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URBOFILIJA Darko Radovi}, Zoran \ukanovi} Urednici: Olga Mladenovi}, @ivojin Kara-Pe{i} Beograd, 2007

URBOPHILIA

Darko Radović, Zoran Đukanović Editors: Olga Mladenović, Živojin Kara-Pešić Belgrade, 2007


Naslov: URBOFILIJA Autori: Darko Radovi}, Zoran \ukanovi} Urednici: Olga Mladenovi}, @ivojin Kara-Pe{i} Izdava~: Arhitektonski fakultet Univerziteta u Beogradu Bulevar Kraqa Aleksandra 73/II, Beograd Za izdava~a: Prof Dr Vladimir Mako Recenzenti: Prof Ross King, Univerzitet u Melburnu Prof Milan Lojanica Akademik SANU Autori grafi~kog koncepta i total dizajn: Nikola Stojkovi}, Rajan Gari}, Qiqana ^avi}, Sofija Stani}, Du{an Raji} [tampa: C-PRINT Radomira Markovi}a 27 Beograd www.cprint.co.yu Tira`: 500 primeraka ISBN 978-86-80095-91-2 Mesto i godina izdawa: Beograd, 2007.




Title: URBOPHILIA Authors: Darko Radović, Zoran Đukanović Editors: Olga Mladenović, Zivojin Kara-Pešić Publisher: Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73/II, Belgrade For publisher: Prof Dr Vladimir Mako Reviewers: Prof Ross King, University of Melbourne Prof Milan Lojanica, Academician of SANU (SERBIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE AND ARTS) Authors of graphic concept and total design: Nikola Stojković, Rajan Garić, Ljiljana Čavić, Sofija Stanić, Dušan Rajić Print: C-PRINT Radomira Markovića 27 Belgrade www.cprint.co.yu Printing: 500 copies printing ISBN 978-86-80095-91-2 Place and year of publishing: Belgrade, 2007.




an int e (part one)

An interview with Professor Darko Radovic made via internet correspondence between December 2003 and April 2004

Intervju sa Prof. Darkom Radovi}em realizovan putem internet prepiske u periodu izme|u decembra 2003 i aprila 2004

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erview

rvju

(prvi deo)

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Intervju (prvi deo) 1. Kako biste definisali „uspe{an“ grad, te wegove javne prostore kao mesta na kojima se najjasnije ogleda wegova ”naizgled jednostavna su{tina koja ga tvori - urbanitet“? (‘that seemingly simple essence that makes a city – its urbanity?’, iz rada ‘Vienna @ Melbourne, Urbanity and the Other’).

Odgovor na Va{e pitawe vrijedan je traktata, `ivotnog djela. Poku{a}u da odgovorim kratko, a da ne budem povr{an. 148


An interview (part one)

1. How would you define a ‘successful’ city, its public spaces and the places that best reflect ‘that seemingly simple essence that makes a city – its urbanity?’ (taken from ‘Vienna @ Melbourne, Urbanity and the Other’) The answer to your question is worthy of a treatise – a lifelong work. I will give a short answer, while trying not to be superficial.

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Mjera uspje{nosti grada se sagledava u svim domenima u kojima se ogleda i izra`ava urbano - na ekonomskom, dru{tvenom, kreativnom, politi~kom, estetskom planu. Ti domeni su isprepletani, i mogu}e ih je razdvojiti samo u kontekstu analize, nikada u kontekstu urbanisti~ke sinteze, a pogotovo nikada u smislu iskustva urbanog `ivqewa. Iskustvo urbanog je totalno, i stoga nepodlo`no kompletnom razumijevawu i kona~noj definiciji. Generalno gledano, ~ovjek bi mogao da ka`e kako bi uspje{an grad morao da bude vitalan grad artikulisanih socijalnih energija, grad ravnopravnih gra|ana, grad sposoban da generi{e mjesta visokog ekolo{kog, kulturalnog i estetskog kvaliteta, i tako daqe. Dobre definicije grada i gradskog su, po mom mi{qewu, uvijek specifi~ne mjestu i vremenu, kao i gradovi sami. Da bi bile korektne i definicije moraju da pripadaju mjestu, kulturi, trenutku. Isto va`i i za planerska rje{ewa. Ovde }u akcenat staviti na jedan relativno nov kriterijum vrijednovawa gradskog kvaliteta. Vrijeme u kojem `ivimo postavilo je imperativ odr`ivosti kao mjeru nad svim ostalim mjerama. Da li ekonomski efikasan grad mo`e da se smatra uspje{nim, ako srqa u propast? Da li grad u kojem cvjeta nauka mo`e da se smatra efikasnim, ako uni{tava `ivotnu sredinu i neproporcionalno mnogo tro{i resurse? Da li nekakav idili~ni grad u kojem svi u`ivaju mo`e da se zove uspje{nim, ako wegova egzistencija zavisi od eksploatacije qudi i resursa u nekoj, hiqadama kilometara udaqenoj zemqi? To su pitawa kakva se moraju postavqati u vrijeme ekolo{ke krize, u vrijeme kad neo-kolonijalizam (pod pla{tom globalizacije) uni{tava nijanse lokalnih kultura {irom svijeta. U tom kontekstu uspje{an grad je, najkra}e re~eno, grad primjeren i odgovoran svojoj i globalnoj ekolo{ko-kulturalnoj situaciji, grad ~ija je ekolo{ka stopa prihvatqiva sa aspekta deep ecology i dru{tvene ekologije, tj. filozofija koja kao centralnu vrijednost defini{e ekosferu i neophodnost radikalne promjene sistema 150


The measure of the success of a city is that it spans, yet assembles together, all the domains in which the urban reflects and expresses itself – the economy, society, creativity and politics, as well as aesthetics. These domains are intertwined and can be separated only for the puropose of analysis They can never remain separate in design – never in synthesis and, above all, never in the realm of lived experience. The experience of the urban is total and, as such, it escapes complete understanding or any attempt at a definite definition. Generally speaking, one could say that a successful city should be a place with vibrant articulated social energies and containing a community of equals capable of generating places of high ecological, cultural and aesthetical quality. In my opinion, good definitions of a city and the urban are always specific to their place and time, just as the cities themselves are. To be appropriate, the definitions themselves should belong to a place, a culture and a moment. The same is valid for urban planning solutions. I will emphasise only one, relatively new criterion for the evaluation of urban quality. Current thinking has introduced the imperative of sustainability above all other requirements. Can an economically efficient city be successful, if it recklessly heads towards the abyss? Can a city where science blooms be considered efficient, if it destroys the environment and wastes irreplacable resources? Can an idyllic city whose citizens enjoy themselves be called successful, if its existence depends on exploitation of people and resources thousands of miles away? These are the questions that should be asked in these times of ecological crisis, in times when neo-colonialism (under the cover of globalisation) is erasing the finest shades of local cultures throughout the world. To put it succintly, in this context a successful city is one that is appropriate to the local condition, is responsible within its own circumstances and towards global eco-cultural concerns. It is a city with an ecological footprint that is acceptable to the demands of both deep and social ecology, that is, to those radical philosophies that recognise the critical importance of our eco-sphere and demand a radical change of the dominant value system. The successful city would be capable of expressing its own culture without denying other cultures that exist within itself and beyond, the 151


vrijednosti. Uspje{an bi bio grad koji izra`ava svoju kulturu, bez dovo|ewa u pitawe izraze ostalih kultura, i u wemu samom i u wegovim okru`ewima. Podsjeti}u Vas na sintagmu davno skovanu u CEPu umjereni grad. Ta je izvanredna formulacija (za koju svi „krive“ Bracu Feren~aka) mnogo starija, i po meni boqa, od sada popularne, i rogobatne - odr`ivi grad. I da na kraju napomenem: kad se bavim poslovima koji zahtjevaju definiciju grada i urbaniteta, ja se uvijek vra}am Anriju Lefevru (Henri Lefevbre) i wegovim poznatim dijalekti~kim trijadama. Mislim da su validne i u kontekstu novih i nastaju}ih vrijednosnih sistema.

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‘space’ in which to express themselves equally. I will remind the readers of the Serbo-Croatian version of this interview of a syntagm umereni grad (literally: a moderate city) coined in Belgrade’s Centre for the Planning of Urban Development (CEEP) a long time ago. That remarkable formulation (Braca Ferencak is usually ‘blamed’ for it) is older and, in my opinion, much better than the adopted, currently popular and (in Serbo-Croatian languages) clumsy-sounding ‘odrzivi grad’ (literally: sustainable city). At the end, I would like to mention that whenever I face demands to define the ‘city’ and ‘urbanity’ I tend to go back to Henri Lefebvre and his well-known dialectical triads. I consider them valid even in the context of the new and emerging value systems.


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2. Kada ste gostovali u Beogradu dali ste na{im profesorima, studentima, arhitektima i urbanistima, te pejza`nim arhitektima da popune anketu u kojoj je jedna od kqu~nih re~i bio upravo urbanitet. Kakav je po Va{em mi{qewu stav na{e struke prema urbanitetu? Da li je to ono {to ste o~ekivali da }ete saznati, budu}i da ste tokom deset godina radili u druga~ijim uslovima? Taj upitnik bio je samo dio istra`iva~kog aparata koji koristim za jedan ve}i projekat o urbanitetu, projekat koji me okupira ve} veoma dugo i za koji }u, nadam se, uskoro, i objaviti. Upitnik o kojem govorite sam 2003. nosio ne samo u Beograd, ve} i u Barselonu, Osaku i Bangkok, u sva ~etiri grada na kojima sam tada radio (trenutno, dakle u aprilu 2004. pi{em tekstove koji sumiraju najzna~ajnije rezultate tog projekta). Upitnik je bio ponu|en kolegama, urbanistima i arhitektima, kao i postdiplomcima urbanizma i arhitekture, sa nekoliko ciqeva. Jedan, najdirektniji, bio je da shvatim koji su to prostori i ideje u ~etiri grada koje qudi od znawa i struke vezuju za rije~, za pojam „urbanitet“. Drugi ciq bio je da boqe shvatim {ta oni smatraju urbanitetom. Bez ula`ewa u detaqe pomenuo bih samo da rezultati prikupqeni popuwavawem tog jednostavnog upitnika potvr|uju potrebu za definicijama koje bi bile lokalno specifi~ne, kulturalno izuzetno senzitivne. Jedan primjer: 1998. godine sam odr`ao predavawe na Japanskom Arhitektonskom Institutu (Japanese Institute of Architects), u Tokiu. Jedna od kqu~nih rije~i mog predavawa, urbanitet, bila je kamen spoticawa ve} na samom po~etku predavawa. Poprili~no je potrajalo obja{wewe prevodiocu {ta (sve) urbanitet podrazumijeva, a jo{ du`e wegov prevod obja{wewa. Japanski jezik, jednostavno, nije imao rije~ koja bi odrazila ekvivalentno zna~ewe. 154

2. In September 2003, during your visit to Belgrade, you asked a number of students and professors, architects, planners and landscape designers to answer a questionnaire where one of the keywords was ‘urbanity’. What is, in your opinion, is the attitude of professionals in Belgrade towards that subject? Since you have been away for ten years and have worked in diverse conditions, have the results or your survey matched your expectations? That questionnaire was only a part of a larger research tool which I use in my major research project on the concept of urbanity. That project has occupied me for a long time now, and I hope to be able to publish the results fairly soon. The interview you mention was conducted not only in Belgrade, but also in Barcelona, Osaka and Bangkok, the four cities I was exploring at the time (at present, that is, in April 2004, I am occupied in writing up some of the results of that research). I offered the questionnaire to my colleagues, planners and architects, as well as to the postgraduates in urbanism and architecture, with several aims in mind. The most direct of these was to understand which spaces and ideas distinguished professionals, academics and intellectuals who are variously asocciated with the concept of urbanity in these four cities. My second goal was a better understanding of what they see as urbanity. Without going into details, I will mention that the results gathered through that simple questionnaire confirm the need for definitions that are locally specific and culturally sensitive. For instance, in 1998 I gave a lecture at the Japanese Institute of Architects, JIA, in Tokyo. One of the keywords of my lecture – ‚urbanity’ ­– from the very beginning represented a considerable stumbling-block. It took me a while to explain to the translator what urbanity (could) mean, and even longer for him to translate my explanation back to the audience. The Japanese language simply does not have a word of equivalent meaning.


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Pro{le godine, na istom mjestu, potrebe za obja{wewem vi{e nije bilo. Eklekti~ni Japanci su ne samo usvojili pojam urbanity, ve} su i skovali svoj toshi-sei (ne{to, recimo, blisko pojmu “gradskost”). Formalno, dakle, potrebe za prevodom nije bilo, ali ve} nakon kra}e diskusije postalo je jasno da pod pojmom urbanity mi, naravno, i daqe podrazumijevamo veoma razli~ite ideje. I tako i treba da bude. Urbaniteta ima koliko ima i gradova, i kako bi jedan Kjoto (Kyoto) mogao da se bezrezervno opisuje pojmovima koje defini{u podjednako lijepu, ali kvalitativno razli~itu Firencu, ili Pariz, ili Madrid ili - Beograd?! Moj jednostavni upitnik, budu}i da ga je, kroz mene, definisala urbana kultura kojoj ja pripadam i nije bio ba{ jednostavan svima koji su ga popuwavali. To pru`a mogu}nost za jo{ jednu, veoma zanimqivu, analizu kulturne pripadnosti - pripadnosti rije~i, pripadnosti pojmova, pripadnosti ideja, pripadnosti gradova. Najinteresantnije je bilo {to mi je i beogradska varijanta upitnika dala neke ne ba{ o~ekivane odgovore. Jo{ radim na wihovoj analizi, ali zanimqivo je kako se tu prelama psihoza nedavne balkanske tragedije.

Last year, at the same venue, there was no need for explanation. The eclectic Japanese had not only adopted the notion, ‘urbanity’, they had also created their own term – toshi sei (meaning something similar to, let’s say, ‘cityness‘). Formally, there was no need for a translation, but after a brief discussion it became clear that under the concept, ‘urbanity’ we still assume very different ideas. And so it should be. There are as many urbanities as there are cities. How could Kyoto be unreservedly defined by the notions which define an equally beautiful, but in qualitative terms profoundly different Florence, or Paris, or Madrid, or – Belgrade?! My questionnaire was not simply designed for all those who were asked to fill it in. It was strongly influenced by my own self, that is by the urban culture I belong to. That, in itself offers the material for yet another, very interesting analysis of cultural belonging – the belonging of words, belonging of terms, the belonging of ideas, the belonging of cities. It was interesting that the Belgrade version of my questionnaire raised some quite unexpected answers, which I am still analyzing. It is fascinating to see how the psychosis of the recent Balkan tragedy is reflected in our discussions of urbanity.

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A, ukupno gledano - da konkretno odgovorim na Va{e pitawe - u Beogradu, stav struke u odnosu na pojam urbanitet je i te kako pozitivan, ali i, nekako, sjetan. Izgleda da se taj pojam uglavnom vezuje za pro{lost, samo periodizacija i percepcija kada su vrhunci bili dostignuti varira. Beogradski stru~waci, sude}i po rezultatima mog istra`ivawa, urbanitet vide i kao ideal kojem treba stremiti, i kao ne{to {to nam pripada, i kao ne{to {to smo imali, pa izgubili. 3. U tekstu “Ogled o zasnivawu odr`ivog grada” posve}enom konkursu za Univerzitetski kampus u [enjangu (Shenyang), kada ste osvojili tre}u nagradu, iznosite va`nost primene principa ekolo{ke i kulturalne odr`ivosti (koristite pojmove poput “kontinuuma ekolo{ke i socijalno-kulturalne odr`ivosti”, te “kulturalne kontekstualnosti” ili “kontinuiteta egzistencijalnog aspekta lokacije”). Konstatujete i da “ideja odr`ivog razvoja ne priznaje koncept tabula rasa”. Kakva su Va{a predvi|awa vezana za sudbinu ideje odr`ivog razvoja u periodu populacione i urbane eksplozije ubrzanog rasta koja se de{ava i u Kini koju ~esto

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Overall – to give you a concrete answer to your question – the attitude of our profession in Belgrade to the idea of urbanity is very positive, yet somehow melancholic. It seems to be mostly associated with the past. Only the periodization and definitions of the perceived pinnacles of urbanity vary. According to the results of my research, Belgrade experts see urbanity both as an ideal to be aimed for and as a quality that somehow belongs to us, something that we once had, but have lost.

3. In your essay, ‘An experiment about founding of a sustainable city’, which was presented at the International Competition for the new campus of the Shenyang Architectural University, China 2000 (where you and your colleagues received the third prize), you pointed out the importance of applying the principles of both ecological and cultural sustainability (you use phrases such as a ‘continuum of ecological and cultural sustainability’, ‘cultural contextualization’ and the ‘continuity of existential aspects of location’). You also emphasized that the ‘idea of sustainable development does not permit the concept of tabula rasa’. How do you see the idea of sustainable development in times of rapid change and extensive demographic and urban growth


pose}ujete i gde delujete u domenu urbanizma, ali i svuda u svetu?

throughout the world, particularly in China, which you now often visit and work in?

Wema~ki “zeleni” su, prije nego {to su postali parlamentarna partija, na pitawe kako vide budu}nost ekolo{kih tema govorili o optimizmu voqe, i pesimizmu razuma. Drugim rije~ima: u~ini}emo sve {to je u na{oj mo}i da postignemo kvalitativan pomak na boqe, a da li }e boqa budu}nost zaista i do}i - ne vjerujemo.

Before they obtained a seat in Parliament, the German Green Party used to answer questions about the future of ecological issues by emphasizing the ‘optimism of the will and the pessimism of the mind’. In other words: we will do all we can to achieve a qualitative improvement; but we do not believe that a better future will come about.

Mnogo je pisano o tome, sa svih mogu}ih filozofskih, ideolo{kih i politi~kih pozicija, pa nema potrebe da ovde pretresamo sve te teme. Kqu~na ideja je takozvani “paradigm shift”, koju je odavno objasnio Tomas Kun (Thomas Kuhn). U dana{wem sistemu vrijednosti, koje zahuktala, u globalizaciju preru{ena amerikanizacija zao{trava do maksimuma, te{ko je o~ekivati poboq{awe. Koliko jo{ treba da bude izgubqeno, da bi zavladala svijest o neophodnosti promjene - nije jasno. Da li }e do te promjene ikad do}i - tako|e. Mnogi misle da su postoje}i, uski ekonomski i politi~ki interesi suvi{e sna`ni da bi dozvolili promjenu o kakvoj je govorio Kun.

A lot has been written about that, from all possible philosophical, ideological and political points of view. There is no need to discuss all those issues here. The key is in the so-called ‘paradigm shift’, explained long time ago by Thomas Kuhn. Within the ruling value system, where breathless Americanization is disguised as globalization, it is difficult to expect improvement. How much still has to be lost before the awareness of the need for change prevails is not clear. Neither is it clear whether those changes will ever happen. Many people think that existing, narrow-minded economic and political interests are simply too strong to permit the change Kuhn was talking about.

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The concept, ‘think globally, act locally’ is ideologically rather problematic, but I still try to follow its logic in my work. In simple terms, this means that is necessary to co-ordinate all your efforts with your own value system, as Arne Naess explained when arguing for his concept of ecozophy. That is why, for instance, for the new city campus of the University in Shenyang we suggested a concept which we considered to be appropriate for the ecological situation, culture and the historical moment of Manchuria at the beginning of the 21st century. The competition entries which presented futuristic concepts ended up better ranked than we were. Our design was based on Schumacher’s idea of appropriate technology, while the project that received the second place was strictly high-tech. We live in the era when technocentric pictures and dreams sell. To answer your question: China is a fascinating country, and has been so both throughout its extraordinary and extraordinarily long history and today. I am convinced that it is a country with an excellent future. The the moment China is going through a difficult time. Enormous efforts are being made to preserve indigenous values, while keeping pace with the West. Many battles are being fought by rules which are inappropriate. It would be bad if the whole of China follows the path of Shanghai, Guanghzou, or even the pre-Olympic Beijing. I even think that that is not possible. All cultures have to find their own paths to sustainability, and due to the huge numbers of people in question, the future of the world depends very much on the direction that countries like China, India or Indonesia take.

Koncept “Misli globalno, djeluj lokalno” je ideolo{ki veoma problemati~an, ali ja se trudim da {to je mogu}e vi{e u svom radu pratim tu logiku. Jednostavno re~eno, po{teno je svako svoje djelo uskladiti sa svojim sistemom vrijednosti, na na~in na koji to Arne Nes (Arne Naess) obja{wava obrazla`u}i pojam “ekozofija”. Zato smo za novi kampus-grad Univerziteta u [enjangu predlo`ili rje{ewe koje smo smatrali primjerenim ekolo{koj situaciji, kulturi i momentu Manxurije na po~etku dvadeset prvog vijeka. Boqe od nas su se plasirali radovi koji su prezentirali futuristi~ku budu}nost. Na{ Univerzitet bio je baziran na {umaherovskoj ideji odgovaraju}e tehnologije, drugoplasirani rad je bio decidno high-tech. Ali, mi `ivimo u vrijeme kad se idealizirane slike i snovi dobro prodaju. U odgovoru na Va{e podpitawe: Kina je fascinantna zemqa, kroz svoju izuzetnu i izuzetno dugu istoriju, i danas. Ubije|en sam da je to zemqa izvanredne budu}nosti. Trenutak koji Kina danas `ivi nije lak. U pitawu su napori da se o~uva svoje, a uhvati korak sa Zapadom. Mnoge se “bitke” biju po pravilima koja nisu primjerena. Ne bi vaqalo kada bi ~itava Kina krenula putem kojim su krenuli [angaj (Shanghai), Guangxu (Guanghzou), pa ~ak i predolimpijski Peking (Beijing) - a mislim da to i nije mogu}e. Sve kulture moraju da na|u svoj odr`ivi put, a zbog brojeva koji su tamo u pitawu budu}nost svijeta i te kako zavisi od ispravnosti puteva kojim krenu zemqe kao Kina, Indija, Indonezija.

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Samo, krivicu ne treba svaqivati na wih. I daqe glavna krivica za ruinirawe `ivotne sredine pada ne na zemqe u razvoju, ve} na razvijene zemqe - Sjediwene Ameri~ke Dr`ave, prije svih. Ni Australija, na moju veliku `alost, po negativnom uticaju na okru`ewe ne zaostaje daleko za najgorima. Ve} sama nesposobnost australijske Vlade da ratifikuje ugovor u Kjotu govori za sebe, jasno ukazuje kakva je ideologija ovde trenutno na vlasti. I, tre}e: problem velikih gradova, megalopolisa, je izuzetno kompleksan. Prou~avaju}i Tokio, Bangkok, [angaj, Peking, bavim se i idejama o mogu}im rje{ewima. Ona duboko zadiru u pomenute domene dominantne i realnih vrijednosti.

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But those countries should not be blamed for many of their wrong steps on the path of development. The major blame for the destruction of the enviroment should be directed, not at developing countries, but at the developed ones – above all, at the USA. As far as a negative influence on the environment is concerned, Australia, to my great disappointment, does not lag very far behind the worst. The unwillingness of the Australian Government to ratify the Kyoto Agreement speaks for itself about the ideology currently predominant. In that context, the problem of big cities, the megalopolises, is an extremely complex one. While studying Tokyo, Bangkok, Shanghai and Beijng I have become interested in their possible futures. My ideas about this cut deeply into the realms of dominant and desirable values already mentioned.

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4. Danas se gradi rapidno, ~esto stihijski, po diktatu tr`i{ne ekonomije i multinacionalnih korporacija koje nemaju interes za ulagawe u domenu bioklimatske arhitekture. ^iwenica je i da su mesta gde qudi provode najve}i deo svog slobodnog vremena i u najve}oj meri upra`wavaju dru{tveni `ivot potpuno ve{ta~ki enterijeri {oping molova, aerodroma i tr`nih centara. Kakve su {anse za opstanak bioklimatske arhitekture za koju se zala`ete, koju istra`ujete i primewujete pri projektovawu? Bioklimatska arhitektura je jedna od mojih starih qubavi. “Ozbiqna veza” je zapo~ela jo{ tokom diplomskog rada kod profesora Lojanice. Radio sam na urbanisti~ko-arhitektonskoj dopuni gradskog centra Mostara, a u Mostaru projektovati i graditi bez posebne svijesti o zna~aju sunca potpuna je besmislica. Na svakom je mjestu besmislica ne uzeti u obzir bioklimatsku situaciju lokacije. Logika bioklimatske arhitekture potvr|uje mjesto, i {to je najva`nije - ne ~ini proizvod, kako se ~esto misli, neminovno skupqim. Dakle, i u okvirima postoje}eg, neodr`ivog ekonomskog sistema bioklimatska arhitektura ima budu}nost. Upravo sam zavr{io rad na kwizi u kojoj je jedna od tema arhitektura poslovnih objekata. Napravio sam mawe istra`ivawe trendova u svijetu i nisam bio iznena|en kada sam vidio da se principi bioklimatske arhitekture sve vi{e uva`avaju. U Melburnu (Melbourne) mo`ete da na|ete dva zanimqiva, nova primjera. Jedan je zgrada 60L (60L) ~iju je izgradwu inicirala najve}a australijska nevladina organizacija za za{titu `ivotne sredine, Australian Conservation Foundation, a drugi - nova zgrada Skup{tine Grada. Prva je ve} useqena, i veoma popularna na tr`i{tu radnim prostorom. U pragmati~noj, anglo-saksonskoj Australiji svemogu}e tr`i{te rangiralo je tu zgradu iznad konvencionalnih poslovnih objekata - upravo zbog kvaliteta koji proizilaze iz primjene principa pasivne solarne arhitekture, prirodne ventilacije i sli~no. Kvalitet radne sredine je izuzetno va`an. Tako|e, za poslodavce, „zeleni“ imix postaje sve profitabilniji.

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4. Today, construction is fast and often chaotic, under the dictate of a market economy and multinational corporations which do not show much interest in investing in bioclimatic architecture. People spend most of their free time and their social lives in artificially conditioned interiors, such as large shopping malls, shopping centers and airports. What are the chances for the survival of the bioclimatic architecture which you promote research and apply in your design?

Bioclimatic architecture is one of my old passions. My serious relationship with it started during my work on my graduation thesis under the mentorship of Professor Lojanica. I was working on the urban and architectural redefinition of the city centre of Mostar. It is absolute nonsense to design for or to build in Mostar without taking serious consideration of its solar conditions. It is nonsensical not to be conscious of the bioclimatic situation of any location, anywhere in the world. The logic of bioclimatic architecture confirms the place, and what is most important – it does not, as it is ofen claimed, necessarily lead to a more expensive product. Therefore, even within our existing unsustainable economic system bioclimatic architecture has a future. I have just finished work on a book in which one of the themes was the architecture of office buildings. I conducted a minor research project of the latest trends in that field and was not surprised to see that the principles of bioclimatic architecture have become increasingly accepted. In Melbourne you may find two new interesting examples of sustainable office design. The first is called 60L. The investor was the largest Australian non-governmental environmental organisation, the Australian Conservation Foundation – ACF. The second one is the new City Council building. The 60L is already in use and it is very popular at the market. In pragmatic, Anglo-Saxon Australia the almighty market itself ranked that building above conventional office buildings – just because of the quality that results from the rigorous application of principles such as passive solar heating and natural ventilation. The quality of the work enviroment is now seen as very important. The ‘green’ image is also becoming profitable for brand-conscious employers.

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The other example from Melbourne which I mention in my book is still under construction. The important aspect of the new City Council building is the very fact that the Melbourne City Council decided to build its own offices using the latest expertise in the field of bioclimatic design. That was their way to express support for the idea of sustainable urban enviroment. The name of the building is CH2 (Council House 2) and it was designed by a local company Design Inc., in co-operation with the City of Melbourne. So much for bioclimatic principles in the field of office buildings, which were for many years considered too hard. When talking about residential buildings, there is really not much to argue for – at least when the cold, temperate and warm and dry climates are concerned. Only extremly hot and wet climates – the tropics – are slightly different. Bioclimatic architecture always requires the application of a locally appropriate relationship between passive and active technologies, where the active ones should be kept to the necessary minimum. That is to advocate the vernacular technology that Ivan Ilich wrote so convincingly about.

Drugi melburn{ki primjer koji pomiwem u kwizi je u tek izgradwi. Ono {to je u slu~aju nove zgrade Skup{tine Grada va`no, jeste ~iwenica da je gradska vlada Melburna odlu~ila da svoju sopstvenu zgradu izgradi koriste}i najsavremenija znawa iz oblasti bioklimatske arhitekture. Tako oni pokazuju podr{ku ideji odr`ivosti gradske sredine. Zgrada se, ina~e, zove CH2 (CH2 - Council House 2) a projektovala ju je lokalna firma Design Inc. u saradwi sa Gradom Melburnom (City of Melbourne). Toliko o bioklimatskim principima u sferi koja je godinama bila veoma „tvrda“, u sferi poslovnih zgrada. A kad su u pitawu stambene zgrade, tu te{ko da ima {ta vi{e dokazivati - bar kad su u pitawu hladna, umjerena i topla-suha klima. Samo tropska, ekstremno topla i vla`na klima, tropi, je ne{to druk~ija. Bioklimatska arhitektura svugdje tra`i lokalno ispravan odnos pasivne i aktivne tehnologije, gdje aktivnu treba dr`ati na neophodnom minimumu. To je ona vernakularna tehnologija, o kojoj je tako ubjedqivo pisao Ivan Ili~. 172


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5. U tekstu „Cultural difference in conceptualisation of sustainable future - water and lessons of Thai culture“ isti~ete regionalni pristup vrednovawa prostora, dok u „Celebrating the difference“ citiraju}i Pitera Dejla (Peter Dale) uspostavqate antitezu isticawem globalnog kriterijuma za vrednovawe sredine. Kako uskladiti i suprotstaviti ova dva, po mnogo ~emu suprotna koncepta? (Citiram Vas: „Izgleda da su (a obi~no i jesu) doma}i, kulturalno specifi~ni pristupi dijametralno razli~iti od globalno dominantnih trendova. Ukoliko je sistem wihovog vrednovawa stran, generalizovan, postaju potceweni i neistra`eni”. Navodite Pitera Dejla koji se u „The myth of Japanese uniqueness“ protivi kulturalnom relativizmu i naivnosti stava prema kojem se „vrednosti jedne kulture mogu razumeti i vrednovati samo na na~in na koji qudi koji je i kreiraju to ~ine“.) Globalno i lokalno ne iskqu~uju jedno drugo; u pitawu je dijalekti~ki par, jedinstvo suprotnosti kakvo je najsna`nije prikazano taoisti~kim dijagramom sila yin i yang. Ja sam kritikovao Dejlovu poziciju koja je iskazana ve} u naslovu jedne od wegovih kwiga “The myth of Japanese uniqueness”. Japan jeste jedinstven!

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5. In your work, ‘Cultural difference in conceptualization of sustainable future – water and lessons of Thai culture’, you point out the regional approach to evaluation of space. But in ‘Celebrating the difference’, you also propose, in agreement with Peter Dale’s work, an antithesis - a global criteria for evaluating the environment. How can those in many respects opposite concepts be harmonized and juxtaposed? [I quote from this work: ‘It seems that (and they usually are) local, culturally specific approaches are diametrically different from globally dominating trends. If their value system is being judged by an extraneous value system they remain undervalued and unexplored.’ You quote Peter Dale, who in his work, ’The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness’, strongly opposes cultural relativism and the naivete of an attitude which holds ‘that the values of a culture can be understood and valued only according to the way the people who create that culture do it.’] The global and the local do not exclude each other; they are a dialectic pair, a unity of opposites which is in the most powerful way represented by the Taoist yin and yang diagram. I criticised Dale’s attitude which was expressed in the very title of his book, ’The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness’. Japan is unique!

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Globalizacija (onakva kakvu sam ve} definisao, dakle ono {to se naziva globalizacijom) suvi{e ~esto negira lokalno, ili ga nekriti~ki uzdi`e na pijedestal koji mu ne pripada, pretvaraju}i ga u jo{ jedno potro{a~ko dobro. O tome veoma upe~atqivo pi{u mnogi autori, me|u wima i vatreni, ali veoma argumentovani Zajudin Sardar (Zaiuddin Sardar). Jedna studentkiwa iz Indonezije na mom fakultetu radi doktorat o uticaju turizma, dakle globalizacije, na kulturu Balija. Jedan od stavova lokalnih turisti~kih institucija je da kultura Balija nije dovoqno „balijska“, tj. da strani turisti o~ekuju ne{to „egzoti~nije“. Inteligentni trgovci su na to odgovorili hiperprodukcijom proizvoda koji imaju malo veze sa lokalnom kulturom, ali koje avanture gladni posjetioci-neznalice o~ekuju, i za koje su spremni da plate vi{e. Sve bi to bilo divno, kad ta hipeprodukcija ki~a na bi, istovremeno, gu{ila pravu kulturu i ~itavo idili~no ostrvo ubrzano pretvarala u tematski park (theme park), ~ija je tema - „Bali“.

Globalization (as I have already defined it, or what is called globalization) neglects the local, or lifts it uncritically onto an inappropriate pedestal, thus turning it into yet another consumer good. Many authors have written about this. Zaiuddin Sardar stands out as a very passionate but extremely argumentative critic of it. One of our PhD students from Indonesia is currently working on her doctoral dissertation, focusing on the influence of tourism, that is, globalisation, on the culture of Bali. The position of local tourist institutions is that the culture of Bali is not ‘Balinese’ enough: foreign tourists expect something more ‘exotic’ than Bali itself! Local Balinese businessmen were quick to respond to those demands by the hyperproduction of artefacts which have little in common with local culture, but are what the ignoramuses and adventure-hungry visitors expect and are ready to pay for. All that would be wonderful if the hyperproduction of kitsch was not, at the same time, suffocating true culture, turning the whole idyllic island into a Theme Park Bali.

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The parallel with our contemporary neo-folk songs (narodnjaci) is, of course, obvious. Folk music was not good enough, it had to reach a turbo-level, whose success has annihilatated authentic folk music. That was followed by an interesting parallel phenomenon – a spiral of popularity, then shame. National music first became ‘folk’ – with the English word adopted for Serbian usage. The sound of English was thought to be better. Then ‘folk’ became ‘turbo folk’. Then, all of a sudden, that became ‘disgusting’, a remnant of ‘those’ times. Now what counts is ‘ethnic’. Again, an appropriation of a foreign term, this time of a Greek word. The tautology of a provincial spirit. Palanka. A catastrophe. Let me get back to architecture and urbanism. A well-known Japanese architect, Tange Kenzo, has said that the best architecture could be found in the dialectic synthesis of tradition and anti-traditionalism (this was, if I remember correctly, told to us by Professor Ranko Radovic in one of his lectures at the Kolarac University). And the Japanese have much to say about good architecture.

Paralela sa na{im „narodwacima“ je, naravno, o~igledna. Narodna muzika nije bila dovoqna, trebalo je da dosegne „turbo“ varijantu, ~iji uspjeh poni{tava izvornu muziku. (Kod nas je to pra}eno i zanimqivim paralelnim fenomenom, spiralom popularnosti, pa stida. Narodna postaje „folk“. Tako boqe zvu~i. Pa folk postaje „turbo folk“. Onda je sve to „odvratno“, odraz „onih vremena“. Sad je vrijedan, vidim, samo „etno“. Tautologija palanke. Katastrofa.) Ali, da se vratim arhitekturi i urbanizmu. Poznati japanski arhitekt Tange Kenzo davno je rekao (a nama je to, ~ini mi se na Kolarcu, prenjeo Ranko Radovi}) da se najboqa arhitektura nalazi u dijalekti~koj sintezi tradicije i antitradicionalizma. Na nivou arhitekture Japanci i te kako imaju {ta da ka`u o tome.

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6. Jedan postdiplomski rad na Univrezitetu u Melburnu kom ste bili mentor, bavi se analizom odnosa vernakularnog stanovawa i koncepta stambenog komfora u svesti sopstvenih stanovnika na Tajlandu. Kakvi su rezultati istra`ivawa? Koliko je va`no odgovoriti zahtevima lokalnog stanovni{tva, prilagoditi se wihovom mentalitetu, navikama, kulturolo{kim specifi~nostima i kako ih uz pomo} globalih principa unaprediti? Da, u me|uvremenu je Vandi Pinixvarasin (Wandee Pinijvarasin) doktorirala, i postala {ef jednog od arhitektonskih fakulteta u Bangkoku. Pri~ao sam Vam kako je rad sa doktorantima posebno zadovoqstvo, izvanredna prilika za u~ewe. Vandi mi je mnogo pomogla da nau~im o kulturi Tajlanda, o tradicionalnoj arhitekturi i naseqima i sistemu vrijednosti koji ta jedinstvena gra|ena sredina izra`ava.

6. A postgraduate dissertation under your mentorship at the University of Melbourne analysed the relationship between vernacular housing and the concept of comfort, as perceived by Thais. What were the results of that research? How important is it to meet the requirements of the local community, to adapt oneself to their mentality, habits and cultural specificities? How should we use globally accepted principles to improve those conditions? Yes, since then Ms Wandee Pinijvarasin has taken her doctoral degree and has became the Head of Architecture in one of the universities in Bangkok. I told you how pleasant it is to work with doctoral candidates and what an extraordinary opportunity for learning it provides me with. Wandee helped me to get a better understanding of Thai culture, its traditional architecture and settlements. She also helped me to learn more about the system of values expressed by that unique built enviroment.

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Bilo bi nepravedno i poku{ati da ukratko, u odgovoru na ovo pitawe, iznesem zakqu~ke wenog troipogodi{weg rada. Pomenu}u samo jedan od izuzetno zna~ajnih radnih zakqu~aka, zakqu~aka koje smo „napipali“ negdje pri sredini rada i koji je omogu}io da Vandi Pinixvarasin napravi zaista vrijedan doktorat (wen rad je i zvani~no progla{en za najboqi na mom fakultetu u 2003. Nadam se da }e uskoro biti objavqen na Tajlandu).

Taj meni najdra`i zakqu~ak bio je proizvod veoma studioznog skupqawa podataka na istra`ivanim lokacijama. Istra`ivawe je podrazumijevalo iscrpne intervjue. Neka od pitawa bavila su se temom komfora - {to je bila kqu~na rije~ na po~etku rada. Stanovnici sela u centralnom Tajlandu su bili pitani koje je mjesto u wihovim ku}amasojenicama najkomfornije. Rezultati su ucrtavani na pa`qivo pripremqene podloge i upore|ivani sa bioklimatskom logikom mjesta. Odgovori jedne starije `ene nikako se nisu uklapali u o~ekivanu shemu. Ona je najkomfornijim mjestom smatrala ugao u ku}i koji nikako nije mogao da bude ugodan za boravak. Detaqnije diskusije su otkrile da se na tom mjestu ona najboqe osje}a jer odatle mo`e da vidi svoju kom{inicu, mo`e sa wom da }aska - i po cijenu znojewa. To je pomoglo da od teme komfora teza krene ka istra`ivawu koncepta well being. Mjesta gdje se ispitanici dobro osje}aju. ^ovjekova psiha i fiziologija su, naravno, nerazdvojive. Daqi rad nas je odveo jo{ daqe, ka dokazivawu neodvojivosti kulturalnog bi}a od osje}aja ugodnosti. Umjesto sintagme well being rad je uskoro po~eo da koristi sabai, i kwam pasook, {to su pojmovi koji ukqu~uju za tajlandski na~in `ivota veoma specifi~ne nijanse kvaliteta. Nastavak ove pri~e odveo bi nas predaleko. Samo da pomenem da je meni to otkrovewe adekvatne terminologije bilo veoma drago i zato {to me je podsjetilo na zadovoqstvo kad sam ja, rade}i na svom doktoratu, shvatio da rije~ podnebqe ima sve konotacije koje sam `elio da moj rad pokrije. Snaga rije~i! 192


It would be unfair to even attempt to present her three-anda-half year long work in one brief statement. I will mention only one of the key preliminary findings: the breaking point when we both felt she was half way through the project. This enabled Wandee Pinijvarasin to produce a dissertation of great value (her Ph.D. thesis was officialy the best at my School in 2003, and I hope that it will be published in Thailand soon).

