historical identity of the community. The group has been working to create an urban plan that comes directly from the inhabitants of Santa Cruz (with partners) and can be implemented by local agents in the comunas by leveraging political and economic support. This plan will include policy changes, economic cooperatives, social organizing, as well as physical changes to the community’s social and ecological spaces. 14


May 18, 2012 New York Times Reporting on Medellín

Hasta hace poco la ciudad de Medellín era sinónimo de la violencia que afectó a la nación de Colombia. Desde la agitación política al neoliberalismo a una guerra alimentada con el dinero internacional de drogas, la ciudad de Medellín lleva las cicatrices de la violencia en sus infraestructuras físicas, sociales, económicas y políticas. Recientemente, sin embargo, la suerte de Medellín parece estar dando la vuelta. El New York Times * cubre ahora como un destino de viaje y publicaciones de arquitectura de todo el mundo alaban cómo la ciudad ha cambiado su infraestructura. Los artículos de felicitaciones, sin embargo, no ponen en duda que el éxito aparente de Medellín llegó a ser y cómo está afectando a las comunidades de bajos ingresos, como la Comuna de Santa Cruz. Fundada en 1986 en un antiguo burdel, Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente es un centro de artes escénicas comunitarias ubicada en la Comuna 2 - Santa Cruz, que produce programas de música, teatro y artes plásticas. La organización promueve una cultura que refuerza la identidad social, territorial e histórico de la comunidad. El grupo ha estado trabajando para crear un Plan Urbano que proviene directamente de los habitantes de Comuna Santa Cruz y puede ser implementado por los agentes locales de las comunas, aprovechando el apoyo político y económico. Este plan incluirá cambios en las políticas económicas, las cooperativas, la organización social, así como los cambios físicos en los espacios sociales y ecológicos de la comunidad. 15


Development of Colombia’s Political Economies The development of Colombia’s political economy — a historical analysis Conquest of New Granada

Viceroyalty of New Gr

Caracaas

Santa Marta

Cartagena

Encomienda vs Reparimiento

Bogotá

Settlement in Andean Region

Spanish Crown

Spanish Crown

Encomenderos

Indigenous Population

Indigenous Population

Bogotá

Encomenderos

Muisca Quimbaya Tairona

PRE-COLUMBIAN Land Tenure

Indigenous Tribes – Muisca, Quimbaya, Tairona, Carib

Economy

Mining: gold, copper, coal, emerads, salt

Exchange

Barter exchange among the various tribes

1499

1512

Agriculture: sustenence Textiles

1525/1533

ENCOMIENDAS PRE-COLUMBIAN

REPARIMIENTO

1542

1600s

Spanish Crown controls the land - Grants trusteeship to the conquistadors/encomenderos - Encomenderos controll groups of indigenous populations in ‘reducciones’

Spanish Crown controls the land - Land still owned by the Spanish Crown but now had direct control over the allotment of natives in the reguardos

Mining - “Tribute” to the economenderos/ Crown by the indigenous tribes in gold mostly

Mining and Agriculture

Forced labor and gold by indigenous population in exchange for lessons in Spanish and Catholicism by the encomenderos

A given percentage of the indigenous population is alloted to the reguardos, the make up of this percentage was meant to be rotated and a tax system was implemented to replace the tribute system of the encomiendas.

Encomenderos are beginning to b de facto land tenants

Encomiendas were exploited from the start and many, including members of the clergy and the Spanish Crown disliked the way the conquistedors handled the native lands as they were supposed to be jointly owned.

Politics

Dwindling indigenous population – Death due to lack of immunity to European diseases – Tax system was based on class identity, which was primarily based on race (indigenous vs. european) and racial mixing (mestizos) blurred the class boundaries making it difficult to determine who had to pay the tribute tax.

At Santa Marta (1525) and Cartagena (1533), Spanish control of the Colombian coast was firmly established, and in the next few years the northern hinterland was explored. Law of Burgos (1512) Spanish control of the Colombian coast was firmly established, and in the next few years the northern hinterland was explored.

First European contact with the indigenous tribes

The New Laws (1542) Regulations imposed by the Spanish Crown intended to reform the encomienda system and eventually led to its replacement by reparimeinto

The audencia

Barranquilla

Repbulic of Colombia Santa Marta

U.S. influence on Panama Uprising and Banana Massacre

Antioquia

Medellín

Bogotá Cali

1913

1851

State-owned land: Much of it was distributed to companies rather than poor rural farmers who already occupied it

1903

1920

LIBERAL REVOLUTION 1928

1936

Companies and large land-holders dominate the majority of land becoming more subject to foreign trade interests Agriculture - Dominant coffee exports particularly in Antioquia - Fruit exports to US and Europe

lude Medellín, anquilla

Manufacturing - concetrated in industrial centers - Fabricato in Medellín

Market capitalism - Economy dominated by agricultural exports, government subsidies - Gold standard established for currency Rising autonomony of the provinces, decentralization of authority

ffee (1848) orts begin

(1830) en federalists

Slavery abolished (1851)

Secession of Panama (1903) U.S. influence encourages secession of Panama so they can control the construction and openeration of the Panama Canal

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Strained relations with the U.S. during the Teddy Roosevelt administration the result of Panama uprising

1946 1948 Citizenship extended to all males over 21 regardless of property ownership or literacy

Liberal reforms include the establishment of the 8 hour workday among other benefits

Banana massacre sparked liberal reforms beginning with the election of President Herrera in 1930

Banana Massacre (1928) United Fruit Company laborers strike Military intervenes due to the threat of U.S. invasion to protect company interests “Follow the North Star” (1920s) President Suarez linked Colomobia’s foreign policy with the U.S. re-establishing economic ties through trade and democracy

Constitutional Amendment (1936) - Grants government authority over private companies/property - Grants labor rights, agrarian reform - Government controls education

Medellín

Nationalization of oil industry

Growth of the Coffee Trade Each dot represents 10,000 sack of coffee

ST-INDEPENDENCE

Shifting Populations Economic Policies cause the beginning of a shift in rural populations toward industrial city centers

1945

1951

LA VIOLENCIA

1953

1957 1958

1961

La Violencia occurs mostl in rural peasant areas, claims over 200,000 lives Small landholding minority continues to dominate

Accelerated Economic Developme large-scale private farms at the exp - Increased land ownership of urban

Nationalization of oil industry - led by strong labor union

Exports - Growth in the coffee trade; Oil no - By the 1960’s 40%-60% of Colom

Period marked by economic struggle

La violencia had more to do with liberal/convservative dichotomy rather than class struggle social issues

- Peasants were forcifully evicted fr - Relocated to urban centers to bec - Labor unions repressed

Era marked by ongoing conflicts between the liberals/communists and the conservative parties. Strained relations with the U.S.

- Based on idea of progress when on - Conservative party supported liber

Assassination of Jorge Gaitán (1948) Popular Liberal party presidential candidates sparks civil war between Liberal/Communist guerillas and Conservative military forces Election of Mariano Ospina Pérez (1946) - Conservative party returns to power - Encouragement of conservative peasants to seize agricultural lands from liberals - Attempts to undo liberal reforms from 1930-1945

Military junta takes over after ousting o agreenment between liberals and conse to share power beginning in 1958 mark

Fall in coffee prices sparks a “peoples” coup d’état Coup d’état (1953) Gustavo Rojas Pinilla comes to power in the country’s first and only military dictatorship

Law 135 (196 Social and Ag receive backla


Repbulic of Colombia

ranada

Gran Colombia Haciendas: Developed first in Highland areas and spread westward

Antioquia: Settled later due to terrain. Mines owned by an oligarchy of local merchants and the land-owning elite.

I821 constitution guarantees right to property for all ‘citizens’

HACIENDAS

PRE-INDEPENDENCE

1717

1781 1789

1808

1821

1810-1812

Haciendas: Large estates owned and managed by what were the encomenderos class - located all throughout Nueva Granada with the exception of the Antioquia area

become the

U.S. influence on Panama Uprising and Banana Massacre

New laws encourages large landholders to subdivide to promote productivity

1824

POST-INDEPENDENCE

1830

1848

Mining dwindling, Agriculture - Inter-colonial trade was not permitted directly so most agriculture was for sustenance only or sent to Europe - not plantation style as in Mexico because the geography was deemed to be too harsh for transport

Agriculture - Tobacco monopoly relaxed - Coffee exports

Both paid and slave labor - African slaves and poorer mestizos replaced the indigenous tribes due to their dwindling population

Market exchange - Sharecroppers, wage earners, slavery until 1851, - Taxation remained, exports bolstered economy

Developments in the class structure - Peninsulares (White Spanairds from Spain) - Creoles (White Spaniards born in America)

- Mestizos (Mixed indigenous and European descent) - Indigenous people - Slaves (Africans brought to the region as a result of the slave trade)

American Revolution (1776) & French Revolution (1789) Changed prevailing attitudes toward democracy, freedom and ownership in New Granada

Napoleon invades Spain (1808) Spanish Crown is overthrown, replaced by juntas loyal to the Crown.

Source: http://archleague.org/2013/03/connective-spaces-and-social -capital-in-medellin-by-jeff-geisinger/

of Pinilla ervatives king end of La Violencia

1972

1974

FARC (1964) Guerilla militant group of rural peasants push for end to agrarian reform. Primary opposition to the government during the Colombian armed conflict

61) grarian reforms ash from conservative landowners

“Follow Preside foreign econom

Secession of Panama (1903) U.S. influence encourages secession of Panama so they can control the construction and openeration of the Panama Canal

“Gentrification in Medellín” — Moravia case study - Although in many ways a liability, the form of land tenure has allowed for fast and easy transactions, on the spot, by cash, everything can be transacted, and uses and abuses of all sorts take place daily. - Location at the edge of the main centrality and development corridor of the city, at the bottom of a huge area of squatter settlement has been turning Moravia into a major retail destination for residents of that area. - Business activities are overflowing residential activities progressively moving from a predominately residential to a retail use. - The potential rent the municipality to the area as collective patrimony. (Betancur)

Drug trafficing corridors 2007 Coca locations 2007 Multiple types of Armed Conflict 1997-2002 At least one type of Armed Conflict 1997-2002

POST-NATIONAL FRONT 1976

1980

Cartel Farmland - Drug cartels aquire significant amounts of farmland for coca production

-Continuting conflict between rural peasants and the government.

– Immigrations to the United States

Slavery abolished (1851)

Secession of Venezuela and Ecuador (1830) The result of growing tensions between federalists and centralists in Bogóta

Bogotá

Cocaine - Changes in U.S. consumption/production of marijuana leads to a shift toward cocaine production

ne party hold a minority; rals for two election cycles and vice versa

Coffee (1848) Exports begin

Strained relations with the U during the Teddy Roosevelt the result of Panama uprisin

Cali

1964

- Population of Medellín triples as poor peasants relocate - Peasants mostly settle along the hillsides

Rising autonomony of the provinces, decentralization of authority

Barranquilla

NATIONAL FRONT

rom their farms legally come industrial workers

Agriculture - Dominant coffee exports p - Fruit exports to US and E

Medellín

National Front policy The government of the liberal president Jorge Turvay Ayala imposed state of siege legislation of power granted under the terms of the National Front established between liberals and conservatives in 1958 giving the military and intelligence services blanket authority to repress trade union, human rights, civic, peasant, student, indigenous and community leaders

ot yet an export mbia’s exports went to the U.S.

1920

Companies and large land-h becoming more subject to fo

Market capitalism - Economy dominated by ag - Gold standard established

Trends of Income Inequality Medellín become the epicenter of the cocaine trade area of high accumulation in the drug trade also exhibits a trend of increasing income inequality, while comparable cities exhibit a decline. (Roldan)

Locations of Informal Settlements Settlements formed on the steep slopes of the surrounding hillside

1903

Manufacturing - Industrial centers include Medellín, Bogóta, Cali and Barranquilla

Viceroyalty overthrown (1810) Constitution of Antioquia (1812) - Four principle rights: Liberty, Equity, Security, Property - for all citizens - Consitution viewed as pro-monarchy by those in Venezuela/Ecuador - Centralist vs. Federalist debate begins

“In a similar vein, Medellin's wealthier inhabitants invoked tropes of invasion and contamination to describe their sense of being besieged by a ring of slum dwellers who increasingly transgressed the ideological and physical space separating civilization from barbarism.” (Roldan, 173)

ent (AED) - gives government subsidies to pense of smaller family fun operations. n industrialists who ran large scale farms

Mining - Dwindling toward the end of the century

Spanish Crown is replaced by the Supreme Junta in Seville. Spanish possessions in America are allowed to send delegates, but attempts were made to form their own juntas in America.

By 1800, an estimated 50% of the population is Mestizo.

Comunero Uprising (1781) Mestizos and creoles joined forces in opposition of Spanish control, however the creoles re-sided with the peninsulares when the mestizos tried to broaden the movement to include social issues.