That finding, my favourite among many, was the result of very thorough data collection. Wandee’s fieldwork included some very detailed interviewing. A number of her questions referred to comfort – her keyword at the begining of the project. The inhabitants of several villages in central Thailand were asked to point to the most comfortable place in their stilt houses. The results were carefully mapped and compared with the bioclimatic logic of the place. The answers of an old woman did not fit our expectations. The place she named as the most comfortable was a corner that could by no means be pleasant. A more detailed discussion revealed that she felt at ease there because from that spot she could see her neighbour and chat with her – even at the expense of sweating. That helped us to go beyond the notion of comfort and start investigating the concept of wellbeing, and the places where the interviewees feel good. The human mind and physiology are inseparable. Our work led us further, to prove the oneness of the cultural self and the sense of well-being. From the syntagm, well-being, local terms such as sabai and kwam pasook emerged, referring to the very specific nuances of quality that are specific to the Thai.

The continuation of that story would take us too far away. I would only like to mention that I was very glad to assist in the discovery of adequate terminology for that work. It reminded me of my own pleasure when, while working on my own doctorate, I found that the word podneblje1 (which remains untranslatable to English) has all the connotations I wanted my thesis to cover. 1

see chapter Keywords

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I - nazad na Va{e pitawe - koliko je va`no odgovoriti zahtevima lokalnog stanovni{tva, prilagoditi se wihovom mentalitetu, navikama, kulturolo{kim specifi~nostima i kako ih uz pomo} globalih principa unaprediti? To je fundamentalno va`no, to je jedini na~in da se ideal kulturalne, pa i ekolo{ke, odr`ivosti i ostvari. Izazovi i prepreke koje sam skicirao u odgovorima na Va{a prethodna pitawa su ogromni, ali to ne zna~i da ne treba u~initi sve da se bogatstvo lokalnih kultura shvati, analizira, multiplicira i reinterpretira, gdje god je to mogu}e. 7. U septembru ste odr`ali predavawe koje se ticalo celokupnog procesa nastanka glavnog gradskog trga u Melburnu - Federation Square. Ipak, istakli ste da, iako je to bio jedan od primarnih zadataka raspisanih u konkursu, nije uspe{no uspostavqena relacija izme|u trga koji se nalazi neposredno uz reku Jaru (Yarra) i we same. Za{to se to dogodilo i koje su posledice?

And now – back to your question – how important is it to me to meet the requirements of the local community, to adapt to their mentality, habits and specific cultural features? How to help improve their life by using global principles? That is of fundamental importance, and is the only way to attain the ideals of cultural and ecological sustainability. The challenges and obstacles that I have just sketched out in my answers to your questions are huge, but that does not mean that we should not do our best – all that is possible for us to do – to understand, analyze, increase and reinterpret the wealth of local cultures.

7. In September 2003, at the University of Belgrade you gave a lecture on the Federation Square in Melbourne. You pointed out that the relationship between the Square and the nearby Yarra River, although it was one of the primary requirements in the competition brief, was not successfully established. Why did that happen and what are the consequences?

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Taj problem je donekle specifi~no melburn{ki, a donekle ga je mogu}e generalizovati. Mislim da je ovde realno pri~ati samo o tom drugom aspektu. Prema raspisu konkursa, novi melburn{ki trg je trebalo da “si|e na rijeku”. Arhitekti su to tako|e `elili. Wihovo konkursno rje{ewe jasno pokazuje tu tendenciju. Me|utim, izme|u trga i rijeke je zid, koji je na listi melburn{kog ekvivalenta Zavoda za za{titu spomenika kulture. Po toj instituciji (ina~e ne ba{ pozitivno disponiranoj u odnosu na ~itav projekat, koji jeste veoma radikalan), postojala je samo jedna mogu}nost pristupa tom zidu - “za{titarska”. Bez fleksibilnosti, nije bilo ni mogu}nosti za kompromis. Ja bih se tu vratio na ve} citiranog Tangea, i na ideju o kvalitetu kao sintezi tradicije i antitradicionalizma. Sintezi - a ne pobjedi jednog, ili drugog. Kao i u mnogim drugim slu~ajevima {irom svijeta i ovde je su`en prostor za dijalog pro{losti i sada{wosti, prevladao je muzeolo{ki pristup gradu - pa je i ishod onakav kakav je jedino bio mogu}. Poraz. Poraz grada. Sjetimo se samo Karla Skarpe (Carlo Scarpa) u, recimo, Veroni i bi}e nam jasno kakve se prilike u ovakvim situacijama propu{taju. Mislim da je pro{lost tu da nadahne, a ne da oduzme dah.

That problem is somewhat specific for Melbourne, and could be generalized only to a certain degree. On this occasion I will talk about the generalizable aspect only. According to the competition brief, the new square for Melbourne was supposed to ‘get down to the river’. The architects also wanted to achieve that goal. Their competition entry clearly shows such an intention. However, there is a wall between the square and the river. That wall is on a list of heritage buildings. According to the conservation rules (which never favour radical interventions), there was only one way of treating the wall – its full preservation. Without flexibility, there was no possibility of compromise. At this point it is worth remembering Tange and his concept of quality as a synthesis of tradition and anti-traditionalism. A ‘synthesis’ – not the victory of one over the other. As in many cases throughout the world, here too the space for a dialogue between the past and the present was very limited and a museological approach prevailed – so the result was the only possible one. A defeat. A defeat for the city. Let us remember Carlo Scarpa in Verona, for instance, and it will be clear what great opportunities can be realised, or missed in situations like this. I think that the past is here to inspire, not to paralyse and take the breath away.

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Drugi razlog za{to Melburn na Federation Square-u nije si{ao na rijeku bio je ekonomsko-politi~ke prirode. U trenutku kada je po~ela „bitka za zid“ projekat je ve} kasnio, bio preskup - i svaki dodatni tro{ak bio je politi~ki neprihvatqiv. Dakle, moglo bi se re}i da su se protiv Federation Square-a na Jari urotila dva konzervativizma - jedan u vidu rigoroznih uslova za{tite graditeqskog naslije|a, drugi u vidu ekonomsko-politi~ke realnosti Viktorije na po~etku 21. vijeka.

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The second reason why Melbourne did not get down to its river at Federation Square has an economic and political origin. At the moment when the ‘battle for the wall’ started, the project was already behind schedule and was significantly over budget. Any additional costs were politicaly damaging and unacceptable. We could summarise that two conservativisms conspired aginst the Federation Square on the Yarra – one of them in the form of rigorous heritage preservation rules and the other in form of the economic and political reality of Victoria at the begining of the 21st century.

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8. Rekli ste: „Mesta ne moraju da imaju istoriju, da bi imala memoriju“. Da li mislite da su javni prostori - mesta u na{im uslovima, bogata istorijom, dovoqno upe~atqiva da bi bila memorisana u svesti gra|ana? Memorija smo mi, istorija je o nama. Svojevremeno sam, kao CEP-ovac, o~igledno inspirisan Ba{larom (Bachelard), predlagao Zavodu za planirawe Mostara da uradimo projekat „Poetika prostora“, u kojem bismo ozna~ili, opisali i onda adekvatno urbanisti~ki „proslavili“ sva ona mjesta koja gra|anima ve} generacijama ne{to zna~e, a koja nisu ni na kakvoj zvani~noj mapi koja se bavi istorijom grada. Svaki grad ima takva mjesta, bezbroj paralelnih slojeva, paralelnih istorija, individualnih i grupnih memorija ispisanih u prostoru. Da - palimpsest. Mostar, ~iji su zna~ajni dijelovi bili priznati i za{ti}eni od strane UNESKO-a, imao je toliko mnogo „istorije“, ali i mnogo neopjevane memorije. Kao i svaki drugi grad. Eh, {ta bi se sve na{lo na mojoj mapi Beograda! A takvih je mapa koliko i Beogra|ana. Kad bismo ih preklopili, {ta bi sve te mape pokazale? Koja su to „mala“ mjesta, na kojima niko nikog nije ubio, pa zato „nisu zna~ajna“?

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Oh, what could be found on my own map of Belgrade! And there would be as many such maps as there are Belgradians. If we overlapped them, what would those maps reveal? Where are those important little places where nobody was ever killed and which are, therefore, ‘insignificant’?

Mostar, significant parts of which were listed on the UNESCO list of heritage, had so much ‘history’, but also a lot of unsung memories. Like any other city.

While working in the Centre for the Planning of Urban Development, CEP and inspired, as is obvious, by Bachelard, I suggested to the Institute for Planning Mostar a project called the ‘Poetics of Space’. The idea was to map, describe and then, an an apparently urban manner, to celebrate the places that held special meaning for generations of citizens, places which were never marked in the maps of the official history of the town. Every city has such places: innumerable layers, parallel histories, individual and group memories carved in space. Yes – a palimpsest.

The memory is ourselves, the history is all about us.

8. You have said: ‘Places do not have to have history to have a memory.’ Do you think that historically rich public spaces and places in our country are impressive enough to be memorised by the citizens?


Subjektivan sam, naravno, ali mogu da tvrdim da je Beograd izuzetan grad, Beograd definitivno nije lijep, ne na na~in na koji su lijepi Pariz i London, Be~, Prag i Budimpe{ta. Nije ni naboj energije kao Bangkok ili Tokio. Me|utim (neka zvu~i banalno, ali je ta~no), Beograd ima du{u. Spengler (Spengler) je tako definisao grad - kao naseqe s’ du{om. Beograd ima mnogo istorije (i mnogo nepo`eqne istorije), ali bi me u Beogradu prvenstveno zanimala ta mjesta gdje se „vidi“ du{a. I projekat koji sam spomenuo, onaj kojem je pripadao upitnik o kojem ste me pitali, bavio se donekle tom temom. ^esto su ta mjesta bez arhitektonskog glamoura, bez velikih urbanisti~kih vizija, ali su to mjesta neke posebne fino}e, za koji ja volim da koristim pojam urbanitet. 9. Trenutno je u Beogradu aktuelna tema uspostavqawa relacije grada sa vodom. Sa me|unarodnim timom vi obra|ujete tu temu na primerima Bordoa, Bangkoka i Melburna. Modeli silaska na reku baziraju se na povratku enviromentalnoj i kulturalnoj kontekstualnosti mesta. Smatrate li da je implementacija principa koje ste uspostavili, a koji podrazumevaju „prepoznavawe savremenih globalnih trendova urbanog razvoja, paralelno sa autenti~nim, lokalnim na~inom `ivota i zate~enim prirodnim uslovima“ uspe{no sprovedena?

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I am partial, of course, but I can claim that Belgrade is an extraordinary city, Belgrade is deffinitely not beautiful, certainly not in the way Paris and London, Vienna, Prague and Budapest are. It does not have the charge of energy that Bangkok or Tokyo might possess. However (although this may sound banal, it is true), Belgrade has a soul. That is how Spengler defined the city– as a settlement with a soul. Belgrade has lots of history (and lots of undesirable history), but in Belgrade I would be primarily interested in those places where its soul is visible. The project I have mentioned – the one with the questionnaire you asked me about – to a certain degree dealt with that subject. I searched for places which are often without architectonic glamour, without a great urbanistic vision, but with a special refinement of the kind I like to describe with the word, ‘urbanity’. 9. Connecting the city with its waters is currently one of the hot topics in Belgrade. Together with an international team of academics you are working on a similar topic in Bordeaux, Bangkok and Melbourne. Models for getting down to the river are based on the the concept of returning to the enviromental and cultural contextuality of a place. Are the principles you have established – such as ‘the recognition of contemporary global trends of urban development, parallel with authentic, local lifestyles and existing enviromental conditions’ – being successfully carried out?

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Ta tema je u Beogradu „trenutno aktuelna“ ve} jedno sto godina. I ja sam u~estvovao u projektu Srpske Akademije Nauka i Umetnosti - SANU, ~iji je urbanisti~ki dio koordinirao profesor Lojanica. Mnogo pri~e, mnogo ideja i - nikakav konkretan proizvod. Ispostavilo se da je SANU, dok smo mi mislili o budu}nosti Beograda, bila preokupirana pro{lo{}u. Grad i vode - to je odavno jedna od mojih tema. I kroz ekolo{ku “pri~u”, i kroz onu o kulturalnoj odr`ivosti. U toku je druga godina trogodi{weg projekta BMB (BMB - Bangkok-Melbourne-Bordeaux), koji sam inicirao i ~iji je fokus na temi: grad - kultura - vode. Namjerno smo uzeli tri toliko razli~ite kulture, kao {to su francuska, tajlandska, i australijska, tri tako razli~ita grada - kao {to su Bordo, Bangkok i Melburn, da bismo mogli da u~imo o razlikama i od razlika.

That subject has been ‘currently popular’ in Belgrade for the last hundred years! I myself took part in the project of the Serbian Academy of Arts and Sciences in the early 1990s, in the urbanistic team co-ordinated by Professor Lojanica. Much talk, many ideas – yet not a single concrete product. It turned out that while we were thinking of the future of Belgrade, SANU was preoccupied by its past. The city and the water – that has been one of my themes for a long time, both through the ecological story and through that of cultural sustainability. We are in the second year of a three-year-long Bangkok-Melbourne-Bordeaux project, with a focus on city-culture-water. We have deliberately chosen three very different cultures: French, Thai and Australian, and very different cities – Bordeaux, Bangkok and Melbourne – so that we can learn about difference and from difference.

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To bi bila i moja preporuka Beogradu: ne gledati samo na sli~ne situacije, misliti i o onim radikalno druk~ijim. To je, iskustvo mi ka`e, jedan od na~ina otkrivawa sebe samog, svog puta. U Evropi ima toliko situacija koje su “sli~ne� beogradskoj; sli~ne na prvi pogled. U~ewe od wih se mo`e lako pretvoriti u, svjesno ili nesvjesno, padawe u kli{e, kopirawe umjesto istinske inspiracije. Beograd je na toj nevjerovatnoj lokaciji. Koliko je samo puta makro-lokacija grada pomenuta u odgovorima na moj upitnik, i konkretno pitawe o su{tini, o du{i mjesta. Dunav. Sava. Ratno ostrvo. Savski Amfiteatar. Ada. Kej. Mostovi. Pan~eva~ka strana Dunava. Zemun. Ali, bojim se za sve te prostore. Danas, u vremenu bez ideala ili vremenu retrogradnih vrijednosti, ti prostori su u ve}oj opasnosti nego ikada ranije.

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That would be my message to Belgrade: not to look only at similar situations, but to think about the radically different ones, too. That is, according to my own experience, one of the ways to discover your own self, your own way. There are many situations in Europe that are similar to that of Belgrade; similar at first glance. Learning from them can easily, consciously or unconsciously, turn from inspiration into a clichÊ, into mere copying. Belgrade is in an incredible location. The macro-location of the city has been mentioned many times in answers to my questions about the essence, the soul of the city. The Danube. The Sava. The Great War Island. The Sava River amphitheatre. Ada. The Quay. The bridges. Pancevo’s side of the Danube. Zemun. But I am worried about all those places. Today, in these times without ideals, in the times when retrograde values rule, those places are in grave danger, more so than ever before.

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10. Kako se ta istra`ivawa mogu primeniti na Beograd? Na koji na~in uo~iti specifi~nosti sredine, i po va{em mi{qewu, koje su to specifi~nosti ove sredine koje bi trebalo implementirati u proces ponovnog uspostavqawa odnosa grada sa sopstvenim rekama? Ve} sam nazna~io kako bih ja pri{ao tom problemu, ali mo`da treba biti konkretniji: izuzetno pa`qivom analizom postoje}eg, akcentom na mjestu i vremenu primjerenoj inovaciji, na podjednakom uva`avawu situacije na terenu i ideja dvadeset prvog vijeka. Te ideje bih tra`io u inspiraciji podstaknutoj i nahrawenoj ne samo “relevantnim” primjerima, ve} i porukama i mudro{}u podnebqa i kultura radikalno druk~ijih od beogradske. To bi, vjerujem, pomoglo otkrivawu sebe danas, sebe u budu}nosti, sebe - prema pro{losti (ali ne u pro{losti).

11. U radu “Vienna @ Melbourne, urbanity and the other” ste rekli: “Mesta u kojima se `ivi na istoku i zapadu su dragocena”. (“Places where one can live both in and beyond the East or the West are precious”). Da li je Beograd dragocen? Istovremeno, u istom tekstu isti~ete va`nost pojmova “otherness, difference” u pogledu pripadawa razli~itim enviromentalnim i kulturalnim okvirima. Da li je i u kojoj meri Beograd tolerantan grad? Beograd je bio vi{e nego samo tolerantan. Beograd je bio istinski inkluzivan, multikulturalan. Ono najboqe u Beogradu i danas je inkluzivno. Nema pravog, kako Vi rekoste na po~etku ovog razgovora “uspje{nog” grada koji nije tolerantan. Gradovi zapadnu u krize, tada gube sebe, pa ponekad i elementarnu toleranciju; to su vremena kriza. Beograd je ve} dugo u krizi. Veliki gradovi slave razli~itost, druk~ije, strano. Beograd u koji sam ja kao klinac doputovao bio je kosmopolitski grad. Glavni grad jedne kompleksne, multikulturalne federacije. Dr`ave koja jeste imala mnogo mana, ali i kvaliteta. Beograd je danas grad dr`ave kojoj je, izgleda, problem {to nije etni~ki ~ista! Beogradom su zavladali palanka i palan~ani1.

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10. How can you apply the findings of your research in Belgrade? How can we recognise its uniqueness? What, in your opinion, are the specific qualities of this enviroment that should be integrated into its new relationship with its rivers? I have already indicated what would be my approach to that problem, but I can be more concrete: one should analyse existing conditions with extreme care, emphasise innovation that is specific to place and time, and place equal emphasis on the specific local situation as well as on the broader ideas of the 21st century. I would search for the experience of others as an inspiration, and let thinking be inspired and nourished not only by what is directly relevant, but also by messages and wisdom from cultures radically different from those of Belgrade. That would, I believe, help us rediscover our contemporary selves, help us see ourselves in the future and in relation to the past – but not sealed in the past.

11. In your work ‘Vienna @ Melbourne, urbanity and the other’ you said that ‘Places where one can live both in and beyond the East or the West are precious’. Is Belgrade precious? At the same time you stress the importance of concepts of ‘otherness/difference’ in regards to the various environmental and cultural frames of belonging. Is Belgrade a tolerant city and if it is – to what extent is it? Belgrade used to be more than simply tolerant. It was truly inclusive and multicultural. The best of Belgrade still possess that inclusiveness. There is no real, or as you said at the beginning of this conversation, successful city that is not tolerant. When cities fall into crisis they lose themselves, sometimes even the most basic level of tolerance: those are the times of crisis. Belgrade has been in crisis for a very long time. Big cities celebrate variety, difference, otherness. The Belgrade that I arrived in as a child was a cosmopolitan city, the capital of a complex, multicultural federation. A federation with many defects, but also with many good qualities. The Belgrade of today is the capital of a small state whose ‘problem’ seems to be that it is not entirely ‘ethnically clean’! Belgrade fell victim to the provincial mentality of palanka1.

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Ali, ja vjerujem u Beograd. Vjerujem da }e urbanitet Beograda iza}i kao pobjednik. Vjerujem da i ~itava dr`ava ima neke {anse samo ako Beograd pobijedi, ako ponovo postane inkluzivan, evropski.

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But I do believe in Belgrade. I believe that the urbanity of Belgrade will come out the winner. I believe that the whole state has a chance only if Belgrade wins and becomes inclusive, European, again.

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Ta re~enica je bila metafori~ki opis kulture koju mnogi porede sa lukom. Sloj, za slojem, ili - kao u mom opisu, zid za zidom - {titi one najfinije, unutra{nje slojeve identiteta, jezgro, su{tinu, koja se nikad ne otvara strancu.

12. Napisali ste: „Japanska je kultura kultura mnogih zidova, od kojih je malo koji pravi, ~vrst, zidani zid“. Ako su „zidovi fizi~ka interpretacija kulture Japana“, postoji li ne{to {to biste istakli kao paradigmu vezano za kulturolo{ke karakteristike na{eg podnebqa?


12. You wrote: ‘Japanese culture is the culture of many walls, yet few of them are real, solid, built’. If the walls are a ‘physical interpretation of Japanese culture’, what do you see as similar, paradigmatic expressions of our culture? That sentence was the metaphoric description of a culture that many compare with an onion. The layer after layer of skin – or in my description, the wall after wall – that protects the ever-finer inner layers of identity; the nucleus; the essence that never opens to a foreigner.

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porede sa lukom tinu, koja se ni

any compare with an nucleus; the essenc

I would not dare to seek a defining characteristic of Belgrade. Not today, not in the time of crisis.

biste istakli ka

Ne bih se usudio da tra`im defini{u}u odrednicu Beograda. Ne danas, ne u vremenu krize. 220


yet few of them are expressions of our c

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13. Da li ste uspeli da uo~ite takvu paradigmu u Australiji? Australijska kultura je kompozitna. Moramo da govorimo o kulturama - plural! Dominantna je anglo-saksonska, koja, bar na nivou oficijelne politike, sve vi{e poprima anglo-ameri~ke nijanse. Me|utim, „bijela“ australijska kultura ima i neke zaista fine, suptilne domete. Takvi su, recimo, prezentirani u radovima Xona Bolslija (John Wollsley), Brusa ^atvina (Bruce Chatwin)... (zanimqivo, obojica su - Englezi!). Onda, tu je aborixinska kultura, kultura originalne populacije Kontinenta. Mo`da najfiniji izraz ta kultura danas nalazi u slikarstvu. Trenutno je u Melburnu, ba{ u Nacionalnoj galeriji na Federation Square-u, u toku izlo`ba izvanrednog Kliforda Posuma (Cliford Possum).

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13. Have you found a similar paradigm in Australia? Australian culture is composite. We always have to talk about cultures – plural. The dominant one is Anglo-Saxon which, at least at the level of official politics, increasingly acquires Anglo-American shades. But ‘white’ Australian culture has a number of very fine, subtle accomplishments. Such as, for instance, that presented in works of John Wolseley and Bruce Chatwin … (it is interesting that both of them are English!). Then, there is the Aboriginal culture, the culture of the original population of the Continent. Today that beautiful culture probably finds its finest expression in painting. As I speak (1994) there is an exhibition of excellent work by Clifford Possum at the National Gallery on Federation Square in Melbourne.

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Onda razne imigrantske kulture. Kineska, ~ija prisutnost na ovim prostorima datira od samih po~etaka invazije stranaca. Pa gr~ka, italijanska, razne na{e kulture... Wihove najsna`nije izraze vidim u transformaciji gradova jugoisto~ne Australije, u promjenama urbanog prostora i uspjehu neke vrste mediteranskog seznibiliteta koji radikalno mijewa kqu~ne gradove, Melburn i Sidnej. Then there are cultures of various other immigrant groups. The Chinese presence dates back to the very beginings of foreign invasion. In addition there are Greek and Italian influences as well as numerous ‘cultures’.‌ Their strongest expressions I see reflected in the transformation of cities of Southeastern Australia, in changes of urban space and in the success of some kind of Mediterranean sensibility which is radically changing the major Australian cities, especially Melbourne and Sydney. 224


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Su{tina Australije je za mene, na neki ~udan na~in, u wenoj prirodi, i na taj na~in bli`a je bi}u aborixinske kulture nego kulturi svih nas, agresivnih do{qaka. Su{tina Australije se (opet isti~em - za mene) na neki misteriozan na~in koji ne razumijem ali osje}am, krije u onoj misterioznoj stijeni u samom centru Kontinenta - u Uluruu. [to se Melburna ti~e, usudio bih se da ga nazovem Mediteranom ju`ne hemisfere (svjestan da je tu u pitawu samo djelimi~no realnost, a djelimi~no projekcija mojih `eqa).

14. Prou~avaju}i Va{a skora{wa istra`ivawa, kao veoma zanimqiv domen Va{eg istra`iva~kog delovawa nametnuo se interes za relaciju izme|u literarnog i urbanog. Kako ocewujete razumevawe i primenu pojma „translations“ (prevodi, prevo|ewa) u specifi~nom socio-kulturnom kontekstu ove sredine? Rekoh vam u jednom od odgovora na ranija pitawa da sam pasionirani ~ita~. Volim literaturu. Volim i da pi{em. I iskustvo pisawa, i iskustvo ~itawa su mi ukazali na nemogu}nost vjernog prevoda ideja, mjesta, kulturnih situacija. Odlu~iv{i da preselim u svijet radikalno druk~iji od mog, na{ao sam se u situaciji da svakodnevno prevodim, i budem prevo|en. To vodi ka razumijevawu da pravog, vjernog prevoda nema. ^ak da nema potpunog razumijevawa drugog, i od strane drugog. Da li je to samo po sebi lo{e? Izgleda da bi tipi~no balkansko tuma~ewe (ili preciznije, palana~ko - koje se ~esto, pogre{no, poistovje}uje sa balkanskim) bilo da to jeste lo{e. Izraz „mi se ne razumijemo“ je kod nas ~esto opravdawe za sukob. No, da li tako mora da bude? 228


To me, the essence of Australia is, in some mystic way, in nature and thus is closer to Aboriginal culture than to the culture of the rest of us, the aggressive newcomers. The essence of Australia (and, I emphasise, to me), in a way which I can never fully understand but which I can feel, is hidden in that mysterious rock at the very centre of the Continent – Uluru. As far as Melbourne is concerned, I would dare to call it the Mediterranean of the southern hemisphere (at the same time as being aware that that is only partly true, and partly just a projection of my own wishes).

14. Studying your recent research, one can notice a very interesting domain – your interest in the relationship between literature and the urban. How do you see the application of the concept of ‘translation’ in the specific social and cultural context of our environment?

I told you that I am a passionate reader. I love literature. I love to write as well. Both experiences, writing and reading, have revealed to me the impossibility of exact translation of ideas, places and cultural situations. Having decided to move to live a world which is radically different from my own, I found myself in a situation where I am constantly translating, and am translated, each day. That condition leads to the understanding that there is never a correct, exact translation. So, there is never a complete, true understanding of the other, and by the other. Is that bad? It seems that the typical Balkan position (or, to be more precise, the provincial position of palanka – which is often wrongly identified with the Balkans) would be that that imposibility is bad. The phrase ‘we do not understand each other‘ is often an excuse for a conflict. But, does it have to be like that? 229


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Having put myself in the situation of being a foreigner, of belonging to a minority and of being the one who has to initiate and learn to communicate in the new context, I have forced myself to think about that problem. That field of ideas has turned into my real passion. Of course, I am trying to apply those experiences in my work – as a teacher, as a researcher and as an architect. The theory of translation abandoned equivalence a long time ago. Jorge Louis Borges is one of the champions of the idea of Babylon.… Contemporary translation theories oppose the dogma of the original, they go against exclusivity, ‘purity’ and ‘faithfullness’, and towards the idea of the equity of source-cultures and target-cultures.

Dovev{i sebe u situaciju da budem stranac, da budem mawina, da budem onaj koji mora da ostvari komunikaciju sa kontekstom, natjerao sam se da o tome problemu razmi{qam, a ta razmi{qawa su se pretvorila u pravu strast. Poku{avam, naravno, i da ih primijenim u svojim poslovima - i kao u~iteq, i kao istra`iva~, i kao projektant. Literarna prevodila~ka teorija je odavno napustila ideju ekvivalentnosti prevoda. Horhe Luis Borhes (Jorge Louis Borges) je jedan od {ampiona ideje Vavilona... Savremene teorije prevo|ewa idu protiv dogme originala, protiv iskqu~ivosti „~istote“ i „vjernosti“, ka ideji komunikacije kroz ravnopravnost, ravnopravnost kulture-izvora, i kulture-ciqa.

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Kako lijepo to zvu~i uhu ~ovjeka koji dolazi iz zemqe koju je uni{tila nemogu}nost razumijevawa (malih) razlika! U vremenu krize (i uz „pomo}“ ne ba{ naklowenih velikih sila, {to nas ne opravdava) mi smo sebi dozvolili da polomimo ono najdragocjenije i najrawivije - drugog, razli~itog... jer to je lak{e nego priznati sopstvenu neprimjerenost. Ni{ta nismo nau~ili od Peki}a i wegove parafraze biblijske misli: Izvadi brvno iz oka svojega, prije nego {to poku{a{ da izvadi{ trun iz oka brata svojega. (A toliko poziva na Bibliju.) Moje interesovawe za teoriju prevoda, dakle, poti~e odatle. Poma`e mi sredina u kojoj sam stranac, u kojoj su ve}ina mojih poznanika, kolega i studenata podjednako strani. Poma`u mi izleti u prostore i kulture koji su radikalno druk~iji od onih koji su me formirali. Mo`da ve} odgojem u Mostaru i u onom, kosmopolitskom Beogradu, nau~en sam da po{tujem drugo, druk~ije. Sad sam spoznao i zavolio i ono {to je @ak Derida (Jacques Derrida) zvao tout autre. Nau~io sam i da ne pokleknem pred porivom da ga saznam, da ga svojom mi{qu “pokorim”. Jer, saznao bih ga samo djelimi~no, a pri tom sasvim, nepovratno izgubio. Ne samo za sebe... Melburn, po~etkom aprila 2004.

1 “Palanka je termin koji se koristi kao sinonim za “mali grad”. Nekoliko mesta u Srbiji ~ak sadr`i palanku u svom nazivu. Ali postoji i jo{ jedno, ste~eno, dubqe i mra~nije zna~ewe. Palanka ozna~ava stawe uma koje se te{ko mo`e definisati kao samostalan pojam. Najboqe definicije je svrstavaju u opoziciju urbanitetu. Palanka predstavqa provincijalizam u svom najgorem zna~ewu. Ranih sedamdesetih filozof Radomir Konstantinovi} objavio je dalekovidu analizu ovog fenomena. Za mawe od trideset godina nakon objavqivawa Filozofije palanke (R. Konstantinovi}, s.a.), dubina i zna~aj te analize postali su tragi~no o~igledni. Srpski politi~ari i wihove nacionalisti~ke kopije iz drugih delova biv{e Jugoslavije uzeli su stvari u svoje ruke upotrebiv{i sirovu, destruktivnu snagu provincijskog mentaliteta. Konstantinovi} je napisao: “Univerzum palanke postoji samo u duhu. Duh palanke je samo apsolutna palanka sa realno{}u palanke koja uvek zaostaje za wim. Palanka ne poseduje ideal za koji bi se borila.” (D.Radovic, ‘Belgrade: de-constructing

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urbanity’, City Edge, ed. E. Charlesworth, Architectural Press, London, 2004)


That sounds nice to someone who came from a country that has been destroyed by an inability of understand (even small) differences! In our time of crisis (with ‘assistance’ from foreign powers, which still does not vindicate us) we allowed ourselves to break what is most precious and most vulnerable – the other, the different. … That happened to be easier than to admit our own inadequacies. We have learnt nothing from Pekic and his paraphrase of the Biblical saying: ‘Remove the beam from your own eye, before you dare to get a speck from your brother’s eye’. (Oh, so many references to the Bible.) That is where my interest in translation theory comes from. The enviroment in which I am a foreigner, where the majority of my acquaintances, colleagues and students are also foreigners, only helps. Excursions to spaces and cultures radically different from those that formed me help, too. Perhaps, having grown up in Mostar and in the cosmopolitan Belgrade of times past, I have learned to respect the other, otherness. And now, I have grown to like what Jacques Derrida used to call ‘tout autre’. I have learned not to succumb to desire to ‘know’ the other, and thus to ‘conquer’ it by my own thought. I can only get to know it partially, and at the same time I would lose it, completely. Not only for myself … Melbourne, at the beginning of April, 2004.

1

“Palanka is term used as a synonym for “small town”. Several places in Serbia are indeed named palanka. But there is another, acquired, more profound and sinister meaning. Palanka denotes the state of mind which can hardly be defined

in its own right. Best definitions only place it in opposition to urbanity. Palanka represents provincialism at its worst. In the early seventies Yugoslav philosopher Radomir Konstantinovic published a profound analysis of this phenomenon. Less that thirty years after publication of Filosofila palanke (Konstantinovic, s.a.) the depth and the relevance of his analysis became tragically obvious. Serbian politicians and his nationalist counterparts in other parts of former Yugoslavia took power by using the raw, destructive powers of small-town mentality. Konstantinovic wrote: “The universe of palanka exists only in spirit. The spirit of palanka is the only absolute palanka, with the reality of palanka always lagging behind it. Palanka does not posses an ideal to strive for” (ibid.).” (D.Radovic, ‘Belgrade: de-constructing urbanity’, in City Edge, ed. E. Charlesworth, Architectural Press, London , 2004)

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Osaka - arhitektura, urbana kultura, detaq i qudi zabele`eni objektivom Darka Radovi}a

Posebnost Japana u jedinstvenom odnosu globalnih uticaja i lokalne tradicije i kulture u Kjotu

Prisustvo na svetskom tr`i{tu - deo ra~unarske opreme

Vandi Pinixvarasin tokom istra`iva~kog rada na svojoj doktorskoj tezi

Bangkok - arhitektura, urbana kultura, detaq i qudi zabele`eni objektivom Darka Radovi}a

Svakodnevni `ivot na Tajlandu

Beograd - arhitektura, urbana kultura, detaq i qudi zabele`eni objektivom Darka Radovi}a

“Mala” mesta u Mostaru “bez istorije, ali sa mnogo neopevane memorije”

Federation Square - Melburn Federation Square - Melbourne

Jedno od “malih” mesta u Beogradu “bez istorije, ali sa mnogo neopevane memorije”

Tre}enagra|eno re{ewe konkursa za novi kampus-grad Univerziteta u [enjangu u saradwi sa Stivenom Vitfordom, Kuinghua Guo i ostatkom tima

Projekat BMB

Osaka - architecture, urban culture, detail and people captured by Darko Radovic’s camera

Presence at the world market - from a part of computer hardware

Bangkok - architecture, urban culture, detail and people captured by Darko Radovic’s camera

Belgrade - architecture, urban culture, detail and people captured by Darko Radovic’s camera

Competition entry for the new campus-city of University in Shenyang (Third prize) with Steven Whitford, Qinghua Guo and the team

The uniqueness of Japan in specific relationship between global influences and local tradition and culture - Kyoto

Wandee Pinijvarasin during her PhD studies

Everyday life in Thailand

“Small” places in Mostar “without history, yet full of the unsung memory”

One of the “small” places in Belgrade “without history, yet full of the unsung memory “

The BMB Project

Reakcija na palanku. Arhitektonski fakultet u Melburnu, mu{ki toalet na 4. spratu, april 2003. Tokio - populaciona eksplozija i wene urbane i arhitektonske posledice

Reaction to palanka, Faculty of Architecture in Melbourne, men’s room on the fourth floor, april 2003

Tokyo - demographic explosion and its urban and architectural consequences

Umetnost Kliforda Posuma

Ekolo{ki odr`iva arhitektura - zgrada 60L u Melburnu

The art of Clifford Possum

IZVOR: http://www.artspeak.com.au http://www.aaia.com.au SOURCE: http://www.artspeak.com.au http://www.aaia.com.au

Sustainable architecture - 60L building in Melborne

Prodor mediteranske kulture u Melburn Ekolo{ki odr`iva arhitektura - zgrada CH2 (Gradska Skup{tina 2) u Melburnu

Mediterranean cultural influences in Melbourne

Sustainable architecture - CH2 (Council House 2) in Melbourne

Azijske kulture u Melburnu Posebnost Japana u je jedinstvenom odnosu globalnih uticaja i lokalne tradicije i kulture u Osaki

Asian cultures in Melbourne

The uniqueness of Japan is in specific relationship between global influences and local tradition and culture - Osaka

Australijska priroda The Australian nature

Posebnost Japana u jedinstvenom odnosu globalnih uticaja i lokalne tradicije i kulture u Nari

The uniqueness of Japan in specific relationship between global influences and local tradition and culture - Nara

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Stena Uluruu The Uluru


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an int e (part two)

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erview (drugi deo)

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Intervju (drugi deo) 1. Za po~etak recite ne{to o sebi kao prilog Va{oj biografiji. Za po~etak ... mo`da su va`ni samo “suvi” podaci: Ro|en u Mostaru, 28.8.1955. Jugosloven. Kao dje~ak, u drugom, a onda definitivno na po~etku ~etvrtog razreda osnovne {kole preselio u Beograd. Poha|ao osnovne {kole “France Pre{ern” i “Vojvoda Mi{i}”, ^etvrtu beogradsku gimnaziju, Arhitektonski fakultet. Bavio se sportom, putovao ... Radio u Energoperojektu, CEPu, na Arhitektonskom fakultetu. Izme|u 1989. i 1992. boravio u inostranstvu, radio u Australiji, Engleskoj, Italiji. Od 1993. u Australiji, na Arhitektonskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Melburnu. Sada redovno predajem u Australiji i na Tajlandu, povremeno u Kini, Vijetnamu, Japanu ... Redovno navra}am do Beograda, do CEPa, do beogradskog Arhitektonskog fakulteta, do novosadskog Arhitektonskog fakulteta i profesora Ranka Radovi}a. Sara|ujem sa Zavodom za planirawe grada Beograda, jo{ uvijek se osje}am i (bar dopisnim) CEPovcem ... 238


An Interview (part two) 1. To begin with, would you tell us something about yourself: something that would supplement your biography? To begin with, perhaps, some bare facts are important: I was born in Mostar on the 28th of August 1955. Nationality – Yugoslav. As a boy, first in my second grade and then final at the beginning of my fourth grade I moved from Mostar to Belgrade. I attended France Presern and Vojvoda Misic primary schools, then the Fourth Grammar and then the Faculty of Architecture at the University of Belgrade. I went in for sports; I travelled ‌ and worked for Energoprojekt, CEP, at the Faculty of Architecture. Between1989 and1992 I lived abroad, worked in Australia, Great Britain and Italy. Since 1993 I have been working at the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning of the University of Melbourne. At the moment, I am teaching full-time and doing research in Australia, and visiting as a teacher and researcher in Thailand, China, Vietnam, Japan ‌ I also often visit Belgrade, CEP, the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade and one in Novi Sad, where I go to visit my professor, Ranko Radovic. I collaborate with the Belgrade Institute of Planning, and I feel that I still belong to CEP (at least as a corresponding member). 239


Na stru~nom planu zanimaju me kulturalno i ekolo{ki odr`iv razvoj i urbanitet. “Razmjere” gdje se urbano i arhitektonsko prepli}u, gdje inkluzivnost gradskog nalazi sklad ili bar smislen dijalog sa ekskluzivno{}u arhitektonskog djela. Zanima me kreativnost drugih, druk~ijih, stranih kultura. Mo`da zato {to dolazim iz zemqe koja vi{e ne postoji, iz zemqe koja je pala ba{ na ispitu iz multikulturalnosti, skoro pani~no tra`im druk~ije, tra`im razli~ito - a privla~no. ^eznem za situcijama u kojima se strano cijeni i uva`ava, a ne odbija i poni{tava. Poku{avam da, u statusu stranca na koji sam osu|en, na|em zadovoqstvo i inspiraciju.

2. Za{to ste ostali tako vezani za Mostar? Ja vjerujem u snagu mjesta. Imam nekoliko “svojih” mjesta, nekoliko “svojih” gradova. Me|u wima Mostar i Beograd imaju poseban zna~aj. U Mostaru sam se rodio. Vjerujem u mo} mostarskog avgustovskog sunca, u mo} urbaniteta i qepote koje je taj grad posjedovao - i kao grad-zajednica, i kao grad-artefakt. @elim da vjerujem da me je Mostar zna~ajno oblikovao. Udahnuo mi je mediteranski duh, pokazao mi je {ta je urbanitet ... i na kraju, na`alost, kako je krhka ta divna struktura tolerancije i gradskosti.

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I am interested in cultural and environmental sustainability and in the concept of urbanity, and in the ‘scales’ where the urban and architecture overlap, where the inclusivity of the urban finds harmony, or at least a sensible dialogue, with the exclusivity of architecture. I am interested in the creativity of other, different, foreign cultures. That may be because I am coming from a country that does not exist any more, from a country that has failed precisely at the test in multiculturalism. Almost in a panic I am seeking the other, the different – and yet the attractive. I long for the situations where the other is valued and respected, not rejected or annihiliated. Sentenced to being a stranger, I am trying to find satisfaction and inspiration in that condition.