Viceroyalty of New Granada (1717) as comprised of modern day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela separate from the Viceroyalty of Peru

1851

State-owned land: Much of it was distributed to companies rather than poor rural farmers who already occupied it

Land-owning Elite: Small amount of landowners continue to hold much of the country’s land

Growth of Underground Economy - Changes in U.S. consumption/production of marijuana leads to a shift toward cocaine production - Medellín sees a lot of economic growth, initially without negative consquences so drug money was overlooked

“Formal appearance” of cocaine production

National Front system gradually phased out by 1974

1992/1993

NEOLIBERALIZATION

1997

- By 1992, cartels control 31.2 million hectacres of rural farmland

- Formalization of land tenure in informal settlements

- By 1992, the “underground economy” accounts for 8.7% of GDP of Colombia

- 2004 plan began to bring the informal settlement and informal economy into the formalized system

- By 1992, gang/cartel violence is at a climax in Medellín - Cartel monopolization creates “new upper class” and leads to violence in the city - Development is reactionary rather than proactive

Pistolocos Young gang members target uncooperative officials “Formalization” of Cocaine Production Cartel leaders meet to efficiencize the production and distribution of cocaine.

2004

- Formalization of informal economies/processes - Liberalization of Development Policy - “Rezoning” of rural land for development - New policies allow for greater builing denisty

Law 388 of 1997 Paves the way for the liberalization of development policy

Death of Escobar (1993) Leads to decline in cartel activity

Partial Plans 2004 Plan to formalize the informal parts of the city

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Co-Creation Day D铆a De Co-Creaci贸n


How is the space of Casa Amarilla its own social infrastructure? Through discussions with members of Casa Amarilla we realized that each space in the institution serves a purpose and is equally important. When analyzing Casa Amarilla’s actual physical structure we became curious as to how that influenced the activities they were developing and what factors guided that architectonic organization. Was that blueprint more than just walls and stairs but a determination of spaces that guided their methodology and habits as an institution? Each environment could be connected not just to feelings or memories but also to a goal they wanted to accomplish. It is inside the house where basic connections and partnerships begin to be forged and where ideas are conceived. Our goal was to understand how this structure of constructed space guides their working process. But most importantly how this can be projected to the rest of the city by creating partnerships with other institutions. The network is important but we also wanted to understand the small “spaces of hope” that could be found in Casa Amarilla as constructed spaces that provided the right environment to foment ideas and culture. By identifying these we wonder again how this can be reproduced in other places and how far the actions being developed in these areas can reach out through the rest of the city/country/continent. What is the reason of their success and how architecture plays a fundamental role in this? The theater is not just where art is done, but where the ideas for social change are spread to the community and where efficient participatory action is taken; The kitchen is not just where food is made but where the emotional bounds between the corporation are reaffirmed, strengthening them as an institution; The balcony is the projection os small parts of the house to the exterior, and the streets; The office is where long term projects are conceived. What is interesting is that it doesn’t attract too many members of the Casa into it but they all get involved as the project stops being a plan and becomes action through theater and cultural activities. What we identified is that Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente has begun the process of extrapolating its physical barriers by expanding its construction to the neighboring land and have plans of creating a block that functions according to their ideology. This Block Amarillo means they understand the house is not enough and their physical expansion is becoming crucial to their projection into the rest of the city.

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Block Ecologies Ecologías de la Manzana ¿Cómo es el espacio de la Casa Amarilla su propia infraestructura social? A través de conversaciones con los miembros de Casa Amarilla nos dimos cuenta que cada espacio de la institución tiene un propósito y es igualmente importante. Al analizar la estructura física de la Casa Amarilla nos interesamos en mirar como la forma influye las actividades que se desarrollan y cuáles son los factores que guían la organización arquitectónica. Cada entorno puede conectarse no sólo a los sentimientos o recuerdos, sino también a una meta que quería alcanzar. Es dentro de la casa donde las conexiones básicas y asociaciones comienzan a fraguarse y donde se conciben las ideas. Nuestro objetivo era entender cómo esta estructura de espacio construido guía su proceso de trabajo. Pero lo más importante es cómo se puede proyectar al resto de la ciudad mediante la creación de alianzas con otras instituciones. La red es importante, pero también quería entender los pequeños “espacios de esperanza” que se podían encontrar en la Casa Amarilla como espacios construidos que proporcionan el entorno adecuado para las ideas y la cultura fomentan. Al identificar estos nos preguntamos nuevamente cómo se puede reproducir en otros lugares y en qué medida las acciones que se desarrollan en estas áreas pueden llegar a través del resto de la ciudad / país / continente. ¿Cuál es la razón de su éxito y que papel juega la arquitectura? El teatro no es sólo donde se hacen las obras, pero es donde las ideas de cambio social se extienden a la comunidad y donde se toma acción participativa; La cocina no es sólo donde se hace la comida, sino donde se reafirman los límites emocionales entre la corporación; El balcón es la proyección de la casa hacia el exterior, y en las calles; La oficina es donde se conciben proyectos a largo plazo. Lo que es interesante es que no atrae a muchos miembros de la Casa en ella pero todos se involucren ya que el proyecto deja de ser un plan y se convierte en acción a través del teatro y actividades culturales. Lo que hemos identificado es que la Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente ha iniciado el proceso de borrar y espander sus barreras físicas mediante la ampliación de su construcción a las tierras vecinas y tienen planes de crear una Manzana que funciona de acuerdo con su ideología. Esta Manzana Amarilla es una propuesta alternativa ya que el espacio es insuficiente y ayudara a la Corporación para proyectarse al resto de la ciudad.

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Physical condition of the Amarilla housing block in comuna Santa Cruz

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What do the Spaces in Casa Amarilla Mean? ÂżQuĂŠ significan los espacios en Casa Amarilla ? OFFICES

COMPUTER/ BOOK ROOM

- Gisela - A place to talk with Gisela - A place to constantly share projects - A place to communicate - A place to learn

MUSIC ROOM - A place where groups gather on Fridays (PACCA) - Where someone saw a ghost there on a night before an opening. - A place for Gisela and the group of grandmothers - A productive space

- A place to enjoy happy moments - A place to play music - A place where there is a sense of family

KITCHEN - Celebration Space - Place to Communicate - A place to have meals everyday - A place to learn

THEATER TREE OUTSIDE OF CASA AMARILLA The tree and its roots signify a strong and deep foundation

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- A place to practice and perform - A space for coexistence - A space for change - A place to love - A space to see the children perform - A place to mingle with friends - A place to express yourself - A place to have fun, share, and interact with others

ENTRANCE

BENCH OUTSIDE OF CASA AMARILLA

- A place where everything started - A place to dream - Solidarity - Respect - Transformation/ Resistance - Brotherhood - Peace - Family, love, laughter, energy, life, tears, friends

- A place to hangout and talk with friends - Dreams, happiness, laughter, crying, talking, craziness - Place to think about possibilities for a better future - A hangout spot


Casa Amarilla Perceptions Percepciones de Casa Amarilla

PROCESS PROCESO

Who is Casa Amarilla? Quien es Casa Amarilla?

Happiness, joy, solidarity, love, hope, smiles, tears, a place to play, a 2nd home/ 2nd family, and a place where there is a sense of lovingness. La felicidad, la alegrĂ­a, la solidaridad, el amor, la esperanza, sonrisas, lĂĄgrimas, un lugar para jugar, un segundo hogar / segunda familia, y un lugar donde hay un sentido de amorosidad.

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Trueque de Amor Political economies are the sums of human interactions and exchanges between individuals, groups and institutions - each negotiating and navigating a complex terrain to achieve goals and build thriving communities. Emulating this reality, and building upon Casa Amarilla’s organizational credo of “amor,” we created a participatory and generative workshop in which the personal and collective knowledge and relationships could be mapped physically. Working towards the goal of an economic solidarity network, the title of the exercise was “Trueque de Amor,” or, exchanges of love. The workshop asked community members to identify certain strategies in conjunction with the actors they identified, then challenging them to think of specific actions that can make these strategies come to life, emphasizing the essential question of “how?” What was uncovered was a frenetic, chaotic and deep production of knowledge; with clusters of activities, the negotiation of space and knowledge through movement all weaving themselves to embody the interconnected ecologies of a city.

MAPPING AMOR: Cultura Viva Comunitaria

Strengthening Relationships through Trueque

BOLIVIA/ ARGENTINA

Latino Americano de Teatro

Trips for Knowledge Exchange

Consulting

EAFIT

EL POBLADO

Publicity

CV to Complanies

CASTILLA

COLOMBIA

Projects: Sports & Rec Culture & Public Spaces

Private Theatre

Rotary Club

THEATRE Political & Cultural Relationships

STREET Theatre of the Oppressed

War Child

Individ. People

KITCHEN

Casa Morada

Theatre Productions

Database of Cooperative Organizations

New Pedagogies

LEGEND

CNG

Economic Support

Cultural Encounters

THE NETHERLANDS

Bartering

Fundraising

Strengthening Organization

SANTA CRUZ

MEDELLÍN

NEW YORK CITY, USA

Community Development

Artist Residencies

City Hall

OFFICES Schools in Honduras

SAN JAVIER

Street Workshops

Pedegogical Workshops Periodico Mi Comuna 2

Participatory Budgeting

Parsons

Motivos Strategy Tactic

Raton de Biblioteca

Potential Tactic Actores CUBA Cultural Ministry of Cuba

International Congresses & Workshops

Relationship Potential Relationship

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Mapping Community Mapeo de la Comunidad Economias Politicas son la suma de interacciones humanas e intercambios entre individuos, grupos e instituciones - cada uno negociando y navegando un terreno complejo para alcanzar metas y construir comunidades exitosas. Imitando esta realidad y construyendo sobre el credo organizacional de “amor” de Casa Amarilla, creamos un taller participativo y generativo en el cual conocimiendo personal y colectivo y relaciones pudieran ser mapeadas fisicamente. Trabajando hacia la meta de una red de economia solidaria, el ejercicio del taller era “Trueque de Amor”. Se le pedia a los miembros de la comunidad que identificaran ciertas estrategias y los actores sobre los cuales se forma algun tipo de relacion. Luego se les pedia pensar en acciones especificas para realizar esas estrategias, enfatizando la pregunta del “como?” Lo que resulto fue una frenetica, caotica y profunda produccion de conocimiento; con grupos de actividades, negociaciones de espacio y conocimientos entrelazandose entre si para representar las ecologias interconectadas de la ciudad.

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Youth’s critical review of the medical center. Revisión crítica de la Juventud del centro médico.

A pattern found was the addition of the theater logo and 3 waving yellow flags. Un patrón encontrado fue la incorporación del logotipo de teatro y 3 banderas amarillas ondeando.

Participatory Budgeting Presupuesto Participativo 28

When asked to identify key places in the comuna the youth worked together to geographically negotiate the location of their homes Cuando se le preguntó a identificar los lugares clave de la comuna a los jóvenes trabajaron juntos para negociar geográficamente la ubicación de sus hogares

Adults and children utilized the whole room to express themselves, This highlights a peaceful protest at the metro station. Adultos y niños utilizados todo el espacio para expresarse, esto pone de manifiesto una protesta pacífica en la estación de metro.


Landmarks, Connections and Emotional Landscape Monumentos Históricos, Conexiones y Paisaje Emocional With the adult group we aimed to visualize Casa Amarilla’s relationships and operational climate within the dynamic territory created by the children. The importance was not only to see the institution’s greater network, but also what was seen by the community as important actions developed by Nuestra Gente. As with the children, the adults were asked to map the emotional landscape, by representing their favorite and least favorite spaces in the comuna. Each group interacted with the map, relationally situating both common and personal landmarks, often going to the representational space to think and draw their ideas. This living map expresses the rich landscape in which the Casa Amarilla’s members live and circulate. Con el grupo de adultos que tuvo como objetivo visualizar las relaciones de la Casa Amarilla y el clima operacional dentro del territorio dinámico creado por los niños. La importancia no sólo para ver mayor red de la institución, sino también lo que fue visto por la comunidad como acciones importantes desarrolladas por Nuestra Gente. Al igual que con los niños, se les pidió a los adultos para asignar el paisaje emocional, mediante la representación de su favorito y menos espacios favoritos en la comuna. Cada grupo interactuó con el mapa, relacional situar puntos de referencia comunes y personal, a menudo ir al espacio de representación para pensar y sacar sus ideas. Este mapa de estar expresa la riqueza paisajística en la que los miembros de la Casa Amarilla viven y circulan.

Spatial Movement + Responses + Observations Movimiento Territorial + Respuestas + Observaciones

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Unitary Urban Research Investigaci贸n Unitaria Urbana


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Communal Processes Procesos Comunitarios Communal processes describe a group of actions or changes that have been or are currently being realized through a community’s method of collective decision-making. It’s through this very act of a community coming together that members can recognize their identity as a group, and develop a negotiated language of signs and symbols rooted in their shared experience and knowledge of place. Members of our group this semester have explored the communal processes of Medellín’s comunas in the context of the greater city through the lenses of artistic expression, spatial memory and informal and formal institutional practices. From our respective investigations, we suggest that communal processes are the catalyzing base for any particular group’s move toward social and political autonomy. Procesos comunales describen un conjunto de acciones o cambios que se han adoptado o se están realizando actualmente a través del método de una comunidad de decisión colectiva. Es a través de este mismo acto de una comunidad que se unen que los miembros y que pueden reconocer su identidad como grupo, y desarrollar un lenguaje negociado de señalizaciones y símbolos que hacen parte de su experiencia y conocimiento del lugar compartido. Los estudiantes de nuestro grupo este semestre han explorado los procesos comunales de las comunas de Medellín, en el contexto de la ciudad a través de diferent lentes como la expresión artística, la memoria espacial y las prácticas institucionales formales e informales. Desde nuestras respectivas investigaciones, se sugiere que los procesos comunales son la base para catalizar movimiento de cualquier grupo en particular hacia la autonomía social y política.

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Las Quebradas Aubrey Murdock I have been exploring the creeks of Comuna 2 by using freehand-drawing as research. Freehand-drawing helps me experience the spatial relationships in Medellin, as every object must be measured and drawn relationally to one another. In order to create these drawings, I charted the relationships -social, political, economic- of those streams and their interaction with the built environment. This method was used to question the social meaning of creeks in Comuna 2. This investigation has begun to reveal the breaks between social processes, power, and ecological systems; but ultimately I began to discover how these streams could be reconceptualized as connections between communities - a shared common resource. He estado explorando las quebradas de la Comuna 2 mediante dibujos de investigación. Los dibujos ayudan a experimentar con las relaciones espaciales en Medellín, ya que cada objeto debe ser medido y dibujado relacional entre sí. Para crear estos dibujos, tracé relaciones sociales, políticas y económicas, de esos flujos y su interacción con el entorno construido. Este método se utilizó para cuestionar el significado social de las quebradas en la Comuna 2. Esta investigación ha comenzado a revelar las pausas entre los procesos sociales, el poder y los sistemas ecológicos, pero en última instancia, empecé a descubrir cómo estas corrientes podrían reconceptualizados como las conexiones entre las comunidades - un recurso común compartido.

City, barrio, and comuna boundaries that lie along creeks. Some have become barriers and sites of conflict.Ciudad, barrio, comuna y límites que se encuentran a lo largo de los arroyos. Algunos se han convertido en barreras y los lugares de conflicto. 34


varied land use along streams variado uso de la tierra a lo largo de las quebradas

the built environment becomes integrated into the watershed el entorno construido se integra en la cuenca

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Memory and Invisible Barriers Luisa Munera

memory map

infrastructural divide

physical barriers

interrupted continuity

manufactured relationships

I studied how barriers can begin to dissolve and are ultimately erased with time. I observed different types of barriers and boundaries in Comuna Santa Cruz and at different scales within the city. My diagrams identify and make connections between the barriers that I identified while on the ground. The barriers that I encountered are social, cultural, economic, and political but often most manifested in physical form, so it becomes important to look at this manifestation and trace the history and social impacts that it is have in its contemporary context. 36


re-usable barrier

economic and spatial joints

past and present through form

memory influences

porous seam

responsive barriers

Estudié cómo las barreras pueden empezar a disolverse y son finalmente borrado con el tiempo. He observado diferentes tipos de barreras y fronteras en la Comuna de Santa Cruz y en diferentes escalas dentro de la ciudad. Mis diagramas de identificar y establecer conexiones entre las barreras que identifiqué, mientras que en el suelo. Las barreras que me he encontrado son de tipo social, cultural, económica y política, pero a menudo son más manifiestas en forma física, por lo que resulta importante tener en cuenta esta manifestación, conocer la historia y los impactos sociales que se tienen en el contexto contemporáneo. 37


Nexus of Labor: Infrastructure Regional Economies and Conflict Joel Stein There are many Medellíns, each with its own stories about how it came to be, its present-day nature, and projections of its future. The narrative of the city holds a tight grip, and propels its future in an always uncertain direction - this narrative is usually determined by processes of power. This research was undertaken in an attempt to trace the influences and relationships between regional economies, such as gold and coffee; the infrastructure built to support these economies; the labor needed to run them; and the ensuing conflict, whether that conflict is called a ‘drug war’ or is seen as a class conflict. What I found are clear, non-linear relationships of tension or reinforcement between all of these urban systems. Hay muchos Medellínes, cada uno con sus propias historias sobre la forma en que llegó a ser, su carácter actual, y las proyecciones de su futuro. La narrativa de la ciudad lleva a cabo un estricto control, e impulsa su futuro en una dirección siempre incierto - este relato es generalmente determinada por los procesos de poder. Esta investigación se llevó a cabo en un intento de rastrear las influencias y relaciones entre las economías regionales, como el oro y el café, la infraestructura construida para soportar estas economías, la mano de obra necesaria para hacerlos funcionar, y el conflicto subsiguiente, ya sea que el conflicto que se llama un ‘guerra contra las drogas “o se ve como un conflicto de clases. Lo que he encontrado son las relaciones claras y no lineales de tensión o de refuerzo entre todos estos sistemas urbanos.

Tráfico de Drogas

La migración masiva y población urbana crecimiento

Drug Trade

Las Exportaciones Mundiales

Global Exports Money that flows to local-commercial elite

Mass migration and urban population growth

El dinero que fluye a local comercial élite

Gold, Coffee, Textiles and Drugs Oro, Café, Textiles y Drogas

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Tex til

es

e

Gol

d

Co

e

ug Dr

Populacion

3,500,000 1,750,000

1,000,000 400,000 176,000 65,000 1900

1938

1960

1970

1985

2000

Assassination of Jorge Gaitan

La Violencia Drug Wars

Asesinato de Jorge Gaitan

La Violencia Guerra Contra las Drogas

Movement and reorganization of labor and capital

Colonialist-Economic Power Gold Labor Potencia Colonialista-Económico Laboral Oro

Construction Workers Domestic Workers Urbanización y los trabajadores domésticos

El movimiento y la reorganización del trabajo y el capital Narco-Capital Displaced Refugiados Refugees desplazados

Liberal-Conservative oligarchy Politics of neoliberal development Oligarquía Liberal-Conservador Política de desarrollo neoliberal

ow th on Gr lati 72 Popu 00 -> 19 1951 -> 600,0 00 350,0

Comm ercial-elite nvestment in textile industries

Re-emerging global econo my of Digital & IT Reemergentes economía mundial de Digital & IT

Inversión comercial-elite en la industria textil

Coffee Labor Land Granting and Territory Ownership laboral de café Tierras Concesión y Territorio

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Dynamics of Power: Effects of the Formalization of Land Tenure Troy Andrew Hallisey My research began looking at the history of Colombia through the lens of political economy. Through a graphic timeline I was able to diagram the relationships of land tenure, politics, economy and exchange. with the objective of identifying points of ‘rupture,’ or contributing events which shaped the definition of a new system. Starting with bartering in the pre-Columbian era, the timeline spans the history of Colombia to the present, where Law 388 of 1997 served as a natural rupture point enabling me to zoom in on Medellín and Santa Cruz. Focusing on the politics and economy of tenure formalization my research showed a complicated power dynamic revealing a class divide of renters and owners. As the home in Comuna 2 serves as a major focal point of communal processes, top-down formalization efforts such as social housing projects and laws allowing for formalization of ownership show a disruption in those processes. Mi investigación comenzó a buscar en la historia de Colombia a través de la lente de la economía política. A través de una línea de tiempo gráfica pude diagrama de las relaciones de tenencia de la tierra, la política, la economía y el intercambio. con el objetivo de identificar los puntos de ‘ruptura’, o eventos que dieron forma contribuyen a la definición de un nuevo sistema. A partir de trueque en la época precolombina, la línea de tiempo abarca la historia de Colombia hasta el presente, en que la Ley 388 de 1997 sirvió como un punto de ruptura natural que me permite acercar un Medellín y Santa Cruz. Centrándose en la política y la economía de la formalización de tenencia mi investigación mostró una dinámica de poder complicado que revela una división de clases de los inquilinos y propietarios. Como el hogar en la Comuna 2 sirve como un punto focal importante de los procesos comunitarios, los esfuerzos de formalización de arriba hacia abajo, como los proyectos de vivienda social y las leyes que permiten la formalización de la propiedad muestran una interrupción en los procesos.

a Cruz: ship

tion in Santa Cruz: on of ownership Informal growth overtime. Horas extras crecimiento informal.

Buidlings must be formalized to gain a deed. Los edificios deben ser formalizados para ganar un título.

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Top-down Structure Public/Private Partnership: Social housing serves many purposes for the government. It removes people ‘at-risk’ informal dwellings (along streams, dumping sites, etc.) but also attempts to retain certain structures of building, hence balconies transformed into interior spaces. As in the top-down structure of formal ownership there exists a class of renters vs owners (govt), and informal businesses are harder to acheive but sometimes exist in the upper floors.

D E


the real estate built on it), reduce the burden of private development on the public sector (especially the ability of real estate developers to pass on externalities and costs of infrastructures associated with their projects to the public) and stir up the development process.” (Betancur) “Ultimately, it seeks livable, fair and healthy cities. But laws are instruments and direction and impact depends on the forces ultimately appropriating them.” (Betancur)

Impact

Moravia case study - Informal settlement built upon a dumping site that was once reserved for a park - Muni. did not apply existing laws to evict the squatters at first - Initially the city made a deal where the squatters would perform a certain type of sweath equity in exchange for right to tenure—but reneged - 2004 plan began to bring the informal settlement and informal economy into the formalized system -Formalization of private property from illegal tenure has led to increased density the ability to collect rents as well as displacement -Incorporation into overall POT of Medellin - Plan has led to land speculation

Dynamics of Gentrification in Santa Cruz: Effects of the formalization “Gentrification” of ownership “In short, a few factors have combined to turn Moravia into a major centrality on its way to yet higher levels of economic activity: (1) although in many ways a liability, the form of land tenure has allowed for fast and easy transactions, on the spot, by cash, everything can be transacted, and uses and abuses of all sorts take place daily;11 (2) location at the edge of the main centrality and development corridor of the city, at the bottom of a huge area of squatter settlement has been turning Moravia into a major retail destination for residents of that area; (3) business activities are overflowing residential activities progressively moving from a predominately residential to a retail use; (4) the potential rent the municipality to the area as collective patrimony.” (Betancur)

MERCADO de SOL CERVEZA • GASEOSA

Top-down Structure Formal Ownership: Recognition of land tenure brings caveats. In order to receive a title. The buildings must not be subdivided or used for businesses. This requires many to be torn down and rebuilt in order to sell them on the formal market. This also creates a new class of owners vs renters

Top-down Structure

Bottom-up Structure

Top-down Structure

Informal Economy:

de Facto Collective Ownership:

Infrastructure Project

Recognition of land tenure brings the ability to use the home as places of informal businesses

Built in phases with original tenant granting patrimony to relatives as buildings expand vertically to accomodate

Formalizes the streets system into the fabric of the city, does not require the formalization of buildings

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Social Infrastructure Infraestructura Social There are systems and structures necessary for social coexistence. When studying social infrastructure we looked at the processes of generation and exchange of services that are crucial to the society and through which knowledge and ideas are shared. This is the basis of our society, and it generates the structure we need to support social life. Each member of this research group focused on a traditional conception of Medellín’s infrastructure: education, housing, water, energy, and public services. We began to reconceive the role of this infrastructure by examining it at the intersection of systems, the built, and the social, not only what appears to be formal, but also top down actions that have been responsible for the redistribution of these resources through alternative measures. Hay sistemas y estructuras necesarias que permiten convivencia social. Cuando se estudia la infraestructura social la vemos como el proceso de generación e intercambio de servicios que son cruciales para la sociedad y por el que se comparten conocimientos e ideas. Esta es la base de nuestra sociedad, y que genera la estructura que necesitamos para la vida social. Cada miembro de este grupo de investigación se centró en una concepción tradicional de la infraestructura de Medellín: la educación, la vivienda, el agua, la energía y los servicios públicos. Empezamos a volver a concebir el papel de esta infraestructura examinando-la en la intersección de los sistemas, el construido y el social, no sólo lo que parece ser formal, sino también acciones que han sido responsables por la redistribución de los recursos a través de medidas alternativas.