2. Why have you remained so tied to Mostar? I believe in the power of a place. There are several places and several cities that I think of as mine. Among them, Mostar and Belgrade are particularly important. I was born in Mostar. I believe in the power of the August sun of Mostar; I believe in the power of its urbanity, in the beauty that that city used to possess – both as a citycommunity and as a city-artifact. I want to believe that Mostar has significantly shaped me. It gave me the breath of the Mediterranean spirit, it demonstrated to me what urbanity was … and finally, and unfortunately, how fragile the adorable structure of that tolerance and urbanity was.

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U Mostaru sam `ivio relativno kratko, a mnogi me smatraju Mostarcem. Za ~itav `ivot sam zadr`ao ijekavski govor. Ne svjesno, ne namjerno, ali ponosno - kao nekakav dokaz pripadnosti, mo`da ~ak i kao dokaz vjernosti. Kao navijawe za “Vele`”. A pomoglo je i to {to sam `ivio u kosmopolitskom Beogradu, gradu koji je moju razli~itost po{tovao ... U to vrijeme bilo je mogu}e biti i Beogra|anin, i Mostarac.

Although I have lived in Mostar for a relatively short time, many still see me primarily as a Mostarian. Unconsciously and definitely not intentionally, but proudly all the same, I have kept the iekavian dialect of Herzegovina for my whole life – probably as some evidence of belonging, as a proof of my fidelity. Similar to this was my support for the Velez football club. Living in a cosmopolitan Belgrade, in a city that respected my difference, also helped my development.… In those times it was possible to be both a Belgradian and a Mostarian.

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Moj Mostar, na neki na~in, nikada nije u potpunosti postojao. Oti{av{i rano, idealizovao sam ga. Za mene, to je bio grad bez mana, grad neizmjerne qubavi, grad mojih babe i dede, svijet ~iji je centar bila wihova avlija. Grad mojih tetaka, rodbine, prijateqa; grad u koji sam i{ao za raspust, pa tako grad vje~nog qeta, permanentni praznik, bezbri`nost ...

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In some way, my Mostar never fully existed. Having left it early, I idealised that city. To me it was a city with no faults, a city of enormous love, a city where my grandparents lived, a world whose centre was their backyard. A city of my aunts, relatives and friends; a city I used to go to for school holidays and therefore a city of an eternal summer, an everlasting holiday, freedom ‌

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3. Kakav je Va{ odnos prema mostarskom mostu? Stari most je bio fascinantna gra|evina. Ne vjerujem da postoji Mostarac u ~ijem identitetu zna~ajno ne figurira svijest o Starom mostu. Hajdeger (Heidegger) je objasnio snagu mosta kao arhetipske qudske tvorevine koja prevazilazi utilitarno. Ve} pri koncepciji, kao ideja, svaki most je nezimjerno vi{e nego {to oni koji ga grade `ele. Svaki most je simbol. Mostarski Stari most bi mogao da poslu`i kao ilustracija Hajdegerove teze, kameni luk ~ija snaga odgovara snazi Hajdegerove misli. Na po~etku grada Mostara bio je Most. U imenu Grada je Most. Sla`em se s onima koji vjeruju da je ru{ewe Starog mosta bilo ritualni ~in ubijawa Grada. Mostar je, dakle, po~eo sa Mostom, i nestao sa wim. Sje}am se svojih mnogih odlazaka u Mostar ... Odmah po dolasku, uvijek, i kao klinac i kasnije, i{ao bih u {etwu gradom. Sam. Po{ao bih od babine ku}e u kojoj sam ro|en, pored “Konzuma” preko Musale, pa kroz Kujunxiluk, preko Starog mosta, pored Gimnazije i Rondoa, nazad, ku}i. To je bio moj obredni krug, {etwa koja me je uvjeravala da je sve na svome mjestu - i da sam ja u svome mjestu. Stari most je orkestrirao tu cjelinu, kao elegantni dirigent objediwavao qepotu Grada. Mo`e da zvu~i banalno, ali je istina (i opet, vjerujem ne samo kad sam ja u pitawu) - uvijek sam se malo zadr`avao na Mostu, dirao wegov kamen. Imao sam par “svojih” mjesta gdje bih pomilovao ogradu. Ne znam za{to ba{ na tim mjestima. Kad u julu ove godine (2003.) otvore novi Stari most, rekonstruisan, (napomena: u trenutku odr`avawa intervjua Stari most je bio u izgradwi) oti}i }u u Mostar, sa strahom. Oti}i }u na Most i na ta svoja mjesta. [ta li }e mi taj novi kamen “re}i”? Ne znam. Otuda taj strah.

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3. What is your relationship with the Mostar Bridge? The Old Bridge of Mostar was a fascinating structure. I do not believe that there is a Mostarian whose personal identity is not significantly influenced by the Bridge. Heidegger explained the power of bridges as archetypal human creations which surpas pure utilitarian reasons. Even as a concept, as an idea, the bridge is much more than any builder can even desire to make. Every bridge is a symbol. The Old Bridge of Mostar could serve as a perfect illustration of Heidegger’s thesis: a stone arch whose span corresponds to the power of Heidegger’s thought. At the beginning of Mostar there was the Bridge. In the name of the city is the bridge (‘most’, in the SerboCroatian language means literally, ‘a bridge’). I agree with those who believe that the destruction of the Old Bridge was a ritual act of killing the city of Mostar. The city of Mostar started with the Bridge, and it ceased to exist along with it. I remember my numerous visits to Mostar… Soon upon my arrival, always, as a child and later, I would go for a stroll to the town. Alone. I would start from my grandmother’s house, in which I was born, then pass the Konzum store, cross the Musala Square and then go all the way, through the ancient Kujundziluk, across the Bridge, by Gimnazija and Rondo high school – back home. That was my ritual round, the walk which would assure me that everything was in its proper place and that I was in my place. The Old Bridge orchestrated that whole. Like an elegant conductor it unified the overall beauty of my city. This may sound banal, but it is true (and, again, I believe –not in my case only): I would stop at the Bridge, touch its stone. I had several spots which were mine alone, where I would caress the stone wall. I never knew why those particular spots were mine and why they were important. When a new Old Bridge is re-opened in July this year (2003), a reconstructed one, (note: the interview was held before the opening of the Old Bridge) I will go to Mostar full of fear. I will go to the Bridge, to those places of mine. What are these new stones going to tell me? I do not know. That is why there is fear. 249


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Zadwi put sam u Mostaru bio aprila 1998. sa grupom studenata iz Australije. (Od kada sam stigao u Australiju, na Fakultetu vodim diplomski studio MOST). Mosta, naravno, nije bilo. Ni Mostara nije bilo. Bilo je nekih qudi koje znam i volim, mnogo uspomena, emocija; bilo je neke neizmjerne sjete, tuge. Volio bih da postoje ~uda i da uskrsnu}e Starog mosta ozna~i neko novo, boqe vrijeme za Mostar, budu}nost koju wegova pro{lost zaslu`uje.

The last time I was in Mostar was in April 1998 with a group of my students from Australia. (Since my arrival to Australia, at the University of Melbourne I have been running a graduate design studio, MOST). The Bridge, of course, was not there. Neither was Mostar. There were only some people whom I knew and whom I loved; and lots of memories and emotions. There was also a kind of infinite melancholy: grief. I would love it if miracles existed, so that the resurrection of the Old Bridge would mark the beginning of some new and better times for Mostar; a future that was worthy of its past.

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4. Raskr{}a u Va{em `ivotu? Mnogo. Mo`da previ{e. Tje{im se da `ivot i jeste put sa raskr{}a na raskr{}e, izuzev za ~ovjeka koji se uspava, za onog koga uquqka ritam svakodnevice. Neka od mojih raskr{}a su bila prostorna, a neka filozofska. Neka - ~isto emotivna ... @ivotna raskr{}a mi ne biramo. Najzna~ajnije raskrsnice u mom `ivotu, kao i u `ivotima ve}ine Jugoslovena, donijeo je rat i raspad Jugoslavije. U u`asno kratkom periodu, na razne na~ine, gubio sam prijateqe, gradove, zemqu. Bio natjeran da izo{trim stavove koje je, dugo, bilo jednostavnije ne potezati. Ali, i stekao sam nove prijateqe, otvorio nove horizonte. Raskr{}a su odluke. Mo`da je moja najzna~ajnija odluka bila da ne dozvolim “situaciji� da me promijeni, odluka da }u radije ja mijewati `ivotne situacije, nego dozvoliti wima da mijewaju mene. Tragedija Beograda i Jugoslavije mi je u tome pomogla, mislim da je po~etkom devedestih bilo vi{e nego lako razdvojiti dobro od zla (za one koji su to htjeli). Opredjeqewe da 1993. godine sa porodicom ostanem u Australiji je vi{e bilo odraz stava da se ne vratim u ono {to se tada jo{ samo zvalo Jugoslavija, nego da ostanem konkretno u Australiji. Svima sam govorio kako sam, kada mi je 1989. godine bio nu|en posao u Melburnu, rekao da ne}u jer je suvi{e daleko. 1993. Melburn je, me|utim, bio dovoqno daleko. 254


4. The crossroads in your life? Many of them. Too many, perhaps. I console myself that the whole of life is a road which leads from one crossroads to another, except for those who fall asleep, who became lulled by the rhythm of everyday routines. Some of my crossroads were spatial, others were philosophical. Some were purely emotional.… We do not choose our crossroads. The most important crossroads in my life, as well as in the lives of the majority of Yugoslavs, were imposed on me by the war and disintegration of Yugoslavia. In a very short period of time and in various ways, I found myself losing my friends and my cities and now I have lost my country. All that has forced me to sharpen my position, to define my stance on some issues which, for a long time, it was better not to touch. But, in those difficult times I also made some new friends and opened new horizons. All crossroads are decisions. Perhaps my most important decision was not to allow the situation to change me:, a decision that I preferred to change these situations than let them change me. The tragedies of Belgrade and Yugoslavia assisted me in this. At the beginning of the 1990s it was easy to separate the good from the evil (at least for those who wanted to do so). My decision to remain in Australia with my family in 1993 was more an expression of my attitude not to return to what something that by then only bore the name of Yugoslavia, than to stay, specifically in Australia. I tell everyone how, when I was in 1989 offered a job in Melbourne I refused to stay, because Australia was ‘too far’. By 1993, a remote Melbourne was just far enough. 255


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svim e}u sa n i atno vjerov d a k i m, i n edao gu, gl vem - nisa n o i n k l e ltura a nazo ma u P no, ku denti foniram, d v u i t t s o a m e za sam s vno, e a tele polaz a. Bio ku{avao d , nara o d i k a l a r a k g ... i{ao e Beo u. Po nkove ki ot dovaw ivom jezik su bolile matrao te ~ r i a z b i m s sam f m lo bo bombe azumq pe po sasvi avije apo~e ar na ner daleko, a jvode Ste l z . s . e . o j g a ne}u u d t o h J a a n u i V r k e d e a o m i n t e { n o c a a biv ilome u uli rovat {ao k o staw a na d ostor ad vje antsk a pokazal ada, i slu iqadama k a balkona k r g i i n m Sa pr . r sam h sam s ledao eto e sam, i mog g g staw ngu, g ovem oti}i eko prokl te`ina to te grada, e{no. Bio anije, kad o - ni i n k l e a P r e j n r u tu naz To je nije mi se arene silu no, bezusp o godina ntima niram, da o, kul e n d v k u v i s t i a ` t a sa s Najj eviziji u eqe - nar lo nekol lefo , emo aze za i io sam avao da te ravno a B n . a , o pol na tel qe, prijat to je bol d i k a { l a r u a k g k o o o e e { e a v rodit nako kao oti{ le ... iku. P awe B tenko o i~ki ost. ardov qivom jez be su boli osmatrao z n b i } m f o o Isto niju. m b bom azum pe p elo svim je sam bespo zapo~ tar na ner a daleko, a ojvode Ste slavi e}u sa Slove ju}i bol, .. e . o n j g a u i d h J a n u o V r a k e d e ovatn Razar biv{ ometa o kom a dan tawe ulici d vjer tsko s pokazala n a, i slu{a adama kil balkona u stora a n o k a r i r p n g i o iq a Sa . rad sam, i gleda sam h sam sa eto em mog g g staw o - ni ingu, zovem n k oti}i eko prokl te`ina to te grada, e{no. Bio anije, kad l e a P r e j n r da na kultu ima u To je nije mi se arene silu no, bezusp o godina udent efoniram, ivno, t t k v s s o i a ` a a j m l u r j s e a o n ji Na ek o sam aze za avno, da tel evizi eqe ilo n o pol da. Bi oku{avao i, nar k a l na tel qe, prijat to je bol a r a k g o o e a e { e ... ku. P we Be enkov oti{ rodit nako kao rdova qivom jezi e su bolil smatrao t i~ki t. a z s o b i o m o n f t o } b o Is am mo bom azum pe p elo b niju. bespo vije s zapo~ tar na ner a daleko, a ojvode Ste .. e . j Slove ju}i bol, e Jugosla a d h a n u V r k e d a ometa o kom a dan tawe ulici Razar stora biv{ tsko s pokazala n a, i slu{a adama kil balkona u n o a r r p g i iq a Sa . rad sam h sam sa eto em mog g g staw oti}i eko prokl te`ina to te grada, e{no. Bio anije, kad e j n r To je nije mi se arene silu no, bezusp o godina k v s i a ` a j l u r j na ji Na eko evizi eqe ilo n na tel qe, prijat to je bol e { rodit nako kao o ost. o t Is . omo}n u p j s i e n b e Slov ju}i bol, a Razar

Sa prostora biv{e Jugoslavije sam fizi~ki oti{ao ali, naravno, emotivno, kulturalno - nisam, i nikad vjerovatno i ne}u sasvim oti}i. To je neko prokleto emigrantsko stawe duha ... Najjasnije mi se te`ina tog stawa pokazala na dan kad je zapo~elo bombardovawe Beograda. Bio sam sa studentima u Pekingu, gledao na televiziji u`arene siluete grada, mog grada, i slu{ao komentar na nerazumqivom jeziku. Poku{avao da telefoniram, da nazovem roditeqe, prijateqe - naravno, bezuspje{no. Bio sam hiqadama kilometara daleko, a bombe su bolile ... Isto onako kao {to je bolilo nekoliko godina ranije, kad sam sa balkona u ulici Vojvode Stepe posmatrao tenkove kako polaze za Sloveniju. Razaraju}i bol, bespomo}nost.

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I travel a lot, and people ask where I am from. That question sounds so simple, but the answer is terribly hard. And it is getting harder and harder. ‘I am from the past’, I usually answer – turning the story to a bitter humour. Sometimes I answer with another question, ‘Do you really have time for listen to a very long story?’ I also talk about my ‘previous life’. Yes, I am from that Yugoslavia, from the country that does not exist any more. The Croatian author, Dubravka Ugresic, wonderfully described that state of spirit in her Culture of Lies, where she explains how she comes from Atlantis. ‘Atlantis does not exist. Thus I do not exist.’ Crossroads? Approaching my fifties, I am at yet another of my crossroads. At this age we ask what we have done in our life, the major part of which is already behind us. Someone called this a crisis, a mid-life crisis. I do not think these questions necessarily reflect a crisis. In a Buddhist sense, a crisis is associate with the still undecided, with a flux where everything is still subject to change. Maybe, your word ‘crossroads’ is more suitable. Where to go? To pursue the same path, or to choose a new one? Is there enough time left?

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Dosta putujem, i qudi me neizostavno pitaju odakle sam ... To pitawe zvu~i jednostavno, ali odgovor je u`asno te`ak. I sve je te`i. Ja sam iz pro{losti, naj~e{}e odgovorim - okre}u}i pri~u ka nekom gorkom humoru. Ponekad odgovorim kontra-pitawem: “Da li zaista imate vremena za duga~ku pri~u?”. Govorim im i o svom “prethodnom `ivotu” ... Da, ja sam iz “one Jugoslavije”, iz zemqe koje vi{e nema. Hrvatska autorka Dubravka Ugre{i} je odli~no opisala to stawe duha, u “Kulturi la`i”, rekav{i da je ona iz Atlantide: “Atlantida ne postoji. Dakle, ja ne postojim.” Raskr{}a? Bli`e}i se pedesetoj, na jo{ jednoj sam raskrsnici. U tim godinama ~ovjek se pita {ta je uradio u ve}em dijelu `ivota koji je ve} iza, pro{ao. Neki to zovu krizom, mid-life crisis. Ne mislim da je u pitawu neminovno kriza. Mo`da u budisti~kom smislu, gdje se koncept krize poistovje}uje sa situacijom u kojem ni{ta nije odlu~eno, gdje je sve jo{ podlo`no promjeni. Mo`da je va{a rije~ “raskrsnica” podobnija. Kuda? Daqe, istim putem, ili nekim novim? Gdje? Ima li vremena?

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izmjewena na ili nepovratno

gore, odgovor za

ista nije

na a mjesta uni{te ja su referentn ~i a , to es mj u e vjeruj javaju}e. Za ~ovjeka koji ijeme je onespoko vr na en ed sv ti t? lak. Bi n - u neizvesnos iju; na neki na~i al tr us A u li i{ sku karijeru i ot uspe{nu akadem i il st pu na e st 5. Za{to e karijere. Mislim da {tawe akademsk pu na o bi je koj aktivnosti. ni ts te ne zi me er za iv da un ra o og kqu~iv na beogradskom Odlazak iz Be } se posvetio is je bio onaj na kojem sam radio ve , ru je ri ka u nego {to Naprotiv. io akademsk Beogradu. m ne samo nastav rnu dostigla daleko vi{i nivo eo da dostignem, da sam ostao u U Australiji sa bu pj us el M a karijera u istom periodu, je moja akademsk ovatno vi{i i nego {to bih, u er Vj Univerzitetu.

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changed fo or irretrievably

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reer behind. my academic ca ademic career n leaving my ac tivity. I think that ea ac m ve t ity rs ha no ive uld did un e wo to I exclusively an the one Leaving Belgrad even higher th devoted myself ly ve ab ha I ob , Pr er re e. ry. ca ra ad emic On the cont rsity of Belgr inued my acad ht at the Unive ve not only cont an when I taug th e rn In Australia I ha ou elb M in ade. h higher level stayed in Belgr reached a muc period if I had e m sa e th g reached durin

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Za{to? Na beogradskom Arhitektonskom fakultetu sam radio u vrijeme krize, krize koja, kako mi se ~ini, jo{ traje. Na materijalnu nema{tinu smo po~etkom devedesetih svi bili navikli, ali to je bilo i doba duboke moralne krize u cijeloj zemqi. Fakultet nije mogao a da ne oslika taj krah. Tu`no vrijeme, na svoj na~in i veli~anstveno. Vrijeme studentskih nemira, onih fantasti~nih antiratnih demonstracija. Zauvijek }u biti ponosan {to sam sa studentima bio na ulicama Beograda. Neke od mojih najvrijednijih uspomena vezane su za te doga|aje; na primjer, za predavawe o ru{ewu Mostara koje sam, koriste}i slike Beograda i sru{enih ku}a oko Mawe`a, odr`ao studentima zabarikadiranim na Filozofskom fakultetu; za poku{aj da pro|emo uzurpiranim ulicama Dediwa; za neka divna mlada lica koja su vjerovala da se ludilo mo`e zaustaviti. Glavna uspomena s’ po~etka devedestih je, me|utim, bezna|e, onaj osje}aj da }e sva ta mladala~ka energija biti stra}ena na gluposti, nemilosrdno utopqena u krv i ludilo nacionalizma. Kao {to svi dobro znamo, to se i dogodilo. Why? At the University of Belgrade I worked in a time of crisis: the same crisis that, as far as I can see, still continues. In the early 1990s we got used to deprivation, but that was also a time of a great moral crisis throughout the country. The Faculty could not but reflect that downfall. These were sad times, but also magnificent in a way. They were times of student unrest, fantastic anti-war street riots and demonstrations. I will always be proud of the fact that I was with my students in the streets of Belgrade. Some of my most precious memories are linked to those events: for instance, the lecture on the destruction of Mostar which I delivered to students who had barricaded themselves in the Faculty of Philosophy. I lectured using pictures of Belgrade and images of a recently demolished block next to the Manjez Park. Then, another powerful memory is of our attempt to pass through the streets of Dedinje which were usurped and approprieated by Milosevic and his clique: those beautiful young people who believed that this madness could be stopped. But my main memory of the early 1990s remains a sense of hopelessness, the feeling that all that our youth would be wasted on stupidity and ruthlessly drowned in the blood and madness of nationalism. As we all know, that is exactly what happened.

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Kad sam aprila 1993. do{ao u Melburn na{ao sam se u sasvim druk~ijim akademskim vodama, me|u kolegama koji su bili pla}eni i koji su imali vremena, interesovawa i kapacitet da se bave istra`iva~kim radom, da se bave arhitekturom i urbanizmom, koji nisu bili natjerani da tezgare da bi pre`ivjeli niti da ku}i vuku sviwske polutke kupqene preko sindikata. Sje}am se kako u po~etku nisam bio u kondiciji za duge akademske razgovore, za diskusije o kwigama i idejama, kako mi je nedostajao adrenalin prqave politi~ke konfrontacije. Pri~ali bismo po pola sata, sat - a da niko ne pomene politiku! Nevjerovatno! Australija je, za mnoge, “na kraju svijeta�, jer tako izgleda na kartama kojima je u centru Evropa. Ali u ovo doba savremenih komunikacija to je percepcija qudi koje je vrijeme pregazilo. Treba samo pogledati biblioteke australijskih univerziteta, treba se upoznati sa koli~inom i kvalitetom ovde proizvedenih, izgra|enih i objavqenih radova, treba vidjeti liste posjetilaca iz cijelog svijeta koji dolaze da ovde predaju, rade, misle - da bi se donijela pravednija procjena. 280


When in April 1993 I came to Melbourne, I found myself in quite different academic waters, among the colleagues who had decent salaries and who had the time, interest and capacity to do research, to deal with architecture and urban design; who were not forced to work overtime to survive, or to drag their union-provided food rations home. I remember that at first I had difficulties in focusing at long academic talks or at discussions of books or ideas. I missed the adrenalin of dirty political confrontations! We would discuss various issues for a half of an hour, or for whole hour, and nobody would mention politics! Incredible! For many, Australia is at the end of the world, because that’s how it looks like on maps that have Europe at the centre. But in the age of modern communications, this view is out of date. You only have to take a look at Australian university libraries; to get acquainted with the quantity and quality of the work produced, built and published here, to see the lists of visitors from around the world who come here to give lectures, to work and to think – and then make your own judgment.

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Australija je zemqa koja (uz sve probleme koje, naravno, ima) omogu}ava veoma visok akademski nivo. Imao sam dosta sre}e kad sam odlu~io da ba{ u Australiji provedem dio `ivota. Ta zemqa mi je poslu`ila, i jo{ mi slu`i, ne samo kao mjesto boravka ve} i kao inspiracija i kao odsko~na daska za nove poduhvate i otkrovewa. Australija mi je omogu}ila da iz prve ruke upoznam isto~nu i jugoisto~nu Aziju, kulture koje su toliko razli~ite od moje. Istinsku misteriju “Dalekog istoka�. To su prostori i kulture u koje zalazim sa strasnom otvoreno{}u, svjesno rawiv, sa `eqom da nekako, kao sun|er upijem {to vi{e od te radikalne, fascinantne razli~itosti. Zvani~no predstavqam svoj fakultet na Tajlandu i u Vijetnamu. Istra`iva~ki projekti su mi vezani za te dvije zemqe, za Kinu, za Japan. U tom radu u`ivam. Vjerujem da iz Evrope, a da ne ka`em iz Beograda, ne bih bio u prilici da im se toliko primaknem. U Melburnu moji studenti su djevojke i mladi}i iz tih zemaqa, formirani u tim egzoti~nim podnebqima, qudi od kojih u~im o mjestima koja sve vi{e cijenim, a ve} pomalo i poznajem.

Australia is a country (with all its problems, of course) that exhibits a very high academic level. My decision to spend a part of my life right here, in Australia, was quite fortunate. This country gave me then, and it still does, not only a place to live in, but also one that would serve as an inspiration and a springboard for my new enterprises and discoveries. Australia gave me the opportunity to experience East and South-East Asia; cultures which are so different from my own. The mystery of the Far East! These are the spaces and cultures which I approach with a passionate openness, consciously vulnerable, but with a strong wish to absorb, like a sponge, as much as possible of that radical and fascinating difference. Officially, I represent my School in Thailand and Vietnam. My research projects are connected to those two countries as well as to China and Japan. That is the work I really enjoy. I believe that I would not be able to come so close to these countries from Europe, let alone from Belgrade. In Melbourne my students are young people who come from those countries and are formed in and by these exotic climates. They are the people from whom I learn about these places, which I appreciate more and more and which I am begining to understand.

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6. Da li se i na koji na~in uticaj specifi~ne australijske sredine, sasvim razli~ite od beogradske, posebno mostarske, manifestovao na Vas?

6. Did the specific Australian environment, which is so different from Belgrade, and especially from that of Mostar, have an influence on you, and if so, in what way?

Rekoh Vam {ta najvi{e volim u Australiji. Australija je veoma zanimqiva. Ogromna. Po~ev{i od tih neizmjernih prostranstava, po kojima mo`ete satima i satima da vozite, a da ne vidite ne samo naseqe, ve} ni drugog ~ovjeka, do biqnih i `ivotinjskih vrsta koje postoje samo ovde. Onda- kompozitni karakter australijske kulture. Statistike ka`u da se u Melburnu govori sto ~etrdeset ~etiri jezika! Donedavno, Melburn je bio drugi po veli~ini gr~ki grad (nedavno ga je pretekao Solun). Melburn je veliki italijanski grad, veliki eks-jugoslovenski grad, {panski, ruski, ~iji sve ne?! Te kulture su u stalnom dijalogu, me|usobnom i sa jo{ uvijek dominantnom anglo-saksonskom kulturom. Negdje upisani su i jo{ `ivi slojevi fascinantne aborixinske civilizacije. I onda, opet, ta priroda!

I have described what I like most about Australia. Australia is very interesting. It is huge. The space is immense: you can drive for hours without seeing a single settlement or another human being. All its indigenous plants and animals are fascinating. Then – the composite character of Australian culture. Statistics show that in Melbourne one hundred and forty four languages are spoken! Not so long ago, Melbourne was the second largest Greek city in the world (it was surpassed only recently by Thessaloniki). Melbourne is also a great Italian city, a great ex-Yugoslav city: it’s got people who are Spanish, Russian and who knows who else. Those cultures are in constant dialogue both among themselves and with the still-dominant Anglo-Saxon culture. Some of the remaining layers of the fascinating Aborigine culture can also be found. And then – that fascinating nature!

Razlika u odnosu na beogradsku sredinu, i generalno, u odnosu na Evropu je apsolutna.

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Compared to Belgrade and to Europe generally, Australia is totally different.


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Me|utim, dodao bih ne{to {to smatram va`nim. Svi emigranti }e vam potvrditi da, kada odete iz svoje zemqe, mnogo nau~ite o novoj sredini, ali jo{ vi{e o onoj koju ste napustili. Neki ~udan splet poja~ane senzibilnosti za introspekciju, na individualnom i na {irem, kulturalnom, planu omogu}ava uvide koji su nemogu}i iz blizine, “iznutra”. Stalna potreba da se poredimo “mi” i “oni” poma`e da se jasnije formuli{e {ta je to {to nas ~ini posebnim, druk~ijim, {ta je to za {ta a priori, ~esto nekriti~ki vjerujemo da je boqe. Prostorna i vremenska distanca poma`u da se vide neke dimenzije koje izmi~u onima koji su, fizi~ki, dio slike; kao {to se mozaik boqe vidi kad daqina izbri{e granice izme|u dijeli}a koji ga konstitui{u.

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However, I would like to add something I find relevant. All immigrants would confirm that, when you leave your own country, you learn a lot about your new environment, but you learn even more about the one you left behind. A strange mixture of an intensified sensibility for introspection, at the individual and at the broader cultural level provides the immigrant with insights which would be impossible at close quarters, from ‘inside’. The permanent need to compare ‘us’ and ‘them’ helps us to formulate more clearly what it is that makes us special, different; what is it that we believe, a priori and often uncritically, to be better. The spatial, as well as time distance, helps us to see dimensions that are beyond those who are, physically part of the picture. That is similar to the way in which we can visualise a mosaic far better when distance erases the borders between its constituent pieces.

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Here in Australia I’ve learned a lot about former Yugoslavia, about all those parts of it, about its cities – and, in particular, about Belgrade and Mostar, Split, Korcula ‌ cities that have significantly formed me. It was painful to watch from a distance the decline of those cities, the drowning of the urban by the provincial. I was proud of the news about the urban cultural guerillas and resistance of Belgrade. Unfortunately, from this distance I also clearly saw the victory (a temporary victory, I hope) of nationalism, xenophobia, and palanka (provincialism).

U Australiji sam mnogo nau~io o biv{oj Jugoslaviji, o svim ovim wenim ostacima, o svojim gradovima - u koje prvenstveno ubrajam Beograd i Mostar, ali i Split, i Kor~ulu ... gradove koji su me zna~ajno formirali. Bilo je bolno posmatrati sa distance pad tih gradova, utapawe gradskog u palana~ko i provincijalno. Bio sam ponosan na svaku vijest o urbanoj kulturalnoj gerili i otporu Beograda. Na`alost, sa ove udaqenosti vidio sam jasno i pobjedu (nadam se, privremenu) nacionalizma, ksenofobije, palanke.

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7. Koliko ste Vi uticali na tu novu sredinu? Pa, u~iteq uti~e na svoju sredinu. To je neminovno. Jedanaest godina koliko sam, evo, na melburn{kom univerzitetu nije kratak period. Doprinose}i oblikovawu profila ovda{wih arhitekata i urbanista sigurno da doprinosim i oblikovawu ovda{we arhitektonske i urbanisti~ke kulture. Divno je sresti biv{e studente. Mnogi od wih su sada eminentni projektanti, neki rade na univerzitetima. U Australiji i {irom svijeta. Na primjer, jedan od kolega sa Fakulteta sa kojim najvi{e sara|ujem (pa ~ak i na jednom malom projektu za Beograd), Stiv Vitford (Steve Whitford), bio je moj student na postdiplomskim studijama, a danas je odli~an prijateq. Sino}, dok sam sa jednim od magistranata sjedio pred kafi}em Mario’s u Ficroju (Fitzroy), dvoje biv{ih studenata, sada arhitekata, je zastalo da popri~amo. Prijateqstva sa tim mladim, vrijednim, kreativnim qudima koji ostavqaju zna~ajnog traga na arhitekturi Melburna su, mo`da, i najqep{a strana posla kojim se bavim. Pored toga, pored uticaja kroz nastavu, u konkretnijem obliku, trudim se da ovda{woj urbanisti~koj i arhitektonskoj kulturi doprinesem kroz javne debate i u~e{}e u nekim projektima. Priznajem, na primjer, da mi je bilo drago kad sam prije par godina dobio priznawe za doprinos kvalitetu urbanih prostora melburn{kog boemskog predgra|a St Kilda. Uz to ide i istra`iva~ki rad - obala St Kilde, ne{to ranije melburn{ki Docklands, studije centralnog Melburna, pa konkursi u Kini. Ne bi imalo smisla to raditi kad ne bih vjerovao da ti projekti doprinose kvalitetu arhitektonskog i urbanisti~kog diskursa. 290

7. How much environment?

have

you

influenced

your

new

Well, teachers do influence their environment. It is inevitable. It is eleven years since I joined the University of Melbourne. That is not a short period. By contributing to shaping the educational profiles of local architects and urban designers, I certainly do contribute to shaping local architectural and urban design culture. It is wonderful to meet your own former students. Many of them are already eminent architects; some work in universities in Australia and all over the world. For instance, one of my colleagues from the Faculty, Steve Whitford, today my friend and collaborator (even on a small project for Belgrade), was one of my post-graduate students. Last night, while I was sitting at Mario’s Café in Fitzroy with one of my Masters students, two former students who are now practising architects, stopped by for a brief chat. Friendship with diligent, creative young people who leave significant traces on Melbourne architecture is, perhaps, the best part of my job. Besides the teaching-related influences, I try to contribute to the local culture of urban design and architecture in a more concrete way, through public debates and participation in certain projects. I must admit that, for example, I was very pleased when I was acknowledged a few year’s ago for my contribution to the quality of urban space of the bohemian Melbourne suburb, St Kilda. Besides all that, there is my research work – currently St Kilda’s foreshore, earlier Melbourne Docklands, studies of central Melbourne, competitions in China. It would make no sense to participate in those projects if I did not believe that they contributed to the quality of discourse in architecture and urban design.


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8. Koliko razmi{qate o pesmi “Ostajte ovdje! ... Sunce tu|eg neba Ne}e vas grijat k’o {to ovo grije...”?

Kad neko ode, [anti} dobija na zna~aju, ~ak postaje konstantna misao ... Ja sam [anti}a volio i u Beogradu. I volio uz [anti}a. Emigracija je i zanimqiva muka. ^esto je poredim s pri~om “Tamni vilajet” i onim: “Ko uzme kaja}e se, ko ne uzme - kaja}e se.” Mislim da smo se mi Jugosloveni po~etkom devedesetih na{li u takvoj situaciji - ko ode, kaja}e se, ko ostane - pokajao se. Bar tako mi ve}ina prijateqa ka`e. “Ostajte ovdje ...” Ostajte - gdje?

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8. How often do you think about the famous verses, ‘Remain here! … The sun of foreign skies will not warm you as this one does’?

When you leave your homeland, Santic gains in importance: he becomes a constant thought. … I liked Santic in Belgrade, too. And loved inspired by his poems, too. Emigration is an interesting agony. I often compare it with the fairytale ‘The Dark No-land’ and the famous phrase, ‘If you take it, you’ll regret it; if you don’t, you’ll regret as well’. I think that at the beginning of the 1990s we, Yugoslavs, found ourselves in such a situation – those who left were to regret their decision, those who stayed – regretted it, too. That is what most of my friends say. ‘Remain here …’ Remain – where?

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Kad neko ode iz zemqe koja nestaje, situacija je druk~ija nego u normalnim slu~ajevima. Oni koji odu iz Italije, mogu da odlu~e da se vrate u Italiju. Oni koji su oti{li iz Francuske, mogu da se vrate u Francusku. Mi koji smo oti{li iz Jugoslavije, ne mo`emo da se vratimo u tu zemqu, jer je vi{e nema. Neki emigranti, zadovoqni podjelama, svojim nezavisnim zemqama, vra}aju se u razne “lijepe wihove”. Sretno im bilo. Ja volim sve te dijelove. Da - sve! Me|utim - cjelinu sam izgubio. Kao mogu}a zamjena za izgubqeno ostaju gradovi. Redovno se vra}am Beogradu, ~esto putujem u Split, povremeno u Dubrovnik, Qubqanu... Jednom sam, eto, bio i u Mostaru.

When someone leaves a country that disappears, the situation is different from usual cases of emigration. Those who leave Italy may decide to return to Italy. Those who leave France can decide to return to France. We who have left Yugoslavia cannot return to that country because it does not exist any more. Some emigrants, pleased with the division of the country, returned to those newly-formed, small countries. I wish them a good luck. I love all those parts of former Yugoslavia. Yes – all of them! But – I have lost the whole. As a possible substitute for this loss, the cities remain. I regularly return to Belgrade and I often travel to Split; sometimes to Dubrovnik, Ljubljana … I have even been once to Mostar, too.

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Posje}uju}i Beograd gledao sam, osje}ao sam da se moj grad mijewa; kako se i ja se mijewam. Kako se udaqavamo. Na neki na~in nisam samo ja oti{ao; mjesto koje je meni zna~ilo - sve je nestalo. Ne samo Beograd, ne samo Mostar - ve} Jugoslavija. Jedan od moja dva grada fizi~ki je razru{en, drugi je vandaliziran kao grad-dru{tvo. Da li Beograd, moj, kosmopolitski Beograd {ezdesetih, sedamdesetih, pa donekle i osamdesetih, Beograd - zna~ajna evropska prestonica i daqe postoji? Ne bih rekao. Kao Atlantida, sve se to izmaklo ispod nogu.

While visiting Belgrade, I observed and felt how my city was changing. I myself was changing. We have been drifting apart. Somehow, I was not the only one who had left: places that meant everything to me had disappeared. Not only Belgrade, not only Mostar: but the whole of Yugoslavia. One of my two cities was physically destroyed; the other one was vandalised as a city–society. Does Belgrade, my Belgrade, the cosmopolitan Belgrade of the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s: Belgrade – the important European capital – still exist? I would not say so. As in Atlantis, all that was pulled from under my feet.

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Danas, na Tajlandu sam farang, u Japanu - gai|in - stranac. U Australiji - iako ne na prvi pogled prepoznatqiv - tako|e stranac. Najbolnije je, me|utim, biti stranac u svome gradu. Neke ne ba{ prijatne epizode u Beogradu, komentari tipa “oti{ao si�... povremeno mi ka`u ba{ to. Boli.

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Today, I am a foreigner – farang in Thailand, gaijin in Japan. In Australia – although this is not so obvious at a first glance – I am also a foreigner. The most painful thing of all is to be a foreigner in your own hometown. Yet, from time to time I experience some not-very-pleasant episodes in Belgrade; comments of the kind: ‘you left …’ remind me that I am a foreigner there. And that hurts.

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9. Postoji li tvorevina qudskog ratia i imaginacije koja Vas fascinira? Naravno da postoji ... To je grad. Najveli~anstvenija tvorevina, okvir svih ostalih tvorevina, mjesto gdje nastaju najve}i dometi qudskog.

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9. Is there one creation of human reason and imagination that especially fascinates you? Of course, there is.‌ It is the city. This is most magnificent human creation, the frame for all other creations, a place where the highest human achievements happen.

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U u`em smislu... ne, ne bih se usudio da izdvojim jednu, ili samo nekoliko qudskih tvorevina koje me fasciniraju. Ili samo nekoliko stvaralaca. Ranije, u mla|im danima bio bih samouvjereniji, i krenuo u nabrajawe. Mikelan|elo Buonaroti (Michelangelo Buonarroti) bi, vjerovatno, bio na po~etku liste. A on bi me vratio gradu - Mikelan|elo - Firenca Medi~ija, genije i wegov kontekst. Generalno, najvi{e me fasciniraju aspekti qudskog koji su negdje izme|u racija i intuicije, sinteza znawa i osje}awa. Latinski ratio i japanska hara. Da, mo`da ba{ tako; i filozofski, i geografski, i kulturalno: zapad i istok.

10. [ta smatrate svojim neuspehom? Na koji na~in i u kojoj meri neuspeh mo`e da uti~e na Vas? Neuspjeh? Plural, molim. Ima ih mnogo, vjerujem, kao u sva~ijem `ivotu. Ve}ina zna~ajnih poraza je na intimnom, qudskom planu i, hronolo{ki gledano, ve}ina je vezana za ove godine kasno- i postjugoslovenskog ludila. Mnogi su vezani za raskorak izme|u `eqe da se ~ini dobro, i nemogu}nosti da se uvijek i prema svima koji to zaslu`uju bude dobar.

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But in a narrower sense: no; I would not dare to select a single, or even a few creations that fascinate me. Nor only a few authors. Earlier, when I was younger, I was more self-confident and I would start naming them. Michelangelo Buonarotti would be at the top of the list. He would bring me back to the city: Michelangelo and the Florence of the Medicis – a genius and his milieu. In general, I am most fascinated by the aspects of human endeavour that are positioned somewhere between ratio (reason) and intuition, which synthesise knowledge and the instincts. Latin ratio and Japanese hara. Yes, maybe exactly like that; philosophically, and geographically as well as culturally: East and West.

10. What do you consider to be your failure? In what way can a failure influence you? A failure? Plural, please. I have had many failures, as, I believe everyone’s has. Most of them are on an intimate, human level and, chronologically, most of them are related to those years of the late-Yugoslav and post-Yugoslav insanity. Many are related to the discrepancy between a desire to do good and the inability to be good towards all those who deserve it.