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Spaces of Hope Sabrina Dorsainvil “Spaces of Hope” can connect a network of people in solidarity, inspire education, provide employment, foster communal memories and allow the crossing of invisible boundaries. Hope gives youth the opportunity for memory, alternatives and nonviolent negotiation. Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, Casa Morada and Ciudad Frecuencia showed the capabilities of cultural production to transcend the boundaries of language, oppression and association with violence for the youth. I was also able to witness physical spaces in the comuna’s being utilized in similar fashions. Through the use of hip-hop, dance, music, art and more directly, theater, “Spaces of Hope” were visibly challenging internal and external battles. These spaces are connected to the topography but are not spatially dictated. The physicality allows for the congregation of like-minded individuals to collectively imagine a better future but the inhabitants create the tools. It is clear how important the youth are to the comuna and also how important these spaces can be for the youth. “Espacios de Esperanza” pueden conectar una red de personas en solidaridad, inspiran educación, crean empleo, fomentan recuerdos comunales y permiten el cruce de fronteras invisibles. Esperanza da a los jóvenes alternativas pacificas. Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, Casa Morada y Ciudad Frecuencia mostraron las capacidades de producción cultural que trasciende los límites del lenguaje, la opresión y la asociación con la violencia de los jóvenes. También tuve la oportunidad de presenciar los espacios físicos en la comuna utilizados de manera similar. Mediante el uso de hiphop, la danza, la música, el arte y más directamente, de teatro, “Espacios de Esperanza” crean desafios visibles. Estos espacios están conectados a la topografía pero no están dictados espacialmente. El físico permite la congregación de personas para imaginar colectivamente un futuro mejor. Es evidente la importancia de los jóvenes a la comuna y también la importancia que estos espacios pueden tener para los jóvenes.

View Of Casa Amarilla From: Vista De La Casa Amarilla De:

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ORGANIZATIONS + Epicenter Of Salvation For Youth + Trailblazers + Neutral Space + Personal & Professional Opportunities + A Beacon

ORGANIZACIONES + Epicentro de salvación para la Juventud + Trailblazers + Espacio Neutral + Oportunidades Personal y Profesional + A Beacon

MEMBERS + Happiness + Joy + A Place To Share With Others + Solidarity + A Way Of Life + Tree With The Roots Signify A Strong And Deep Foundation

MIEMBROS + Felicidad + Joy + Un lugar para compartir con los demás + Solidaridad + A Way Of Life + Árbol con las raíces significa una fuerte y profunda Fundación


Youth Identified in C.A./ Jóvenes identificados en Casa Amarilla The Entrance + Place For: Change, Interaction, Co-Existence, Love, SelfExpression/ Lugar Para: Cambio, Interaction, la convivencia, el amor, la expresión

The Theater The Bench + Think About the Possibilities of the Future/ Piensa en las posibilidades del futuro + Dreams

+ Transformation/ Transformación + Resistance/Resistencia + Solidarity/Solidaridad

Observed Spaces Around Comuna/ Espacios observados alrededor Comuna Schools + Parks Proposed Scouts Location Designated Community Spaces Sidewalks Alleys

Community Built Spaces

Bridges

Balconies + Outlets for expression/Medios de expresión + Play + Possibilities/ Posibilidades + Gathering Space/ Atrio

Identified Network Organizations/ Organizaciones de Red identificados COMUNA 13, JEIHHCO, CASA MORADA + Coexistence/ Convivencia + Resistance/ Resistencia + Memory/memoria + Love/amor PHOTO TAKEN BY: JEIHHCO

Any space can act as the platform to exercise solidarity and promote cohabitation. The tools used are detemrined by the community or the youth themselves./Cualquier espacio puede actuar como plataforma para ejercer la solidaridad y promover la convivencia. Las herramientas utilizadas son determinados por la comunidad o los propios jóvenes.

COMUNA 5, FREDY SERNA, MUSIC, CIUDAD FRECUENCIA +Message/ Mensaje + Interaction/ Interacción + Art as an alternative life/ El arte como una alternativa de vida

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The Role of Architecture: Creative vs Collective City Lara Furtado My research on the history of education in Colombia showed me how it was and still is used to promote the agenda of those who are in power. For the last five decades, changes in the political system combined with struggles against violence and social inequality have not just affected the educational system but also its conception. The latest campaign “Medellín la Más Educada” makes us note that education is no longer just a matter of literacy but also of culture and citizenship. With these changing values, the architecture of these learning spaces is being reinvented. What is the importance of physical construction in education? Casa Amarilla is an example of a successful entity that reaches the community but is not necessarily an enclosed space. Its network extends the social boundaries of the comuna, as they connect to other entities with similar goals. While walking through Comuna 2 I could spot several places where the community was reinterpreting the public space and were not fixed by what had been determined by experts and reinforced by guards. My critique is not about construction itself and the hopes put on architecture. It is rather about the process through which the built environment has been made. What is truly important is a participatory action that can make construction a direct response to existing needs. A remodeling of the educational system and physical space is needed to turn schools into a safe space for learning. Mi investigación sobre la historia de educación en Colombia me mostró cómo ha sido y todavía es utilizada para defender los intereses de los poderosos. Cambios en el sistema político junto con luchas contra la violencia y la desigualdad social no sólo han afectado a la educación, pero también su concepción. La última campaña “Medellín la Más Educada” nos hace notar que la educación ya no es sólo una cuestión de alfabetización, sino también una de cultura y ciudadanía. Con estos valores mudándose, la arquitectura de estos espacios de aprendizaje se está reinventando. ¿Cuál es la importancia de la construcción física en la educación? Casa Amarilla es un ejemplo de una entidad exitosa que sirve la comunidad pero no necesariamente en espacios cerrados. Su red se extiende los límites de la comuna conectándose a otras entidades con objetivos similares. Además, mientras yo caminaba por Comuna 2 podría detectar varios lugares donde la comunidad reinterpretaba el espacio público y no solamente seguía lo que se había determinado por expertos y reforzado por guardias. Mi crítica no se trata solamente de la construcción y la esperanza que inspira la arquitectura, se trata del proceso a través del cual se ha hecho. Lo verdaderamente importante es una acción participativa que permita hacer arquitectura como una respuesta directa a necesidades existentes.

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Network of education: Parque Bibliotecas, Schools, Casa Amarilla and Partners

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Social Infrastructures: Hybrid Growth - Controlled/Incremental Jonathan Lapalme

HYBRID GROWTH CONTROLLED / INCREMENTAL

Taller + higher on the hill: strong visual presene of government?

Remaining informal housing Further from the creek + higher on the hill

High risk houses

Using topography to informally close the court

Houses: not relocated Plus: in-house renovations with the help of the government, which encourage the inhabitants to renovate as well

Relocated close-by in governmental social housing

creek (high risk) Basketball court as preventive design (to prevent building)

Migration next same incremen building proces Green bridge

High risk Houses

Creek (high risk zone)

First floor: built with ch materials, th solid ones Taking away the risk by solidifyng the structure around the creek

Creek (formally a high risk zone)

I investigated the social processes behind the collective construction of the built infrastructures, both “formal” and “informal”. However, in order to complexify this dichotomy, I based my approach on the idea of an hybrid growth, one where bottom- up and top-down narratives co-exist and overlap. This can be seen, for instance, in the tensions between the incremental and controlled growth. In parallel to this main investigation, I suggested a possible application with theater of the oppressed methodology, where there is no spectator nor actor, but only spectactors. The plot, both as a space and as a narrative, then becomes a way to negotiate the urban space.

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As th has a se with com

Ramp added by government


A third floor can be added (up to five even) and can be rented to family or friends.

d

e ment, e ate

As the family grows and has more money, a second floor is built with the help of the community

Local expert: the person to go to to highjack the system

Governmental social housing: as the family grows, there is limited growth

Main connections: provided by the city + service provider

Added connections: the community pluging into the system

Migration next door: same incremental building process

First floor: built with cheap materials, then with solid ones

high

Sometimes the service is shared from house to house (sharing the bills, etc.) BUT: shame factor: financial / energy independance is prefered. Same principle for other types of services

Ramp added by government

On a Sunday afternoon, the community gets together and build stairs

Investigué los procesos sociales detrás de la construcción colectiva de las infraestructuras construidas, tanto “formales” e “informales”. Sin embargo, con el fin de complejizar esta dicotomía, basé mi enfoque en la idea de un crecimiento híbrido, una en la narrativa de abajo hacia arriba y de arriba hacia abajo coexisten y se superponen. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las tensiones entre el crecimiento gradual y controlada. En paralelo a la investigación principal, sugerí la posibilidad de aplicar con el teatro de la metodología oprimidos, donde no hay espectador ni actor, pero sólo spectactors. El “plot” (palabra en ingles), tanto como espacio y como un relato, se convierte en una forma de negociar el espacio urbano. 49


FINANCING First stage: savings Second Stage: other systems of self-financing - subdivision of housing units (from single use to multiple use)

La Violencia

WHAT PARTNERSHIPS ALONG THE WAY? CO-PRODUCTION?

Low income Sociospatial issues CAUSE OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS

BUILT PROCESSES Main Sources: EdiĂŠsio Fernandez, Regularization of Informal Settlements in South America (2011) + Jota Stamper, Toward an epistemology of the form of the Informal city: Mapping the process of informal city making (2012)

THE HYBRID CITY / NARRATED / ORGANIZED

Shortage of social housing Formal market outcomes Political clientalism Unrealistic planning Problems of urban management

THE TAKING OF THE LAND

A dysfunctional legal system

THE ATTACK FROM PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ENTITIES

INCREMENTAL HOUSING SYSTEM Domino principal (Le Corbusier) --- > continuous process of improvement of housing units along with the infrastructure "infill architecture": housing is reduced to a flexible framework customised by the inhabitants. This conception of the house responds to the rapid growth of cities, but it is also promoted as a way to encourage participation from the inhabitants themselves in building their own environment.. Indeed there is a thin line that divides this model from the reality of many shantytowns in which do-it-yourself is a forced option rather than a fancy model for housing. . City government: Reduction of street sellers Argument: Obstacle to the right of movement Prosecute + fine

Relocate people outside the city centers?

Authoritarian methods to remove street sellers from the center city

OR

CASE STUDY: STREET SELLERS

Recognize entrepreneurial skills + build programmes

BOTTOM-UP CULTURAL NARRATIVES

transformation of shelters to sheds

implantation precarious shelters

Tradition

TOP-DOWN CULTURAL NARRATIVES

GROWTH AND CAPACITY BUILDING ORGANIZING

In a matter of days, street selelrs reappear in the urban landscape

Street Sellers Decide to move with the city Adapt some pushchairs to circulate Ressourcefulness + Adaptability

HYBR

Narratives co-exist and overlap. Not development or stagnation, but re-interpreting + re-creating More versatile and adequate responses Encounter + combination of different cultural narratives Diagram taken from Urban Plots, Organizing Cities (Sonda, Coletta, Gabbi) FORMAL

SPECTACTORS ACTORS = SPECTATORS SPECTATORS = ACTORS

THEATER OF THE OPRESSED / SPECTACTORS Main source: Creative Community The Art of Cultural DevelopmentAdams and Goldbard

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PLOT As used in cartography and narratology, and more: play on word - Spanish Equivalent? (Structure which enables sense to be made Means to organize space, time and causality But also a small area of ground / what grows or lies upon it)

SHARING Stories of unresolved political or social problem

ENACTMENT Small group devises a scene with the main elements and a potential (unsatisfactory) solution


SETTLEMENTS PATTERNS Implemented into the first stages of consolidation. The main concept is that “by following certain patterns, these settlements would progressively produce housing areas with similar physical characteristics to those of planned low-income developments for comparable income groups” Maria del Carmen Portela (1992)

NEW PLACE FOR SPECULATION AND GENTRIFICATION and gentrification (Mukhija 2001a)

“They not only built their own houses, but as a collective, built the urban infrastructure.” - Jota Samper

S

FIGHT BACK

THE TRIUMPH

CONSOLIDATION

DISPLACEMENT?

INTEGRATION OR DISAPEARENCE EDGE NODE

solid construction

IMPROVEMENT COLLUSION collusion between perceived tenure security + effects of infrastructure improvements. Improvements at the urban scale ---> in the housing units. Especially when state is involved --- > assurance that they would not be removed.

EXPANSION LEAPFROG

1: poverty is a complex and multifaceted problem; 2: a multisectoral approach; 3: design as a vehicle of social and physical integration; 4: the project needs to have an impact at a city scale; 5: public and private partnerships (a big lack of it); 6: engagement in these type of projects require some level of state reform and of the state and 7: the pursuit of inclusion, participation and democratization.

TRADITIONAL POSITIVIST SOLUTIONS (focus: creation of new affordable stock of housing or the provision of basic infrastructure) - relocation and clearance - slum upgrading techniques (distribution of construction materials, loan of heavy equipment) NOW: securing tenure rights as the key instrument However: limitations: physical or social needs. OPTIMAL: compilation of strategies

INFORMAL

Creating the narrative together?

RID

JUMP IN An anyone can jump in and replace the protagonist taking the scene in a new direction.

Imaginative empathy Sensitivity to subtle shadings of meanings

Organization skills

Vibrant creativity

JOKER A kind of facilitator, asks if people are satisfied. If not, what other solutions?

REPLAY The group may choose to replaythe scene more than once to allow a greater range of scenario to be attempted

DISCUSSION or not, depending on if the enactment was enough

COMMUNITY ARTIST(S)

Understanding

Wide cultural vocabulary Visual communication

Coherent vision

Without all these qualities social practice cannot rise above well intended social therapy or agit prop

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A Geography of Alternative Cultural Practices Alexandra Castillo-Kesper As our studio partner Casa Amarilla was a politically impactful arts organization, I initially researched how Colombia’s fine arts had engaged the body politic from the modern period to the present day. But when I arrived in Medellíin and observed Casa Amarilla directly, I quickly decided to revise my research focus. I saw how Casa Amarilla employed the theater towards social and political transformation and learned of its influence and catalyzing effects on the formation of other alternative cultural spaces in the Comuna Santa Cruz’s neighborhoods. My map to the right thus shows the types of connections being built between Casa Amarilla and these alternative spaces, in addition to showing how EAFIT, our private university partner, figures within these relationships. We can see how these relationships among these cultural entities are, in effect, creating their own geography. Como socio en nuestro proyecto, Casa Amarilla se presentó como una organización de artes con tremendo impacto político. Desde un principio, hice una investigación sobre como las artes en Colombia pudieron haber empeñado el cuerpo político desde la época moderna hasta el presente. Pero al haber llegado a Medellín y en haber observado la Casa Amarilla directamente, rápidamente decidí cambiar el enfoque de mi estudio. Pude observar el medio por el cual Casa Amarilla, al utilizar el teatro hacia transformación social y política, pudo influir y tener un impacto catalizador sobre la creación alternativas locales culturales en los vecindarios de la Comuna 2. He desarrollado el mapa a la derecha para demostrar los tipos de conexiones que se están estableciendo entre Casa Amarilla y esas locales alternativas y simultáneamente como EAFIT, nuestro socio universitario privado se desempeña dentro de estas relaciones. Por lo tanto podemos ver como estas relaciones entre las varias entidades culturales están creando su propia geografía.

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Drawing connections between Medellin’s alternative cultural organizations and Urbam, an urban program at EAFIT

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Social Infrastructure: Empresas Públicas de Medellín (EPM) Anže Zadel My investigation focuses on a physical infrastructures and the municipal-owned multinational, Empresas Publicas de Medellín, EPM, the major provider of infrastructure and services in the city. Apart from covering big portion of Colombia’s needs, EPM is also one of the biggest infrastructure providers in the whole Latin America. Based in Medellin but with many affiliations within Colombia as well as in six other countries (USA, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Panama and Spain) it provides various services, from water supply, electrical energy and telecommunications. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the world seemed seized by a great wave of privatization of infrastructure and resource companies. As we emerge into the 21st century, especially after the economic crisis in 2008, we find the trends changing. While there are certainly a growing number of re-nationalizations and nationalizations, a new feature on the landscape is the growing number of state-owned multinational corporations operating in overseas markets. The multinationals do not seek liberation for the world, and increasingly we see that they exist for the profit of the home country, more specifically, for the advancement of the interests of the politicians who control them. This is a narrow vision of human improvement, one that exploits the weakness of the global south where these national state-owned multinationals exploit resources and labor in the same manner as their private counterparts. Through examining how EPM operates, both at home and outside of Medellín, we can though gain a better understanding of the logic behind the rise of the nationalized multinational, how they serve their owners, what they deliver to their customers and clients and how they could be utilized to serve better their communities. Mi investigación se centra en infraestructura física y en la multinacional, EPM, Empresas Públicas de Medellín, el principal proveedor de infraestructura y servicios en la ciudad y Colombia. Con sede en Medellín, pero con muchas afiliaciones dentro de Colombia, y en otros seis países EPM ofrece diversos servicios, de suministro de agua, energía eléctrica y telecomunicaciones. A lo largo de los años 1980 y 1990, el mundo paso por un periodo de privatizacion de empresas de infraestructura y de recursos. A medida que comienza el siglo 21, especialmente después de la crisis económica en 2008, miramos que las tendencias cambian.Aunque sin duda hay un creciente número de re-nacionalizaciones y nacionalizaciones. Una nueva característica en el paisaje es el creciente número de empresas estatales multinacionales que operan en los mercados extranjeros. Las multinacionales no buscan la liberación para el mundo, y vemos que existen para el beneficio del país de origen y para la promoción de los intereses de los políticos que los controlan. Esta es una visión estrecha de mejoramiento humano, que explota la debilidad del sur global, donde las multinacionales de propiedad estatal explotan los recursos y mano de obra de la misma manera que sus contrapartes privadas. Al examinar cómo EPM opera, tanto en casa como fuera de Medellín, se puede obtener una mejor comprensión de la lógica detrás de la subida de la multinacional nacionalizada, cómo servir a sus propietarios, lo que ofrecen a sus clientes y cómo podrían ser utilizados para servir mejor a sus comunidades.

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Political Economies Economías Políticas For our group the idea of economics and politics are bound up in the everyday experience of human interactions. This should be distinguished from the idea of ‘the Economy’ or that of ‘Politics’. We think that these two human processes are necessarily intertwined with one another and shaped first by individuals entering into spaces of conflict, and then followed by the interactions of members of communities outward, however they may organize themselves. Economics can be understood as all those processes that reflect the production of communities and that help provide flourishing within those spaces. It is literally the relationship to fulfill what we need and desire, interacting to create a flourishing of human activity. Politics, can be seen as that set of negotiations in which individuals create space with one another, generate a set of boundaries, rules to govern themselves by, and generally how we perform to distinguish ourselves, groups, and others. What is integral to the understanding of these processes, to us, is a deep understanding of how they occur in everyday life, through the most mundane of human interactions, and yet retain their most necessary nature to our lives. Para nuestro grupo, la idea de economias y politicas estan atadas a las experiencias del dia a dia de las interacciones humanas. Esto se deberia de distinguir de la idea de “La Economia” o de “La Politica”. Creemos que estos dos procesos humanos estan necesariamente entrelazados uno con el otro y estan formados primero por los individuos que entran a un espacio de conflicto y luego por las interacciones de los miembros de las comunidades hacia afuera, como sea que esten organizados. Economia puede ser entendido como todos los procesos que reflejan la produccion de comunidades y que ayudan al desarrollo dentro de esos espacios. Es, literalmente, la relacion para satisfacer lo que necesitamos y deseamos, interactuando para el desarrollo de la actividad humana. Politica, puede ser entendida como el grupo de negociaciones en las cuales una persona crean un espacio con otra persona, generando limites, reglas para governarse entre si mismos y, por lo general, es lo que hacemos para distinguirnos a nosotros mismos, a grupos particulares y a otros. Lo que es importante para el entendimiento de esos procesos, para nosotros, es un conocimiento profundo de como ellos ocurren en el dia a dia, a travez de las mas sencillas de las interacciones, y obtienen la naturaleza mas necesaria de nuestras vidas.

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Towards Formality: Why Mobility Does Not Equate Opportunity Andrew Tucker Initially my research began as an investigation around barriers on the physical terrain and the people of Medellin, Colombia, imposed by ruling powers through ‘the naming of things’, imposed physical barriers , and finally, through mobility projects. Precariousness can be understood as a measure or risk, impacted by chance, inequality, and Governmental formalization. In Medellin, this investigation revealed that many of the developments towards mobility are aimed to change ‘informal’ economies into more formal ones. What was uncovered was that this change, completely out of synch with the community, both temporally and spatially, causes many unexpected negative impacts in the form of costs, and dis-inclusion of specific actors who may not be able to move away from the ‘informal’ economy. Tairona

Pre-Colonial ‘Motility’

Precarity = general risk; relational inequality.

Sinu

Politcal Arena - Space of interaction; politics between people; localized.

Tamalameque Guane

Barriers to ‘Motility’ - Rivers - Other Groups - Porous - Politics happen when groups enter this arena Muisca Tumaco

Tolima

Narino Antioquia Post Colonial ‘Mobility’ - Borders (Imposed) - New Geographical Identity

Political Arena - Pre-negotiated - Mediated by the State; more ‘ordered’ - Politics happen formally thorugh institutions - Motility becomes limited

Precarity = Decrease in general risk for some; increase for others due to formalization of borders, figts over land, Political struggles.

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Al principio de mi investigación se inició como una investigación en torno a las barreras en el terreno físico y el pueblo de Medellín, Colombia, impuesta por los poderes que gobiernan a través de ‘nombrar las cosas’, barreras físicas impuestas y, por último, a través de proyectos de movilidad. La precariedad se puede entender como una medida o de riesgo, impactado por el azar, la desigualdad y la formalización Gubernamental. En Medellín, la investigación reveló que muchos de los avances realizados hacia la movilidad están destinadas a cambiar las economías “informales” en otras más formales. Lo que se descubrió fue que este cambio, completamente fuera de sintonía con la comunidad, tanto temporal como espacialmente, causa muchos efectos negativos inesperados en la forma de costos y dis-inclusión de actores específicos que pueden no ser capaces de alejarse de la economía informal.

The ‘Street’

The Political Arena

People Cars Bike/Motorcycle

...............

Trucks

alk Sidew

Precarity: Formalization Removes People from the political arena of the street, to the sidewalk. This is an almost symbolic type of change to how personal politics work in nonformalized city.

In a similar fasion, street vendors/recycling will be disincluded from the political space of the street as it becomes more formalized. Vendors The New Grid - After Escobar; city increases access to mobility without increasing access to political arena. - Continues formalization of economy. Popular (1)

Towards Formalized Economy

Towards Economic Opportunity

La Candelaria (10)

El Poblado (14)

Castilla (5)

Guayabal (15)

Increase Mobility

n Sa ier

Jav )

(13

Precarity: Attempt to lower general precariousness by formalization of economy through mobility; Increase in Governmental precaritization due to formalization of economy: Increased cost through licensing, travel, etc.

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Laboral Spatial Politics: The Grounding of Exchange Cristina Handal This section is about political, social and economic relationships and exchanges at different scales. The first part, on the national scale, focuses on the role that external agents and countries had on the formation of Colombia, specifically the political history, composed of the political leaders and the government policies that came in those terms (Figure 1). The next part is selective of data of the operational territory of Comuna 2 for Corporacion Cultural Nuestra Gente, with the intent of both looking at the people taking part in CCNG, those in power in the city, and how those policies affect the smaller scale, the actual terrain and the people that live in it (Figure 2). The last part comes after the trip to Medellin, taking a close look at the type of laboral exchanges, where they are happening and who they involve. This is the spatialization of labor and the visibilization of the invisible actors and scripts that shape those exchanges (Figures 3 and 4). Esta seccion es sobre las relaciones e intercambios politicos, sociales y economicos en diferentes escalas. La primera parte, en la escala nacional, se enfoca en el rol que los agentes y paises externos tuvieron en la formacion de Colombia, especificamente la historia politica, compuesta de los lideres politicos y reformas que ocurrieron en cada gobierno (Figura 1). La siguiente parte, es selectiva con la investigacion cuantitativa del territorio operativo de Comuna 2 para Corporacion Cultural Nuestra Gente, con la intencion de entender las personas que se iban involucrando en CCNG, los que tenian poder en la ciudad en esos momentos, y como las politicas afectan la escala mas pequena, el terreno actual y la gente que lo habita (Figura 2). La ultima parte viene despues del viaje a Medellin, estudiando mas detenidamente a los intercambios laborales que existen, donde estan sucediendo y a quienes involucra. Esta es la espacializacion de trabajo y la visibilizacion de los actores invisibles y los guiones que dirigen esos intercambios (Figuras 3 y 4).

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TERRITORIO OPERATIVO REFORMA 1991

30 25

Hombres 51,494 (47%)

24%

20 15 10 5

70-79 años 80 + años 1% 3%

2%

60-69 años 6%

Mujeres 57,987(53%)

1990 0-9 años 17%

10-19 años 18%

40-49 años 14%

HABITANTES: 109,481

80 + años

30-39 años 13%

20-29 años 18%

HABITANTES 2011

exportaciones importaciones

3164

60-69 años

6021

50-59 años

11132

40-49 años

15781

30-39 años

14524

20-29 años

19320

10-19 años Alfabetas (78,576) 96%

2012

1603

70-79 años

Analfabetas (2,908) 4%

2001

desempleo inflacion

50-59 años 10%

19069

0-9 años

18089 0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

habitantes

EDUCACION, 2011 Incapacitados Permanentemente (321) 1% Otro (642) 2%

Estudiando (160) 1%

Buscando Empleo (1,605) 5%

Hogares con negocio 2,128 (9%)

Jefe de Hogar Femenino (13,111) 43%

Que son estos trabajos? Donde se llevan a cabo?

Pensionado/Jubilado (2,836) 9%

Jefe de Hogar Masculino (17,500) 57%

Oficio de Hogar 23%

Trabajadores 59%

Hogares sin negocio 22,410 (91%)

GENERO DE JEFE DE HOGAR, 2011

ACTIVIDAD DE JEFE DE HOGAR, 2011

HOGARES Y NEGOCIOS

y los demas?