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11. Kada ste shvatili da su arhitektura i urbanizam Va{e opredeqewe? [ta je to {to jedan stvarala~ki duh poput Va{eg usmeri da napravi taj izbor? Nedavno je moj sin zapo~eo studije arhitekture pa se, gledaju}i wegove radove, ~esto uhvatim kako poredim to {to Vuk danas radi, sa svojim uspomenama, da se pitam gdje je u mom slu~aju bio taj po~etak interesovawa za arhitekturu. I ja sam, vjerovatno, na arhitekturu krenuo jer je ve} bila u porodici. Moj ujak iz Mostara, Vlado [uwi}, bio je arhitekt. Moja majka Mira bila je arhitektonski tehni~ar, uvijek zainteresovana za kvalitativne aspekte prostora, posebno enterijera. Vjerovatno zbog atmosfere koju su u mom `ivotu stvarali wihovi anga`mani i zbog prisutnosti arhitekture kao teme u ku}i, kada je do{lo do izbora fakulteta, ni za mene, kao ni za Vuka, nije bilo velike dileme. [to se tog trenutka odluke ti~e, ta~nog momenta kad sam shvatio da me arhitektura zaista zanima, i {ta konkretno na tom ogromnom poqu izgleda da je ba{ “moje� - to vezujem tek za tre}u godinu studija. Prva godina bila je za eks-gimnazijalca poprili~no konfuzna. ^ak traumati~na. Kao izuzetne li~nosti sa prve godine pamtim profesore Branu Milenkovi}a, Bogdana Bogdanovi}a i Anku Stojakovi}. Brana je bio prava inspiracija; volio sam kasnije da se vra}am wemu i temama koje je nazna~io. Ali, tokom prve godine ja

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11. When did you realise that architecture and urbanism were your vocation? What influenced a creative spirit like yours to make this choice? Not long ago my son started his architectural studies and, while looking at his work, I often find myself comparing what Vuk is now doing with my memories of myself and I wonder what the beginning of my interest in architecture was. I suppose I chose architecture because it was already in my family. My uncle from Mostar, Vlado Shunjic, was an architect. My mother, Mira, was an arcitectural technician. She was always interested in the qualitative aspects of space, especially in interior design. The atmosphere of their professional engagements and the very presence of architecture as a topic at home probably left both Vuk and me without any real choice when the time came for us to choose what to study. As for the very moment of my decision, the exact moment when I realised that I was truly interested in architecture and knew which of its many fields was to be truly mine – that happened in my third year of studies. The first year was pretty confusing for an ex-high school student. Even traumatic. In the first year I remember the outstanding figures of Professors Brana Milenkovic, Bogdan Bogdanovic and Anka Stojakovic. Brana was a true inspiration. I loved to return to him later, both to him and to the subjects he pointed me towards. Nevertheless, during my first year of studies I was not mature enough for everything that Brana introduced us to. He directed me to Borislav Pekic, to his Pilgrimage

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jednostavno nisam bio dovoqno zreo za sve to. Brana me je uputio na Peki}a, na “Hodo~a{}e Arsenija Wegovana”, kwigu u kojoj sam na{ao neki meni podoban senzibilitet, i u odnosu na arhitekturu i u odnosu na Beograd... Bogdanova enigmati~na li~nost i beskompromisna {irina pogleda na urbanologiju ostaju trajna inspiracija. Jo{ uvijek se bavim temama koje je on “nabacio” te davne 1974. Kad god imam priliku posjetim profesora Bogdanovi}a u Be~u; svojim studentima, odakle god bili, poku{avam da prenesem dijelove mudrosti koje je on davao meni i mojoj generaciji. 1998. smo ga svi zajedno, na putu iz Mostara, posjetili, a Bogdan je nam je poklonio izvanrednu pri~u o onim svojim radionicama... Ali, ka`em, tek na tre}oj godini do{lo je pravo “prosvjetqewe” u formi predmeta “Proces projektovawa” profesora Milana Lojanice. Tek tada mi je postalo jasno {ta me u arhitekturi zanima; ili je opet u pitawu bila vi{e hara, nego ratio, ne znam. Sje}am se teme svog seminarskog rada “Uloga li~nosti u procesu projektovawa” - i finih diskusija sa Lojketom koje su me uputile na daqa ~itawa, na dubqa razmi{qawa, ka razumijevawu da u arhitekturi mo`emo da prona|emo sve, pa i sebe. Konstantna inspiracija bio je i ostao, naravno, profesor Ranko Radovi}. Wegov konstantni izazov Fakultetu, konzervativizmu koji je tu carovao, hrabrost da iza|e van zidina fakultetske tvr|ave na Bulevaru, da pri~a na Kolarcu, na radiju, na televiziji ... Wegova studijska grupa “Nikola Dobrovi}” (kojoj se negdje krajem sedamdesetih bila pridru`ila i tada studentkiwa prava, kasnije moja supruga, Zlata) ... Ogromna energija, stvarala~ka, akademska, Rankov {arm ... Ranko Radovi} je izvanredan u~iteq, koji je postao i ostao moj odli~an prijateq.

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of Arsenije Njegovan, a book with a sensibility that suited me well, both regarding architecture and Belgrade itself.… Bogdan’s enigmatic personality and his uncompromisingly broad views of urbanology remain my everlasting inspiration. I am still engaged in the topics he had introduced to me a long time ago, in 1974. Whenever I have a chance I visit Professor Bogdanovic in Vienna and I make a big effort to communicate to my own students a part of the wisdom which Bogdan handed down to my generation. In 1998, on our way back from Mostar, we all visited Professor Bogdanovic and he told us an excellent story about his workshops… But, as I say, it was only at my third year that a true enlightenment came in the form of a course entitled The Design Process, which was conducted by Professor Milan Lojanica. That was the moment when I realised what, in the world of architecture, were my interests; though, probably that was again more a question of hara then of ratio. I am not sure. I still remember the topic of my seminar – The Role of Personality in the Design Process – and some fine discussions with Lojke which directed me towards further reading, deeper thinking and towards an understanding that in architecture we can find everything, even our own selves. Of course, an everlasting inspiration was then, and still remains today, Professor Ranko Radovic. He constantly challenged the Faculty of Architecture and the conservatism that reigned in that institution. He had the courage to break out of the walls of the fortress of architectural education at the Boulevard and to lecture at Kolarac University and on radio and television.… His study group, Nikola Dobrovic (which even a law student, later my wife, Zlata, joined during the 1970s). He exhibited enormous energy, constructive energy, and academic energy…. Ranko Radovic is an excellent teacher with great personal charm. He became, and still is today, my great friend.

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Jo{ jedno ime nipo{to ne smijem da zaboravim - ime profesora Milorada Pantovi}a, u ~ijem sam studiju nau~io mnogo o arhitekturi. O arhitekturi kao do`ivotnoj strasti. Moja generacija je imala sre}u da upozna neke od tih starih profesora, koji su sedamdesetih, nakon dugih i plodnih karijera, jedan za drugim odlazili u penziju. Me|u wima se sa posebnim zadovoqstvom sje}am prijateqstva profesora Mate Bajlona. Profesor Bajlon je bio sto`er postdiplomskih studija, kad sam ih ja zapo~iwao. I susjed, kojeg sam, uvijek sa slatkom strepwom, posje}ivao da popri~amo o mom radu. Na postdiplomskim studijama sam se, u stvari, kona~no na{ao u prilici da biram - i kona~no “na{ao sebe”. Tu sam definisao teme i boqe upoznao qude sa kojima je vrijedilo raditi. Moji mentori su bili Ranko Radovi} (specijalisti~ki rad i, kasnije, doktorat), Milan Lojanica (diplomskli rad), Ranko Trbojevi} (magistarski rad), Brana Milenkovi}, Mate Bajlon. Svi oni su na neki na~in doprinjeli formirawu razumijevawa {ta je u arhitekturi i urbanizmu “moj put”. A taj put je, u smislu koji smo prodiskutovali u odgovoru na Va{e pitawe o raskr{}ima, podlo`an stalnim redefinisawima.

12. Dok ste studirali, ko su bili Va{i uzori? To pitawe, vjerovatno, nije trebalo da bude te{ko, ali - jeste. Ve} sam Vam kazao koje profesore beogradskog fakulteta smatram zna~ajnim. Me|utim, mene su uvijek vi{e inspirisale ideje van arhitekture koje se mogu primijeniti u arhitekturi, koje se prelamaju kroz prostor i qudske aktivnosti, ali koje pripadaju nekim drugim okvirima, nekim drugim “svijetovima”. Ja sam oduvijek mnogo ~itao, ~itawe je moj hobi, tako da se moje intelektualno naponsko poqe hranilo energijom iz svih mogu}ih sfera koje su me, povremeno ili stalno, zanimale. Pomenuo sam Peki}a. On je bio moja ~itala~ka pasija, koju sam dijelio sa svojim kumom Lolom Stefanovi}em, pravim ~ita~em-gurmanom. (Bilo je divno i upoznati Borislava Peki}a, u Londonu, ~ini mi se 1989.) Za vrijeme studija volio sam Tomasa Mana (Thomas Mann), Hakslija (Huxley) ... Mikelan|ela vajara, Mikelan|ela slikara, Mikelan|ela arhitektu, Mikelan|ela urbanistu. Mikelan|ela - pjesnika. (Zbog wega sam u~io italijanski.) Zanimali su me Frojd (Freud), From (Fromm) ... ~ak i zastra{uju}i Spengler. (Koji me je osvojio definicijom grada kao “naseqa sa du{om”.) 314


And another personality I will never forget – Professor Milorad Pantovic. In his studio I learnt a lot about architecture – about architecture as a life-long passion. My generation was lucky enough to meet some of those old professors who retired during the 1970s after long and productive careers,. Particularly pleasant is the memory of my friendship with Professor Mate Baylon. Professor Baylon was the Head of Graduate Studies at the Faculty of Architecture, when I started with my own postgraduate studies. He was my neighbour, too, whom I used to visit for discussions about my work; always with some sweet anxiety. During my postgraduate studies I was given every opportunity to seek – and eventually to find – myself. In that process my interests became focused and I also got acquainted with some of the people worth working with. My mentors were Ranko Radovic (for my specialist thesis and later for my doctoral thesis), Milan Lojanica (who was my mentor for my thesis design), Ranko Trbojevic (mentor for my masters thesis), Brana Milenkovic and Mate Baylon. Each of these was an important contributor to the resolution of my own way in architecture and urbanism. And that way is, in the sense we have already discussed in relation to your question about crossroads, subject to perpetual redefinition.

12. Who were your models during your studies? That kind of question should not be a difficult one, but it is. I have already told you which of the professors in my faculty I consider important. However, I was always inspired by ideas outside architecture which can be applied within architecture, which intersect in space and human activities, but also belong to other spheres, other worlds. I have always read a lot: reading is my hobby. My intellectual force field has been regularly recharged from my various spheres of interest. I have mentioned Pekic. He had been my reading passion, a passion which I have shared with my friend and best-man, Lola Stefanovic, a truely gourmet reader. I meet Borslav Pekic during one memorable occasion in London (in 1989, I think). During my studies, I loved Thomas Mann, Huxley … Michelangelo, the sculptor, Michelangelo, the painter, Michelangelo, the architect, Michelangelo, the urban designer. Michelangelo, the poet (he was the reason I started learning Italian). I was also interested in Freud, Fromm … even in that frightening Spengler, who charmed me with his definition of a town as ‘a settlement with the soul’. 315


U struci - mislim da smo svi tih godina bili inspirisani Finskom, nordijskim zemqama uop{te. Tome je zna~ajno doprinjeo Ranko Radovi}, koji nam je prenosio ne samo informacije i ideje, ve} i davao svoje originalne, zanimqive intepretacije radova Alta (Aalto), Pijetila (Pietila) ... I profesor Branko Aleksi} je doprinosio toj atmosferi koja je ostavila dosta traga na mene. Akcenat u wihovim predavawima je bio na principima, a ne na zvijezdama, na mjestu, na podnebqu, na kulturi, na detaqu, na teksturi i materijalu vi{e nego na egu pojedinaca. Ja i danas tako vidim dobru arhitekturu, tra`im je u prepletu onoga {to je dato i onoga {to je neko nadaren ili nau~en da dá i doda. U Beogradu, inspiracija je bio CEP, posebno u vrijeme savjetovawa “Komunikacije”. Maj u “Cvijeti Zuzori}” bio je praznik za sve koji su volili grad i inteligentne diskusije o gradu i gradskom. Imao sam sre}u {to sam se relatvno mlad upoznao sa CEP-ovim “sazvije`|em”. Po~eo da dolazim na “Komunikacije” i da slu{am iz prikrajka, onda sam po~eo da pi{em i prevodim za Milo{a Bobi}a, urednika CEP-ovog lista “Komunikacija”, da sara|ujem sa wima preko studentske zadruge... Kasnije sam postao jedan od CEP-ovaca, {to smatram jednim od najva`nijih perioda u `ivotu. Centar za planirawe urbanog razvoja - CEP bio je izvanredan kolektiv, firma jakih individualaca sposobnih da rade timski, da misle zajedno, da se bore za ideje i da priznaju kvalitet razli~itog.

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Professionally – I think we all were inspired by Finland and the Nordic countries in general. Ranko Radovic contributed to that a great deal; he communicated to us not only his ideas and rich information, but he also gave us his own original interpretations of works of Aalto and Pietila… Professor Branko Aleksic also contributed to the atmosphere that was influencing me at the time. His emphasis was on principles, not on stars; on place, on environment, on culture, on detail, texture and materials much more than on the egos of individual designers. Even today I seek in good architecture the mixture of what has been given and what someone with talent and erudition can give and add. In Belgrade my inspiration was the Centre for the Planning of Urban Development, CEP, especially during the annual Communication Conference. The month of May in the Pavilion “Cvijeta Zuzoric”, was a celebration for all of us who loved the city and enjoyed intelligent discussions on the city and the urban. I was lucky enough, relatively early on in my career, to meet the CEP constellation. I started by attending the Communication sessions and listening without taking active part. Then I started to write and translate for Milos Bobic, the editor of CEP’s Communication magazine, and I worked for them as a student.… Later on, I became one of the CEP staff members and I consider my period in CEP as one of the most important periods of my life. The Centre for the Planning of Urban Development, CEP, was an exceptional organisation. It was a firm with a lot of strong and capable individuals who were able to work as a team, to think together, to fight for their ideas and to recognise the quality of the different.


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CEP su, u vrijeme kad sam se ja pridru`io, sa~iwavali Mi{a David, \or|e i Milo{ Bobi}, Braca Feren~ak, Vlada Macura, Ne{a Novakov, Gavrilo Mihaqevi}, Goran Bo`ovi}, Braca Gakovi}, Marin Kre{i}, Bo{ko Budisavqevi}, Mira Gvozdi}, Daca Kozlovi}, Zoran Rubiwoni, Ela Plovani}, Boba Milo{evi}, Jovanka Markuc, Nena Bakaji}, Qiqana Jovanovi}. Fantasti~na ekipa. Mislim da je jedini hendikep CEP-a bio {to je operisao u relativno maloj sredini i komunicirao na jeziku “kratkog dometa”. Danas, kad se bavim teorijom arhitekture i urbanizma, sasvim mi je jasno da su te ideje, te diskusije, ti projekti koji su se de{avali u CEP-u i oko CEP-a sedamdesetih i osamdesetih bili izuzetno kvalitetni, u svjetskim razmjerama. Volio bih da na|em postdiplomca, doktoranta koji bi savjesno istra`io CEP u kontekstu urbanisti~kih ideja svog vremena. Ponuda je otvorena! 13. Da li sada imate uzore? Kakav je Va{ odnos prema nekada{wim, studentskim, a kakav prema dana{wim uzorima? Uzori? Ne znam, ima mnogo qudi koje po{tujem i izuzetno cijenim, i u akademskim i u profesionalnim vodama i van arhitekture i urbanizma, ali da li ih mogu zvati svojim uzorima - ne. ^ini mi se da ~ovjek, ako ozbiqno radi i posveti se struci, u jednom trenutku suvi{e duboko za|e nekim svojim putem da bi mogao imati uzore. Inspiraciju - svakako, ~ak i zavidqivost, ali u nekom trenutku postane suvi{e kasno za uzore i slije|ewe bilo ~ijih stopa.

When I joined them, the CEP staff consisted of Misa David, Djordje and Milos Bobic, Braca Ferencak, Vlada Macura, Nesa Novakov, Gavrilo Mihaljevic, Goran Bozovic, Braca Gakovic, Marin Kresic, Bosko Budisavljevic, Mira Gvozdic, Daca Kozlovic, Zoran Rubinjoni, Ela Plovanic, Boba Milosevic, Jovanka Markuc, Nena Bakajic and Ljiljana Jovanovic. What a fantastic team! I think that the only disadvantage was that CEP operated in a relatively small cultural space and communicated their ideas in a language of short reach. Today, when I deal with theories of urbanism and architecture, I am convinced that the ideas that emerged, the discussions and projects that took place in CEP and around CEP during the 1970s and the 1980s were of the highest quality, judged by the strictest global criteria. I would like to find a graduate student or someone willing to start a doctoral degree – to do a rigorous study of the CEP, in the context of the urban ideas of the time. This offer remains open.

13. Do you have any personal models now? What is the relation between these and your ‘paragons’ from the old, student days? Paragons? I do not know. There are many people whom I respect, both in academia and in the practice of architecture and urbanism. But, to call them personal models – no. I think that, if a man is seriously devoted to his profession, at some stage he sets forward too far along his own path to have any direct models. Inspiration – of course, even envy, but there is a point when it is too late for any models or for following anybody’s footsteps.

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Ideali? Genije Mikelan|ela, hrabrost i kreativnost Le Korbizijea (Le Corbusier), senzibilitet Renca Pjana (Renzo Piano)... No eto, ~im po~nem sa imenima sve po~iwe da li~i na papazjaniju ideja i epoha pa je, bez prilike za detaqniju, diskusiju, vjerovatno boqe ne upu{tati se u to.

14. U svojoj pedago{koj praksi “stvarate� potencijalne budu}e uzore. [ta za Vas predstavlqa takva mogu}nost, ako se to mo`e tako nazvati? Mislim da posao profesora, predava~a, podrazumijeva izuzetnu odgovornost. Zanimqiv je, ali nije lak - ako mu se odgovorno pri|e. Taj posao zadovoqstvo.

pru`a

i

neopisivo

Rad sa studentima, posebno na projektovawu, je za mene uvijek bio veoma inspirativan; vidim ga kao kreativnu interakciju iskustva i mladosti, znawa i energije, kao saradwu, sintezu razli~itih potencijala. ^esto ga poredim sa trenerskim pozivom. Sve {to sam na po~etku akademske karijere znao o pedagogiji donijeo sam iz svog paralelnog, sportskog `ivota. Uloga trenera je da pomogne sportisti da na|e sebe, da dosegne maksimum. Svoj maksimum. Ja tako vidim i rad sa studentima, posebno u oblasti koja, kao projektovawe, podrazumijeva sintezu talenta i napornog rada.

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Ideals? The genius of Michelangelo, the courage and creativity of Le Corbusier, the sensibility of Renzo Piano‌. Well, as soon as I start citing names, the list starts to look like a bizarre mixture of ideas and ages. So, since we do not have time for a detailed discussion, it is better not to get into all that.

14. In your pedagogical career, you create potential paragons for the future. What does this opportunity, if it is possible to call it this, mean to you? To be a professor, a lecturer, presumes exceptional responsibility. That job is interesting, but it is not an easy one – if approached with the necessary responsibility. This profession also gives an indescribable pleasure. Working with students, especially in design, has always been very inspiring for me. I see it as a creative interaction of experience and youth, of knowledge and energy; as a co-operative journey, a synthesis of different potentials. I often compare teaching with coaching. I brought everything I knew about teaching when I was at the beginning of my academic career from my parallel life in sports. The role of a coach is to help sportspersons to find themselves, to reach their maximum potential. Their own maximum potential. That is how I see my work with students, especially in fields such as design, which include the synthesis of talent and hard work.

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Ve} nekoliko godina radim uglavnom sa postdiplomcima. Na tom nivou, ideja o mentorstvu kao pomo}i pri samootkrivawu ima najvi{e opravdawa. Na magistarskim studijama studenti su mi ~esto ve} formirani i iskusni profesionalci, iz Australije i mnogih zemaqa svijeta. Ove godine Masters of Urban Design, kurs koji vodim na melburn{kom univerzitetu, ima devet novih studenata: ~etiri su iz Kine, po jedan iz SAD-a, Singapura, Kolumbije, Indije, Australije ... Na pro{logodi{wi Masters Studio u Bangoku, iz Melburna sam poveo devet studenata - sa ~etiri kontinenta! Mo`ete da zamislite raznovrsnost wihovih `ivotnih iskustava, kultura, pogleda na svijet, urbanizam, arhitekturu. Sve to stvara izvanrednu atmosferu za zajedni~ko napredovawe, za rad koji je zaista mnogo vi{e nego prosta suma individualnih napora. Rad na doktorskim studijama je, opet, zadovoqstvo posebne vrste. Uvijek ka`em da taj posao radim jer sam sebi~an, jer kao mentor za uzvrat uvijek dobijem i vi{e nego {to mogu da dam. Moj posao je ~esto samo metodolo{ke prirode, mentorska pomo} u formulisawu teme, kqu~nih pitawa, na~ina rada, a diskusije sa studentima su uvijek fantasti~no iskustvo otkrivawa novog. Moji doktoranti su sada {efovi arhitektonskih fakulteta u Inodoneziji, na Tajlandu... Mnogi su uspje{ni arhitekti i urbanisti. Ponosan sam na svaki wihov uspjeh. Da, to je stvarawe novih uzora.

For several years I have been mainly working with postgraduate students. At that level, the idea of mentorship as assisting in the process of selfdiscovery is most justified. My Masters students are often mature, skilful professionals from Australia and many other countries all around the world. This year in our Masters of Urban Design Program, the course that I co-ordinate at the University of Melbourne, there are nine new students: four from China and one each from the USA, Singapore, Columbia, India and Australia. In our last year’s Master Studio, which was held in Bangkok, I took nine students from Melbourne – who were originally from four different continents! You can imagine the variety of their experiences, cultures, worldviews and positions in relation to urbanism and architecture. All that creates an outstanding atmosphere for joint progress, for work that is more than a mere sum of individual efforts. Work with Ph.D. students is a special pleasure. I always say that I do this job because I am selfish; because as a mentor I always receive more than I can give. My contribution is often just methodological; help in the formulation of the focus, the research questions and the methods; but discussions with students are always a fantastic experience, full of new discoveries. Some of my former Ph.D. students are now heads of schools of architecture in Indonesia, Thailand‌ Many are successful architects and urban designers. I am proud of their success. So, yes, that constitutes creating new role-models.

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15. Bavite se najraznovrsnijim temama, po~ev od arhitektonskog detaqa, do odnosa literarnog i urbanog. Za{to? To sigurno nije najefikasniji pristup struci, sigurno ne ne{to {to bih preporu~io svima ali, istovremeno, to je pristup od kojeg nipo{to ne odustajem. Ja sam arhitekt i urbanista, zanima me grad, zanima me ku}a, zanima me detaq. Volim kontekstualizam, kulturalnu pripadnost mjestu, konceptualne aspekte arhitekture, ali i detaq, teksturu, materijalizaciju. Prije bih prihvatio i da sam sva{tar, nego uski specijalista. To sam, jednostavno, ja; svako treba da na|e sebe. Zanima me mnogo stvari i ne `elim, ili nisam sposoban, da se odreknem tih zanimawa. Mo`da sam samo suvi{e sebi~an da tako ne{to i poku{am. Za mene, dobar je onaj projekat koji omogu}ava da se vi{e “razmjera” preklope. Da bi se tako radilo, neophodno je pomenuto objediwavawe racija i intuicije. Sa godinama i iskustvom, posebno kroz prilike u kojima upoznajem kulture radikalno druk~ije od moje, sve vi{e cijenim balans intuitivnog i promi{qenog. Na planu arhitekture, ratio i ba{larovsku intuiciju ruke.

16. Gde crpite inspiraciju i nadahnu}e za tako neobi~no {irok opus interesovawa? “Neobi~no {irok” raspon interesovawa? Moja zanimawa jesu raznorodna, ali uvijek se trudim da objasnim da su konvergentna. A inspiracija uvijek dolazi iz okru`ewa; nekad fizi~kog, nekad iz okru`ewa ideja, naponskih poqa kulture u kojoj radim, nekad od svih tih divnih qudi sa kojima imam privilegiju da sara|ujem.

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15. Your interests are varied, from architectural detail to the relationships between literature and the urban. Why? That certainly is not the most efficient approach to the profession, and definitely not a way I would suggest to anybody else – but, at the same time, that is the approach that I myself would never abandon. I am an architect and urbanist:I am interested in the city, I am interested in the house, I am interested in the detail. I like contextualism, belonging to place in cultural ways and conceptual aspects of architecture, but I aslo like also details, textures, materialisation. I would rather be seen as unfocused than as a narrow specialist. To put it simply, that is who I am: everyone should find herself or himself in whatever way is appealing. I am interested in many things and I do not want, , to give up any of those interests – I may not even be capable of doing so. I may be too selfish even to try something like that. For me, a good design is one that enables multiple scaling and overlapping. To work that way, one needs a synthesis of ratio and intuition. With age and experience, and especially through those occasions when I discover cultures that are radically different from my own, I have grown to appreciate the balance between intuition and thinking. In architecture, this means ratio and Bachelard’s intuition of the hand.

16. Where do you find inspiration for such an unusually wide range of interests? ‘Unusually wide’ range of interests? My interests are diverse, but I always do my best to explain that they converge. And inspiration always comes from the environment; sometimes the physical environment; sometimes that of ideas, or the field of forces of the culture within which I work; sometimes from all the wonderful people with whom I have the privilege to co-operate. 325


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17. Poku{ajte da napravite presek dosada{wih profesionalnih ostvarewa.

Va{ih

^isto faktografski, kroz mjesta na kojim sam radio moj put izgleda ovako: CEP - saradni~ki, Energoprojekt, pa opet CEP - ali ozbiqno. Onda: Australija, Engleska (posebno YRM i Derek Walker Associates), Italija (Faresin Associati iz Vi}ence). Onda opet CEP i Fakultet, pa opet Australija, ovog puta kao opredjeqewe. The University of Melbourne, kao stalno mjesto, ali i kao platforma za ekskurzije po jugoisto~noj i isto~noj Aziji. Ostvarewa? Pa, u CEP-u je bilo mnogo zanimqivih poslova, izuzetnih prilika za u~ewe od tih majstora urbanizma, i finih rezultata. Pamtim dosta dobrih konkursa. Mo`da bih, ipak, izdvojio svoj zadwi projekat u CEP-u, Pilot plan Bulevara revolucije, za koji smo 1991. dobili Veliku nagradu Salona urbanzma u Ni{u. I prvonagra|eni rad na konkursu za stambeno naseqe Lisi~iji potok, koji sam dobio sa kolegom Draganom @ivkovi}em. Na na{em, beogradskom fakultetu, mislim da je va`no bilo osnivawe programa Projektovawe bioklimatske arhitekture, zbog ~ega sam se i vratio iz Engleske. Na tom projektu sam radio sa profesorom Vladislavom Ivkovi}em i Milicom Jovanovi}-Popovi}. Mislim da je taj program bio veoma kvalitetno zasnovan, i uvijek }e mi biti `ao {to sam radio samo sa prvom generacijom studenata Bioklimatske arhitekture. Taj program je imao fantasti~an potencijal.

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17. Try to make a cross-section through all your professional achievements. If we start simply by listing places where I have worked, my path would look like this: CEP – as a consultant, Energoprojekt, then again CEP – this time seriously. Then: Australia, England (especially YRM and Derek Walker Associates), Italy (Faresin Associati from Vicenza). Then CEP again and the Faculty of Architecture in Belgrade, then Australia; this time as my country of choice. The University of Melbourne, as a permanent employer, but also as a platform for excursions to south-east and east Asia. Achievements. Well, there were many interesting jobs in CEP, some rare opportunities for learning from those masters of urbanism and some nice results. I remember many competitions. Perhaps I could single out my last project in CEP: the pilot plan of the Revolution Boulevard, for which we received the Grand Prix at the Salon of Urbanism in Niť in 1991. Also, the first prize in the competition for a housing estate in Lisciji Potok in Belgrade, which I won together with my colleague, Dragan Zivkovic. At our faculty in Belgrade, I think that the foundation of the Bioclimatic Design Program was an important event. That was the reason I returned to Belgrade from England. I worked with Professors Vladislav Ivkovic and Milica Jovanovic-Popovic to establish bioclimatic design. I think that the course was of high quality and I will always be sorry for having worked with only the first generation of its students. The program had fantastic potential.

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Na melburn{kom univerzitetu osnovao sam predmet Environmental Design. Imao sam zna~ajnu podr{ku tada{weg {efa fakulteta, profesora Hejga Beka (Haig Beck) i Dekana, profesora Evana Vokera (Evan Walker), koji mi je dao odrije{ene ruke da uradim {ta smatram ispravnim. Rezultat je bio predmet inovativnog sadr`aja, filozofski razli~it od uobi~ajenih tehni~ko-tehnolo{ki inspirisanih pristupa problemu odr`ivosti. Mislim da je u proteklih deset godina taj predmet odigrao va`nu ulogu u podizawu svijesti o ideji odr`ivog razvoja u koncipirawu urbanog i arhitektonskog prostora, i da je doprinjeo formirawu profila kompetentnijeg arhitekte u Australiji. Sa kolegom Kimom Davijem (Kim Dovey) osnovao sam magistarske studije iz urbanisti~kog projektovawa, (Masters of Urban Design), {to je ovdje tako|e bio novitet. Na{ kurs je, sa sigurno{}u mogu da ka`em, najboqi u regionu.

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At the University of Melbourne I established environmental design as a new undergraduate course. I had significant support from the former Head of the School, Professor Haig Beck, and the Dean, Professor Evan Walker, who gave me the freedom to propose whatever I considered appropriate. The result was a course with innovative content that was philosophically different from ordinary technically and technologically inspired approaches to sustainability. I think that, over the last ten years, this course has played an important role in raising awareness about the idea of sustainable development when conceiving of urban and architectural space, and it contributed to formation of a profile of more competent Australian architects. With my colleague, Kim Dovey, I organised the Master of Urban Design program, which was also a novelty in Australia. Our course remains, I can confidently claim, the best in the region.

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Po mom mi{qewu najva`niji doprinos obrazovawu arhitekata i urbanista u Australiji sam dao pokrenuv{i sada ve} prihva}enu i uspje{nu praksu me|unarodnih, interkulturalnih projektantskih studija. 1998. sam sa koleginicom Ester ^arlsvort (Esther Charlesworth) prvu generaciju studenata vodio u Mostar; nakon toga (sa koleginicom Kingua Guo (Qinghua Guo) organizovao sam par radionica studija MOST u Kini, zatim nekoliko na Tajlandu. Pro{le godine zapo~eli smo tripartitni projekat BMB - gdje tri {kole, moj fakultet, Kasetsat University iz Bangkoka i L’Ecole d’Architecture et de Paysage iz Bordoa organizuju zajedni~ke projektantske radionice. Radimo u tri grada, na tri {kole, koriste}i razli~ite metode u nastavi. Poku{avamo da, zajedno sa na{im studentima, u~imo jedni od drugih, da slavimo razli~itost koju svi u~esnici unose u projekat. Izvanredno iskustvo. Toliko {to se ti~e nastave. Na profesionalnom planu - u posqedwih par godina bilo je nekoliko zanimqivih konkursa. Dra`i od prvonagra|enih mi je jedan koji je dobio samo tre}u nagradu. To je bio pomenuti konkurs za novi univerzitetski grad u [enjangu, u Kini, “UniverCity”, koji sam radio sa Stivom Vitfordom i velikim timom kolega i studenata (zna~ajan doprinos tom projektu dao je i na{, Beogra|anin Marjan ^ehovin koji `ivi i radi u Melburnu). Melburn{ki univerzitet je “research University”. Veliki akcenat je na kvalitetnom istra`iva~kom radu. Na tom planu bavim se temama odr`ivosti (gdje, dakle, poku{avam da kombinujem ekolo{ku i kulturalnu odr`ivost) i urbaniteta. Obe teme su nove i va`ne, i za Australiju i za azijske zemqe u kojim radim. Vjerujem da je i taj rad od nekakvog uticaja i zna~aja.

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In my opinion, my most important contribution to education of architects and urban designers in Australia was the introduction of international intercultural design studios at my Faculty. In 1998, together with my colleague, Esther Charlesworth, I took a first group on an overseas design trip, to Mostar. After that, with my colleague, Dr Qinghua Guo, I organised two MOST studio workshops in China and then several more in Thailand. Last year we started a tripartite Bangkok-MelbourneBordeaux - BMB project, where three schools of architecture, my own faculty, Kasetsart University from Bangkok and L’école d’architecture et de paysage from Bordeaux have conducted three joint design workshops. We work in three cities in three schools, and use different teaching methods. We then try, together with our students, to learn from each other, to celebrate the differences which all participants bring to the studio. This is an outstanding experience. But enough about teaching. At the professional level, there have been several interesting competitions in the last few years. In one of these we received only a third prize, but I regard it more highly than those in which we were awarded first prize. That is the competition for the new university town in Shenyang, China; a ‘UniverCity’. I did it with Steve Whitford and a large team of colleagues and students (including our own Marjan Cehovin, from Belgrade, who also lives and works in Melbourne, who contributed significantly to that project). The University of Melbourne is a research university. It puts a strong emphasis on quality research. I am involved in research on sustainability (where I am trying to combine ecological and cultural sustainability) and urbanity. Both themes are new and important, both for Australia and for Asian countries where I work. I believe that this work has a certain influence and importance.

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18. Od celokupne Va{e delatnosti da li postoji ne{to {to Vas najvi{e ispuwava? Te{ko je re}i, opet ne mogu da ka`em da je samo jedna od mojih aktivnosti to {to me “ispuwava”. Mo`da ono ~ega imam najmawe! Projektovawa ovih dana ima tako malo u mom `ivotu, da u`ivam u svakoj prilici da “crtam”. Onda, dok smo na projektovawu, rad sa diplomcima i postdiplomcima je izuzetno zanimqiv, i kao takav me zaista “ispuwava”. Istra`iva~ki rad, prvenstveno onaj vezan za otkrivawa urbaniteta radikalno druk~ijih kultura, qepote druk~ijeg, ~esto neshvatqivog ... [ta me ispuwava? Mo`da, ako ba{ ho}ete koncizan i kratak odgovor, to posqedwe - susret sa druk~ijim, susret sa egzoti~nim, u~ewe o razli~itom, u~ewe od razli~itog ... Posebno Japan i Tajland kao kulture dramati~no razli~ite od moje, a fascinantno lijepe, duboke, izazovne.

19. Koliko je zaista Va{ teorijski rad primewen u praksi i jeste li zadovoqni tim odnosom? Koliko su se teorija, kao analiti~ki, i praksa, kao kreativni proces preklopili u Va{em radu? Ja ne volim da razdvajam teoriju i praksu, me|utim sticajem okolnosti akcenat mog rada je sve vi{e na teoriji - to jest istra`iva~kom radu, a sve mawe na praksi - projektovawu. U Australiji je akademija prili~no striktno odvojena od struke, na arhitektonskim fakultetima nema projektantskih instituta kao kod nas. Od zaposlenih se o~ekuje da sve vrijeme za koje su pla}eni provedu rade}i akademski posao - u nastavi i na istra`ivawu. 334


18. What aspect of your overall activity do you find most rewarding? It is hard to say. Again, I am unable to single out just one of my activities that fulfills me the most. If I have to do so, it could be in something that I have the least of! There is so little architectural design in my life these days, so each opportunity to draw makes me feel good. Then, while speaking about design, my work with final year and postgraduate students is extremely interesting and it really is a fulfilling experience. Research, especially research related to discoveries of urbanity in radically different cultures, the beauty of the other, often beyond the understandable… What fulfills me? Maybe if you want a short answer, that aspect of my work which mentioned last – encountering difference, meeting the exotic, learning about the other, learning from the other… Especially in Japan and Thailand, cultures which are dramatically different from my own, fascinatingly beautiful, deep, challenging.

19. To what extent is your theoretical work applied in practice? Are you satisfied with that relation? How much do the analytical process of theory and the creative process of practice interweave in your work? I do not like to separate theory and practice, though, due to circumstance, the stress in my work is more and more on theory – or to be more precise, on research, and less on practice – architectural design. In Australia, the academy is quite strictly separated from practice. There are no design institutes at schools of architecture, as there are in our country. Employees are expected to work in the academic careers for which they are paid: teaching and research. 335


Kad sam tek do{ao u Australiju to je za mene bilo zanimqivo osvje`ewe. Mo`da mi je najvi{e godilo odsustvo one “tezgaro{ke” atmosfere koja je dominirala beogradskim fakultetom, situacije u kojoj je studentima bilo te{ko da na|u profesore i asistente jer su bili zauzeti “va`nijim poslovima”. Me|utim, s vremenom, naravno, u`elio sam se projektovawa. CEP-ovskom duhu je nedostajalo konkursa. Ve} sam pomenuo nekoliko zanimqivih projekata, nekoliko dobrih konkursa ali projektovawe je oblast u kojoj `elim vi{e nego {to uspijevam da uradim. Kad projektujem, trudim se da to bude na na~in koji nije standardan, “kancelarijski”. To sam ponijeo iz CEP-a i, ~ini mi se, usavr{io u Australiji. Takav pristup se na Zapadu uglavnom naziva “design-research” i podrazumijeva svjesno i argumentovano izla`ewe van granica konvencionalnog, projektovawe koje te`i uspostavqawu novih granica, otkrivawu novih znawa. Moja nezavisnost od strukovne svakodnevice i relativna materijalna obezbije|enost poma`u da se upustim u konkurse gdje nije va`no pobijediti i projekte koje nije va`no izgraditi - jer je kona~na “pobjeda” ~esto odlo`ena, indirektna. Gradwa pripadne nekom drugom, ali zadovoqstvo je - i moje.

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When I came to Australia, this was all quite refreshing for me. Maybe it was being in an atmosphere where there was no pressure to do consultancy work – a pressure which had dominated the Belgrade school ­ – which I found relaxing. In Belgrade it was difficult for students to track down their professors and assistants, because they were occupied with ‘more important jobs’ than teaching. But, with time, I started to miss design. My CEP spirit began to miss competitions. I have already mentioned a few good projects, a few good competitions – but design is the activity I want more of. When I design, I always think in ways which go beyond standard ways of thinking, to avoid the ‘office’ approach. That is what I brought from the CEP and, it seems to me, developed further in Australia. In the English-speaking West, that approach is commonly called design-research and it includes reaching consciously beyond the conventional and towards establishing new borders and new knowledge. My independence from everyday professional occupations and a relatively secure material situation enables me to take part in competitions without the need to win and in projects which are not necessarily going to be built – and my reward is often delayed and indirect. The job goes to somebody else, but the pleasure is mine, too.

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20. What would you say about the importance of your own professional activity? Well, that is a very hard question. I try to do my job responsibly. I work in fields which I find extremely important – education and the production of the built environment. Due to circumstances, most of my designs have been, and will remain, on paper. But that, too, it is obvious, is of some influence. My primary influence is on education and through education. For instance, it was a great pleasure to see how the competition entry which won third prize influenced several generations of students at my Faculty. When students adopt ideas, they develop them further as architects, through their own designs and constructions. Speaking about my influence, I will use a clichÊ and say that it is best to let my students and their work speak about that.

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20. Kakav je Va{ odnos prema zna~aju sopstvene profesionalne delatnosti? E, to je ba{ te{ko pitawe. Ja se trudim da odgovorno radim u strukama koje su, po mom mi{qewu, izuzetno va`ne - u obrazovawu, i u produkciji gra|ene sredine. Sticajem okolnosti, ogromna ve}ina mojih projekata je bila, i osta}e, na papiru. Ali, i to, pokazuje se, ostavqa nekog uticaja. Moj prvenstveni uticaj je na obrazovawe i kroz obrazovawe ... Bilo je zadovoqstvo vidjeti, na primjer, kako pomenuti tre}enagra|eni konkursni rad ostavqa traga na nekoliko generacija studenata na mom fakultetu, kako oni usvajawem nekih od ideja i wihovom daqom razradom, kao arhitekti, po~iwu da osvajaju projekte, da rade, grade. [to se uticaja ti~e, dakle, bojim se da }u morati da pobjegnem u stereotip i da ka`em da je najboqe da o tome govore moji biv{i studenti i wihovi radovi.