3 - Manrique

86 146

70.7

104 155

69.1

1 - Popular

20.4 26

2 - Sta Cruz

25.8 28 0

Figura 2: Territorio Operativo y Reformas Que Lo Afectan

104

55.1

5 - Castilla 4 - Aranjuez

111

43 47 50

Total de Muertes Violentas

100 Tasa Homicidios/100mil H

150

200

Total Homicidios

(datos de censo Calidad de Vida 2011 y Metroinformacion 2012)

Que otros datos interesan saber del barrio? (que no son parte de las encuestas de la ciudad)

Figura 3: Espacios Laborales reciclador

Front Perspective at 20mm

prestamista producto importado de ciudad/pais

pisos elevados de vivienda

ECONOMIAS SOLIDARIAS

cocinera vendedor menudeo importado cobrador

EXISTING LOCAL

Left Elevation at 35mm

EXISTING AND POTENTIAL EXTERNAL

Right Elevation at 35mm

zapatero en sede social

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Community Urban Action Plan Plan de Acci贸n Comunitaria


CONOCIDUCACIÓN*: Circulation Of Knowledges Towards A Civil Society In 2003, newly elected mayor Sergio Farjado pledged that he would remedy Medellin’s longstanding history of inequality through a sweeping education reform agenda called “Medellín, la más educada” or “Medellín, the most educated”. As part of this reform, he launched a series of large-scale infrastructure projects, erecting high-quality public architecture in areas that previously had little state inversion. Of these buildings, the Parque Bibliotecas, or Library Parks, have captivated the world’s imagination and been endlessly reproduced in the international press. But despite this major investment in the city’s educational infrastructure, research shows that users feel disconnected from their libraries, citing that these institutions are not responsive to the community’s most pressing needs. However, one local institution unconnected with the top-down mayoral education reforms, and located in one these so-called disadvantaged areas stands out strongly for its ability to transform community knowledge into action—Casa Amarilla. Inspired by the transformative space of Casa Amarilla, Conocidudación is a multitiered project that seeks to bridge this gap between the state’s top-down program of knowledge generation (educación) with the more grounded knowledge(s) or wisdom of the everyday (conocimiento(s)). Conociducación will activate Medellin’s pre-existing robust infrastructure, such as its library network, in the effort to identify, build upon, and circulate the skills and knowledge that already exists. In short, Conociducación is a citizenship-building project seeking to enhance the quality of one’s membership to his or her community, and also place the city’s more disadvantaged areas as sociopolitical players on a larger municipal scale.

Medellin already has a robust knowledge infrastructure *CONOCIDUCACIÓN is a term invented by this group to to bridge this gap between the state’s top-down program of knowledge generation (educación) with the more grounded knowledge(s) or wisdom of the everyday (conocimiento(s)). * CONOCIDUCACIÓN es un término inventado por este grupo para cerrar la brecha entre programas oficiales de generación de conocimiento (Educación) con el conocimiento o sabiduría de la experiencia cotidiana (Conocimiento). 64


Knowledge Ecologies Ecologías de Conocimiento Sabrina Dorsainvil • Lara Furtado Alexandra Castillo-Kesper • Jonathan Lapalme • Anze Zadel

En el 2003, el alcalde Sergio Fajardo, se comprometió a cambiar la larga historia de inequidad en Medellín a través de su reforma educativa denominada “Medellín, la más educada”. Como parte de este programa, lanzo una serie de grandes proyectos infraestructurales, resultando en una arquitectura publica en barrios populares. De estos proyectos, hay algunos como las Parque-Bibliotecas que han captivado la imaginación del mundo y han sido publicadas continuamente en la prensa internacional. A pesar de esta gran inversión en infraestructura para la educación, investigaciones muestran que los usuarios de estos espacios se sienten desconectados de sus bibliotecas, compartiendo que estas instituciones no responden a las necesidades más urgentes de la comunidad. Sin embargo, una institución desconectada de los proyectos de la alcaldía que se realizaron de arriba hacia abajo, situada en uno de estas llamadas comunas desfavorecidas, resalta fuertemente por su habilidad de transformar el conocimiento de la comunidad en acción – Casa Amarilla. Inspirado por el espacio transformativo de Casa Amarilla, “Conocidudación”* es un proyecto multi-facetico que intenta cerra la brecha entre programas oficiales de educación del estado con los conocimientos de la comunidad y la sabiduría cotidiana. “Conocidudación” activara la infraestructura robusta existente de Medellín, como ser la red de bibliotecas, con el intento de identificar, construir sobre y circular las habilidades, talentos y conocimientos que ya existen. En resumen, “Conocidudación” es un proyecto con el fin de construir ciudadanía, buscando mejorar la calidad de integración e impacto en su comunidad, a la vez de convertir las zonas más desfavorecidas en actores sociopolíticos en la ciudad.

Through performance Casa Amarilla produces and transfer knowledge

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We came to learn that Casa Amarilla’s influence expanded from the house, to the block and beyond.

temp

orary struc tures open + spac e

music rehearsal room local church

house of Casa Ama

rilla

CLT h

ousi

sa

fet

yc

irc le

ng

sewing, puppet workshop

ace

lic sp

pub

community kitchen El Pe

rdid

o

theatre

stre

et v end

or

Casa Amarilla connects with the neighborhood on a diverse array of cultural and ecological issues and across a broad economic scale.

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About Conociducaci贸n MAKE LOCAL KNOWLEDGES MORE VISIBLE FACILITATE THE CIRCULATION OF KNOWLEDGES CONNECT THE AGENTS THAT GENERATE KNOWLEDGE

OBJECTIVES

Conociducaci贸n has three simultaneous steps: Identify, Share and Build. Within Each step there are short term and long term strategies.

A Rich Base Of Knowledge Capacity Outreach

IDENTIFY

Patches Of Knowledge Repository Workshops

SHARE BUILD

Visual Identity A Network A Communcation Platform

Identify i want to:

REPOSITORY

SKILLS

i want to:

LEARN

TEACH

SPACES

NEEDS

DIGITAL + ANALOG Accessible in various patches

WHAT?

Located in various patches

WHAT?

WHERE? OUTDOOR

I WANT TO:

TEACH LEARN

Building Alternative Water Systems

INACTIVE

USED SPACES

LIBRARIES

CHURCH

Building Alternative Water Systems

TEACH

I WANT TO:

LEARN

INDOOR

DESIGNATED FACILITATORS Selected Members

CASA AMARILLA

LIBRARIES

LOCAL UNIVERSITIES

LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS

PARTNERS AS ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITEE COMUNA 2 COMMUNITY

EXPERTS IN RESIDENCE

INTERNATIONAL PARTNERS

CATHOLIC CHURCH

Selected Members

In order to make local knowledge(s) more visible, help its circulation, and create an archive as Conociducaion evolves, a repository would store skills, needs and spaces. This repository would be created with the help of strategic partnerships and community outreach campaigns. 67


Share There’s a large demand for skills in Medellín’s comunas, yet many of the skills that exist are created from the demands of poverty and are therefore illicit or even illegal. A city-run certification program is one way to reframe and even legitimize these skills, and may make residents proud of the work they do.

Open University / Patches of Knowledge Open University Patches of Knowledge Knowledge Open University // Patches of Creating an Ecology of Knowledge Creating an an Ecology Ecology of of Knowledge Knowledge Creating

Stages Stages Stages Identify Identify Identify

Build A.

Share Share Share

Build Build Build

B. CONO

DIREC CIDUCACIÓ TORY N

Even with 17 Libraries there are still areas without designated space of knowledge sharing. A network between informal spaces and existing infrastucture can create patches of knowledge: a strategy that proposes to stitch the gap between experience and education as well as create a strong flow of information sharing. Examples of Scaling Up: A. Digitally- Document the skill sharing, share via projections on community spaces and placed online for a blog-like cycle of reflection B. Analog- The creation of a visual identity and map of patches of knowledge

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This diagram displays multiple touchpoints of Conociducaci贸n now, in five months and in five years.

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Our previous research in political economies, precarity and mobility reveal that with the drastic changes occurring in Medellín from the 1990’s and 2012, there has been a dialectical eruption between the development of the new city and what is already there. With the centralization of the city comes new regulations that stifle what is present through new ideas of legality which yield in increased cost, mostly capitalist, and based on the dollar. The economy becomes purely transactional. What can be done to navigate the tension between the “ordered” and the “real” economy? Can Casa Amarilla’s notion of trueque be operationalized towards this effort? Can Casa Amarilla be the active model for this? The following suggestions offer a more agonistic model, based on an economy of non-transactional exchanges, but rather, relationships.

riesgo de exclusión por la formalización

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trabajo exportado a otras comunas


Exchange Ecologies Ecologías de Intercambio Cristina Handal • Andrew Tucker Nuestras investigaciones previas en políticas económicas, precariedad y mobilidad revelan que con los cambios drásticos que occurrieron en Medellín entre los 90s y 2012, ha surgido una erupción dialéctica entre el desarrollo de la nueva ciudad con lo ya existente. Con la centralización de la ciudad vienen nuevas regulaciones que reprimen prácticas y conceptos actuales, a travez de nuevas ideas de legalidad que resultan en un costo más alto, generalmente del sistema capitalista y basadas en el valor monetario del peso($). La economía es puramente de transacciones. Qué se puede hacer para reducir esa tensión entre la economía “ordenada” y la economía “real”? Se puede construir la cultura de trueque de Casa Amarilla hacia ese fin? Puede Casa Amarilla ser un referente para esto? Las siguientes propuestas ofreces un modelo agonista, basadas en una economía de intercambios que no son transacciones, si no que relaciones.

$

$

trabajo domestico excluido de intercambios productos importados del exterior a travez de distribuidor nacional (o controladores “invisibles”) intercambio como transacción ($ por comodidad o servicio)

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A) RESIDENCIES OF CIVIC ACTORS / RESIDENCIAS DE ACTORES CIVICOS

2

El “Actor Civico” realiza “Taller Amarillo” para compartir y enseñar sus habilidades. En este caso es un taller de producción de sillas.

3

Participante(s) del taller empiezan su nuevo negocio en Sta.Cruz

1

“Actor Civico” internacional se hospeda en casa de vecino de Sta. Cruz

Ejemplo de “Actor Civico” Internacional

“Actor Civico” local adquiere conocimiento de programa de computación en el SENA o a travez de otro recurso de Medellín. En este caso aprende Photoshop y programas de ilustración gráfica.

1

“Actor Civico” regresa a Sta.Cruz a realizar “Taller Amarillo” de Photoshop. Multiplicador sus conocimientos con otros vecinos.

2

Ejemplo de “Actor Civico” Local International and local “actors” go to Comuna 2 to co-create knowledge, whether they are artists, engineers, entrepreneurs, scientists, language teachers, to name a few. They “pay” for their stay by sharing and exchanging skills. Additionally, they leave a manual of the skills shared during that week or month which is then housed in an accessible shelf in Casa Amarilla. “Actores” internacionales y locales van la Comuna 2 a co-crear conocimientos. Estos pueden ser artistas, ingenieros, scientificos, maestros de idiomas, por dar unos ejemplos. Ellos “pagan” por su estadia a travez del compartir sus habilidades o talentos. Adicionalmente, dejan un manual de lo que se enseñó esa semana o mes, y se guarda en un librero en Casa Amarilla.

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B) AGONISTIC CONVERSATIONS / CONVERSACIONES AGONISTAS

Sesión Agonista del mes en el balcón de un vecino de Sta. Cruz

Ejemplo de Reunión Agonista This is a space to organize vendors, shop owners, Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, Comuna 2 neighbors and members of the local government to create economic policy that ‘fits’ the scale of the community. “Agonistic Conversations” can happen once a month as places to exchange knowledge, organize, begin to think and discuss policies that would serve the community. They can happen in spaces that exist, such as homes, shops or Casa Amarilla. This ideological space is bolstered by a structural example of how the economy can work, resulting in the creation of economic policy for the municipal level. Este espacio organiza a vendedores, propietarios, miembros de Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente, vecinos de la Comuna 2 y miembros del gobierno local para crear políticas económicas favorables para la escala y necesidades de la comunidad. “Conversaciones Agonistas” se pueden llevar a cabo una vez al mes como lugares de intercambio de conocimiento, para organizar, pensar y discutir políticas que beneficiaran a Sta. Cruz y otras comunas como ella. Pueden ser en espaciosya existentes, como en casas, tiendas, restaurantes o Casa Amarilla. Este espacio ideológico es reforzado por un ejemplo estructural de como la economía operará, resultando en la creación de políticas económicas para la implementación en la ciudad. C) TABLE OF EXCHANGE / MESA DE INTERCAMBIO

Mesa de Intercambio entre madres, vendedores, Actores Civicos, vecinos...

“FERIA DE INTERCAMBIO” los domingos en la calle

Ejemplo de Mesa y Feria de Intercambio The Table of Exchange promotes an economy of equal users, where everyone brings something to the table and is interdependent on some other skill. It is a place to log skills to meet needs and a space to value domestic work. It is exclusionary of monetary exchanges so that it is inclusionary of everyone. The Table of Exchange becomes the weekly “Street Fair of Exchanges”. La Mesa de Intercambio promueve una economía de usuarios equitativos, donde todos contribuyen con algo a la mesa y es interdependiente de las habilidades de los que asisten. Es un lugar para presentar habilidades que satisfacen necesidades de otros vecinos y es un espacio para valorar el trabajo doméstico. La Mesa excluye los intercambios monetarios para ser inclusivo de todas las personas. La Mesa de Intercambio se convierte en la “Feria de Intercambios” de los domingos. 73


The Ecologies of Exchanges strengthens and results in a new economy, an Economy of Exchanges. Based on the concept of trueque (of barter and exchange) as well as relationships based on love rather than power and simply donations, the Residency of Civic Actors, the Table/Fair of Exchange and the Agonistic Conversations foster and Economy of Relationships rather than transactions. The Civic Actors exchange skills which then, like a local economy multiplier, are maintained in the community through the manual and shared amongst others to act as a skills multiplier. This keeps skills in the community, rather than delivering a product without the teaching, learning, and exchanging process that the community can be a part of. The Table of Exchange, as a reaction to the exclusion of citizens whose work does not produce cash and to existing microcredit lending programs that promote debt and interest, is inclusionary of all work, skills and assets that neighbors have to fulfill and complement needs of other neighbors. The Agonistic Conversations brings all participants together towards an Economic Policy that can alter the economics even beyond Comuna 2. The result is a community that is capable of expanding its own network of relationships and develops into a new economic system that includes and fosters the participation of all.

transacciones no solo monetarias

conversaciones agonistas en las cuales participan todos los vecinos que han sido parte de procesos de nueva economĂ­a cambio de dinĂĄmica de poder al traer a los actores gubernamentales al corazĂłn de Sta.Cruz a participar en conversaciones e intercambios

74

talleres amarillos en los cuales los actores civicos dejan manual para multiplicar conocimientos, habilidades nuevas y talentos en Sta. Cruz


Las Ecologías de Intercambio fortalecen y resultan en una nueva economía, la Economía de Intercambio. Basada en el concepto de trueque y en las relaciones de amor, en vez del poder y donacion monetarias, la Residencia de Actores Cívicos, la Mesa/Feria de Intercambio y las Conversaciones Agonistas fomentan una Economía de Relaciones, en vez de transacciones. Como el concepto de “multiplicador de economía local”, los Actores Cívicos intercambian talentos que permanecen en la comunidad a travez del manual y son compartidos con otros como el multiplicador de habilidades. Esto mantiene las habilidades dentro de la comunidad, en vez de simplemente entregar un producto que no incluye el proceso de aprendizaje e intercambio del cual los vecinos pueden formar parte. La Mesa de Intercambio, como una reacción a la exclusión de ciudadanos que no producen dinero y a los programas de microcrédito que promueven deuda e intereses, incluye todo trabajo, habilidades y recursos con los que vecinos cuentan para satisfacer y complementar las necesidades de otros vecinos. Las Conversaciones Agonistas orientan a todos los participantes hacia una Política Económica que afecta las economías más allá de la Comuna 2. Como resultado se tiene una comunidad que es capaz de expandir su propia red de relaciones, desarrollando un nuevo sistema económico que incluye y permite la participación de todos.

residentes que comparten además de conocimientos, culturas diferentes en los hogares

Feria de Intercambio inclusiva de participación de todos los vecinos de la comuna intercambiando, además de comodidades de producción local, talentos, conocimientos

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1.

2.

Existing Issues 1. Physical Risk/Riesgo fisico 2. Invisibility /nvisibilidad 3. Waste/Desperdicios 4. Commodity/Mercaderia 5. Boundary/Frontera

3.

4.

Site Analysis a. Terrain/Terrano b. Slope/Pendiente c. Channel/Conducto d. Landslide Risk/ Riesgo de Deslizamiento e. Land Use/Uso de la Tierra

5.

c.

a.

b.

d.

e.

Project: Respatialize power by mobilizing around issues of water Proyecto: Re-espacializar poder mediante la movilizacion en torno a temas de agua An Integrated Flow of Water: Blue/ Natural, Red/Capital, Yellow/Selfmanaged; Dotted/Inputs, Solid/ Outputs

Un flujo integrado de agua: azul/ Natural, Rojo/capital, amarillo/ Autogestionado; punteadas/ Entradas, Solid/salidas

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Power Ecologies Ecologías de Poder Aubrey Murdock • Luisa Munera • Troy Andrew Hallisey • Joel Stein

Corrientes de Poder Coursing through from up the hillsides of the Aburra Valley, water, in the forms of streams, creeks and a river, has shaped the urban growth and development of Medellín. The control of its flow, circulation and supply yields with it considerable social power, and when coupled with inequal urban development, manifests in key critical conditions identified as risk, invisibility, waste, commodity and boundary. This project, “Corridors of Water, Currents of Power,” investigated and offers design projections related to the pivotal role of water in Medellín, in order to transform it from a destabilizing force to a nourishing one. The theoretical framework of this urban waterscape was further grounded by fieldwork in Medellín, when the existing issues of water as experienced by individuals and communities were observed and documented. These identified issues are all intertwined and related, and the design proposals seek to address them in a holistic and integrated nature, in such a way that can be implemented by Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente and future partners. The proposals are part of a larger strategy and play out in a temporal and spatial manner.

Cursando a través de las laderas del Valle de Aburrá, agua, en forma de ríos, arroyos y ríos, ha dado forma al crecimiento urbano y el desarrollo de Medellín. El control de su flujo, la circulación y el rendimiento de suministro con una considerable poder social, y cuando se combina con el desarrollo urbano desigual, se manifiesta en condiciones críticas claves identificadas como de riesgo, invisibilidad, los residuos, los productos básicos y de frontera. Este proyecto, “Los corredores de agua, las corrientes de poder”, investigó y ofrece proyecciones de diseño relacionados con el papel fundamental del agua en Medellín, con el fin de transformarlo en una fuerza desestabilizadora para una nutritiva uno. El marco teórico de este paisaje acuático urbano se basa en el trabajo de campo en Medellín, cuando se observaron y se documentan los problemas existentes de agua experimentados por los individuos y las comunidades. Estos problemas identificados están entrelazados y relacionados, y las propuestas de diseño tratan de abordar en un carácter global e integrado, de tal manera que pueda ser implementado por la Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente y futuros socios. Las propuestas forman parte de una estrategia más amplia y juegan de manera temporal y espacial.

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Organizational Structure

4.

3.

5.

2.

1. 6.

9. 8.

7.

Stakeholders Actores 1. EPM EPM 2. City of Medellin/Ciudad de Medellin 3. School/Escuela 4. Corporacion Culturale Nuestra Gente/Corporacion Culturale Nuestra Gente 5. Homeowners/Los propietarios de viviendas 6. Brownsea Scouts/Brownsea Scouts 7. Farmers/Los agricultores 8. Potable Water and Basic Sanitation Regulation Commission/ Agua Potable y Saneamiento Basico Reglamento 9. URBAM Universidad EAFIT

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Essential to the transformation of the urban waterscape, through all of these design proposals, is the process of negotiation and collaboration with other groups and institutions present within Medellín. The project not only aims to redesign the physical nature of water, but also the societal processes that manage it. In order to achieve this, the project also entails the creation of a NE Water Action Group that would be responsible for the management, supply, delivery and maintenance of water within the territory that Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente operates. For each project, certain groups were identified that Corporacion Nuestra Gente could work with, along with specific strategic actions, thereby re-spatializing power by addressing the issues of water.

Los procesos de negociación y la colaboración con otros grupos e instituciones presentes en Medellín son esenciales para la transformación del paisaje acuático urbano. El proyecto no sólo pretende rediseñar la naturaleza física del agua, sino también los procesos sociales que lo administran. Para lograr esto, el proyecto también implica la creación de un Grupo de Acción sobre el Agua NE que sería responsable de la gestión, el suministro, entrega y mantenimiento del agua en el territorio que Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente opera. Para cada proyecto, se identificaron ciertos grupos con Los cuales Corporación Nuestra Gente podía trabajar, junto con las acciones estratégicas específicas.

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Integrated Infrastructural Public Space

80


- bleachers with a model of the watershed - tool for education, negotiation, and planning

a.

- gradas con un modele de la cuenca - herramienta para la educaion, la negociacion y la planificacion

- porous surfaces decrease storm water runoff - root structure of new plants supports soil - collection of rainwater decreases runoff - grey water systems supplement water costs - creation of small public spaces b.

- superficies porosas para disminucion de aguas pluviales - estructura de raiz con nuevas plantas apoya suelo - agua de lIuvia recogida disminuye la escorrentia - sistemas de aguas grises complementan los costos de agua - creacion de pequenos espacios publicos

- bioswales throughout North Eastern Zone - decrease storm water runoff - creation of public green spaces - increase visibility of North Eastern Water Action Group

c.

d.

e.

- bioswales en Zona Nororiental - disminuir la escorrentia de aguas pluviales. - creacion de espacios verdes publicos - aumentar la visibilidad de Grupo de Accion sobre el Agua en la Zona Nororiental

- silva-pastoral systems further up the mountain - stabilization of soil in peri-urban and rural areas - productive infrastructures - Noth Eastern Water Action Group begins to work outside of Noth Eastern territory

- sistemas silva-pastorales en la montana - estabilzacion del suelo en areas peri-urbanas y rurales. - infraestructuras productivas - Grupo de Accion del Agua empieza a trabajar fuera de Zona Nororiental

- series of locks with water filtration - improves water quality of creek - possible use for distribution

- serie de cerraduras con filtracion de agua - mejora la calidad del agua de la quebrada - posible uso para la distribucion

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ALESSANDRO ANGELINI - STUDIO CO-PROFESSOR

Adjunct Professor in the Design and Urban Ecologies program at Parsons The New School for Design. He received his Ph.D. in Anthropology from the City University of New York Graduate Center in 2013. His dissertation, entitled “Model Favela: Youth and Second Nature in Rio de Janeiro,” explores how residents, police and state actors imagine and valorize informal settlements in Brazil’s emerging market economy. The historical ethnography centers on a remarkable 4,000-square-foot mockup of Rio constructed of bricks and mortar, called Morrinho (“Little Hill”), where favela youth play with urban reality through role-playing with figurine avatars. Angelini also holds a Master’s in Geography from London School of Economics, where his thesis investigated the politics of memory and restitution in District Six, a site of apartheidera forced removal in Cape Town. His critical interests include the militarization of urban space, urban-nature relationships, and the politics of everyday life.

QUILIAN RIANO - STUDIO CO-PROFESSOR

Professor at the Design and Urban Ecologies program at Parsons The Newschool for Design. Quilian is a designer, researcher and educator with a Masters in Architecture from Harvard University’s Graduate School of Design. Quilian founded and is the principal of DSGN AGNC, a collaborative design/research studio exploring political engagement through architecture, urbanism, art & activism. DSGN AGNC works closely with communities to create comprehensive research that can be used to propose a variety of targeted policies, actions and designs at various scales — from pamphlets to architectures to landscapes. Quilian has won awards from the American Society of Landscape Architects, Harvard University, The Boston Society of Architects and his work has been featured at the Venice Biennale, Queens Museum of Art, Harvard University, Parsons The Newschool of Design, among others. Quilian was born in Bogotá, Colombia and has worked on projects there with community groups in the cities of Bogotá, Facatativá, Buenaventura and Medellín.