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21. Da li naslu}ujete da se bli`ite, ili ste, mo`da, dostigli vrhunac sopstvenog stvarala{tva? Kako biste definisali Va{u poziciju u odnosu na taj momenat? Ne vjerujem u jedan vrhunac u `ivotu. ^ovjek prolazi kroz nizove vrhunaca i padova. Ne volim poraze. Re}i da je vrhunac iza mene bilo bi blisko priznawu poraza. Imam privilegiju da se bavim poslom u kojem ~ovjek sa godinama i zrelo{}u napreduje, a ne gubi. Ve}inu profesora koje sam pomenuo odgovaraju}i na Va{e pitawe o najboqima kojih se sje}am, pamtim kao stare, pred penzijom ili ~ak u penziji. Bajlon, Pantovi} ... Kad god mogu u kontaktu sam sa uvijek inspirativnim Bogdanom Bogdanovi}em, koji pod stare dane do`ivqava jedan od svojih zenita. U praksi, dobar je primjer Frenka Gerija (Frank Ghery) koji u sedamdesetim razbija kanone i konvencije, stvara novo i svje`e... A meni je ~etrdeset deveta ...

22. Postoji li ne{to u ~emu se kreativno niste ostvarili, a `eleli biste?

21. Do you think that you are approaching your creative peak, or that you have already reached it? How would you describe your position in relation to that moment? I do not believe in one apex, in general, in life. One lives through a sequence of many rises and falls. I dislike defeats. To say that I have already reached the peak of my creativity would be close to recognising defeat. I have a privilege of doing a job where one gets better with ageing and maturing, not worse. Most of the professors I mentioned as the best architects I can remember were old, just about to retire or had already retired. Baylon, Pantovic‌. Whenever I can, I keep in contact with th always inspirational Bogdan Bogdanovic who in now, at his old age, reaching another of his zeniths. A good example in architectural practice is Frank Gehry who, now in his seventies, still breaks all the canons and conventions and creates new and fresh ideas.‌ And I am 49 ‌

22. Is there anything that you would like to achieve in the field of creativity that you have not yet achieved? 343


Naravno. I to je vezano sa odgovorom na Va{e prethodno pitawe i na jo{ neka ranija. Na primjer... Za sada, `ivot me je li{io mogu}nosti da izgradim neki od ba{ mojih projekata. Radio sam na mnogo zgrada koje su izgra|ene - i kod nas, i u inostranstvu, ali one ~iji sam bio autor nisu imale sre}e. Naj`alosniji mi je ve} pomenuti primjer Lisi~jeg potoka. Bio je to konkurs za 1119 stanova, naseqe sa {kolom, trgovinama, na presti`noj lokaciji u Beogradu, raspisan od strane Sekretarijata za narodnu odbranu, dakle - Armije. Od ~etrdeset pete na ovamo, redovno su raspisivali konkurse i finansirali izgradwu nagra|enih radova. Neki od najfinijih primjera beogradske {kole stambene arhitekture tako su izgra|eni. Martinovi}, Stjepanovi}, Lojanica, Slavica ... E, kad smo moj drug @ika i ja dobili konkurs - JNA je preorijentisala svoje investicije, od gra|ewa ka ru{ewu. Bila je to 1992. godina, rat se zahuktavao, i me|u prvim `rtvama bio je i na{ projekat. @ao mi je {to Lisi~iji potok nije izgra|en, jer su u rje{ewe bile ugra|ene ideje odr`ivog razvoja koje su tada zaista predstavqale najsavremenije trendove. Taj projekat je bio prilika za promociju novih ideja, za popularizaciju odr`ivog razvoja, prilika da se doka`e da je mogu}e `ivjeti i graditi kvalitetno, i ekolo{ki ispravno. Ali, kao {to rekoh, pokazalo se da to nije bilo vrijeme za nove ideje o gra|ewu. Dok smo mi sawali o nekoj boqoj budu}nosti, zemqa je kretala ka ambisu. Samo, nikada ne treba klonuti duhom. [to se moje karijere ti~e, ima vremena da se i u toj sferi ne{to desi. Imam ponuda, ima predloga, mo`da }e se ukazati prava prilika. U svakom slu~aju, `elio bih da se vratim projektovawu i gradim. Ali ne jurim za time. Ako mi se pru`i prilika, potrudi}u se da je iskoristim.

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Of course. That also has to do with my answer to your previous question, and some earlier ones. For instance.‌ Up to now, life has deprived me of an opportunity to build some projects that are excusively my own. I have worked on many projects which have been built, at home and abroad, but my own designs have not been so lucky. The example of Lisiciji Potok I mentioned is the saddest. This was a competition for an entirely new estate (with 1119 apartments, school and shops) at a prestigious location in Belgrade. The competition was funded by the Ministry of Defence, and therefore by the Yugoslav Army. From 1945 on they regularly organised design competitions for residential developments and they funded the development of all the winning proposals. Some of the finest examples of the Belgrade School of housing architecture were developed in this way: Martinovic, Stjepanovic, Lojanica, Slavica‌ But, when my friend Zika and I managed to win first prize, the JNA (Yugoslav National Army) moved to other investments: from building to destruction. It was 1992; the war was getting worse and our design was one of its first victims. Our design was based on the concept of sustainable development and it was used cutting-edge ideas. I am sad that it has not been realised. It was an excellent chance to promote those ideas and to popularise sustainable development in general. It could have become proof that it is possible to live in comfort and yet build in a strictly environmentally appropriate way. But, as I have already said, it turned out that those were not times for new ideas about the built environment. While we were dreaming about a better future, the country was plunging into the abyss. But, one should never lose heart. As far as my career is concerned, there is still enough time left for something to happen. I have had offers and proposals, and good opportunities may still emerge. In any case, I would like to return to design and to building. But I will not chase after it. If there is a chance to do so, however, I will do my utmost to make the best of it.

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23. Koji je to neiscrpan pokreta~ki motiv koji Vas provocira da uvek, iznova stvarate?

23. What is that inexhaustible driving force which makes you to keep on creating?

Zaista ne znam. Jednostavno, volim to {to radim ili, mo`da ta~nije, trudim se da radim ono {to volim. Kad to uspijete, motivacija je tu, energija nije problem, jedini problem je vrijeme da se sve zami{qeno i uradi.

I really do not know. I just love what I am doing or; to be more precise, I am doing my best to keep doing what I love. When you succeed in doing that, the motivation is there, the energy is not a problem, and the only problem that remains is whether you have enough time to realise everything you have imagined or not.

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24. Koja emocija stoji iza profesora Darka Radovi}a, kao fundament iz kog izvodi sve ostalo? Do skora nisam znao, ni sada nisam sasvim siguran, ali ~ini mi se da je to (uvijek bila) qubav.

Melburn, po~etkom aprila 2004.

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24. Which emotion is behind Professor Darko Radovic as a foundation from which the rest grows? I have not known the answer to this until recently, and I am still not quite sure, but I think that that is (and always was) love.

Melbourne, the beginning of April 2004.

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Mostar

Split, ponikao na ostacima Dioklecijanove palate

MOST (BRIDGE) in Chinese - cho

MOST na kineskom - ^o

Konkurs za Ningbo realizovan sa Stiv Vitfordom, Xejms Brierlijem i BAU Architects and Urbanists Competition for Ningbo with Steve Whitford, James Brearley and BAU Architects and Urbanists

Posleratni Mostar 1998. godine

Qubqana

Mostar 2004. godine - novi Stari most

“Multitasking” dizajn: Sofija Stani}

Mostar

The postwar Mostar in 1998

Mostar in 2004 - a new Old Bridge

^lanci Darka Radovi}a objavqeni u {tampi tokom devedesetih godina. Iza beskompromisnih novinskih naslova je jasan stav o celokupnoj dru{tvenoj i politi~koj situaciji tokom ratnih godina IZVORI: dnevne novine Na{a Borba, nedeqnik Vreme

The articles of Darko Radovic published in various newspapers during the nineties. Behind his uncompromising headlines, is a clear position on overall social and political situation during war period SOURCES: daily newspaper Nasa Borba, weekly newspaper Vreme

NATO bombardovawe Srbije i Crne Gore 1999. godine IZVOR: obave{tajna dokumentacija NATO snaga,

http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/library/imint/kosovo-imint.htm NATO bombing of Serbia and Montenegro in 1999 SOURCE: NATO intelligence data, http://www.globalsecurity.org/intell/library/imint/kosovo-imint.htm

Split, originated from the ruins of Diocletian’s palace

Ljubljana

“Multitasking” design by Sofija Stanic

Tokio, snimak iz satelita ASTER

IZVOR: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images/tokyo-big.jpg Tokyo, ASTER satellite imagery SOURCE: http://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images/tokyo-big.jpg

Darko Radovi} sa profesorom Bogdanom Bogdanovi}em u Be~u, aprila 1998. Darko Radovic with Professor Bogdan Bogdanovic in Vienna, April 1998

Sa kolegama iz CEP-a (Centar za planirawe urbanog razvoja)

With colleagues from CEP (Center for the Planning of Urban Development Planning)

Australijska priroda

The Australian nature

Dojo flyer - Plakat za jedan od projekata u okviru akademskog Dojo flyer - A flyer for one of the studio MOST projects, 2004

Sa studentima i kolegama

With students and colleagues

Studentski projekat, Ketrin Dagan, 1999. Student work by Catherine Duggan, 1999

Prostranstvo australijske crvene pustiwe

The spacious Australian red desert

Studentski projekat, Kajoko Kubo, 1999. Student work by Kayoko Kubo, 1999

Beograd, savski kej IZVOR: kwiga “Beograd danas”, autora Ive Eterovi}a

Belgrade, on the banks of Sava river SOURCE: “Belgrade today” by Ivo Eterovic

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Studio MOST u Pekingu, 1999. Studio MOST in Beijing, 1999

studia MOST iz 2004. godine


Radni prostor Darka Radovi}a na melburn{kom fakultetu

The office of Darko Radovic in Melbourne, at the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning

“Lepota druk~ijeg, ~esto neshvatqivog” - Tajland

“Beauty of the different, often not understandable” - Thailand

“Lepota druk~ijeg, ~esto neshvatqivog” - Japan

“Beauty of the different, often not understandable“ - Japan

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H

L Poglavqe je zami{qeno kao kreativni “Franken{tajn� brojnih tekstova Prof. Darka Radovi}a. Tekstove je izabrao, prekombinovao, uprili~io i priredio gospodin @ivojin Kara-Pe{i} u periodu od decembra 2004. do maja 2005. godine.

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А

D

F

The following chapter was designed as creative ‘Frankenstein’ of numerous texts of Professor Darko Radovic. The texts were selected, recombined, arranged and prepared by Mr. Zivojin Kara-Pesic between December 2004. and May 2005.

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Gradovi se nikad ne grade odjednom Oni se osnivaju I onda `ive Gradovi ne prate rigidne, deterministi~ke projektantske ideje Gradovi su ve}i od bilo kakve pojedina~ne ideje Gradovi su mjesta gdje se ideje ra|aju Onda ti ideali koegzistiraju, sudaraju se, ili tra`e skladan izraz

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Cities are never built at once They are being founded And then they live Cities do not follow rigid, deterministic designer’s ideas Cities are bigger than any individual idea Cities are places where ideas are being born Then, those ideals coexist, collide, or search for harmonious expression

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KULTURALNA ODR@IVOST CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY


Zid na koji se mo`e{ osloniti

The wall you can lean on

Ima zidova koji se ne primje}uju a Ima zidova koji svojom pojavom oduzimaju dah

There are walls which never get noticed And, then, There are walls whose appearance takes your breath away

Ima zidova koji inspiri{u a Ima zidova koji pla{e Ima zidova koji odvajaju a Ima zidova koji su tu tek da bi uramili vrata Ima zidova koji su samo fizi~ka prepreka a Ima i zidova koji fizi~ki uop{te ne postoje Ima zidova koje ne razumijem a Ima zidova koje osje}am Ima re~enica u kojim se pla{imo rije}i “zid” a Ima re~enica u kojima “zid” zna~i isto {to i “sigurnost” To su zidovi na koje se ~ovjek mo`e osloniti

There are walls that inspire And, then, There are walls that frighten There are walls that divide And, then, There are walls that merely frame the doors There are walls which are just a physical barrier And, then, There are walls that physically do not exist at all There are walls which I cannot understand And, then, There are walls which I feel There are sentences in which we are afraid of the word ‘wall’ And, then, There are sentences where the meaning of ‘wall’ is same as ’safety’ Those are one can lean on

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DIJALEKTIKA EKOLO[KE I KULTURALNE ODR@IVOSTI* DIALECTICS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY*

Moj zid je dijelio babino dvori{te, dvori{te Hatovske 13, od uskog pasa`a pored zgrade mostarskog SUP-a. Bio je visok. Sje}am se da sam ruke morao podi}i dobro iznad glave, prste lijeve noge zavu}i u rupu iz koje je nekad ispao kamen, i onda se sna`no podi}i i desnom zajahati na zid. Bezbroj puta sam to uradio, na mom zidu se igrao i tugovao, ~itao, u qetwim ve~erima na tranzistoru “hvatao” zvuke dalekih radio stanica. Sje}am se dana kad sam do{ao u Mostar i shvatio da iz prolaza mogu da vidim preko svog “ogromnog” zida; vjerovatno nije bio vi{i od metar i {ezdeset-sedamdeset. Ali i daqe, uvijek kad mislim o svom zidu, visok je upravo toliko da treba dobro istegnuti ruke i posko~iti da bi se bacio pogled u Suwi}a avliju. Sticajem (priznajem, i forsirawem) okolnosti posledwih nekoliko godina bavim se izu~avawem gradova i arhitekture dalekog Istoka, urbanim kulturama Japana i Kine. Tema razgrani~ewa prostora, onoga Unutra i onoga Napoqu posebno je zanimqiva, spada ne samo me|u osnovne karakteristike japanskog i kineskog urbaniteta, ve} wihovih civilizacija. Prou~avawe japanskih konceptata uchi i soto, unutra i napoqu, fascinantan je na~in da se shvati bar koliko je van mogu}nosti poimawa zapadwaka ta izvanredna ostrvska kultura. Kao kroz slojeve luka, u~ewem, dru`ewem, sticawem povjerewa,

My wall used to separate my grandma’s courtyard, the backyard of 13 Hatovska Street, from the narrow passage along the Municipal Police Department of Mostar. It was a high wall. I can remember that I had to reach high up above my head to put my left foot into the hole out of which a stone once fell, to pull myself strongly up and, with my right leg, ride upon the wall. I have done that millions of times. I have played and been sad on my wall. I have read there and, in the hot summer nights, on my small transistor receiver, I would often tune into the sounds of the distant radio stations. I remember the day when I came back to Mostar and realized that from the passage I could easily see above my ‘huge’ wall; probably it was not higher than one meter and sixty or seventy centimeters. But still, when I think about my wall, it is exactly as high as my outstretched arms can reach, so high that I need to jump to have a glimpse of the Sunjic family backyard. Due to various circumstances (some of which, I admit, I have brought about myself) for the past several years I am involved in research of the cities and architecture of the Far East, in particular of the urban cultures of Japan and China. The issues of division, the delineation of space and of the inside and the outside in these cultures is particularly interesting. It is one of key themes to help us understand, not only Japanese and Chinese urbanity, but their civilizations, as well.

*Originalna verzija ovog teksta je objavqena kao “Zid na koji se mo`e{ nasloniti” u katalogu za izlo`bu akvarela Du{ka Milo{evi}a U Etnografskom muzeju u Beogradu (2000) *The original version of this essay was published as “Zid na koji se mozes nasloniti”, in the catalogue for the exhibition of watercolors by Dusko Milosevic, the Ethnographic Museum, Belgrade (2000)

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mogu}e je prilaziti sve bli`e i bli`e su{tini “japanskog”, srcu u koje strancu nikad ne}e biti dopu{teno da sasvim u|e. Japanska je kultura

Studying the Japanese concepts, uchi and soto, the inside and the outside, provides a fascinating way of realizing how far beyond the comprehen-

kultura mnogih zidova, od kojih je malo koji pravi, ~vrst, zidani zid. Kamene zidine jesu opasivale {ogunske zamkove i dvori{ta, ali zidovi samih ku}a naj~e{}e su samo krhki {o|i (shoji) od ri`inog papira ili na vjetru bu~na pregrada od bambusa.

sion of the West that magnificent island culture is. However, as if through the layers of an onion, it is possible by learning, socializing and acquiring trust, to get closer and closer to the essence of ‘the Japanese’, to the heart of it, which a foreigner is never allowed to enter completely. The Japanese culture is a culture of many walls, in which only few are real, solid, built walls. Stone walls encircled the shogun castles and yards in the past, but the walls of houses are most often just a fragile rice-paper shoji or noisy, wind-trembling bamboo screens.

Mislim da je mogu}e re}i da su u japanskoj kulturi fizi~ki zidovi mawe va`ne barijere od obi~ajnih “zidova”, od striktnog sistema pravila {ta neko mo`e, a {ta ne mo`e da radi, {ta neko treba, a {ta ne treba da vidi, {ta neko smije, a {ta ne treba da misli. Arhitektura Japana vjerovatno i jeste tako bogata i originalna jer se bavi stvarawem takvih zidova, zidova koji su fizi~ka interpretacija kulture te zemqe.

Ve}ina kulturnih uticaja je u Japan stigla preko Kine. Korijeni mnogih fenomena na kojim po~iva japanska civilizacija, od budizma pa do sveprisutnih kanji ideograma, fundirani su na tlu ogromnog susjeda. Japanska i kineska kultura, me|utim, ostaju apsolutno razli~ite. Zgodna ilustracija te udaqenosti mogla bi da bude upravo uloga zida u urbanizmu Kine i Japana. Bez mnogo pretjerivawa mogla bi se braniti teza da je Kina zemqa zidova. Jednom davno, Prvi Imperator i ujediniteq, Kin [i Huangdi (Qin Shi Huangdi), odlu~io je da ~itavu zemqu opasa ogromnim zidom, da Wanli Chengcheng-om (zidom od deset hiqada li-ja) odvoji svoje od tu|eg. (Borhes je na{ao logi~ne veze izme|u tog ~ina, Huangdijeve akcije spaqivawa svih kwiga napisanih prije wegove

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I think that it is possible to say that in the Japanese culture the physical walls are barriers of a less importance than the walls of customs, of the strict system of rules about what one can or cannot do, what one should and what one should not see, what one is allowed to think and what is unthinkable. The architecture of Japan is probably as rich and unique as it is because it deals with the creation of such walls, walls that are the physical interpretation of the culture of that country.

Most of Japan’s cultural influences reached it through China. The roots of numerous phenomena that Japanese culture is based on, from Buddhism to the ever-present kanji ideograms, stem from the ground of its enormous neighbor. Japanese and Chinese culture, however remain totally different. The role of the wall in Chinese and Japanese urbanism serves as an appropriate illustration of that distance. Without exaggerating, one could say that China is a land of walls. Once upon a time, the First Emperor and Unifier, Quin Shi Huangdi, decided to


vladavine i opsesije sopstvenom besmrtno{}u, bolest koja se nama, Balkancima s kraja XX vijeka, mo`e u~initi tragi~no prepoznatqivom). Unutar tog ogromnog zida, za koji se, otrcano, ali istinito i zanimqivo, ka`e da je jedina qudska gra|evina koja se da vidjeti s Mjeseca, Kinezi su nastavili da se ogra|uju. Tradicionalni kineski grad je tako|e, po uzoru na prihva}ene kosmolo{ke modele, opasan zidom. Najboqi primjer je stari ^ang-an (Chang’an), svojevremeno najve}i grad na svijetu, ~ije su brojne zidine definisale bukvalno sve prostore grada, razdvajale ih i stvarale zone razli~itog stepena privatnosti za one unutra, a razli~itog stepena nedosti`nosti za one napoqu. Dana{wi [i-an (Xi’an), grad od {est miliona stanovnika, koji zauzima prostor od jedva jedne desetine nekada{weg ^ang-ana, opasan je jedinim preostalim od monumentalnih zidova stare prestonice. Pekin{ki Zabraweni grad, Gugong (Gugong), klasi~an je primjer tog sistema dvori{ta gdje duga~ke viste uvijek zavr{avaju zidom i vratima kroz koja se ukazuje novi zid, nova kapija, i tako u nedogled. Sjeverno od Zabrawenog grada nalazi se ~etrvrt poznata kao Luo Gu [iang (Luo Gu Xiang), mo`da najboqe o~uvan primjer kineskog tradicionalnog homogenog gradskog tkiva atrijumskih ku}a. Opet po uzoru na model idealnog grada, na wegov odraz u Zabrawenom gradu, atrijumska ku}a je ogra|en sistem dvori{ta i zgrada, pa`qivo re`irano iskustvo otvarawa i zatvarawa prostora, dozvoqavawa da se izvjesni prostor do`ivi, nasluti ili ostavi nedostupnim. Ulice Luo Gu [iang-a, hutong (hutong) aleje, jedinstven su urbanolo{ki tip gdje su sve ivice bukvalno samo neprekidni sivi zidovi, i gdje

encircle the whole country with an enormous wall, so as to use the Wanli Chengcheng (a wall of ten thousand lis) to separate what was his from what was someone else’s. (Borges has found logical connections between this act, Huangdi’s action in burning all of the books that had been written before his rule, and his obsession with immortality: an ailment that, at the end of the 20th century, may seem tragically familiar to us, Balkanians). Within that enormous wall, which is the single human structure that can be seen from the Moon, the Chinese people continued to wall themselves in further. Traditional Chinese towns are also, in accordance with cosmological models, surrounded by walls. The best example of this is the ancient Chang’an, once the largest city in the world, whose numerous walls defined and divided all the city spaces, creating zones of different degrees of privacy for those inside and different degrees of inaccessibility for those outside. Today’s Xi’an, a city of six million inhabitants occupying an area of barely one-tenth of the former Chang’an, is surrounded with a single remaining monumental wall of the old capital. The Forbidden City of Beijing, Gugong, is a classical example of this system of courts and yards where long vistas are always ended by walls and doors through which a new wall appears, and this is repeated again and again. To the north of the Forbidden City is situated the famous quarter of Luo Gu Xiang, perhaps the best preserved example of the traditional Chinese homogenous city tissue of atrium houses. Again, according to Chinese model of an ideal city, to his reflection in the Forbidden City, the atrium house is a walled system of courts and buildings, attentively directing the visitor’s experience of opening and closing space, and al-

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beskrajne varijacije na temu ulaza, prodora kroz zid, nazna~avaju {ta se iza krije. Ulazi hutonga su kompleksno kodirane cjeline iz kojih je - u

lowing certain space to be experienced, implied or remain inapproachable.

zavisnosti od stepena integrisanosti u lokalnu kulturu i znawa posmatra~a - mogu}e pro~itati i ekonomski i socijalni status stanara, wegov polo`aj u hijerarhiji vlasti, odnos prema kom{ijama i okru`ju.

The streets of Luo Gu Xiang, the hutong (alleys), present a unique urban type, where all the edges are perceived exclusively as an incessant grey wall, and where endless variations on the theme of entrances as penetrations through the wall only imply what is hidden behind. The entrances of hutong are elaborately coded units out of which – depending one’s knowledge and degree of integration in the local culture – it is possible to read both the economic and the social status of the inhabitants, their position in the hierarchy of power and their relationship with their neighbors and the environment.

Nikad ne}u zaboraviti 1998. i projekat obnove Mostara. Negdje u blizini ru{evine Starog mosta, jedan student mi je pri{ao i kazao kako on vidi da mene pogled na tu`ne ostatke ubija, dok on ne mo`e da odoli da im se ne divi. Pri~ao je i sa ostalima u grupi. Slo`ili su se da ono {to ja, priznajem, vidim samo kao unaka`eni patrqak nekada{weg prelijepog Hajrudinovog luka, oni do`ivqavaju kao jednu od najqep{ih arhitektonskih formi. Mo`da, razmi{qao sam, oni Stari most mogu da vide na na~in na koji ja

Taj doga|aj samo je jedna, meni izuzetno va`na, ilustracija osnovne lekcije koju, evo, godinama u~im i obnavqam - da sve pojave nose razli~ita zna~ewa, da qudi imaju pravo na razli~ita vi|ewa i istine, da je moje shvatawe samo jedan od nebrojenih va`nih, jedinstvenih pogleda.

killing me, while he could not restrain himself from admiring them. He spoke to the rest of my group of students as well. They agreed that what I could see only as a macerated limb of the formerly magnificent Arch of Hairudin they perceived as one of the most beautiful architectural forms. Perhaps, I have thought since then, they saw the Old Bridge in the same way that I see the ruins of Rome. Coming from another part of the world, my students from Australia, China and Japan simply cannot feel the unbearable presence of the violence, death and blood that has not yet dried in Mostar.

Ukratko, kineski zidovi me fasciniraju, wihova estetika mi poma`e da pomjerim sopstvene granice shvatawa lijepog, o wima u~im i trudim se da ih razumijem - ali oni za mene ostaju i osta}e

This event is only one illustration of a basic lesson, a lesson that I have been learning and revising for years. It teaches that all phenomena bear different meanings, that people have the right to different views and truths, that my own perception is merely

vidim ru{evine Rima - do{av{i sa drugog kraja svijeta, moji studenti iz Australije, Kine, Japana jednostavno ne mogu da osjete ono nepodno{qivo prisustvo nasiqa, smrti, krvi koja se jo{ nije osu{ila u Mostaru.

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I shall never forget 1998 and the project of rebuilding Mostar. Somewhere, in the vicinity of the ruins of the Old Bridge, a friend approached me and said that he could see that the view of the debris was


strani. Japanski dematerijalizovani “zidovi” me podsti~u da pronalazim vrata i procjepe, da se trudim da razmrsim wihove poruke i ostavim ih

one among numerous, important and unique views.

za sobom - ali uvijek }e biti jo{ jedan, pa jo{ jedan kojem ne}u mo}i ni da pri|em. Definisan kulturom jednog odre|enog Mjesta u ovom Univerzumu, bez obzira {to sam geografske granice sopstvenog iskustva pro{irio na donedavno neslu}ene prostore, ostajem nesposoban da zaista osjetim drugo. Postao sam ponosan na svoju sposobnost da uva`im novo i druk~ije, da od wih u~im, ali sam svjestan nemogu}nosti potpunog poimawa.

Briefly, I am fascinated by Chinese walls: their aesthetic helps me to push forward the frontiers of my own comprehension of beauty. I study and try to understand them – but to me they stay, and they will stay strange. Japanese dematerialized walls give me the incentive to search for the doors and cracks, to strive to untangle their messages and to –go on –there will always be one more, and then another that I will not be able to approach. Defined by the culture of a specific place in this universe; despite the fact that I have broadened the geographical frontiers of my own experience to encompass spaces until recently unimaginable, I stay incapable of truly feeling the other. I have become proud of my ability to appreciate the new and the different, to learn from them, but I am aware of my inability to attain complete comprehension.

Ima zidova koji su u meni na na~in na koji nijedan kineski ili japanski zid, ma koliko o wima nau~io, nikad ne}e biti. Ima zidova koje znam od kad znam za sebe. Ima onih, sje}am se, koje sam intuitivno, na prvi pogled shvatio. Nekad su te veze sasvim razumqive. Koliko li sam samo puta prstima prelazio preko kamenih stijena du}ana u Kujunxiluku, zidova kalemegdanske tvr|ave, ili Dioklecijanove pala~e. Moram da ih znam, to su moji zidovi. Nekad su, me|utim, te veze iracionalne, nestvarne. Ne znam da li me je nekakav mediteranski duh hranio prisno{}u na prvim kontaktima sa firentinskom Signoriom (Piaza della Signoria), ili jerusalimskim Zidom pla~a. Znam samo da su me do~ekali kao impresioniranog, ali prisnog posjetioca. Znali smo se. Fragmente te prisnosti nalazim u raznim situacijama koje se ne daju objasniti znawem. U pitawu su, jednostavno, zidovi koji mi na nekakvom in-

There are walls inside me, in a way that no Japanese or Chinese wall, no matter how much I learn about them, will ever be. There are walls that I have known since I first started to known things for myself. Among them are those, I can remember, that I intuitively comprehended at first glance. Sometimes those connections are completely comprehensible. Many a time have I fingered the stone walls of shops in Kujundziluk, the walls of the Kalemegdan fortress or the Palace of Diocletian. I know them as myself: those are my walls. Sometimes, however, these connections are irrational, unreal. I wonder whether a kind of Mediterranean sensibility has fed me with intimacy on my

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stinktivnom, primalnom nivou ulivaju povjerewe, zidovi na koje bih se mogao osloniti.

first contact with the Florentine Signoria, or the Jerusalem Wall of Sorrow. I only know that they have welcomed me as an impressed visitor, but one who is close, intimate. We knew each other.

U dnevnoj sobi moje melburn{ke ku}e (blizu crte`a Po~iteqa koji mi je poklonio Zoran Petrovi}) visi Du{kov akvarel, vizija nekakvog imaginarnog manastira naslikana 1982. U kancelariji na Melbourne Uni-ju imam fotokopiju fragmenta wegovog novijeg akvarela, segment nekog prelijepog zida vizantijske du{e. Oba zida sa Du{kovih akvarela imaju tu prisnost koju ne nalazim u zidovima van Mediterana, van oblasti koja me je formirala. Oba zra~e tom pouzdano{}u koju volim da na|em u gra|evini. Oni pripadaju podnebqu koje osje}am do te mjere da je neva`no {to nisu zidani, ve} slikani, {to nisu trodimenzionalni, ve} samo iluzije na papiru. Wihov uticaj na mene je stvaran (i odoli}u, ne}u da analiziram koji je to kvalitet koji mi ih ~ini tako bliskim). To smatram osnovnom karakteristikom slikarstva Du{ka Milo{evi}a. On je arhitekta i on stvara arhitekturu. Za Du{ka arhitektura jeste zid. Taj zid mo`e da bude od mermera, opeke ili lazurnog pigmenta - sasvim je neva`no, Du{ko ima sposobnost da mu udahne naboj mjesta kojem oboje pripadaju.

I find fragments of that intimacy in situations that cannot be explained by knowledge alone. These walls simply, on a certain instinctive, primal level give me confidence: they are the walls that I can lean on.

In the living-room of my Melbourne house (close to the drawing of the town of Pocitelj that Zoran Petrovic gave me) hangs Dusko’s watercolor, a vision of as imaginary monastery painted in 1982. In the office at Melbourne University I have a copy of a fragment of his recent watercolor, a segment of a beautiful wall of Byzantine soul. Both walls in Dusko’s watercolors possess this kind of intimacy which I do not find in walls outside the Mediterranean, outside an area that formed me. They both radiate the solidity that I love to find in a building. They belong to an area which is so rich in feeling for me that it is irrelevant that they are not built but painted; that they are not three-dimensional but merely illusions on paper. Their influence on me is real (and I will refrain from analyzing which qualities make them so close to me). This I consider to be the main characteristic of Dusko Milosevic’s art. He is an architect and he creates architecture. For Dusko, architecture is a wall. That wall can be out of marble, brick or lapis lazuli pigment – it is completely irrelevant, Dusko has an ability to inhale the atmosphere of a place that he belongs to.

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Post Scriptum Kad su po~eli da ru{e moje zidove, odlu~io sam da odem. Sa sobom sam poneo sje}awa i slike. Me|u wima je i slika sa zidovima na koje se mogu osloniti. Du{kova slika zida.

Post Scriptum When they started puling down my walls, I decided to leave. I brought the pictures and memories along. Among them, there is a painting of walls that I can lean on. Dusko’s painting of a wall.

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POHVALA RAZLI^ITOSTI* CELEBRATING THE DIFFERENCE* Istok i Zapad - pitawe razlike

East and West – the issue of difference

Da li su zapadwa~ki analiti~ki metodi direktno primenqivi na Istok? Ili, da li drugo orijentalnih kultura onemogu}ava wihovu implementaciju? Da li su istra`iva~ke i dizajnerske metode toliko kulturno-specifi~ne da pripadaju jedino kulturnom kontekstu u kom su uobli~ene?

Are Western analytical methods directly applicable to the East? Or, does the otherness of Oriental cultures preclude their relevance? Are research and design methods so culture-specific that they belong only to the cultural contexts that have shaped them?

Odgovori na ova pitawa se nalaze u sve va`nijoj polemici o odnosu izme|u “Istoka” i “Zapada”, a zna~ajan deo te polemike se bavi temama kulturnog relativiteta i globalizacije. Brojna istra`ivawa jedinstvenosti japanske kulture i wenog odre|ivawa kao su{tinski “isto~wa~ke”, jukstapozicionirawe u odnosu na “zapadwa~ku” - i preispitivawe ovakvog prilaza - ~ine verovatno najve}i deo te polemike. U Mitu o japanskoj jedinstvenosti Piter Dejl (Peter Dale) se ~vrsto suprotstavqa kulturnom relativizmu po kome “vrednosti svake kulture treba da budu shva}ene i vrednovane jedino na na~in na koji qudi koji su deo same te kulture wih vide” (Redfern, ibid.). On jasno isti~e da “...ovo naivno ustoli~avawe ‘doma}eg’ izvora u vrhovnog sudiju verodostojnosti opisa i analiza posmatra~a” (Redfern)(Redfern, ibid.) samo prebacuje fokus pristrasnosti sa stranca na insajdera” (Dejl, 1986). On strahuje da je “uvo|ewe pomodne antropolo{ke distinkcije izme|u emi~nog (doma}eg) i eti~kog (analiza objektivnog posmatra~a sa strane) u prou~avawe modern(izuju}ih)ih azijskih dru{tava, dovelo do

Answers to such questions lie in an increasingly important debate about the relationship between the ‘East’ and the ‘West’; a significant part of which revolves around the themes of cultural relativism and globalization. The rich body of investigation into the uniqueness of Japanese culture – its representation as the quintessential ‘East’, its juxtaposition against the ‘West’ and the questioning of such approaches – forms probably the best-established part of that debate. In The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness, Peter Dale opposes the cultural relativism which holds ‘that the values expressed in any culture are to be both understood and themselves valued only according to the way the people who carry that culture see things’ (Redfern, 1968). He makes a clear point that this naïve ‘elevation of the native informant to the status of ultimate judge of the adequacy of the observer’s descriptions and analyses’ (Redfern, 1968) merely shifts the locus of bias from the foreigner to the insider’ (Dale, 1986). He worries that ‘the introduction of the modish anthropological distinction between emic (native) and etic (foreign observer’s analysis) into the study of modern(izing) societies in Asia has wrought considerable mis-

*Originalna verzija ovog eseja objavqena je kao “Celebrating the Difference – Design, Research and Education for Cultural Sustainability” na BMB Simpozijumu u Bangkoku: Kasetsart University Press, eds. R.King, O.Paniun, C.Parin: pp. 65-71 (2003) *The original version of this essay was published as “Celebrating the Difference – Design, Research and Education for Cultural Sustainability” in BMB Symposium, Bangkok: Kasetsart University Press, eds. R.King, O.Paniun, C.Parin: pp. 65-71 (2003)

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prili~nog java{luka, zabune i mistifikacije na poqu tuma~ewa” (ibid.).

chief, and mystification, in the field of interpretation’. (Dale, 1986).

Me|u wegovim brojnim dragocenim zapa`awima, Dejl, suprotstavqaju}i se “mitu o jedinstvenosti” tako|e pokazuje i mane koje su svojstvene mnogim kriti~arima kulturne specifi~nosti. Ta mana postaje o~igledna u wegovom zahtevu: “Ono {to je istina ‘tamo negde’ ima specifi~an zna~aj za nihonjinron (nihonjinron) - preplavqeni svet japanskog medijuma, koji se mora pre~istiti i o~istiti kako bi empirijska nauka mogla da stasava na ruinama ovog totalitaristi~kog univerzuma” (ibid.).

Among many valuable observations, in his opposition to the ‘myth of uniqueness’, Dale also exposes a weakness inherent to many of the critics of cultural specificity. That weakness becomes clear when he demands: ‘What is true elsewhere has a particular importance for the nihonjinron-inundated world of the Japanese media, which must be cleared and scoured in order to allow for an empirical science to grow upon the ruins of this totalitarian universe’. (Dale, 1986)

Nihonjinron je zajedni~ki naziv za popularnu i stru~nu literaturu koja se bavi istra`ivawima {ta zna~i biti japanski, {ta je to japanski. Ovakvi tekstovi postoje u svim kulturama. Kako globalizacija postaje sve agresivnija oni “prosto cvetaju” - i postaju sve zna~ajniji. Dela kulturnih relativista poseduju kako {ovinisti~ke, lo{e, tako i bogate i provociraju}e svetle momente. U najmawu ruku, oni formiraju jednu bazu za preispitivawe samopouzdawa sa kojim Piter Dejl, u ime univerzalne istine , zahteva da se neki aspekti lokalnih kultura “MORAJU pre~istiti i pretresti”, da specifi~na vrsta uvida MORA BITI mogu}a, ni{ta mawe nego “na RUINAMA” onoga {to on vidi kao negativno i {to ozna~ava kao “totalitarno” (primedba: D.Radovi}).

Nihonjinron is a name for both popular and scholarly literature that explores ‘what it means to be Japanese’. Similar texts exist in all cultures and as globalization becomes more aggressive they flourish and assume increasing importance. Writings by cultural relativists such as nihonjinron in Japan, demonstrate chauvinist lows and attain challenging highs. At the very least they establish a basis for questioning the self-confidence with which Peter Dale, in the name of universal ‘truth’, demands that some aspects of local cultures simply ‘MUST be cleared and scoured’, that particular kind of insight HAS TO be possible, nothing less than ‘upon the RUINS’ of what he sees as negative and labels ‘totalitarian’ (our emphasis). That belief in a universal truth is the key weakness of Dale’s argument. His confidence is based on a good knowledge of Japanese culture and a value system which he holds to be unquestionable. That value system belongs to a cultural tradition that uses knowledge as a vehicle of appropriation, domination and control.

Ta vera u “univerzalnu istinu” je kqu~na slabost Dejlovog stava. Wegovo samopouzdawe je zasnovano na dobrom poznavawu japanske kulture i na sistemu vrednosti za koji veruje da je neosporan. Taj sistem vrednosti pripada kulturnoj tradiciji, koja koristi znawe kao sredstvo sticawa, dominacije i kontrole.

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Sklon sam da radije koristim re~ kolonijalan nego “zapadwa~ki” pri opisivawu takvog pogleda na svet. Dejl, na primer, nalazi da su razlike izme|u “zapadwa~kih” i “japanskih” kulturnih stilova ili dru{tvenih struktura “mawe-vi{e identi~ne razlikama industrijske i pre-industrijske civilizacije Zapada”. On zakqu~uje da je “taj moderni Japan koncipiran na feudalnim kategorijama, koje je dru{tveni razvoj na Zapadu prerastao i prevazi{ao” (Dejl, ibid.). Napredak “Zapada” prema tome, kao {to je to “Zapad” i definisao, je jedini put i za Japan - i sve ostale nacije. “Zapad” je neprikosnoveni globalni lider, koji usmerava i daje pravac ostalom svetu.

I prefer to call this worldview not ‘Western’ but ‘colonial’. At its roots is a concept of human development as progressive. Dale, for instance, finds contrasts between the ‘Western’ and the ‘Japanese’ cultural styles or social structures ‘more or less identical with those between industrial and pre-industrial (feudal) civilization in the West’. He concludes ‘that “modern” Japan is conceptualized in terms of feudal categories which social development in the West outgrew and transcended’ (Dale, 1986). The progress of the ‘West’, as defined by the ‘West’, is therefore seen as the only path for Japan – and all other nations. The ‘West’ is an unquestionable global leader, giving direction to the rest of the world.

U vremenu aktuelne globalne krize jezik i koreni ovakve kulturne arogancije su lako prepoznatqivi.

In times of the current global crisis the language and the roots of such cultural arrogance are easily recognizable.

Zna~aj drugog

The importance of the other

Kulture koje preispituju razli~itost to rade sa svrhom. One su spremne samo da dozvole mogu}nost postojawa drugog, ali onog drugog koje li~i na Bermanovo (Berman) “druga verzija istog, prihvatqiva, razumqiva i pogodna da se prihvati i razume” (Vorton (Worton), 1998). One ne mogu da prihvate postojawe Deridinog (Derrida) toute autre, istinski i radikalno druga~ijeg, zato {to se “ono ne mo`e lako razumeti (tj. Dejlovo MORATI za ‘empirijsku nauku’) a prema tome se ne mo`e wime ni dominirati, niti se ono mo`e kontrolisati” (Hilis Miler, 2000) (Hillis Miller). Sama mogu}nost postojawa stvari koje gaijin ni totte wakarinikui (“su te{ke za stranca da ih razume”), sama mogu}nost postojawa toute autre, preispituje superiornost wihovog “univerzalnog znawa”, wihov globalni ekspertski status i, prema tome, wihovu dominaciju.

Cultures that question the possibility of difference are doing so with a purpose. They are prepared only to allow the possibility of an other which is is ‘another version of the same, assailable, comprehensible and able to be appropriated and understood’ (Worton, 1998). They cannot accept the existence of Derrida’s tout autre, the other that is truly and radically different, because it ‘cannot be made transparent to the understanding [e.g. Dale’s ‘must’ for ‘an empirical science’] thereby dominated and controlled’ (Hillis Miller, 2000). The very possibility of the things that gaijin ni totte wakarinikui (‘are difficult for foreigners to understand’), the very possibility of the tout autre, questions the supremacy of their ‘universal’ knowledge, their global expert status and, consequently, their domination.


Zgodna ilustracija ovih teza mo`e se na}i na poqu tretmana azijskih vrednosti i qudskih prava. Martin Hajdeger (1971) (Martin Heidegger) nalazi da je diskusija o japanskim vrednostima primenom sistema evropske analize gotovo nemogu}a. Kao {to Onuma Jasuaki (Onuma Yasuaki) (avaj, ponovo isti~u}i simplicisti~ko Istok-Zapad etiketirawe) prime}uje “zapadwaci manipuli{u diskusijom o qudskim pravima postavqaju}i je u kontekst univerzalno-versus-specifi~no, gde ‘islam’ i ‘konfu~ijanizam’ predstavqaju specifi~nosti, dok ‘hri{}anstvo’ i ‘evropsko’ redovno predstavqaju univerzalne vrednosti. Ne ostaje dovoqno prostora za razmi{qawa (...) po kojima ne{to {to je nezapadwa~ko mo`e da postoji kao univerzalno va`e}e, dok se i zapadwa~ki stavovi mogu shvatiti kao upravo specifi~ni od strane pojedinih dru{tava” (Bauer, 1999) (Bauer). On “kritikuje tendenciju ameri~ke teorije o qudskim pravima, koja defini{e qudska prava iskqu~ivo sa aspekata gra|anskih i politi~kih prava. Ekonomska, dru{tvena i kulturna prava, isti~e on, ako uop{te, pomiwu se samo uzgred, iako su ona istovremeno i vrlo realna, posebno u ovim zemqama u kojima se bore sa pritiscima razvoja u globalizovanom kontekstu” (ibid.). Va`no je spoznati da Istok i Zapad, u wihovim mnogobrojnim oblicima i u okviru wihovih vi{estrukih granica, ipak postoje. U nekim aspektima i oblastima oni se dodiruju, preklapaju, uti~u jedno na drugo, no ipak ostaju razli~iti. Na odre|enim nivoima oni ostaju potpuno me|usobno otu|eni. “^iwenica da drugo ne mo`e ni u kom slu~aju, nikakvim sredstvima da se promi{qa direktno, odbacuje mogu}nost i ~ak zabrawuje da se o wemu uop{te i misli ili govori, kao {to to Deridino delo uveliko pokazuje” (Hilis, Miler, 2000) (Hillis Miller).

One can find interesting illustrations of this phenomenon in fields such as Asian values and human rights. Martin Heidegger (1971) finds discussing the Japanese values within the system of European discourse almost impossible. As Onuma Yasuaki (alas, reiterating the simplicist East–West labeling) observes, the ‘Westerners miscast the human rights debate within the framework of universality versus particularity, as though ‘Islam’ and ‘Confucianism’ represent particularity whereas ‘Christianity’ and ‘the European way’ necessarily express universal values. There is little room left … to think that something non-Western can be universally valid and that Western outlooks may be unique to particular societies’. (Bauer, 1999) He also ‘criticises a tendency of the American human rights discourse to define human rights solely in terms of civil and political rights. Economic, social, and cultural rights’, he notes ‘are usually referred to only in passing, if at all, while they are very real, particularly in these countries as they contend with the pressures of development in a globalize context’. (Bauer, 1999). It is important to acknowledge that the East and the West, in their many forms and within their multiple boundaries, do exist. In some aspects and regions they touch, overlap and influence each other, but remain different. At certain levels they remain totally alien to each other. ‘The fact that the other cannot be thought directly by no means, however, forbids thinking or speaking about it, as Derrida’s work abundantly shows’. (Hillis Miller, 2000) What is needed is dialectisation of the opposite positions – an acknowledgment of the possibility of different ‘truths’. Dale argues that ‘those who advocate the approach of cultural relativism often find themselves in a double mental universe char-

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Ono {to je potrebno je dijalektizacija suprotnih pozicija - priznavawe mogu}nosti postojawa razli~itih “istina”. Dejl polemi{e da “oni koji

acterized by a schizoid tendency towards making contradictory judgements’ (Dale,1986.) That may be exactly what intercultural contacts need. Only those

se zala`u za kulturni relativizam ~esto dovode sebe u stawe dvostrukog mentalnog univerzuma, koji je obele`en {izoidnom tendencijom ka pravqewu kontradiktornih procena” (Dejl, ibid.). Ipak, to mo`e biti upravo ono {to je i potrebno me|ukulturnom kontaktu. Samo oni koji su zaista duboko “uronili” u svoju sopstvenu i u ciqnu kulturu mogu do}i do ne~ega, {to Dejl tako zdu{no omalova`ava, do duplog mentalnog univerzuma. To su istra`iva~i koji su sposobni da delaju u okviru, ili izme|u dve kulture - a {izoidnost mo`e biti wihova jedina mogu}a, neizbe`na i krajwe po`eqna pozicija.

truly immersed in both, their own and their target culture, can reach what Dale so fervently denigrates as a double mental universe. These are researchers capable of operating within, or between, two cultures – and the schizoid may be their inevitable, the only possible and ultimately the only desirable position.

Savremena teorija prevo|ewa prepoznaje

Contemporary translation theory recognizes the limits of communication and the dangers of cultural domination. Strengthened by postmodernist doubt, it ‘posits contingency, uncertainty and ambiguity in opposition to modernist notions of truth, progress and certainty through science and the rational control of self and society. At the heart of this more

ograni~ewa komunikacije i opasnosti kulturne dominacije. Oja~ana postmodernisti~kom sumwom, ona “postavqa mogu}nost slu~ajnosti, neizvesnosti i neodre|enosti naspram modernisti~ke ideje o spoznaji istine i mogu}nosti progresa i apsolutnost uz nauku i racionalnu kontrolu sopstva (svog bi}a) i dru{tva. U srcu ovog uzbudqivijeg i perspektivnijeg gledi{ta stoji odbacivawe mogu}nosti jezika da fiksira, u~vrsti zna~ewa i defini{e stvari jednom za svagda” (Vederel, 2001)(Wetherell). U uvodnoj re~enici wene kwige Tipologija teksta i prevod, Ana Trosborg (Ana Trosborg) nagla{ava da se u okviru teorije i prakse prevo|ewa “dogodio prelaz sa sveop{te brige o ekvivalenciji izme|u izvornog i ciqnog (prevedenog) teksta na uo~avawe potrebe za adaptacijama koje zahtevaju ciqna situacija ili namena prevoda. U ve}ini slu~ajeva, u prevo|ewu

turbulent and perspective view is a rejection of the capacity of language to fix meanings and pin things down once and for all’. (Wetherell, 2001). In the opening sentence of her Text Typology and Translation, Ana Trosborg stresses that in translation theory and practice ‘there has been a shift from an overall concern with equivalence between source and target texts to recognition of the need for adaptation to the target situation and purpose. In most cases, equivalence can hardly be obtained in translation across cultures and languages, and it may not even be a desirable goal’. (Trosborg,1997) Communication with the other demands translation. Such mediated communication has always be prone to abuse. Worton explains that ‘one of the main reasons why translation has historically been [able to be] used for colonialist purposes is because it has been seen and presented forcefully – but

Prevo|ewe neprevodivog

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The translation of the untranslatable


izme|u razli~itih jezika i kultura, ekvivalencija se te{ko mo`e posti}i, ona ~ak i ne mora biti `eqeni ciq” (Trosborg, 1997). Komunikacija sa drugim zahteva prevo|ewe. Takva vrsta komunikacije uvek je bila podlo`na zloupotrebama. Vorton obja{wava kako “jedan od glavnih razloga zbog kog je prevo|ewe bilo (i za{to je moglo da bude) kori{}eno za kolonijalisti~ke svrhe je {to je ono posmatrano i {to je predstavqano agresivno - ali kontrolisano - kao na~in komunikacije, kao metod prenosa informacija preko lingvisti~kih barijera, dakle kao sredstvo koje sad`i haos Babeldoma (Vorton, 1998). Takvo prevo|ewe je uvek i{lo u smeru od ja~eg (ili agresivnijeg) ka mawem (ne-zapadnom, orijentalnom), jer “mo} uvek dela u uslovima nejednakog odnosa snaga” (Vederel, 2001). Vorton citira Antoan Bermanovu (Antoin Bermans) L’Epruve de l’etranger (1984) gde zahteva da prevod bude zasnovan na “`eqi da se Stranac kao Stranac otvori ka wegovom sopstvenom prostoru i jeziku i da se prepozna Drugo kao Drugo”. U ovoj koncepciji prevod je su{tinski duboko dijalo{kog tipa. (Vorton, 1998.). On proizvodi hibride, a Vorton pi{e kako prevedeni tekst uvek ostaje negde izme|u dve ideje: “Prevod je provizorni tekst ~ija se tekstualnost nalazi u konstantnom stawu fluksa” (ibid.), dok su{tinu ovakvog odnosa predstavqa sama potreba da se prepozna drugost i drugo.

reductively – as a mode of communication, as a method of transmitting information across linguistic boundaries, and therefore as a means of containing the chaos of Babledom’. (Worton, 1998). Such translations were always from the stronger (or more aggressive) to the smaller (non-Western, Orient), for ‘power always operates in conditions of unequal relations’ (Wetherell, 2001). Worton quotes Antoine Berman’s L’Epreuve de l’étranger (1984) where he demands translation to be grounded in ‘the desire to open up the Stranger as Stranger to his own space of and in language [and] to recognize the Other as Other.’ In this conception, translation is profoundly dialogic (Worton, 1998). It produces hybrids and Worton writes how translated text always remains between discourses, ‘Translation is provisional text whose textuality is in a constant state of flux’ (Worton, 1998) while the core of such a relationship is the very need to recognize the otherness of the other.

Communication: Architecture

Komunikacija: Arhitektura

Doctrines of the built environment have always been an important part of cross-cultural interaction. For millennia urban and architectural models have been transferred across cultural boundaries. New trends have been exported and borrowed, transplanted, re-contextualized and appropriated in new ways. Architecture has also been used to establish and facilitate cultural domination. Exporting architectural ideas and styles has been a regular companion of all colonizing efforts.

Doktrine koje se bave gra|enom sredinom oduvek su bile zna~ajan deo me|u-kulturne interakcije. Milenijumima su se urbani i arhitektonski mode-

Divided between its scientific, measurable side and its artistic self, architecture always operates within a unique double mental universe. As ‘buildings are

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li prenosili preko kulturnih granica. Novi trendovi su se izvozili i pozajmqivali, presa|ivali, rekontekstualizovali i prisvajali na razli~ite na~ine. Arhitektura je tako|e upotrebqavana za omogu}avawe i uspostavqawe kulturne dominacije. Izvoz arhitektonskih ideja i stilova je bio redovan pratilac kolonijalizma. Podeqena izme|u svoje nau~ne, merqive strane i svog umetni~kog svojstva, arhitektura uvek dela u okvirima specifi~nog duplog mentalnog univerzuma. Kao {to “gra|evine nisu prevashodno umetni~ki, tehni~ki ili investicioni objekti, ve} socijalni objekti” (Markus, 1993) (Marcus), arhitektura je fundamentalno pro`eta kulturnom specifi~no{}u. Izvoz i uvoz prostornih modela rezultuje, kao u kwi`evnosti, hibridima. Ova “hibridnost.....ne nastaje iz proste sinteze razli~itih komponenti, ve} nastaje iz prostora u kom se elementi su~eqavaju, suo~avaju i me|usobno transormi{u. Baba (Bhabha) veruje da kroz uporno pogre{no pozicionirawe ovog prostora ‘izme|u’, koji on naziva ‘tre}im prostorom’, kolonijalne sile stvaraju svoje sopstvene strance” (Al Sajad, 2001) (Al Syad). Danas je u mnogim delovima sveta uobi~ajen strani uticaj na istra`ivawe, obrazovawe i praksu u arhitekturi i urbanom dizajnu. Strani stru~waci veoma ~esto rade u kulturnim sredinama i za kulture koje se bitno razlikuju od kultura iz kojih oni sami poti~u. Ovakva interakcija mo`e da dovede do uzbudqive kulturne hibridizacije. To se obi~no de{ava u kontaktima koje karakteri{e dijalog i duh prave kolaboracije, a gde proizvod te saradwe zadr`ava svojstva “onoga izme|u”. Me|utim, stvarawe izgra|ene sredine je definitivno pod politi~kim i ideolo{kim uticajem,

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not primarily art, technical or investment objects, but social objects’ (Marcus, 1993), architecture is fundamentally permeated by cultural specificity. The exportation and importation of spatial models results, as it does in literature, in hybrids. Such ‘hybridity … does not emerge from the synthesis of different components, but from space where elements encounter and transform each other. Bhabha believes that it is through the persistent displacements of this ‘in-between’ space, which he names ‘third space’, that colonial power produces its own strangers’. (Al Sayad, 2001). Today, in many parts of the world a significant foreign influence in research, education and the practice of architectural and urban design is common. Foreign experts often work within and for cultures that are significantly different from those of their origin. Such interactions can generate exciting cultural cross-fertilization. This usually happens in dialogic contacts conducted in the spirit of true collaboration, where the product keeps its in-betweenness. But, as the production of the built environment is decidedly political and ideological (Lefebvre, 1996), power always seeks new ways to maintain and express its domination of and through space. The transfer of ideas between countries at different levels of economic development or political influence, almost without exception, remains a one-way process with clearly defined source cultures and target cultures; with the one which provides the expertise and the other which always and only receives (or, most likely, buys) the service. Such a process is prone to abuse and corruption by the stronger partner. Research and education have always been part of colonization. As I explained in the discussion of cultural relativism, colonial cultural traditions use knowledge for appropriation, domination and con-


a svaka mo} i vlast uvek te`i da izrazi i odr`i svoju vlast nad prostorom i u prostoru. Prenos ideja izme|u zemaqa koje se nalaze na razli~itom nivou ekonomskog i politi~kog razvoja, gotovo bez izuzetka, ostaje jednosmeran proces sa jasno definisanom izvornom kulturom i ciqnom kulturom; jednom koja obezbe|uje ekspertizu i jednom koja jedino i uvek samo prima (ili najverovatnije kupuje) usluge. Ovakav proces je izuzetno pogodan za zloupotrebe i korupciju od strane ja~eg partnera. Istra`iva~ki rad i obrazovawe su uvek bili va`an deo kolonijalizma. Kao {to sam objasnio na primeru kulturnog relativizma, kolonijalne kulturne tradicije koriste znawe za prisvajawe, dominaciju i kontrolu. Na{a era je sna`no obele`ena imperativom kulturno odr`ivog razvoja. U zadovoqavawu eti~kih zahteva ovog ideala edukacija ima va`nu ulogu.

trol. Our era is significantly marked by the imperative of culturally sustainable development. It is the role of education to respond to the ethical demands of that ideal.

Translation: terminology, material In my teaching, design and research practice in cultures other than my own, I am trying to transplant the cultural sensibility of literary translation (as a field which successfully ponders the ethics of its own practice), into the fields of architecture and urban design (which too often follow only shallow commercial imperatives). The cross-cultural teaching of design (or, the teaching of cross-cultural design) forms the most inspirational part of that activity. Translation: terminology

Prevo|ewe: terminologija, materijal U mom pedago{kom, istra`iva~kom i prakti~nom radu u okvirima razli~itih kulturnih podru~ja trudim se da prenesem kulturni senzibilitet literarnog prevoda (kao oblasti koja veoma uspe{no vrednuje etiku sopstvene prakse) na oblasti arhitekture i urbanog dizajna ( koji isuvi{e ~esto slede samo plitke komercijalne zahteve). Nastava me|ukulturalnog dizajna je najinspirativniji deo ovih aktivnosti. Prevo|ewe: terminologija Terminologija predstavqa veoma va`an aspekt ukr{tawa, hibridizacije izme|u razli~itih disciplina. Savremena teorija prevo|ewa uspostavqa nekoliko zanimqivih kategorija kao {to su: pripadnost teksta (tj. socijalni prostor kome

Terminology is an important aspect of cross-fertilization between disciplines. Contemporary translation theory establishes a number of challenging categories, such as text-belonging (i.e. the social space to which text belongs), idiolect (a recognizable individual style) and sociolect (collective ownership), or ‘situational belonging’ (elaborated by Pym) – which are relevant for design, research and education in intercultural situations. These few categories are sufficient to generate a number of questions worth answering through every project: - what is our target language (culture/architecture)? - what is our source language (culture/architeture)? - what is our design idiolect? (position) - what design sociolect(s) is/are part of our

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tekst pripada), idio-lekt (tj. prepoznatqiv individualni stil), i socio-lekt ( kolektivno dobro, vlasni{tvo), ili “situaciona pripadnost” (koju je opisao Pim (Pym)) - koje su relevantne za dizajn, istra`ivawe i obrazovawe u interkulturalnim situacijama. Ovih nekoliko kategorija je dovoqno da generi{e nekoliko pitawa na koje je potrebno odgovoriti pri radu na svakom projektu: - Koji je na{ ciqni jezik (kultura) (arhitektura)? - Koji je na{ izvorni jezik (kultura) (arhitektura)? - Koji je na{ dizajnerski idio-lekt ? (pozicija) - Kakav (koji) dizajnerski socio - lekt(i) treba da bude(u) deo na{eg prilaza? - [ta je sa situacionom pripadno{}u? - [ta je sa situacionom pripadno{}u na{eg projekta? ( Da li je to mesto? [ta predstavqa “mesto” za nas? Da li je to na{ sopstveni socio-lekt? Da li je to dru{tvena situacija “doma}inske”, ciqne kulture? Da li je to fizi~ki prostor? Ili klima, ili ~ak suptilnije lokalne nijanse kao {to su recimo boja, ili ...miris?) - [ta mi prevodimo? (Da li prevodimo ve} formirane ideje, ili formiramo potpuno nove ideje?) - Kojim svetovima te ideje pripadaju? - Da li mi prevodimo ono {to je ve} prevedeno? Ili pogre{no prevodimo ve} “pogre{no prevedeno”? Ova pitawa, ne samo da formiraju bazu za kulturnu empatiju, ve} i preispituju samopouzdawe (samozaqubqenost) koje dovodi do izve{ta~enosti, otu|enosti. Ona dovode nau~nika/projektanta u stawe kreativne i pripravne sumwe.

aproach? - what about our situational belonging? - what about situational belonging of our project? (Is that belonging to a particular place? What is place for us? Is that our own sociolect? Is that a social situation of the host culture? Is that the physical place? Or, the climate, or even finer local nuances, such as color; or … smell? - what are we translating? (Are we translating established ideas, or establishing new ones?) - to what realms do those ideas belong? - are we translating what was already translated? Or – mistranslating the mistranslated? These questions not only establish the terminological basis for cultural responsiveness, they also challenge the self-confidence that generates superficiality. They put the designer/researcher in a position of creative doubt and alertness. I agree with Worton when he says that in translation: ‘… it is the space between cultures and languages that is most interesting and the area that we should address … It is a zone of uncertainty, a zone of self-reflexivity and self-questioning in which we have an experience of otherness – and this otherness is not only difference and distance from other culture we are studying but also from our ‘own’ culture.’ (Worton, 1998) Opening up (to) that space is the key to successful architectural and urban design/research. That awareness of the other, of tout autre, is more liberating than the false confidence of absolute knowledge and universal truths. It forms the basis for all our projects. The products of intercultural design and research resemble cultural commentary. Commentary ‘sup-

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Sla`emo se sa Vortonom kada ka`e da je u prevo|ewu “...prostor koji se nalazi izme|u kultura i jezika najzanimqiviji i da je upravo to prostor kojim se treba baviti...To je jedno podru~je neizvesnosti, zona introspekcije i unutra{weg preispitivawa u kojoj ‘pro`ivqavamo iskustvo’ drugosti, a tu drugost ne ~ine samo distance i razlike druge kulture, ve} je ~ine i distance i razlike na{e sopstvene kulture” (Vorton, 1998). Na{e sopstveno otvarawe ka upravo ovom prostoru, predstavqa kqu~ za uspe{no arhitektonsko i urbanisti~ko istra`ivawe i rad. Ta svest o drugom, o toute autre je daleko vi{e osloba|aju}a nego la`na vera u apsolutno znawe i univerzalne istine. Upravo ovo je formiralo osnovu za sve na{e projekte. Proizvodi (rezultati) interkulturalnog projektovawa i istra`ivawa li~e na kulturne komentare. Komentar “daje prevod rade}i ne{to drugo od prevo|ewa. U nastanku prevo|ewa misija komentara je da prevede razlike” (Filip Luis (Phillip Lewis) u Vorton-u, 1998). Delaju}i na samoj margini razlika (me|u kulturama) projektant /istra`iva~ tako mo`e da ima uvid u ciqnu kulturu, {to daqe omogu}ava dono{ewe “obave{tenog” komentara, a bez gubitka relevantnosti i bez rizika intenzivne intruzije. Ako me|ukulturalno projektovawe i istra`ivawe mogu da se uporede sa prevo|ewem , a wihovi proizvodi sa komentarom onda sastavni delovi tog procesa korespondiraju sa ~iniocima teksta. Prevo|ewe: materijal Gradovi i arhitektura se ~esto porede sa tekstom, bivaju}i opisani kao palimpsest isprepletanih poruka i zna~ewa. Za Lefevra (1996.)(Le-

plies translation by doing other than translation. In the wake of translation, the mission of commentary is to translate difference’ (Philip Lewis, in Worton, 1998). Operating in the margin of difference (between cultures) the designer/researcher can thus have insights into the target culture which enable informed comment without losing relevance and risking insensitive intrusion. If cross-cultural design and research can be compared to translation and their products to commentary, then the ingredients of that process correspond to those of the text. Translation: material Cities and architecture are often compared with texts and described as a palimpsest of interwoven messages and meanings. For Lefebvre (1996), there is even a language of the city. He speaks about an ‘urban language, language of connotations’. There is also ‘the writing of the city: what is inscribed and prescribed on its walls, in the layout of places and their linkages’ (Lefebvre (1996). How can we prepare such complex material for translation? How can we extract the cultural material that architectural and urban design and research can comment upon? Nishida Kitaro brings us closer to the nature of those basic components for translation: ‘Experience means to know reality exactly as it is (jijitsu sono mama). It is to know by entirely abandoning the artifices of the self and by following reality’ (Dale, 1986.) Reality ‘exactly as it is’, without mediation; the phenomenological reduction of the environment to its irreducible components and processes; a return to things; a return to experiences.

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febvre), ~ak postoji i tzv. jezik grada. On govori o “urbanom jeziku, jeziku konotacija”. Postoji “pismo grada: ono {to je upisano i ispisano na wegovim zidovima, u matrici mesta i wihovim me|usobnim vezama” (ibid.). Kako pripremiti jedan tako kompleksan materijal za prevo|ewe? Kako ekstrahovati kulturni materijal koji arhitektonsko i urbanisti~ko projektovawe zatim mogu da komentari{u? Ni{ida Kitaro (Nishida Kitaro) nam pribli`ava prirodu osnovnih komponenti prevo|ewa: “Iskustvo zna~i poznavati stvarnost ta~no onakvom kakva ona jeste ( jijitsu sono mama). Ono se upoznaje samo uz potpuno odbacivawe izve{ta~enosti sopstva i sle|ewe stvarnosti” (Dejl, ibid.). Stvarnost, ta~no onakva kakva jeste, bez medijacije; fenomenolo{ka redukcija okru`ewa na osnovne komponente i procese i povratak “stvarima”; povratak iskustvima. “Mi koristimo raslojavawe kako bi smo izolovali elemente pojedina~nog” (Gandelsonas, 1991) (Gandelsonas). Raslojavawe predstavqa prvi korak u procesu identifikacije podataka za analizu, a radi se pomo}u kartirawa i drugih metoda sakupqawa podataka. Jedini ciq raslojavawa je razdvajawe pojava. Slojevi mogu da identifikuju bilo {ta: -ulice (slojevi ulica, raslojeni na slojeve bulevara, ulica prvog reda, saobra}ajnih traka, pasa`a...), ili: -gradsku buku (sloj buke, raslojen na izvor buke, intezitet) -slojevi merqivih karakteristika, ili: -pokret (raslojen na sredstva, smerove, brzinu i sl.).

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We use de-layering to isolate the elements of singularity (Gandelsonas, 1991). De-layering is the first step in a process of identification of data for analysis, and is provided by mapping and other data-collection methods. The only aim of de-layering is to separate the phenomena. The layers can record anything. -the streets (layers of streets, de-layered to the layers of the boulevards, the major streets, the lanes, the passages), or -urban noise (layers of noise, de-layered by source, intensity) or -layers of measurable quality, or -movement (de-layered by means, directions, speed etc.). Only the subsequent phases of analysis and design/research can tell which of those layers matter, where and why. At the de-layering phase there is no judgment, just reality as it is. The issue of choice itself remains open for discussion and controversy. The hope is that beyond a certain level of reduction, layers are not and cannot be, culture specific (for instance, how subjective is the layer of unpleasantly noisy places?) Such layers certainly border – even transgress – the realm of reading or analysis. The analysis generates (and sometimes includes) the commentary – design and research themselves.

Conclusion, or – so what? In this approach to teaching architectural and urban design the expectations shift significantly from product and solutions to process and discovery. If design or research produce a commentary, they represent conscious records of particular situation from a particular position, and their ultimate excel-


Grad [i-an. Dijagram odnosa otvorenih prostora i prostora pod objektima; sloj: stambeni Poseban sloj i izvor za daqe raslojavawe City of Xi’an. Figure-ground plan; layer: residential A layer itself, and resource for further de-layering

Grad [i-an. sloj: uli~na mre`a Poseban sloj i izvor za daqe raslojavawe City of Xi’an. Layer: street network A layer itself, and resource for further de-layering

Grad [i-an. Uli~na mre`a. Sloj: glavne ulice (prvog reda) Poseban fenomen? Izvor za raslojavawe City of Xi’an. Street network. Layer: major streets A single phenomenon? Resource for de-layering

Grad [i-an. Uli~na mre`a. Sloj: ulice drugog reda Poseban fenomen. Bogata tekstura za prevo|ewe City of Xi’an. Street network. Layer: secondary streets A single phenomenon. A rich text(ure) for translation

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Samo faze analize i projektovawa/istra`ivawa mogu da poka`u koji od ovih slojeva su bitni, gde i za{to su bitni. U fazi raslojavawa nema pro-

lence remains (and ought to remain) vulnerable and open to (in particular emic) questioning. Franco Ferrarotti cautioned: It is above all important

cene (rasu|ivawa), postoji samo stvarnost ta~no onakva kakva jeste. Pitawe izbora ostaje otvoreno za diskusiju i kontraverze. Postoji nada da slojevi, iznad jednog odre|enog nivoa redukcije, nisu i ne mogu da budu kulturalno specifi~ni. (Na primer, koliko je subjektivan sloj neprijatno bu~nih mesta?) Ovakvi slojevi se sigurno grani~e, ~ak i prekora~uju svet “~itawa” ili analize. Analiza generi{e komentar (a ponekad ga i sama sadr`i) - generi{e sam dizajn i istra`ivawe.

for Western European and North American analysts to learn how to ‘let go’, how to let themselves be penetrated by the new and the different, to accept the otherness of the other (Dale, 1986). That translates into a (very personal) motto that well describes the position behind my own cross-cultural teaching and design/research ventures: ‘I decide that I prefer not to understand, rather than to color and imprison the object of analysis with conceptions that are, in the final analysis, preconceptions’.

Zakqu~ak, ili - pa {ta? Pri ovom pristupu podu~avawu arhitektonskom i urbanisti~kom projektovawu pa`wa pravi bitan zaokret sa proizvoda, rezultata i re{ewa na proces i otkrivawe. Ukoliko jedan projekat ili istra`ivawe do|e do odre|enog komentara, on predstavqa svesna opa`awa odre|ene situacije iz odre|enog ugla posmatrawa, a wihov vrhunski kvalitet ostaje (i morao bi da ostane) rawiv i otvoren za (naro~ito emi~ko) preispitivawe. Franko Fararoti (Franco Ferrarotti) je nastavio: “Iznad svega je va`no da zapadnoevropski i severnoameri~ki analiti~ari nau~e kako da se ‘prepuste’ uticaju novog i razli~itog, da prihvate drugost, drugog” (Dejl). Ovo prevedeno u (vrlo li~ni) moto koji dobro opisuje stavove koji se nalaze iza me|u-kulturnih profesorskih, dizajnerskih i istra`iva~kih poduhvata glasi: “Odlu~ujem da vi{e volim da ne razumem, nego da obojim i zarobim objekat analize umi{qajima koji su, u kona~noj analizi, predumi{qaji”.

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URBANA MORFOLOGIJA RAZLI^ITOSTI* URBAN MORPHOLOGY OF OTHERNESS* [i-an, glavni grad kineske [anksi provincije je grad duge i uzbudqive istorije. Poznat kao ^ang-an vi{e od hiqadu godina je slu`io kao prestonica mnogim kineskim dinastijama. Bio je glavni grad Kineskog carstva vi{e od 300 godina (586 - 904.). Svoje vrhunce razvoja dosti`e za vreme vladavine prvog kineskog cara Kvin [i Huandi (Quin Shi Huangdi) (umro 210. god. p.n.e.) i za vreme cara Huanconga (Xuanzong) (713 - 755.). Nalazio se na samom po~etku Puta svile, koji je od 200 godine povezivao Kinu i Evropu. “Do VI veka nove ere mesto na kome se nalazio grad ^ang-an ve} je imalo istoriju dugu dva milenijuma”. Za vreme vladavine Tang dinastije (618-907) ^angan je bio najve}i grad na svetu - imao je milion stanovnika i povr{inu utvr|enog grada 10 x 8 kilometara. Padom Tang dinastije (907.) zna~aj ^ang-ana opada, a nakon gra|anskog rata prestonica se seli u Kaifeng u provinciji Henan. Danas [i-an predstavqa jedan od va`nih industrijskih centara Kine, sa pet miliona stanovnika i mnogim industrijskim postrojewima koja su strate{ki locirana u wegovom regionu.

^ang-an je osnovala dinastija ^u (XI v.p.n.e. - 256 p.n.e.), koja je bila gotovo legendarni osniva~ kineskog urbanizma. Wihovi ~uveni obi~aji, “klasi~ni izvor za teoriju grada... ^u li ili ^u kuan .... “ su tako ne samo testirani, nego i u

Xi’an, the capital city of the Chinese Shaanxi Province is city with a long and exciting history. Known as Chang’an for more than a thousand years, it served as the capital city of many ruling dynasties. It was the capital of the Empire for over three hundred years (586­–904). Its peaks include the time of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shihuangdi (died 210 BCE) and the Emperor Xuanzong (713–755). It stood at the beginning of the Silk Road, which since 200 A.D. linked China with Europe. ‘By the 6th century A.D. the site of the city of Ch’ang-an had already been validated by two millennia of historical experience’. During the Tang dynasty (618–907 A.D.) Chang’an was the largest city in the world – it housed a million inhabitants and the perimeter of the walled city measured ten by eight kilometers. With the fall of the Tang dynasty (907 A.D.) the importance of Chang’an diminished and after the civil war the capital was moved to Kaifeng in the Henan Province. Today Xi’an is one of important industrial centers of China, with five million inhabitants and many industries strategically located deep inland.

Chang’an was established by the Chou dynasty (XI c. BCE – 256 BCE), who were almost mythical founders of Chinese urbanism. Their famous Rites of Chou, the ‘classical source for city theory … the Chou li, or Chou kuan …’ was thus not only tried out, but to a large extent established on the

*Originalna verzija ovog eseja objavqena je kao “Xi’an – Urban Morphology and Cultural Difference” na International Symposium on Urban Form, Sinsinati: University of Cincinnati, ed. B. Case Scheer: pp. 159-162 (2001) *The original version of this essay was published as “Xi’an – Urban Morphology and Cultural Difference” in International Symposium on Urban Form, Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, ed. B. Case Scheer: pp. 159-162 (2001)

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velikoj meri formirani na osnovu iskustava osnivawa i gradwe grada ^ang-ana.

experiences of founding and constructing the city of Chang’an.

Klasi~ni obi~aji su navodili da “prestonica mora biti utvr|eni grad, opasan zidom od devet lija, u koji se ulazi kroz tri kapije na svakoj strani, ispresecan sa devet vertikalnih i horizontalnih avenija, sa zidinama opasanom rezidencijom i odajama vladara koji se nalaze u centru”. Jedna od tip~nih {ema uli~ne mre`e je bila krst “bez severne polovine glavnog puta pravca sever-jug, tako da glavni put koji polazi od ju`ne kapije ka severu formira slovo T sa glavnim putem pravca istok-zapad. U ve}ini slu~ajeva ova uli~na mre`a je povezana sa severno-centralnom lokacijom yamen-a i drugih javnih zgrada, a wen oblik je nesumwivo nastao na osnovama tangovskog ^ang-ana”.

The classic Rites stated that ‘a royal capital must be a walled city of nine li, entered by three gates on each side and crossed by nine vertical and nine horizontal avenues, with the walled residence and audience of the ruler occupying the centre’. One of the typical street layouts was a cross omitting the ‘northern half of the north-south thoroughfare, so that street running north from the south gate forms a ‘T’ with an east–west thoroughfare. In most cases, this street pattern is associated with a north–central location of the yamen and other official buildings, a feature that is doubtless modeled on the layout of T’ang Ch’ang-an’.

Istorijski ^ang-an je bio orijentisan strogo prema principima drevnog predskazawa i podeqen je na odre|eni broj opasanih sektora. Jedini izuzetak iz apsolutne regularnosti je bio nesvakida{we nepravilan oblik celog grada. “Doslovce, sve carske prestonice severne i severozapadne Kine, odakle je kineska civilizacija i potekla, zapravo su bile ili pravougaonog ili ~etvorougaonog oblika, sa izuzetkom Han ^ang-ana”. Izgleda da je razlog za to le`ao u wegovoj ogromnoj veli~ini, potrebi da se prilagodi - toku reke Vaj, {to nije zanemarqivo - i dramati~nom rastu grada. Ina~e, morfologija ^ang-ana strogo prati ^u pravila, odra`avaju}i tako kosmolo{ku koncepciju sveta Han. U kineskoj urbanologiji je insistirano na stavu da se samo naseqa odre|ene forme mogu smatrati gradovima. U woj je veliki zna~aj pridavan urbanoj formi i fizi~kom izgledu naseqa. Na primer, “zidovi su zauzimali toliko centralno mesto u

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Historic Chang’an was strictly orientated according the ancient principles of divination and divided into a number of walled sectors. The only exception to this absolute regularity was the unusually complex overall shape of the city. ‘Virtually all of the imperial capitals in the regions of North and Northwest China, where Chinese civilization originated, were in fact square or rectangular, the most notable exception being Han Chang’an’. That seems to be due to its immense size and its need to adapt – not least importantly to the flow of the river Wei – and to the dramatic growth of the city. Otherwise, the morphology of Chang’an strictly follows the Chou rules and, thus, reflects Han cosmological conceptions of the world. Chinese urbanology demanded that only settlements of certain form could be regarded as cities. It emphasized urban form and the physical appearance of the settlement. For instance, ‘walls have been so central to the Chinese idea of the city that the traditional words for city and walls are identi-


kineskoj ideji o gradu, da su re~i za zid i grad identi~ne pa oba pojma ozna~ava karakter ch’eng... urbani centar koji nije bio opasan zidovima i nije

cal, the character ch’eng standing for both … an unwalled urban center was at least in some senses not a proper city’.

smatran pravim gradom”. Mo`e se re}i da je matrica ^ang-ana odra`avala jaka pravila hijerarhije kineskog dru{tva. Tako|e se mo`e re}i da je tradicionalni kineski urbanizam izuzetno jasan dokaz lefevrijanske definicije grada kao “projekcije dru{tva na tlo, zapravo ne samo u samom prostoru, ve} i na jednom specifi~nom nivou koji se percipira, kreira i zasniva mi{qu, a {to odre|uje grad i urbano”.

We could say that the layout of Chang’an reflected the strongly hierarchical rules of Chinese society. We could also claim that the traditional Chinese urbanism is a clear demonstration of the Lefebvrian definition of the city ‘as a projection of society on the ground, that is, not only on the actual site, but at a specific level, perceived and conceived by thought, which determines the city and the urban’.

Zanimqivo je posmatrati koji to drevni elementi jo{ opstaju u [i-anu. O~igledno je da wih nema mnogo, ali onih nekoliko preostalih i daqe odaje veoma sna`an utisak.

It is interesting to observe what elements of the ancient city still remain in Xi’an. There are not many of these, but the few still remaining have an extremely powerful presence.

Najzna~ajniji fizi~ki ostatak carskog sjaja je

The most important physical remnant of Imperial

Gradski zid. Iako ni jedan od ~uvenih zidova Tang dinastije vi{e ne postoji, zid Ming dinastije, {irok dvanaest metara i dug ~etrnaest kilometara sa {ancem, i danas odaje sna`an utisak veli~anstvenosti starog ^ang-ana.

splendor is the city wall. Although nothing of the famous Tang dynasty wall still exists, the remaining 14-kilometre long, 12-metre wide Ming dynasty structure and its moat convincingly suggest the magnificence of the old Chang’an.

Ipak, najupe~atqivija jo{ uvek postoje}a karakteristika stare prestonice je sama matrica grada. Uprkos gotovo kompletno promewenim fizi~kim strukturama koje su se smewivale kroz dugu i uzburkanu istoriju, centar [i-ana je doslovce determinisan istorijskom matricom koja datira iz doba dinastije Tang. Uprkos svim skora{wim arhitektonskim ekstravagancijama ta matrica ostaje jedini i najuticajaniji ~inilac koji doprinosi kontinuitetu dramati~ne urbane forme [i-ana. Urbo-morfolo{ki ona odr`ava `ivim duh ^angana. [iroke avenije su podsetnik da je nekada

However, the most striking feature of the old capital that still exists is not its physical remains but the overall layout of the city. Despite the almost complete change of physical structures that have occurred during its long and turbulent history, the centre of Xi’an is determined by the historic grid that dates back to the Tang dynasty. Despite all recent architectural extravagancies, the grid remains the strongest single contributor to the continuity of the dramatic urban form of Xi’an. Urbo-morphologically it keeps the spirit of Chan’ag alive. Its wide avenues are reminders that once ‘nine carts could ride

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“devet ko~ija, pore|anih uporedo jedna do druge, moglo da vozi na svakoj od osamnaest glavnih puteva matrice” (Holex) (Holledge).

abreast on each of the 18 main roads of the grid’ (Holledge).

Danas je [i-an jedan od multikulturnih centara Kine. Zahvaquju}i wegovoj poziciji na po~etku Puta svile, jo{ od vremena dinastije Tang, hiqade trgovaca je `ivelo u gradu. Vekovima, on je dom najve}oj muslimanskoj zajednici u Kini, Hui populaciji. Zahvaquju}i centralnom polo`aju kvartova nastawenih ovom zajednicom , prisustvo Huimina (muslimana, Hui osoba) u gradu je vrlo upadqivo. Jo{ od sedmog ili osmog veka, oni nastawuju isto, gusto naseqeno podru~je u samom srcu starog opasanog grada, zapadno od “Kule bubweva”.