SANTA CRUZ VISIBLE STUDENTS

ALEXANDRA CASTILLO-KESPER comes to Parsons after serving as Director of Development for Watts House Project, an artist-driven urban redevelopment project located across from the historic Watts Towers neighborhood in South Los Angeles. Originally from upstate New York, Alex received her M.A. in Art History from the University of Southern California and graduated magna cum laude from Middlebury College. While at Parsons, Alex is interested in designing radical strategies to leverage local skills and talent and empower communities to reimagine and redesign their city on their own terms. SABRINA DORSAINVIL, a Boston, MA native, received her undergraduate BFA in Industrial Design from Massachusetts College of Art and Design in the spring of 2012. Growing up in a Haitian family with nomadic moving tendencies instilled in her a need to understand connections and relationships between people and their interactions with their environments and objects. She has been involved in student groups, service work, art initiatives, and has participated in a series of projects such as the designing of the Center for Art and Community Partnerships SPARC Artmobile. These experiences have called on her to use art and design as a tool for positive change, especially in youth and community development. LARA FURTADO is a Brazillian citizen that participates in a governmental program that encourages top students to be visiting students abroad. As an Undergaduate student of Architecture and Urbanism in one of Brazi’ls most socially unequal cities, she decided to study urbanism in a non traditional way that challenged problems from a practical and direct approach. She has worked as an intern in 3 architecture firms only to understand that their business model and quality of projects did not match her ideas of what a good social project should be. Later she became a Researcher in a laboratory in Ceará’s Federal University foccused in Urban studies, and worked closely with communities affected by the World Cup’s infrastructure actions that were going to be removed from their homes. She has also dedicated, with a group of 12 students, to make sure that commnities from favelas could have legal access to their homes and resist eviction. Her challenge is to contribute significantly into making Brazil’s social programs more effective when it comes to garanteeing property to low income families, effectively charging taxes from big real estate developers and making sure that governmental capital is being invested towards high quality housing programs. TROY ANDREW HALLISEY. Troys’ interest in the urban comes from an early fascination with the built environment, or rather how we as humans adapt and mold space from nature. As an undergraduate, I studied landscape architecture and earned a degree in sociology because I wanted, not to plant trees and pick out pavers, but rather see how design can be used to solve sociological problems. Of course, twelve years ago, I thought I was on my own, and nothing like that existed, so I shifted my attention to earning a BFA which led to my current career as a graphic designer. When I stumbled across the Design and Urban Ecologies program, and after I got over the initial shock of the planets and the starts aligning, I realized I could finally unite all of my experience to my original goal of solving urban problems. Now that I am here, I am extremely thankful. CRISTINA MARIA HANDAL GONZALEZ. My name is Cristina and I am from Tegucigalpa, Honduras. I came to NY as a curious teen for college and thought my time here would be limited to four years; however, the architecture studios of Columbia U kept me hostage for seven. After a couple of years in the professional realm I am pushed to go farther. Now I am here, strolling around The New School buildings to learn, to engage, to discuss, to evaluate and re-evaluate, to find solutions, test them, prove them wrong, find better ones, and repeat this process over multiple times. At the end of this four-semester adventure I will go back home in hopes of bringing social justice to the nooks where it is lacking most. I am so grateful and excited for this opportunity.


Participants - Parsons DUE Participantes - Parsons DUE JONATHAN LAPALME started his career as the Communications Manager for a large-scale initiative aiming to completely revitalize a neighborhood in downtown Montréal: the Quartier des Spectacles (an opportunity that developed from a university project while he was studying film and communication). Beyond what he had to deliver every day, he has learned by the complex environment he had to navigate, one that has several conflicting pressures and countless partners. He has also worked as an urban / architectural photographer and writer, and, more recently, he completed a certificate in strategic design in Berlin and worked as a consultant / freelance in communication strategy, design management and strategic development for various organizations dealing with urban issues in Montréal. One of his professors used to call him Mr. “Yes, but…” — a nickname which, according to some, is still accurate. LUISA MUNERA was born in Medellín, Colombia but was raised in Miami Florida. She received her undergraduate degree in Interior Architecture from Pratt Institute in Brooklyn NY. After graduating, Luisa moved back to Miami and worked at a non-profit arts foundation. While at the foundation, she was able to interact with emerging and mid-career Latin American artists and helped produce multiple exhibitions during Art Basel Miami Beach. She was also able to witness artists create works that were socially involved with their cities. Luisa has always been interested in how people interact with different cities. She hopes to further understand these relationships and build a better understand toward creating a cohesive city for the future. AUBREY MURDOCK grew up under the big skies of Wyoming. She is a filmmaker and educator who focuses on the complex relationships between social and ecological life. She received her Bachelor of Art at Columbia College in Chicago, concentrating on film editing. She continued to study alternative pedagogies in early childhood education and English as a Foreign Language. She is currently receiving her Master of Science in Design and Urban Ecologies at Parsons the New School for Design. She is interested in how communities relate to water resources and new models for engagement that transcend disciplinary bounds. JOEL STEIN is a recent transplant from Portland, OR, where he received a BS in Community Development with a minor in Sustainable Urban Development from Portland State University. While living there he was engaged with the city in many different capacities – activist, government employee, explorer, researcher and student. Building upon these experiences, he enters Parsons’ Design and Urban Ecologies program with the intention of challenging everything he has learned about cities and how they work. He is particularly interested in how urban practitioners can enter the urban complex through the embedded systems of socio-economic relations and, using design, transform places of conflict into emergent and imaginative urbanisms. ANDREW TUCKER is a fifth generation Louisvillian, and a first generation college student. He has spent the last five years doing community organizing with low income groups, and public housing residents around issues pertaining to their ‘right to the city’; as well as other geographically specific issues in Kentucky, including clean energy transition, restoration of voting rights for former felons, and tax reform. His undergraduate research focused on the intersection between critical race theory, global feminism(s), and ethics of care. He lives in Harlem, and spends his free time trying to win the affection of the four little old ladies in front of his apartment so they’ll include him in their very intense game of cards. ANŽE ZADEL is a young socially engaged architect and urban planner. He has obtained his undergraduate degree at Ljubljana University, Istanbul Technical University. He has been working in several architectural and urban design offices in Europe and the United States. His international work represents urban social research and includes an exhibition called “Epicenter Periphery” on redevelopment and perspectives of a small Norwegian town organized by the Nordic Artist Centre. Other notable works his include Istanbul Housing Research Center on post earthquake housing, various small scale urban interventions for the social benefits of the local community and urban research called “Katarina 06,” that details the possibilities of the reuse of abandoned military facilities of the biggest military port and arsenals of the former Yugoslavian army in Pula, Croatia. Recently he has been working on promoting urban gardening. Currently he is enrolled in Parsons graduate program from Design and Urban Ecologies where he is researching the methods of building more resilient, environmental and human friendly environments.

MIGUEL ROBLES-DURAN - DUE PROGRAM DIRECTOR

Director of the MS Design and Urban Ecologies Program at Parsons The New School for Design and Co-Founder of Cohabitation Strategies, an international nonprofit for sociospatial development focusing on urban decline, inequality, and segregation. He received an advanced master’s degree in urbanism from Rotterdam’s Berlage Institute and a PhD in unitary urban theory and the political economy of urbanization. He has taught at The Berlage Institute, TU Delft (the Delft University of Technology), The University of Leuven in Belgium and the Zurich University of the Arts in Switzerland.

JESSEKA MAE EMERICK - STUDIO COORDINATOR

Administrator of the MS Design and Urban Ecologies Program at Parsons The New School for Design. She is an urbanist, essayist and poet. Jesse directed and co-founded Ampere, a cultural animation organization in Seattle, before relocating to New York in order to study systems of infrastructure at Parsons. Other notable works include infrastructure and waste research in post-earthquake Haiti in collaboration with Haiti Communitere. She served as media coordinator for the United Nations Development Program for the 2011 “One Day on Earth,” and as a Costa Rican tropical ecologies researcher and preservationist in collaboration with Hacienda Baru and the Boruca Tribe. Her writings have appeared in literary magazines such as KNOCK and Lick Book. She is currently working on a non-fiction book about pleasure titled Please, due out through Emergency Press in fall 2013.


URBAM

www.eafit.edu.co/urbam ALEJANDRO ECHEVERRI. Director and co-founder of Urbam, Center for Urban and Environmental Studies of Universiad EAFIT. He is an Architect of the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in Medellín and has a Ph.D. in urban planning at the School of Architecture of Barcelona. He taught and directed for the Research Group in Architecture at UPB during the years 2001-2003 and served as a Visiting Professor of Urbanism at the School of Architecture of Barcelona in 1999-2000. He was also General Manager of the Urban Development Corporation (EDU) Medellín 2004-2005 and Director of Urban Projects of the Municipality of Medellín 2005-2008 under mayor Sergio Fajardo. 2009 Curry Stone Design Grand Prize Winner NATALIA CASTAÑO CÁRDENAS. Architect from the Universidad Nacional of Medellin, candidate for Master Landscape, Environment and City from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. She has worked in the Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano EDU 2004 -2007 in the design of public space projects and the development of strategic urban projects with architect Alejandro Echeverri. She worked as a consultant in international cooperation agencies, NGOs and universities in Ecuador, Peru and Argentina. In 2011 became part of the technical team BIO 2030 Master Plan for Medellin and Aburrá Valley. Currently, is the Academic Coordinator of urbam, Center for Urban and Environmental Studies from EAFIT University, Medellín. CAMILO RESTREPO. Urbam Advisor - University EAFIT. Archipelago class member. Architect degree from the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in 1997. Masters in architecture, urbanism and urban culture METROPOLIS, Barcelona, ​​UPC, 2005. Iakov Award nominee Chernikhov 2011. Honorable Mention in the Colombian architecture biennial 2008 Iberoamerican Architecture Biennial. He taught at the UPB projects from 2000 to 2011. He has been a guest professor at the University of Virginia and the University of Syracuse, USA, University of coastline in Santa Fe Argentina. Currently SAP is part of the project led by Harvard GSD, Hinterland Urbanism. He has served as coordinator and curator of architecture at events such as Open City Meetings of architecture and urbanism, Medellín 2010. He has lectured in various countries in Europe, South America and USA. His work has been published in various journals. In 2009 published in association with the Publishers table monograph on luggage.

URBAM STUDIO CONSULTANTS

Juan Sebastián Bustamante. Architect URBAM-EAFIT. Fredy Serna Giraldo. Fine Arts Professor, Universidad Nacional Medellín. Jorge Melguizo. Professor in Medellín and Barcelona. Ex-Secretary of Civic Culture and Social Welfare. David Escobar Arango. Ex Planning Director. Jeihhco. Cultural Laborer in Comuna 13 and Hip-Hop Artist.

URBAM WORKSHOP STUDENTS

Candelaria Posada Zelaya. Architecture Student. Federico Gómez Piedrahita. Architecture Student. Manuela Bonilla Alzate. Architecture Student. Valeria Bernal Carvajal. Architecture Student. Juan Esteban Naranjo. Urban Studdies Student. Mónica Isabel Gómez Vélez. Environmental Engineer. Juliana Orrego Trujillo. Fashion Designer.


Participants - Partners Participantes - Socios CORPORACIÓN CULTURAL NUESTRA GENTE (CASA AMARILLA)

www.nuestragente.com.co/organizacion.html JORGE BLANDON. Director of Corporación Cultural Nuestra Gente. Comuna 2, Santa Cruz, Medellín. Professional experience in the artistic, cultural and cultural policies. In carrying out community work. Production of arts and cultural events of national, departmental and municipal levels. Evaluation of cultural projects. Cultural manager. Excellent analytical and critical skills. Laborious, diligent and resourceful. Ability to lead results-oriented processes, conceptual clarity in policies, plans and programs for cultural and structuring skills and sociocultural project leadership, organization, implementation and evaluation. Excellent performance in teamwork and good interpersonal skills. As a professional in Dramatic Arts have participated in various projects, events and artistic and cultural exchanges of renowned international, national, departmental and municipal levels. ERICA MURIEL. Public Administrator. Coordinator of the Development Plan and the Commune 2 Documentation Center Coordinator in community theater Cultural Corporation Our People. He has worked on research projects as Spaces of Reading and Writing Commune 2 and co-investigator of the Commune School Plans 1. Reading Initiator and member of the theater group for 10 years. Gisela Echavarría Mónica Rojas Fredy Bedoya Ángela Usuga Gabriel Bettin Gloria Cañas Gleydi Holguín Diana Gutiérrez Daniel Foronda Johan Cortez Esneider Corral

HOME-STAY FAMILIES Echavarría Rúa Gaviria Jiménez Yépez Chalarcá Rúa Ruíz Cañas Mesa Corral Tamayo Pineda Patiño

SANTA CRUZ COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PLAN TEAM Diana Valencia Sergio Flórez Faber Gómez

THEATER GROUPS Pandora HITO teatro GAMA Azúcar Grupo de abuelas

STUDIO REVIEWERS AND SPECIAL HELP

Special thanks to: William Morrish, Dean Alison Mears and Executive Dean Joel Towers for their support throughout the semester. Also thanks to Cynthia Lawson, Brian McGrath, Shannon Mattern, Gabriela Perez Rendon, Miodrag Mitrasinovic, Aseem Inam, Frank Morales, Victoria Marshall, Landon Brown, Sukjong Hong, June Williamson, Mary Roldán, Mary Ellen Carroll, Patricia Tovar, Toni L. Griffin, Nicholas Ter Meer and Erik Ghenoiu for participating in reviews.


Parsons, The Newschool of Design School of Design Strategies Graduate Program in Design and Urban Ecologies designurbanecologies.com @Urban_Ecologies Partners: URBAM, EAFIT University eafit.edu.co/urbam Corporacion Cultural Nuestra Gente (Casa Amarilla) nuestragente.com.co/organizacion.html Medellin, Colombia

Santa Cruz Visible: Unitary Urban Research and Design of Community Urban Action Plan  

This book documents the work from Santa Cruz Visible, a Spring 2013 studio offered at the Design and Urban Ecologies program at Parsons, The...

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