Today Xi’an is one of multicultural centers of China. Thanks to its position at the beginning of the Silk Road since Tang times, thousands of traders have lived in the city at any one moment. For centuries it has housed the largest Muslim, Hui population in China. Due to central location of their quarters, the presence of Huimin (a Hui person, a Muslim) is obvious. From the seventh or the eighth century to the present they have inhabited the same densely populated area in the very heart of the old walled city, just west of the Drum Tower.

Hui ~etvrt (Huiminfang) ili jednostavno “~etvrt” (fangshang), nema ve}u povr{inu od 1 miqe kvadratne, me|utim wu nastawuje 30. 000 qudi (1994.), ili polovina ukupne Hui populacije [i-ana. U woj se nalazi deset (od osamnaest koliko ih je u [ianu) xamija, pravih centara dru{tvenog `ivota u toj oblasti. Tako|e se tu nalazi i nekoliko istorijskih spomenika, stotine prodavnica, restorana razli~ite vrste i nebrojena koli~ina tezgi sa hranom. Oni su se “izlili iz arhitektonskih kalupa na javne trotoare. Hui sitni preduzetnici su koristili trotoare za pripremu hrane, weno skladi{tewe i za sme{taj mu{terija”, dok “su najve}e ulice u ~etvrti bile jedva dovoqno {iroke da omogu}e prolaz samo jednog automobila, a ve}i deo oblasti su ~inile uli~ice toliko uske da se wima jedva moglo prolaziti biciklom”.

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The Hui quarter (Huiminfang), or simply ‘the quarter’ (fangshang), is not larger than one square mile, but in 1994 it housed more than 30,000 people, or half of the total Hui population of Xi’an. It boasts ten (of Xi’an’s 18) mosques, which are the true centers of the social life of the district. There are also several historic monuments, hundreds of shops and eateries and an unknown number of food stalls. They ‘spilled beyond their architectural confines onto the public sidewalk. Hui entrepreneurs used the sidewalk for food preparation, storage, and seating for customers’, while ‘the biggest streets in the quarter were only wide enough to allow a single car to drive through, and much of the area consisted of small alleyways so narrow that a bicycle could barely squeeze by.


Prisustvo Hui-a u `ivotu na ulici je o~igledno, me|utim fizi~ki okvir wihovih aktivnosti ne odra`ava wihovu kulturnu razli~itost. U wenoj studiji o odnosu modernizacije i potro{a~kih aktivnosti u [i-anu, Bojd @ilet (Boyd Gillete) prime}uje da “1998. godine ~etvrt je bila jedini deo grada u kojoj su zadr`ane ku}e stare preko 100 godina. Wene intimne ku}e i krivudave uli~ice su stajale u jakom kontrastu u odnosu na {iroke ulice i komplekse nebodera koji su bili tipi~ni za ve}inu ostalih delova [i-ana”, me|utim, ni jedan od ovih oblika ne pokazuje posebne tragove islamske kulture. Ta kultura se jasno vidi u upra`wavawu svakodnevnih aktivnosti stanovni{tva ~etvrti. Dakle, po poreklu i sada{wem izgledu grad [i-an je potpuno kineski (koliko god je to mogu}e da bude). Me|utim, vi{e od jednog milenijuma u wemu `ivi jaka i vitalna muslimanska zajednica. Koji je izraz te zajednice, i naro~ito, gde su urbomorfolo{ke posledice te razlike? Mogli bismo da ustvrdimo da lokalni identitet nalazi svoj najja~i izraz u urbanom “softveru”, dok “hardver” ne poprima, tj. ne pokazuje o~ekivani nivo razli~itosti. To izgleda da je istorijska ~iwenica , jer su ~ak i “Hui-qudi s kraja imperijalnog perioda govorili, izgledali i pona{ali se kineski u gotovo svakom pogledu”, i jedino” je wihovo upra`wavawe islamske religije upu}ivalo na jake kulturalne razlike izme|u wih i ne-muslimanskih Kineza”. Prisutna manifestacija svakodnevnog `ivota stvara jaka prostorna obele`ja i vrlo ~esto formira tako sna`ne linije razgrani~ewa kao {to su zidovi. Na primer, zvuci poziva na molitvu koji se razle`u muslimanskom ~etvrti “pet puta dnevno,

The presence of the Hui in the street life is obvious, but the physical framework of their activities does not reflect their cultural difference. In her study of the relationship between modernization and consumption activities in Xi’an, Boyd Gillette notices that ‘in 1998, the quarter was the only part of the city that retained a number of houses that were more than 100 years old. Its private homes and narrow, convoluted alleyways contrasted sharply with the wide streets and high-rise complexes that characterized most other places in Xi’an’. But none of those features bear particular traces of Islamic culture. That culture is strongly reflected in everyday practices of the quarter’s population.

Slika osnove muslimanske ~etvrti Figure ground map of the Muslim quarter

So, by its origins and present appearance the city of Xi’an is as Chinese as it gets. But for more than a millennium it has housed a strong and vital Muslim community. What are the expressions of that community and, particularly, where are the urbo-morphological consequences of the difference? We could argue that the local identity finds strongest expression in urban ‘software’, while the ‘hardware’ does not bear the expected level of difference. That seems to be a historic fact, for even ‘Hui people of the late-imperial period spoke, looked and acted Chinese in most respects’ and only ‘their practice of Islam produced some striking cultural differences between them and non-Muslim Chinese’. The present manifestations of Muslim residents in everyday life make strong spatial markers and

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ali u sinkopi, jer svaka xamija nezavisno odre|uje odgovaraju}e vreme za po~etak molitve” pru`aju gotovo taktilan utisak ulaska i izlaska iz

provide delimitations, often as powerful as walls. For instance, sounds of the call to prayer that permeates the Muslim district ‘five times each day, but

oblasti. Snaga qudskog glasa (ili naj~e{}e, {to je daleko mawe poeti~no, zvu~nika) uspostavqa ne samo eksternu granicu Huiminfanga, ve} tako|e defini{e i komplikovanu mre`u unutra{wih granica. Lokalni Hui su jako odani “svojoj” xamiji, ~esto deklari{u}i sebe kao pojedince koji ne samo da “`ive u blizini xamije” , ve} “pripadaju” jednoj od wih.

in syncopation, as each mosque independently determined the proper time for worship to begin’ give almost tangible feeling of entering and leaving the area. The reach of the human voice (or most often, and far less poetically, the loud-speaker) establishes not only external boundary of the Huiminfang, but also the intricate network of internal boundaries. Local Hui are strongly devoted to their mosque, often identifying themselves not only as ‘living around the mosque’ but as belonging to one of them.

^iwenica da islam nije ostavio ja~i fizi~ki izraz ili prepoznatqiv trag na makro morfologiji [i-ana mo`e da ima kulturne uzroke koji proizilaze iz “dugo prisutnog verovawa u superiornost kineske kulture i kineske nacije u odnosu na ne-kineske ‘varvare’”. Ipak, ovo pitawe ostaje van obima na{e studije. Samo konstatujemo da su sli~na mi{qewa jo{ uvek prisutna. Kinezi i daqe ~esto posmatraju Hui-e kao “feudalne” ili “tradicionalne” (chuantong), {to se jedna~i sa nazadnim, zaostalim (louhou). “Kao veoma religiozni”...za vreme Maove ere Hui su “optu`ivani za zadr`avawe feudalnih, anti-socijalisti~kih i eksploatatorskih obi~aja” (Gledni)(Gladney), a dana{we vlasti se trude da isprave tu stigmatizaciju. Ovde je va`no primetiti da je ta jukstapozicija dve jake tradicije, kineske, budisti~ke, konfu~ijanske i islamske proizvela mnoge zanimqive urbane situacije. U okviru urbanih struktura formiranih prema naj~istijim idealima klasi~nog kineskog urbanizma, mogu se otkriti mnoge suptilne teksture razli~itosti koje ~ine muslimansku ~etvrt [i-ana vrlo specifi~nim mestom.

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The fact that Islam did not find a stronger spatial expression nor leave a recognizable mark at the macro morphology of Xi’an might have cultural reasons that come from ‘the long-standing faith in the supremacy of Chinese culture and Chinese folk nations against non-Chinese ‘barbarians’. That discussion remains beyond our scope. I may recorded here only that such sentiments still remain. Hui are still often seen by other Chinese as feudal or traditional (chuantong), which is the same as saying ‘backward’ (luohou). As they are deeply religious, ‘during the Maoist era Hui were ‘accused of maintaining feudalist, anti-socialist and exploitative practices’ (Gladney) and authorities today are trying to correct this stigma. What matters here is that the juxtaposition of two strong traditions, the dominant Chinese Buddhist and Confucian thought and Islam, has generated many interesting urban situations. Within an urban structure based on the purest ideals of classical Chinese urbanism, one discovers many subtle textures of difference that focus on a Muslim presence in the heart of this city.


Kao {to je ve} opisano, morfolo{ka ekspresija razli~itosti nije prisutna na urbanom nivou. Taj nivo je obele`en efemernom manifesta-

As already described, the morphological expressions of difference are not represented at the urban level. That scale is marked by the ephemeral mani-

cijom prisustva Hui-a, vremenskim strukturama wihovih dnevnih obi~aja, aktivnosti i rituala, morfologijom pokreta, mirisa i zvukova. Fizi~ki izraz kulturne razli~itosti zapo~iwe na nivou arhitekture, posebno u sakralnim objektima.

festation of Hui presence, by temporal structures of their daily practices and rituals, by the morphology of movement, smells and sounds. The physical expressions of cultural difference begin at the level of architecture, particularly sacred buildings.

Tradicionalno, ~ak ni tipologija xamija [iana nije bila prepoznatqivo islamska. Ona je po~ivala na obliku atrijumske ku}e, siheyuan. “Utopqene” u kontinualne zidne paravane tradicionalnog uli~nog pejza`a, xamije su pokazivale sastojak razli~itosti samo veoma stru~nom oku. Razlog tome je bila realnost `ivota u kome je islam kao religija tolerisan, ali wegovo {irewe nije bilo ni slu~ajno odobravano ni `eqeno u krugovima vlasti.

Traditionally, not even the typology of Xi’an mosques was recognizably Islamic. Instead, it was based on Chinese courtyard house, siheyuan. Built into the continuous walls of the traditional streetscape, mosques did not reveal the essence of their difference except to a knowledgeable eye. That was due to the realities of life, where Islam as a practice was tolerated, but its spread was certainly not favored by the authorities.

Savremene xamije su namerno gra|ene u kompletno razli~itom arhitektonskom stilu. Ovo, do izvesne granice, pokazuje i promeweni stav visa-vis islama uop{teno, a {ire i prema lokalnoj Hui zajednici. Nove xamije [i-ana se grade u prepoznatqivom, “internacionalnom” stilu koji je potekao iz ideje o “arapskom” stilu, alabo de. Na taj na~in, arhitektura xamija prikazuje dijalektiku lokalog upra`wavawa religije kao i uticaje op{tih islamskih reformatorskih pokreta. [i-anska muslimanska zajednica je u upra`wavawu religije toliko aktivna da su “neki sukobi bili toliko ozbiqni da su se morale izgraditi nove xamije, kako bi se razdvojile zava|ene strane”. U toj klimi “izgled xamije je prenosio javnu poruku o uverewima stanovnika, obi~ajima, ube|ewima; wihovom statusu ‘autenti~nih’ muslimana; i stepenu wihove modernizacije”.

Modern day mosques are deliberately of a completely different architectural style. This, to some extent, shows changing attitudes vis-à-vis Islam in general and, on a wider scale, to the local Hui community in particular. The new mosques of Xi’an are built in recognizable, ‘international’ style derived from the idea of ‘Arabic’ style, alabo de. Thus the architecture of the mosques makes visible the dialectics of local religious practice and the influences of wider Islamic reform movements. The Xi’an Muslim community is active to the extent that some of the disagreements were so bitter that residents had to build new mosques to separate the quarrelling factions’. In that climate, ‘how a mosque looked … conveyed a public message about residents’ beliefs, practices, and allegiances; their status as ‘authentic’ Muslims; and their degree of modernization’.

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Pitawe arhitektonskog stila postaje direktno zavisno od statusa xamijske kongregacije. “Tradicionalne” i “arapske” forme korespondiraju

The issue of architectural style has become directly relevant to the status of the mosque congregation. The ‘traditional’ and ‘Arabic’ forms relate to

sa razli~itim verzijama islamskog u~ewa. Neki Hui vide xamije kineskog izgleda kao nazadne i nedovoqno muslimanske. To obrazla`e podatak da su obe xamije koje su izgra|ene od osamdesetih godina do danas “arapskog” stila gradwe. “[to se ti~e Hui zajednica koje `ive van pomenute ~etvrti u [i-anu, sedam od osam xamija (od kojih su sve izgra|ene po~ev od 1979. godine) izgra|eno je u arapskom stilu”. Lokalno stanovni{tvo ih egzaltirano opisuje kao “istinski arapske”, “istinski islamske”.

different versions of Islamic teaching. Some Hui see Chinese-looking mosques as backward and insufficiently Muslim. That explains why both of the mosques built in the quarter since the 1980s were ‘Arabic’ in style. ‘Of the other Hui congregations in Xi’an (those not in the quarter), seven of the eight mosques (all constructed since 1979) were built in Arabic style’. Locals enthusiastically describe them as ‘truly Arabic’, ‘truly Islamic’.

To nas upu}uje na najzanimqiviju dilemu lokalnog stanovni{tva : “Na koji na~in bi trebalo biti musliman? ”. “U pitawu je kako, do kog stepena, bi kineski muslimani trebalo da imitiraju Bliski Istok, i do koje granice ovo podrazumeva odbacivawe iskonskih lokalnih obi~aja”. Arhitektonski stil novih xamija i xamija izgra|enih u tradicionalnom stilu ilustruje ovo fundamentalno pitawe, koje za nas predstavqa pitawe o morfologiji kulturalnih razlika. Me|utim, va`no opa`awe jednog od Bojd @iletinih izvora vra}a nas u realnost. On je verovao da “jedina stvar koja je ove xamije razlikovala od hramova je bila vrsta obo`avawa koja se sprovodila u wima”. Jer “ve}ina wih je bila iznutra oslikana slikama pasa, ma~aka, feniksa, i drugih `ivotiwa, {to predstavqa kr{ewe zakona Kurana o zabrani oslikavawa”. On je tako|e bio siguran da “po{to se uverewa Hui-a razlikuju od uverewa i vere Han-a, Hui xamije bi trebalo da izgledaju druga~ije od Han hramova.... Iz tih razloga, nove xamije se grade u arapskom stilu”.

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That brings forward the most interesting dilemma of the local community: how should one be a Muslim? ‘At issue was how, and to what degree, Chinese Muslims should imitate the Middle East, and to what extent this entailed rejecting the indigenous practices’. The architectural styles of the new mosques and those built in traditional Chinese styles illustrate that fundamental issue, which for us translates into a question on the morphology of cultural difference. But an important observation of one of Boyd Gilette’s informants brings us back to everyday life. He believed that ‘only thing that made these mosques different from temples was the kind of worship that took place inside them’, for ‘most had images of dogs, cats phoenixes, and other animals on the inside, which he objected to be violating the Kur’anic prohibition of making images.’ He was also certain that ‘since Hui beliefs are different from Han beliefs, Hui mosques should look different from Han temples … For this reason the new mosques are all built in an Arabic style’.


Ovo je pitawe je potrebno pa`qivo prou~iti pri planirawu [i-ana. U dramati~noj urbanoj rekonstrukciji, koja se odigrala devedesetih godina

That is an issue to be seriously addressed in planning Xi’an. Dramatic urban reconstruction during the 1990s tore down old residential and commer-

ovog veka, poru{ene su stare stambene i trgovinsko-poslovne zgrade u gradu, pro{irene su ulice i izgra|eno je mnogo novih objekata. Rekonstrukcija je prvenstveno re{ila higijenski problem grada i ve}ina ju je ocenila kao veoma uspe{nu i pozitivnu. Planovi za sli~nu rekonstrukciju muslimanskih ~etvrti, u kojima su uslovi za `ivot vrlo lo{i, su u pripremi. Progresivisti~ki stav Vlade }e najverovatnije biti prihva}en od strane lokalne zajednice. Oni vide svoju ~etvrt kao neprijatnu, a mnogi od wih sawaju da wihov kvart postane “kao Amerika” i “kao Peking”.

cial buildings in the city, widened the streets and developed many new buildings. This was primarily aimed at hygienic aspects of the city, and it was seen by many as a positive change. Now there are plans in place for a similar reconstruction of the Muslim quarters, where living conditions in many parts are appalling. The progressive attitude of the Government is likely to be well accepted by locals. They see their quarter as unpleasant and many wanted the quarter to become ‘like America’ and ‘like Beijing’.

Ovakvim tretmanom rekonstrukcije, [i-an jeste dobio mnogo, me|utim, tako|e je izgubio i veliki deo svoje tradicionalne sredine. Pri rekonstrukciji Huiminfanga ne bi trebalo odbaciti poruke starog ^ang-ana. “Mnogi stanovnici su, uprkos wihovim negativnim komentarima (...) jako vezani za kvart.(...) Veoma malo wih se odlu~uje za `ivot, ukqu~uju}i i one koji su dovoqno bogati da kupe stanove, u rekonstruisanim delovima [i-ana... ”. Va`no je proceniti i zadr`ati tragove pro{losti, ne samo kao fizi~ke artefakte ve} i kao na~in `ivota koji je sposoban da kreira kvalitetno okru`ewe. Naglasak bi trebalo da bude na definisawu na~ina `ivota prilago|enog kulturalno odr`ivom razvoju. Prethodno re~eno doti~e i pitawa o “budu}nosti pro{losti” u zemqama u razvoju i pitawa dijalektike izme|u lokalnog i globalnog - koja ostaju van domena ovog kratkog komentara.

With such an approach to reconstruction Xi’an has gained a lot, but it has also suffered the massive loss of its traditional environment. In reconstructing the Huiminfang the messages of old Chang’an should not be disregarded. Many inhabitants, ‘despite their disparaging remarks … were strongly attached to the quarter.… Very few chose to leave, including those who were wealthy enough to purchase private apartments in the newly rebuilt parts of Xi’an.…’ It is worth evaluating and keeping traces of the past, not only of physical artefacts but also of living practices that are still capable of generating high quality environments. The emphasis should be on definition of practices of culturally sustainable development. This raises questions of the ‘future of the past’ in developing countries and the dialectics between local and global trends – matters which remain outside this short analysis.

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KULTURALNA SPECIFI^NOST QUDSKOG OKRU@EWA* CULTURAL SPECIFICITY OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS* Zna~aj vode za tajlandsku kulturu

The importance of water for Thai culture

“Nemogu}e je preneti akvati~ni ose}aj svojstven tajlandskoj literaturi jer, pored uobi~ajenih problema prevo|ewa, ne referira se na vodu per se ve} pre na vodwikave, razvodwene slike, prizore bez kojih tajlandski na~in `ivota ne bi mogao da postoji” napisao je Sumet Jumsai (Sumet Jumsai), arhitekta i filozof tajlandske kulture. “Intelektualno stawe civilizacije bazirane na vodi, formirano je u atmosferi fluksa i toka, koja konstantno zahteva veliku fleksibilnost i neprestano prilago|avawe. Sa ovim dolazi i metafizi~ki aspekt, sposobnost instiktivne i apstraktne kreacije i komunikacije. Nije bilo ~vrstog tla na koje bi se moglo osloniti; prema tome stalnost, permanentnost i u arhitekturi ~isto stati~ne ili zbijene konstrukcije su ~esto imale samo sekundaran, ili najvi{e, paralelan zna~aj u relativno dinami~nim i mobilnim re{ewima”. Za Tajland voda je oduvek bila, i jo{ uvek predstavqa, mnogo vi{e od pukog elementa za opstanak. Ona je defini{u}e stawe sveukupnog kulturnog identiteta, esencija tajlandskog bi}a. Tradicionalne naseobine Siama su ovaplo}ewe te osobine, koja je danas u ozbiqnoj opasnosti i koja ~esto nedostaje. Zemqa, koja formalno nikada nije bila kolonizovana, uvezla je strane obrasce razvoja i kona~no je podlegla wima.

Sumet Jumsai, the architect and a philosopher of Thai culture writes: ‘It is impossible to convey the aquatic feeling inherent in Thai literature for, besides the usual problem of translation, the reference is not simply made to water per se but rather to an element of aqueous imagery without which the Thai way of life cannot exist.… The intellectual conditioning of the water-based civilization arose from an environment of flux and flow, constantly requiring great flexibility and relentless adaptability. With this came the metaphysical aspect, the ability to create and communicate instinctively and abstractly. There was no ground to hold on to; hence permanency and, in architecture, purely static or compression structures often played a secondary or, at most, a parallel role to the relatively dynamic and mobile solutions’. For Thais, water always was and still is much more than a mere necessity for physical survival. It is the defining condition of an overall cultural identity: the essence of Thai being. Traditional settlements and the architecture of Thailand embodied that quality, which is now in grave danger and is often lost. The country, which has never been formally colonized, has imported and eventually succumbed to alien patterns of development.

*Originalna verzija ovog eseja napisanog zajedno sa ko-autorom tajlandskim akademikom dr Davisi Buntarm objavqena je kao “Cultural Difference in Conceptualization of Sustainable Future - Water and Lessons of Thai Culture – Cultural Difference in Conceptualization of Sustainable Future”, u Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, UNESCO, Dubrovnik: University of Zagreb, ed. Z. Guzovic: paper No. 33, pp. 1-10 (2003) *The original version of this essay was co-written with a Thai academic, Dr Davisi Boontharm and published as “Cultural Difference in Conceptualization of Sustainable Future - Water and Lessons of Thai Culture – Cultural Difference in Conceptualization of Sustainable Future”, in Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, UNESCO, Dubrovnik: University of Zagreb, ed. Z. Guzovic: paper No. 33, pp. 1-10 (2003)

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Globalizacija i tajlandski na~in

Globalization and Thai ways

Ti obrasci razvoja su deo procesa globalizacije. Oni su izraz logike “jednosmerne ekonomije�, zasnovane na nemaru prema `ivotnoj sredini i okru`ewu, sumwi~avosti prema dalekose`nom planirawu, na uni{tavawu resursa i prihvatawu nepravdi. Posledwih godina, potreba za druga~ijim, odr`ivim razvojem {iroko je prihva}ena. Politi~ke i ekonomske elite su prihvatile samo ekolo{ki `argon, dok promena u dominantnoj, ru{ila~koj razvojnoj paradigmi nije bilo, ili ih je bilo vrlo malo. Li~ni interesi su suvi{e jaki, a mo} zasnovana na wima toliko sna`na da bi dopustila i najmawu sumwu, a kamoli razmi{qawe o promeni. U takvoj dominantnoj filozofiji razvoja, voda se zajedno sa ostalim izvorima energije i manifestacijama `ivotne sredine, svrstava me|u robu i usko posmatra samo kao sredstvo za ekonomski razvoj. Taj stav o~igledno ne mo`e biti prihvatqiv za Tajland. U na{em fokusu se nalazi gra|ena sredina Tajlanda, koja je podlegla nekim od najja~ih talasa naleta globalizacije, te sada lepo prikazuje i srazmeru i ubrzavaju}i ritam krize. Nas zanima sagledavawe ekolo{ki i kulturalno odr`ivih modela urbanog razvoja Tajlanda. Tako|e verujemo da }e kulturalna specifi~nost Siama i wena su{tinska razli~itost od vladaju}e razvojne paradigme omogu}iti boqe op{te razumevawe odr`ivog razvoja, a naro~ito, zna~aja razli~itosti u wegovom definisawu.

Those patterns of development are part of the process of globalization. They represent the logic of a one-way economy, founded on a disregard for the environment, a suspicion of long-term planning, a waste of resources and an acceptance of inequity. In recent years the need for different, sustainable development has been widely accepted. Political and economic elites have adopted environmental jargon, but there has been little or no change to the dominant, damaging development paradigm. Vested interests in this paradigm are too deep, and the power founded on them too strong to allow any doubt or even contemplation of change. Within that dominant development philosophy water is, together with other sources of energy and manifestations of environment, counted among commodities and seen narrowly as no more than a resource for economic growth. That attitude is obviously inappropriate for Thailand. Our focus is on the Thai built environment, which has taken some of the major blows of globalization and now represents perfectly both the extent and the accelerating pace of the crisis. We (note: D. Radovic and D. Boontharm) are interested in envisioning ecologically and culturally sustainable models for Thai urban development. We also believe that the cultural specificity of Siam and its essential difference from the ruling development paradigm may facilitate a better general understanding of sustainable development and, in particular, the importance of difference as it is commonly defined.

Modernizam i vernakularne vrednosti

Modernism and indigenous values

Modernizam se mo`e optu`iti za prihvatawe banalnih, merqivih pristupa prirodi i za

Modernism can be accused of embracing the banal, calculable resource approach to nature and of

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podr`vawe antropocentri~nog (obi~no vrlo pojednostavqeno nazvanog “zapadni”) na~ina mi{qewa i pona{awa. U okviru tog uskog, pozitivisti~kog pogleda na svet takmi~ewe i pobeda nad ostalima se izjedna~ava sa potvrdom vlastitih vrednosti.

supporting an anthropocentric (usually, in a grossly simplified way, called ‘Western’) way of thinking and acting. Within such a narrow, positivist worldview competition and winning against others have become equivalent to the confirmation of one’s own worth.

Usvajaju}i logiku pozitivisti~kog mejnstrima modernizam je ne samo otu|io sam sebe nego i ve}i deo sveta od izvornih vrednosti. Kao {to Luis (Lewis) obja{wava: “uticaj razli~itih kultura na qudsko pona{awe je bio prili~no degradiran od kada je pozitivizam bitno zavladao poqem dru{tvenih nauka na ameri~kim univerzitetima tokom pedesetih godina ovog veka. Kulturni diverzitet (me|ukulturna pitawa) je opisan kao ‘meka (soft) tema’ - zasnovana na nesigurnom znawu, nenau~na, anegdotska i kulturno-sputana”. To je dovelo do globalne dominacije “zapadnih” vrednosti i pojave ekstremno kulturalno pristrasnih razvojnih trendova.

By adopting positivist logic, mainstream modernism has alienated not only itself but also most of the world from the indigenous values of the people of the world. As Lewis explains: ‘The influence of different cultures on human behavior has been considerably downplayed since positivism substantially took over the social sciences in American universities in the 1950s. Cultural diversity (cross-cultural issues) was depicted as a ‘soft’ subject – based on uncertain knowledge, unscientific, anecdotal, itself culture-bound’. That led to global domination of ‘Western’ values and extremely culturally biased development trends.

Izvorni, kulturalno-specifi~ni pristupi }e verovatno biti (i obi~no to i jesu) zna~ajno razli~iti od dominantnih trendova. Procewivani u okvirima stranog, tu|eg sistema vrednosti, oni ostaju potceweni i neistra`eni. Kulture koje se razlikuju od onih koje kr~e ili idu stazom pozitivista, skrajnute su na marginu tr`i{no iniciranog razvoja. Po{to su marginalizovane, one ~esto uspevaju da o~uvaju jak autenti~an i su{tinski eko-centri~an pogled na svet. Zna~aj tih pogleda na svet ne sme biti potcewen. Oni nose klice autenti~ne, izvorne logike koja je od kriti~nog zna~aja za odr`ivi razvoj. Da bi se postiglo boqe razumevawe wihove milenijumske mudrosti koje se mo`e primeniti na sve oblasti qudskog delawa, potrebno je wihovo istra`ivawe.

Indigenous, culturally-specific approaches are likely to be (and usually are) profoundly different from the globally dominant trends. Judged by an alien valuesystem, they remain undervalued and unexplored. Cultures different from those which generate or follow the positivist path are pushed to the margins of market-driven development. Being marginalized, they often preserve a strong vernacular and fundamentally eco-centric worldviews. The significance of those worldviews should not be underestimated. They bear seeds of vernacular logic which is of critical importance for sustainable development. Research is needed to develop a better understanding of their millennial wisdom, which can be integrated into all spheres of human endeavor.


Ponovno otkrivawe vernakularnog

The rediscovery of vernaculum

Stav prema tehnologiji mo`e da na zanimqiv na~in ilustruje jaz izme|u vladaju}ih i alternativnih paradigmi.

Attitudes towards technology offers an interesting illustration of the gap between ruling and the alternative paradigms towards development. The currently dominant development paradigm promotes hard, technocentric approaches based on belief that economic growth is key to human development and that scientific and technological progress can ensure endless growth. Being suspicious of participatory processes, it prefers the ‘expert approach’, confident ‘that all impediments can be overcome given a will, ingenuity and sufficient resources arising out of growth’. Softer technocentrism is aware of the severity of development problems, but it also believes that ‘economic growth and resource exploitation can continue assuming (a) sustainable economic adjustments to taxes, fees etc., (b) improvements in legal rights to a minimum level of environmental quality, (c) compensation arrangements satisfactory to those who experience adverse environmental and/or social effects’ [ibid.]. Neither a hard nor a soft-technocentric option ever questions the dominant development paradigm.

Trenutno dominantna paradigma razvoja promovi{e jak, tehnocentri~ni pristup koji je zasnovan na ideji da je ekonomski rast kqu~ za qudski razvoj, i da nau~ni i tehnolo{ki napredak mo`e da obezbedi ve~ni napredak. Budu}i da je sumwi~av prema kolaborativnim procesima, radije se odlu~uje za ekspertski pristup, ube|en da “se sve prepreke mogu prevazi}i ako postoji voqa, ingenioznost i dovoqno resursa, koji }e samim razvojem biti obezbe|eni”. Mek{i tehnocentrizam je svestan ozbiqnosti problema, ali ipak veruje da “ekonomski rast i eksploatacija resursa mogu da se nastave podrazumevaju}i: (a) odr`ive ekonomske korekcije taksi, poreza i sl., (b) dorade zakona u smislu obezbe|ivawa minimalnog ekolo{kog kvaliteta, (v) kompenzacijske aran`mane za one koji trpe negativne efekte na `ivotnu sredinu i dru{tvo” (ibid.). Ni jedna od opcija, ni tvrda, ni meka tehnocentri~na opcija ne dovodi u pitawe ispravnost dominantne razvojne paradigme. Alternativnim prilazima, generalno, nedostaje poverewe u krupnu tehnologiju i sa wom povezane zahteve za elitisti~kom ekspertizom. Oni veruju da je “materijalizam radi materijalizma pogre{an”. Ekstremni ekolozi insistiraju na “iskonskom zna~aju prirode za qudski rod” i zagovaraju da “ekolo{ki (i drugi prirodni) zakoni odre|uju qudski moral”. Va`no je i re}i da ovi alternativni sistemi vrednosti nisu novina. Oni su zasnovani na lokalnim, vernakularnim vrednostima, lokalnoj etici prema `ivotnoj

Alternative approaches, in general, lack faith in large scale-technology and its associated demands on elitist expertise. They believe that ‘materialism for its own sake is wrong’. The deep-ecologists insist on an ‘intrinsic importance of nature for the humanity of man’ and argue that ‘ecological (and other natural) laws dictate human morality’. It is important to know that those alternative value systems are not new. They build upon vernacular values and vernacular environmental ethics ‘which have existed implicitly in many indigenous and traditional cultures throughout the world for a very long time’. It is also worth understanding that vernacular values and vernacular quality are not only issues

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sredini “koji su ve} dugo postojali iskqu~ivo u mnogim autenti~nim kulturama na svetu”.

of the past. To stress their current role and future potential, Ivan Illich has suggested re-appropriating the original meaning of vernaculum as ‘something

Tako|e je va`no razumeti da ove vernakularne vrednosti i karakteristike ne pripadaju samo pro{losti. Da bi naglasio wihovu aktuelnu ulogu i budu}i potencijal, Ivan Ili~ (Ivan Illich) predla`e ponovno prisvajawe originalnog zna~ewa vernakuluma kao “ne{to {to nije nastalo na tr`i{tu”. On obja{wava “vernakularan ... je tehni~ki termin iz latinskog jezika, a ozna~ava suprotno od korisnog, jer se suprotno od vernakularnog mo`e ste}i samo razmenom vrednosti, trgovinom” i predla`e upotrebu termina “vernakularna tehnologija” (ibid.) kao oznake za filozofski razli~it pristup razvoju.

that has not been derived from the market’. He explains how ‘vernacular … is the technical term in Latin for the inverse of commodity, for the inverse of that which must be derived in one way or another from exchange values’, and proposes use of the term ‘vernacular technology’ [ibid.], as the signifier for a philosophically different approach to development.

Potreba za kulturalno specifi~nim razvojem Kao {to je Jumsai objasnio, tajlandsko vernakularno je obele`eno upravo jedinstvenim odnosom prema vodi. Ono je “amfibi~no” i zasnovano na jakim, intuitivnim “nauti~kim refleksima”. U zapadnom svetu, holandska kultura poseduje najbli`u fizi~ku vezu sa vodom. Specifi~ni topografski uslovi Holandije su primorali Holan|ane da osmisle neke od najingenioznijih, izuzetno lokalno i kulturalno-specifi~nih primera hidro-in`iwerstva. Wihova praksa u toj oblasti je fundamentalno razli~ita od prakse akvati~ne tajlandske civilizacije. Jumsai obja{wava: “Holan|ani su hidrauli~ni: Holan|ani kopaju wihovo plitko more i prave poldere na wegovom dnu, jer moraju da imaju ~vrsto tlo na kom mogu stajati. Za jugoisto~ne Azijate , wihova veza sa tlom je ~esto ‘pod vodom’, potopqena i ona je ili sama voda, ili vodeni element ili stubovi u vodi koji podupiru wihove gra|evine.

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The need for a culturally specific development As Jumsai eloquently explained, Thai vernacular is critically marked by a unique attitude to water. It is ‘amphibious’, and based on strong, intuitive ‘nautical reflexes’. In the Western world, Dutch culture is one with the closest physical links to the water. The unique topographic circumstances of the Netherlands has made the Dutch people produce some of the most ingenious and extreme place-specific and culture-specific examples of water-related engineering. Their practices are fundamentally different from those of the aquatic Thai civilisation. Jumsai explains how ‘the Dutch are hydraulic: the Dutch people dike their shallow sea and polder its bottom, for they must have land and be able to stand on it. For South-East Asians, their link to the ground, which is often submerged, is either the water element itself or the stilts supporting their structures. Thus, the one solution for the built environment is compression-reliant; effective diking being possible only with compressive material, while the other is tension-reliant. In other words, one solution, even in a watery terrain, is land based; the other water based’.


Tako, jedno graditeqsko re{ewe se oslawa na kompresiju i u~vr{}ivawe, po{to je efikasno kopawe kanala i nasipawe mogu}e izvesti samo sa

The comparison between Dutch and Thai approaches to water management provides a telling example of a profound cultural difference. Their

kompresivnim materijalima, dok je drugo zasnovano na tenziji. Drugim re~ima, jedno re{ewe je, ~ak i na terenima punim vode orijentisano ka ~vrstom tlu, a drugo je orijentisano ka vodi”.

diametrically opposed responses to the element of water are not about technological difference or ability, but reflect the deep cultural otherness of the two geographically distant nations. Neither the Dutch nor the Thai vernacular response to water is inherently better or worse than the other. They are different because both truly belong to their own cultural and environmental frameworks.

Pore|ewe holandskog i tajlandskog pristupa tretmanu vode i vla`nog terena predstavqa pravi primer su{tinske kulturalne razli~itosti. Wihov dijametralno suprotan prilaz tretmanu elementa vode ne poti~e iz tehnolo{kih razlika ili mogu}nosti, on upravo odra`ava onu kulturalnu drugost dve geografski udaqene nacije. Ni tajlandski, ni holandski vernakularni tretman ne mo`e da se oceni kao boqi ili lo{iji. Oni su jednostavno razli~iti jer istinski pripadaju svojim autenti~nim i specifi~nim kulturama i okru`ewu. Upornim qudskim naporima, Holandija je uobli~ila jedinstveni nizijski pejza` koji je formiran na osnovama jedinstvene hidrauli~ne logike koja je u Holandiji razvijana vekovima. S druge strane, pri agresivnom kontaktu sa zapadwa~kim na~inom `ivota, Tajland je napustio svoje na~ine `ivota. Sada postaje jasno da usvojen na~in `ivota i obi~aji nisu dali `eqene rezultate. Po{to su oni kulturno otu|eni, nisu uspeli da odgovore na lokalno okru`ewe i mentalitet, i u najve}em su samo pogor{ali sveop{tu krizu. O~igledno je da: -Odr`iva re{ewa za Tajland moraju biti zasnovana na onim temeqima koji su bili ozbiqno poquqani isuvi{e samouverenim prelazom na zapadwa~ki modernizam. -Ta re{ewa bi trebalo da po~nu od spoznaje da

Through sustained human efforts the Netherlands has been shaped into a unique low-lying landscape, based on a centuries-long evolution of an indigenous, hydraulic logic. On the other hand, during its encounters with aggressive Western practices, Thailand has abandoned its own ways. Thais attempted to apply foreign, ‘proven’ approaches. It is now clear that the practices adopted did not give the desired results. Being culturally alien, they failed to respond to both the local environments and local ways of thinking, and often only worsened an overall crisis. It is obvious that: -Sustainable solutions for Thailand must be based on those very foundations that have been severely shaken by an overconfident shift to the Westernstyle modernism. -Those solutions must begin with the recognition that even the most ingenious solutions that suit, say, The Netherlands could (and probably must) be a failure in Thailand – and vice versa. -That awareness should never, a priori, exclude the implementation of the latest technology or cuttingedge expertise. It should only, firmly, demand that the relative merit and relevance of each technological solution and piece of expert advice conforms to local values and satisfies the locally defined

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i najingenioznija re{ewa koja su odgovaraju}a, recimo u Holandiji, verovatno }e (i naj~e{}e to i jesu) biti neuspe{na za Tajland - i obrnuto. -Ipak, ta spoznaja ne treba da a priori odbacuje ideju o implementaciji najnovije tehnologije ili vrhunske ekspertize. Ona bi trebalo samo da postavi jasan zahtev da se svako tehnolo{ko re{ewe ili ekspertski savet prilagodi lokalnim vrednostima i da zadovoqi lokalno definisane kriterijume okru`ewa i kulturne relevantnosti.

Istok i Zapad, vrednosti “Ona” i “On” Razumevawe dijalektike izme|u pojedina~nog i op{teg je kqu~no za lokalne vrednosti i lokalno definisane kriterijume za odr`ivi razvoj. Ono pokazuje prirodu ponovo usvojenog koncepta vernakuluma i ukazuje na wegov potencijal vezan za odr`ivi razvoj. Logika koja stoji iza vernakularnih vrednosti je univerzalna. Sve kulture poseduju vernakularne idiome. Te vrednosti i wihovi izrazi su istovremeno globalni i kulturalnospecifi~ni, odra`avaju}i najfinije nijanse lokalne razli~itosti, su{tinske me|upovezanosti izme|u lokalne, regionalne i globalne skale. U poku{ajima da opi{u dijalektiku “Isto~nih” i “Zapadnih” vrednosti (u slu~aju lokalnog i globalnog na Tajlandu), interkulturalne studije vrlo ~esto koriste jukstapozicionirawe. U tim jukstapozicijama “Istok” je, gotovo uvek, opisan kao kulturni sistem izra`ene svesti o okru`ewu i `ivotnoj sredini, dok paradigmati~ni “Zapad” predstavqa wegovu suprotnost. O zna~aju isto~wa~ke misli za odr`ivost dosta je raspravqano.

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criteria of environmental and cultural relevance and belonging.

East and West, ‘she’ and ‘he’ values Understanding the dialectics between the particular and the general is a key to understanding local values and locally defined criteria for sustainable development. They show the nature of a re-appropriated concept of vernaculum and indicate its potential for sustainable development. The underlining logic behind vernacular values is universal. All cultures possess vernacular idioms. Those values and their expressions are simultaneously global and culture-specific, reflecting the finest nuances of local difference and the essential interconnectedness of the local, the regional and global scales. In their efforts to describe dialectics of ‘Eastern’ and ‘Western’ (in the case of Thailand local and global) values, cross-cultural studies often use juxtapositions. In those juxtapositions ‘East’ is, almost without exception, described as cultural system of a pronounced environmental awareness, while paradigmatic ‘West’ represents the opposite. The relevance of Eastern thought for sustainability has been well theorized. Many of those theories now link the East with ‘the emerging twenty-first century paradigm’, which ‘has many conceptual affinities with pre-industrial natural attitudes and values, especially those of the East’. In the Cultural Imperative, Lewis confidently identifies ‘the rise of the feminine in the West’ and claims that it ‘coincides with the necessity to accept Asian values’.


Mnoge od ovih teorija danas povezuju Istok sa “paradigmom koja se pojavquje u XXI veku”, koja “ima mnogo konceptualnih sli~nosti sa pre-industrijskim vrednostima i odnosom prema prirodi, a posebno sa isto~nim vrednostima”. U Kulturnom imperativu, Luis samouvereno identifikuje “rast `enskog (feminizma) na Zapadu” i tvrdi da se on “vremenski podudara sa potrebom za prihvatawem azijskih vrednosti”.

Current environmental discourse uses ‘feminine’ and ‘masculine’ qualities as metaphors for opposed, environmentally sensitive and positivist approaches. Arne Naess, for instance, adopts Robertson’s description of competing visions as ‘he’ and ‘she’ values and summarizes them thus:

Aktuelna teorija `ivotnog okru`ewa koristi “`enske” i “mu{ke” osobine kao metaforu za suprotne pozicije, ekolo{ki i pozitivisti~ki pristup u tretmanu `ivotnog okru`ewa. Arne Nes (Arne Naess), na primer, usvaja Robertsonov opis konkurentskih vizija kao “on” i “ona” kvalitete i rezimira:

ONA/SHE

ON/HE

kvalitativne vrednosti i ciqevi/ kvantitativne vrednosti i ciqevi/ qualitative values and goals quantitative values and goals qudski, humani razvoj/human development

ekonomski razvoj/economic growth

li~ne i uzajamne vrednosti i ciqevi/ organizacione vrednosti i ciqevi/ personal and interpersonal values and goals organizational values and goals realne potrebe i aspiracije/real needs and aspirations odnosi me|usobne razmene/mutual exchange relationships

nov~ane vrednosti/money values ugovorni odnosi/contractual relationships

intuitivno, iskustveno, empati~no/ intelektualno, racionalno, odgovorno/ intuitive, experiential, empathetic intellectual, rational, detached `enski prioriteti/feminine priorities sveobuhvatna kompetencija/all-round competence samopouzdanost/self-reliance lokalno/local decentralizacija/countrywide

mu{ki prioriteti/masculine priorities specijalizacija/bespomo}nost/specialization/helplessness tehnokratija/zavisnost/technocracy/ dependency urbano/urban centralizacija/centralizing

planetarno/planetary

evropsko/European

ekolo{ko/ecological

antropocentri~no/anthropocentric

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Ove vrednosti karakteri{u dva pogleda na svet. Jedan je fundamentalno oslowen na tehnologiju, ma~izam i snagu pojedinca (i trenutno dominira svetom ekonomije i politike). Drugi nudi osetqivost u odnosu na prirodu i ne`ne odnose (i izgleda da se u wemu nalaze klice druga~ijeg pona{awa).

Those values represent two worldviews. One is fundamentally reliant on technology, machismo and the power of a individual (and currently dominates the realms of the economy and politics). The other worldview offers sensitivity for nature, inclusiveness and soft relationships (and seems to contain seeds of a necessary different form of governance).

Tokom pro{lih nekoliko dekada “Istok” je postao popularna metafora za vernakularni senzibilitet. Wu je va`no razumeti iako isto~wa~ka filozofija ne nudi globalnu panaceu. U wenoj fundamentalnoj razli~itosti ona samo ozna~ava, ukazuje na nekada{wi univerzalni kvalitet, osobinu koju smo izgubili - i na zna~aj wenog ponovnog sticawa.

Over the last several decades the ‘East’ became a popular metaphor for vernacular sensibility. However, Eastern philosophies do not offer a global panacea. In their fundamental difference they only signify the once universal quality which we have all lost – and the importance of regaining it. Martin Heidegger addressed this issue when he spoke of how ‘a change can only be prepared from the same place in the world where the modern technological world originated. It cannot come about by the adoption of Zen Buddhism or other Eastern experiences of the world. A change in thinking needs the help of European tradition and a new appropriation of that tradition. Heidegger’s message definitely applies to the positivist West and its globally damaging development dogma. ‘Thinking will only be transformed by a thinking that has the same origin and destiny’ clearly means that the errors in development of Thailand can only be corrected by careful, locally developed, Thai thinking.

Martin Hajdeger (Martin Heidegger) se doti~e ove teme kada govori o tome kako “promena mo`e biti pripremqena ba{ na istom mestu, mestu iz kog je potekao moderni tehnolo{ki svet. Do we ne mo`e do}i pukim usvajawem zen-budizma ili isto~wa~ke mudrosti. Promena gledi{ta zahteva pomo} i evropske tradicije, i novu interpretaciju te tradicije”. Hajdegerova poruka se definitivno odnosi na pozitivisti~ki zapad i wegovu globalno {tetnu razvojnu dogmu. “Razmi{qawe }e jedino biti korigovano razmi{qawem koje ima isto poreklo i sudbinu”, {to jasno zna~i da se gre{ke u razvoju Tajlanda mogu jedino ispraviti primenom pa`qivog, lokalno nastalog tajlandskog na~ina razmi{qawa. Dijalektika globalnog i lokalnog dopu{ta “pojavu internacionalne etike vezane za okru`ewe i `ivotnu sredinu koja je zasnovana na teoriji evolucije, ekologiji, i novoj fizici, a izra`ena je u kognitivnoj lingua franca savremene nauke”. Istovremeno, ovo zna~i “obnovu obiqa tradicio-

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The dialectization of the global and the local allows ‘the emergence of an international environmental ethic based upon the theory of evolution, ecology and the new physics and expressed in the cognitive lingua franca of contemporary science’. At the same time that would be ‘the revival of a multiplicity of traditional cultural environmental ethics that resonate with it and help to articulate it. Thus we may have one worldview’ and simultaneously ‘we may also


nalnih etika u odnosu na `ivotno okru`ewe. Na taj na~in mo`emo do}i i do zajedni~kog (jednog) pogleda na svet”, a istovremeno “mo`emo imati i pluralitet obnovqenih tradicionalnih pogleda na svet i sa wima povezanim odnosom prema `ivotnom okru`ewu”.

Luka Klong Toi (Khlong Toey) Kriza vezana za `ivotnu sredinu i okru`ewe opomiwe da je potrebno hitno usvojiti na~in razmi{qawa koji je okrenut ka akciji i delawu. Urbanizam sa`ima mnoge oblasti koje zahtevaju ure|eno i koordinisano delovawe. U tim oblastima, projektovawe i projektantsko istra`ivawe kao proizvo|a~i konkretnih re{ewa i vizija budu}nosti konkretnih mesta (mesta u smislu prostora, vremena, kulture, ta~aka dijalektizacije globalne svesti i lokalnih korena) su od kriti~nog zna~aja. Ovde }emo uzeti za primer jedan projekat istra`ivawa urbanisti~kog projektovawa koji je sproveden na magistarskoj radionici Urbanisti~kog projektovawa (Masters of Urban Design, MUP) na Melburn{kom univerzitetu. Osnovno pitawe istra`ivawa je bilo: Koje bi bile prostorne i programske posledice inverzije kolonijalne logike, iskonskog povratka vernakularnom i autenti~nom kontekstu u urbanisti~kom planirawu i projektovawu Bangkoka? Fokus je bio na budu}nosti glavne luke Bangkoka. Podru~je Klong Toi se nalazi u stawu redefinisawa budu}eg razvoja i postepenog opadawa inteziteta svih nauti~kih i plovnih aktivnosti na postoje}oj lokaciji.

have a plurality of revival and renewed traditional worldviews and associated environmental ethics’.

The Port of Khlong Toey The environmental crisis is a strong reminder of an urgent need for action-oriented thinking, a philosophy of action. Urbanism brings together many fields demanding structured and co-ordinated action. In those fields design and design-research, as generators of concrete solutions and visions of future for concrete places (places understood as points in space, time and culture, points of a dialectic between global awareness and local roots) are of critical importance. Here we will use the example of one urban design research project conducted in the University of Melbourne’s Masters of Urban Design (MUD) research workshop. The overarching research question was, what would be spatial and programmatic consequences of an inversion of colonial logic, of a genuine (re)turn to vernacular and indigenous framework in the urban planning and design of Bangkok? The focus was on the future of Bangkok’s main port. The Khlong Toey area is undergoing a redefinition of its future and the gradual phasing-down of the most intensive shipping activities at the present location. The city of Bangkok exemplifies many of the ills of late-capitalist urbanization of a third-world city. The specificity of its problems makes Thai capital unique. Originally, as the spatial expression of traditional Thai society, Bangkok was fundamentally linked to water. Urbanization removed city life from the Chao Praya River and its many canals and transformed what was a uniquely Thai urban waterscape into a concrete landscape of buildings and

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U gradu Bangkoku mo`e se na}i mnogo primera za bolesti kasno-kapitalisti~ke urbanizacije grada tre}eg sveta. Zbog specifi~nosti tih problema, prestonica Tajlanda je vrlo jedinstvena. Prvobitno, kao prostorni izraz tradicionalnog tajlandskog dru{tva, Bangkok je bio povezan sa vodom. Urbanizacija je gradski `ivot odvojila od reke ^ao Praja (Chao Praya) i autenti~an tajlandski priobalni pejza` pretvorila u kruti, betonski pejza` zgrada i saobra}ajnica. Rapidna urbanizacija je reci okrenula le|a grada, dovela do razvoja kulturalno otu|enih struktura i za wih vezanih aktivnosti, van obalne zone, tj. u unutra{wosti kopna. Odnos izme|u vode i gradskog prostora se promenio. Moderan na~in `ivota je doveo do stvarawa novog na~ina razmi{qawa “zapadwa~ki na~in `ivota” je doveo do zanemarivawa okru`ewa i sopstvene kulture. Luke su sredine sa izra`enim prisustvom tehnologije koje imaju vrlo stroga pravila funkcionisawa. Razumevawe slo`enosti mnogih konteksta Klong Toija je bilo neophodno za opravdano lokalno zasnovana re{ewa. Intezivan terenski rad je podrazumevao brojne razgovore i intervjue. Ovi razgovori su pru`ili mnoge dragocene informacije i podatke. Jednako va`an je bio i jak ose}aj koji je provejavao kroz sve razgovore, onaj koji je podr`avao revitalizaciju bar nekih od tradicionalnih vodenih povr{ina i ponovno uvo|ewe autenti~nog na~ina `ivota kraj vode. Lokalni stru~waci su podr`ali `eqe za revitalizacijom klong-ova (khlong), tradicionalnih tajlandskih kanala. O~igledno je da su oni predstavqali mnogo vi{e od pukih transportnih i prilaznih ruta. Studio je do{ao do ~vrstog stava da nostalgija za klong-ovima sadr`i va`nu poruku koja je direktno vezana za odr`ivost esencije lokalnog duha, te bi ovo trebalo da se tretira kao jednako

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roads. Rapid urbanization turned the back of the city to the water and facilitated the development of culturally alien inland networks and activities. The relationship between the water and urban spaces changed. Modern ways of living generated new ways of thinking and ‘Western’ lifestyles, often to the detriment of their environment and culture. Ports are technologically intensive environments governed by strict rules. Understanding the intricate complexity of many contexts of Khlong Toey was necessary for development of the locally grounded solutions. An intensive fieldwork included a number of discussions and interviews. Those discussions provided valuable information and data. Equally important was the strong sentiment which permeated all discussions, demanding the reclamation of at least some of the traditional waterways and the reintroduction of indigenous aquatic lifestyles. Local experts supported the desire to reclaim the khlongs, the traditional canals of Bangkok. It was obvious that they were much more than mere transportation and access routes. The MUD studio developed the firm position that the nostalgia for the khlongs contains an important message directly linked to the sustainability of the local essence and should be treated as equal to or more important than many of our measurable findings. The overwhelming emphasis on canals and associated lifestyles indicated significant social, cultural and spatial quality and not a mere longing for the times gone.

The diverse cultural and disciplinary backgrounds of the MUD studio facilitated rich debates. Work in collaboration with various local experts helped the development of a realistic blend of local and global quality.


zna~ajan ili ~ak zna~ajniji od mnogih merqivih podataka kojima raspola`emo. Sna`an naglasak na kanale i na na~in `ivota vezan sa wima je ukazao na zna~ajan socijalni, kulturni i prostorni kvalitet koji ne predstavqa samo ~e`wu za pro{lim vremenima. Raznovrstan kulturni i disciplinarni sastav MUP studija je uticao na zanimqivost debata koje su u wegovim okvirima vo|ene. Saradwa sa lokalnim stru~wacima je doprinela re{ewu koje predstavqa finu me{avinu lokalnih i globalnih karakteristika. Sveobuhvatna urbana analiza prostornih i programskih pitawa dovela je do formulisawa dvanaest strate{kih principa urbanog dizajna: -Unaprediti odnos prema vodi -Odgovoriti na pitawa kulturnog identiteta -Poboq{ati i racionalizovati prilaz -Osloniti se na pozitivne uticaje konteksta -Iskoristiti postoje}u infrastrukturu -Unaprediti kvalitete otvorenog prostora i wenih sadr`aja -Redefinisati funkcije luke i wen odnos prema kontekstu -O~uvati postoje}u dru{tvenu matricu (odnose) -Stimulisati razvoj ekolo{ke proizvodwe (nezaga|iva~a) -Uvesti sadr`aje koji }e unaprediti turisti~ki kvalitet Klong Toija -Na svim nivoima rada obezbediti odr`ivi princip projektovawa -Preneti istoriju i uspomene mesta-lokaliteta

A comprehensive urban analysis of spatial and programmatic issues resulted in 12 strategic urban design principles: -Enhance the relationship with the water. -Address issues of cultural identity. -Improve and rationalize access. -Rely on positive contextual influences. -Reuse existing infrastructure. -Improve the quality of open space and amenities. -Redefine port operations and relationships with the context. -Maintain existing social networks. -Encourage development of non-polluting production. -Introduce activities that make Khlong Toey a destination. -At all design levels, ensure environmentally sustainable practices. -Convey the history and memory of the site. The list clearly speaks about the attention given to cultural specificity. Our fieldwork confirmed Jumsai’s emphasis on flexibility, ‘relentless’ adaptability and the ability to ‘create and communicate instinctively and abstractly’ as critical concepts of Thai vernacular quality, and thus the key ingredients for its recovery. They formed the basis for a design brief. This brief was also guided by a strong belief that even the issues closely related to the technointensive activities of the port must be examined through the lens of belonging to a place and cultural character, that a port in Thailand can also be a genuinely Thai port.

Ova lista jasno ukazuje na pa`wu koja je posve}ena kulturalnoj specifi~nosti. Terenski rad je potvrdio Jumsain naglasak na fleksibi-

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lnosti, “krutoj” prilagodqivosti, “sposobnosti da se komunicira instiktivno i apstraktno” kao kriti~nim konceptima tajlandske vernakularne karakteristike, te tako kqu~nih ~inilaca za wegov oporavak. Oni su formirali bazu za projektni zadatak. Formulisawe projektnog zadatka je tako|e bilo formirano pod jakim uticajem ideje da se ~ak i strogo tehni~ka pitawa i tehnolo{ki sadr`aji luke moraju posmatrati kroz prizmu pripadnosti mestu i prizmu kulturnog karaktera, kako bi tajlandska luka mogla da bude autenti~no tajlandska.

A culturally appropriate vision?

Kulturno adekvatna vizija?

Taking the ebb and flow of the flood as a point of departure Rajith Senanayake designated low-lying urban land as a catchments area that cannot be (intensively) built upon. By exploring their potential for (what, by today’s standards is unconventional – but traditionally is ubiquitous) intensive urban agriculture and its incorporation in upgrading the informal settlements that usually occupy this land, a design was developed to reinforce the traditional role of the informal sector in Bangkok as the base of food production, distribution and consumption.

Projektni zadatak je formiran na osnovu istra`ivawa : -potencijala za uvo|ewe vernakularnih karakteristika u konceptualizaciji izrazito tajlandskog urbanog prostora -mogu}eg dometa integracije globalnih i vernakularnih tehnologija ({to je omogu}ila jedinstvena osnovna namena luke Klong Toi), i -mogu}nosti projektovawa za drugo Uzimaju}i u obzir plimu i oseku plavne zone Raxit Senanazake (Rajith Senanazake) je izdvojio nizijsko gradsko zemqi{te kao tampon, prihvatne oblasti u kojima ne mo`e biti intezivne gradwe. Na taj na~in, istra`uju}i wihov potencijal za (po dana{wim standardima vrlo neobi~no, a tradicionalno uvek prisutno) intezivnu gradsku poqoprivredu i weno ukqu~ivawe u neformalna naseqa koja se naj~e{}e nalaze na ovakvom zemqi{tu. Projekat je predvideo oja~avawe tradicionalne uloge neformalnog sektora u Bangkoku kao baze za proizvodwu hrane, wenu distribuciju i konzumirawe.

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A design brief was developed through design explorations of: -the potential of reintroducing vernacular quality into the conceptualization of a distinctly Thai urban space, -the possible integration of global and vernacular technologies (facilitated by the unique main use of Khlong Toey) and -the possibility of design for the other.

The approach to Khlong Toey was derived from the logic of the wider context. The tools used to intervene and transform Bangkok’s local urban morphology were: -a land–water/dyke–delta system, which was derived from cosmological symbolism of Thai culture. -an extension of the dyke–delta system into a land–water strip derived from the waterscape and landscape and from existing processes of urban transformation. -an extension of the land–water strip as a progression of an edible landscape, defining a progression


Prilaz Klong Toiju je zasnovan na logici {ireg konteksta. Sredstva koja su kori{}ena za mewawe lokalne urbane morfologije i za intervencije u woj bila su: -Tlo-voda/nasip-delta sistem, koji je potekao iz kosmolo{kog simbolizma tajlandske kulture. -Produ`etak sistema nasip-delta u tlo-voda traku ili sekciju, koju formira vla`ni predeo, pejza` i postoje}i procesi urbane transformacije. -Produ`etak tlo-voda trake kao progresije pripojenog pejza`a. On defini{e progresiju od isu{enih vla`nih predela ka proizvodwi hrane u urbanoj sredini -Predlo`eni osnovni nivo trake tlo-voda je bio “pejza` sojenica” koji predstavqa karakteristiku javnog prostora. Pejza` sojenica se uvodi i primewuje i na vrlo mali prostor i logiku kori{}ewa svih urbanih blokova. -Javni prostor i formalni gradski blokovi su projektovani pomo}u fino ispletene mre`e traka kombinovane namene, koja je bazirana na postoje}em tipu gradwe i izgradwe, i ~vori{tima koja su me|usobno povezana mogu}nostima pe{a~ke komunikacije. Primena ovih principa je podrazumevala uo~avawe savremenih globalnih trendova u urbanom razvoju oblasti Klong Toi, u paraleli i u preklapawu sa autenti~nim, lokalnim na~inom `ivota i zakonima prirode. Kqu~na razlika u odnosu na “uobi~ajenu” praksu je bila jaka svest o tome da vernakularne vrednosti treba da odrede i defini{u kona~ni kontekst. Kroz uvo|ewe tlo-voda/nasip-delta sistema projektantska intervencija se pro{irila i na metropolitanski, regionalni nivo, tako reinterpretiraju}i tlovoda dijalektiku i akvati~ni karakter tradi-

from a irrigated landscape to urban food production and pavement vending. -the proposed ground levels of the land­–water strip were described as a stiltscape of public space. The stiltscape was incorporated into the interstitial space and the logic of use of all urban blocks. -public space and formal urban blocks were derived through an intertwined lattice of mixed-use bands based on existing building types and building delivery systems and walkable connections to public transport. Implementing these principles meant recognizing contemporary global trends of urban development in Khlong Toey area, in parallel to and overlapping with the indigenous local ways of life and the rules of nature. The key difference from usual practice was a strong awareness that vernacular values were to provide the defining and definite framework. By introducing the land–water/dyke­–delta system the design intervention extended to metropolitan and regional levels, thus reinventing the land–water dialectics and aquatic character of traditional Thai settlements. This encourages a positive re-evaluation of still striving but endangered elements of nature in the city, such as indigenous landscapes of fruit and other edible plant species which provide finest nuances of Bangkok’s uniqueness. Our design emphasized the characteristically Thai, nonhierarchical co-existence of the urban and the rural. Reintroducing water into built-up areas brought back the rise and fall of water levels, which in turn brought back the original building typologies of house on stilts, elevated walkways and other open spaces. The innovative typology of stiltscapes and their definition as ‘continuous, visually permeable public space’ has the potential for rediscovering – and discovering –the essence of Thai urbanity.

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cionalnih tajlandskih naseobina. To stimuli{e pozitivnu procenu i vrednovawe ugro`enih prirodnih elemenata u gradu kao {to su autohtoni pejza` vo}waka i drugih poqoprivrednih vrsta, koji daju najfinije nijanse jedinstvenosti Bangkoka. Projekat je naglasio nehijerarhijsku koegzistenciju urbanog i ruralnog, {to je tako karakteristi~no tajlandski. Ponovno uvo|ewe vode u izgra|ene oblasti dovelo je do podizawa i spu{tawa nivoa voda, {to je zauzvrat donelo povratak izvornoj tipologiji gra|ewa ku}a na {ipovima, izdignute pe{a~ke staze i ostale otvorene prostore. Inovativna tipologija izdignutih, pejza`a na {ipovima (pejza`a sojenica) i wihovo definisawe kao “kontinualan, vizuelno permeabilan javni prostor” nosi potencijal razotkrivawa - i otkrivawa - esencije tajlandske urbanosti. Kako prevoditi poeziju? Fundamentalno razli~ita paradigma ne razdvaja ekolo{ko od socijalnog, tehni~ko od kulturnog. Rezultuju}a karakteristika }e biti specifi~ni regionalizam svih izraza qudske delatnosti, ukqu~uju}i tu i planirawe, projektovawe i tehnolo{ka re{ewa. Hajdeger je pisao kako “sve esencijalno i veliko je nastalo samo onda kada su qudska bi}a imala dom, i kada su bila oslowena na tradiciju”. On je tako|e podsetio “kao {to je gotovo nemogu}e potpuno prevesti poeziju, tako je gotovo nemogu}e prevesti i razmi{qawe. U najboqem slu~aju ono mo`e biti parafrazirano. ^im se poku{a sa doslovnim prevodom, sve se mewa, sve je ve} promeweno”. Kenzo Tange (Kenzo Tange) je jednom

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How to translate poetry? Ecological considerations are not separated by a fundamentally different paradigm from social, technical and cultural ones. The quality that results from considering all four will be a distinctive regionalism of all expressions of human activity, including planning, design and technological solutions. Heidegger wrote how ‘everything essential and great has only emerged when human beings had a home and were rooted in tradition’. He also reminded us that ‘thinking can be translated as little as poetry can. At the best it can be paraphrased. As soon as literal translation is attempted, everything is transformed’. Kenzo Tange once sought high architectural quality in the dialectical synthesis of tradition and anti-traditionalism. We want to see a similar logic applied to all aspects of human endeavor and seek a dialectical synthesis of global and anti-globalizing influences, of vernacular and imported values. We should never speak only about sustainable use. Sustainable development means stewardship of both the ecological and cultural frameworks in which we exist. The phenomenon of water plays a critical role, not only in our biological but also in our cultural survival. Technically efficient but culturally alien solutions have no better chance of succeeding than those relying exclusively on cultural relevance, thus reducing themselves to mere folklore without either technical or scientific merit.


Design by Rajith Senanyake

Veliki crte`: predlo`ena intervencija; postoje}i objekti na Kanalu; nova urbana intervencija; isu{ena delta Dijagrami: elementi prostorne i funkcionalne analize/sinteze

Large plan: proposed intervention Existing buildings on a dyke; new urban intervention; irrigated delta Diagrams: elements of spatial and functional analysis/synthesis

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poku{ao da na|e najvi{i arhitektonski kvalitet u dijalekti~noj sintezi tradicije i anti-tradicionalizma. @eleli bismo da vidimo istu logiku primewenu na sve oblasti qudske delatnosti i da tra`imo dijalekti~ku sintezu globalnih i anti-globalnih uticaja, vernakularnih i uvezenih vrednosti. Nikada ne bi trebalo da govorimo samo o odr`ivom kori{}ewu. Odr`ivi razvoj podrazumeva partnerstvo ekolo{kog i kulturalnog konteksta u kome postojimo; fenomen vode igra kriti~nu ulogu ne samo u na{em biolo{kom, ve} i u na{em kulturnom opstanku. Tehni~ki efikasna, ali kulturalno otu|ena re{ewa nemaju ni{ta boqu {ansu da pre`ive nego ona re{ewa koja se oslawaju iskqu~ivo na kulturalnu relevantnost, svode}i sebe na prosti folklor bez ikakvog tehni~kog ili nau~nog kvaliteta.

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KULTURNA SENZIBILNOST I ODGOVORNOST OBRAZOVAWA* CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE AND RESPONSIBLE EDUCATION* Haos

Chaos

Tokom internacionalne radionice odr`ane u Tajlandu, studenti su prikazivali wihove prve predloge urbanisti~kog projektovawa za ure|ewe jedne oblasti u Bangkoku. Projekat je zahtevao strate{ki prilaz. U relativno ranoj fazi projekta ~etiri grupe studenata iz raznih zemaqa imalo je brojne ideje. Wihovi predlozi su se kretali od op{tih, strate{kih re{ewa, do detaqne razrade pojedinih oblasti. Iskusni me|unarodni panel tutora (~iji sam ponosni ~lan i sam bio) je dao brojne komentare, sugestije i korisne ideje. Panelisti su se slo`ili oko teze da je u tom stadijumu najva`nije uspostaviti jasnu prostornu hijerarhiju. To bi usmerilo ne samo predstoje}e faze projektovawa, ve} bi tako|e, eventualno doprinelo i kreirawu koherentnih re{ewa urbanisti~kog projektovawa.

During the international workshop held in Thailand students presented their first urban design proposals for developing an area of Bangkok. The project demanded a complex multi-scale approach. It was at a relatively early stage in the overall process and the four groups of students from several countries had lots of ideas. Their proposals ranged from broad, strategic decisions to the small-scale refinements of particular areas. An experienced international tutorial panel (of which I was a proud member) responded with a number of comments, suggestions and helpful ideas. The panelists agreed that, at that stage, it was critical to establish a clear spatial hierarchy. That would structure not only the next stages of the project, but also, eventually, contribute to the development of coherent urban design proposals.

Kao i uvek, nekim studentima nisu bila potrebna dodatna obja{wewa; drugi su zahtevali prili~no detaqna obja{wewa o tome {ta se od wih o~ekuje. Me|utim, ovog puta ne{to je bilo ~udno. ^inilo se kao je da tajlandskim studentima, onima koji su daleko boqe poznavali i mesto i lokalnu kulturu uop{te, trebalo najvi{e pomo}i. Da li je postojao problem komunikacije, jezi~ka barijera? Mo`da oni nisu imali dovoqno obrazovawe iz domena urbanisti~kog projektovawa? Ili - da li je postojao neki drugi problem?

As always, some students needed no further explanation. Others required quite detailed clarification of what was expected from them. But, this time something was strange. It seemed that the Thai students, those who evidently had a far better understanding of the place and of the local culture in general, needed the most assistance. Was there a communication problem, a language barrier? Maybe they were not trained in the basics of urban design? Or was there some other problem?

*Originalna verzija ovog eseja objavqena je kao “Towards culturally responsive and responsible teaching of urban design”, u Urban Design International, 12.2004, ed. C. Bull: pp. 175-187 (2004) *The original version of this essay was published as “Towards culturally responsive and responsible teaching of urban design”, in Urban Design International, 12.2004, ed. C. Bull: pp. 175-187 (2004)

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Dobronamerni savet panela je dat na osnovu aktuelne teorije i prakti~nog iskustva. Problem je bio u tome {to su i teorija i iskustvo predo~eni tajlandskim studentima bili otu|eni ne samo od wihovog na~ina razmi{qawa o projektu - nego i od Bangkoka kao mesta, a i od tajlandske urbane kulture kao svojevrsnog urbanog koncepta. Teorije sugerisane u na{em ishitrenom savetu su u stvari do{le iz dominantne, zapadne paradigme, dok je na{e prakti~no iskustvo bilo tako|e zasnovano na zapadnom urbanitetu. Projektantski prilaz i sugerisana re{ewa sa`eti u jednoj re~i - hijerarhija - bili su krajwe - neadekvatni. Ovo je jedna od brojnih epizoda koja mo`e da poslu`i za ilustraciju slo`enosti nastave u okviru me|u-kulturnog studija urbanisti~kog projektovawa. Koncept prostorne hijerarhije, koji je fundamentalan koncept u gradovima Zapada, u urbanizmu isto~ne Azije je vrlo ~esto potpuno stran. Pri prou~avawu jo{ jednog velikog isto~nog grada, Tokija, Avgustin Berk (Augustin Berque) raspravqa kako “prostorni red koji karakteri{e pre jukstapozicija nego hijerarhija je tipi~no isto~wa~ki. Wegovi principi se mogu videti ve} u kineskim vrtovima: preplitawe, superimpozicija, jukstapozicija, terasirawe, sukcesija fokusnih ta~aka, pre nego {iroko sagledavawe itd.” (Berk, 1997). Zapadwa~kom umu i oku koje je “izo{treno” na slikama i u uslovima `ivota u evropskom, ili bilo kom zapadwa~kom urbanitetu taj red mo`e da ostane skriven, nevidqiv (Asihara, 1989) (Asishara). Oni mawe fleksibilni od nas bi ~ak mogli i da ustvrde da u gradovima Istoka i jugoisto~ne Azije reda uop{te i nema, da ti gradovi predstavqaju ~ist haos. I, haos bi i mogla biti re~ koju bi urbanisti i sa istoka i sa zapada rado prihvatili.

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The well-intentioned advice from the panel was grounded in established theory and a great deal of practical experience. The problem was that both the theory and the experience communicated to the Thai students were alien, not only to their understanding of the project, but also to Bangkok as a place, and to Thai urban culture as a philosophical concept. The theories evoked in our hasty advice came from the dominant, Western paradigm and our practical experience was also conditioned by the urbanity (or rather, urbanities) of the West. The design approach and the implied spatial solutions which we crystallized in a single word – hierarchy – were highly questionable in the context of Bangkok. This is one of many exemplary episodes that could be used to illustrate the complexity of teaching in a cross-cultural urban design studio. The concept of spatial hierarchy, which is so fundamental in cities in the West, is often alien to East-Asian urbanity. When exploring another great city of the East, Tokyo, Augustin Berque discusses how its ‘spatial order, characterized by juxtaposition rather than hierarchization, is fairly typically far-eastern. One can already see its principles in Chinese gardens: interlocking, superimposition, juxtaposition, terracing, the succession of points of view rather than general views’. (Berque, 1997) To the Western mind and to an eye trained by the lived experience of an European, or any other Western urbanity, that order might be elusive (Ashihara, 1989). Those less flexible among us could even cry that there is no order at all in the cities of East and South-East Asia, that they are a pure chaos. And, chaos might be the word that both Eastern and Western urbanists would gladly accept.


U kulturama Istoka re~ haos ne nosi zna~ewa koja mi stranci, farang na Tajlandu i gaijin u Japanu, o~ekujemo. Evelin [ulc (Evelyn Schulz) (2003) u eseju u kome predstavqa uglednog japanskog intelektualca Kodu Roana (Koda Rohan) (18671947), obja{wava za{to je to tako. “Za Roana Tokio se nalazi u op{tem, stalnom stawu haosa (konton) i izgleda kao nedovr{eni proizvod (miseihin). Razlog ovome le`i u ~iwenici da ~ak i sama ideja o tome kako bi glavni grad trebalo da izgleda je ‘haoti~na i neuobli~ena’ (konton musho). Po Roanovom mi{qewu haos je sredstvo za opisivawe stawa u kome se Tokio nalazi u savremenom trenutku i on predstavqa sliku krize”. “A-ha!”, mo`emo sada re}i! Roan potvr|uje da haos i nedostatak hijerarhije neizbe`no vode u krizu! Me|utim, lekcija o kulturnoj razli~itosti se nastavqa: “Ovde (u Roanovom delu) krizu treba posmatrati kao situaciju u kojoj jo{ ni{ta nije razre{eno i u kojoj je sve jo{ uvek podlo`no promeni. U daoisti~koj misli ‘haos’ (hundun na kineskom; konton na japanskom jeziku) predstavqa centralni koncept i zna~i stawe ‘koje ima svoje sopstvene unutra{we principe organizacije, promene, reda i `ivota’”. Ovakvo gledi{te je u o~iglednoj vezi sa trenutno popularnom teorijom haosa, koja zna~ajno uti~e na zapadnu teoriju urbanog dizajna: “Ideja ‘haosa’ dopu{ta Roanu da opi{e grad kao bi}e koje se nalazi u stawu stalne promene i fluksa”. I, zar nisu svi zdravi urbani sistemi u stawu stalne promene i fluksa? Zar nisu ti fascinantni urbani ritmovi upravo ono {to unosi gai|in u Tokio i farang u Bangkok? U Estetici gradske siluete Asihara Jo{inobu ( Asishara Yoshinobu, 1983.) koristi jednu od omiqenih tehnika zapadwa~ke urbanisti~ke analize (naro~ito jo{ od vremena post-modernog

In the cultures of the East, the term ‘chaos’ does not bear the connotations which we foreigners, the farang of Thailand and the gaijin of Japan, expect. Evelyn Schulz (2003), in an essay on the prominent Japanese intellectual, Koda Rohan (1867–1947), explains why. ‘For Rohan Tokyo is in general state of ‘chaos’ (konton) and looks like an unfinished product (miseihin). This is due to the fact that even the idea of what capital city should be is ‘chaotic and without shape’ (konton musho). In Rohan’s thinking chaos is the means for describing Tokyo’s contemporary condition and serves as the image of the crisis’. Ah-ha! we might now say. Rohan confirms that chaos and the lack of hierarchy inevitably lead to crisis! But the lesson on cultural difference continues: ‘Here (in Rohan’s work) crisis is to be understood as a situation in which nothing has been decided and everything is open to change. In Daoist thought ‘chaos’ (hundun in Chinese; konton in Japanese) is a central concept and it means a condition ‘that has its own internal principles of organization, change, order, and life’. Such an approach has obvious links with the currently popular discourse on chaos theory which significantly informs Western theory of urban design: ‘The idea of “chaos” allows Rohan to depict the city as being in a state of permanent change and flux’. And aren’t all healthy cities in a permanent state of change and flux? Isn’t it exactly the fascinating urban rhythm that brings the gaijin to Tokyo and the farang to Bangkok? In The Aesthetic Townscap,e Ashihara Yoshinobu (1983) uses one of the favourite techniques of Western urban analysis (in particular since the times of post-modern neo-classicism) – the Nolli map – to illustrate the fundamental difference

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neo-klasicizma) - Nolii mapu - da bi ilustrovao osnovnu razliku izme|u gradskog tkiva japanskih i evropskih gradova. Komparativna analiza ~uvene 1748 mape Rima i ekvivalentne mape Eda pokazuje “nebitnost dijagrama odnosa otvorenog i izgra|enog prostora kao sredstva za opisivawe japanskog grada” ([elton, 1999) (Shelton). Koncept forma urbis , na na~in na koji je on zasnovan i shva}en u Evropi, jednostavno nema smisla u kontekstu japanskog urbaniteta.

between urban fabrics of Japanese and European cities. A comparative analysis of the famous 1748 map of Rome, and an equivalent one of Edo shows ‘the irrelevance of the figure–ground diagram as a tool for depicting of the Japanese city’ (Shelton, 1999). The concept of forma urbis, as conceived in Europe, simply does not make sense in the context of Japanese urbanity.

Originality Originalnost U kontekstu na{ih iskustava u okviru me|u-kulturalnog studija urbanisti~kog projektovawa, jo{ jedna odlika urbanizma i zaista svih umetnosti Istoka je tako|e od zna~aja - pitawe originalnosti i reference sa japanskim i drugim isto~nim i jugoisto~nim azijskim kulturama. Na zapadu, reference su ~esto vezane za pasti{, ako ne za plagijarizam. Upadqivi skora{wi primer ovoga, doga|aj koji je probudio mnoge kontraverze (Rid (Reed), 2002; Radovi}, 2003), je “citirawe” elemenata Jevrejskog muzeja Danijela Libeskinda (Daniel Liebeskind) u projektu za Nacionalni muzej Australije. U japanskoj literaturi ({to nije razli~ito od akademskih spisa na Zapadu) “privla~ewe pa`we na referencu koja predstavqa citirani tekst istovremeno unapre|uje i tekst koji referira na referencu”. (Berk, 1997). Mitate, “biti sli~an-ne~emu”, “izgledati kao”, je veoma va`an kulturni koncept , koji je kao i mnogi drugi potekao iz stare tradicije Kine. Novi dizajn, bilo da je to slika, zgrada ili deo gradske siluete “je unapre|en referirawem na ne{to drugo”. Jo{ je va`nije da ({to za zapadni um mo`e da bude i iritantno) “upotreba referen-

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In the context of our cross-cultural studio experiences, another feature of urbanism, and indeed of all the arts of the East, is also of interest: the issue of originality and the status of reference within Japanese, or more broadly, East-Asian and SouthEast Asian cultures. In the West, reference is often associated with pastiche, if not with plagiarism. A notable recent example in Australia was the quotation of elements of Daniel Liebeskind’s Jewish museum in the project for the National Gallery of Victoria, an event which caused major controversy (Reed, 2002; Radovic, 2003a). In the Japanese literature (not unlike our academic papers in the West) ‘drawing attention to the referent that is the cited text simultaneously enhances the text making the reference to it’ (Berque, 1997). Mitate, or ‘likening-to’, or ‘seeing-as’ is a very important cultural concept, like many others derived from the old traditions of China. New design, whether a painting, a building or a piece of urban fabric, ‘is enhanced by its being referred to the other’. Importantly (for the Western mind, perhaps irritatingly), ‘the use of reference does acknowledge the pre-eminence of the model’. Here I follow that practice.


ce potvr|uje nadmo}, izvrsnost modela”. Ovde ja sledim tu praksu. ^ak i urbani modeli se prenose i usvajaju. Tako je i drevni grad ^ang-an preveden, “prenesen” u obrazac za Kjoto. Kriti~no pitawe nije da li je to “u redu”, ve} je pre ono koje Augustin Berk postavqa: “[ta se to zapravo prenosi kada se strani grad imitira?” (Berk, 1997). Ovo povla~i {ira pitawa o me|u-kulturnoj komunikaciji, i kona~no, slo`en splet tema vezanih za prevo|ewe. Kao {to [ilds (Shields, 1999) nagla{ava, “na{ ‘prostor’ nije francuski l’espace; niti je nema~ki raum. Ni jedan od wih se ne odnosi na ono {to su Kant (Kant) i Lajbnic (Leibnitz) nazvali ’spatium’ (prostorno poqe ili podru~je); niti ozna~ava ono o kome Dekart govori kao o ’exstensio’ (ekstenzija, ~ist prostor). Semanti~ka poqa ovih re~i se precizno ne poklapaju”. Berk (1997) pi{e o bilateralnoj konferenciji u Maison franco-japonaise u Tokiju na temu “Kvalitet grada”, gde se “uo~ilo da iste re~i nemaju isto zna~ewe, nego se one mogu upotrebiti za razgovor o sasvim razli~itim stvarima”. Isto proizilazi i iz “Pregleda japanskih studija” u deset zemaqa, izdatog od Befa i Krajnera (Befu, Kreiner, 1992). A to je i moje iskustvo iz rada u okviru me|unarodnih radionica. Jezici izra`avaju {ire kulturne razlike. Kao {to Luis (2003) navodi, “...lateralna razja{wewa su imperativ. Zapadwak posmatra situaciju i razmi{qa na linearan na~in, razmatraju}i alternative i postepeno ih odbacuju}i sve dok logi~an pravac dejstva ne postane o~igledan. Azijata je mawe zainteresovan za eliminaciju alternativa, a vi{e za wihovo kombinovawe u vi{ezna~no harmoni~no re{ewe. Suprotni stavovi ne moraju

Even urban models are transplanted and adopted. Thus, the ancient city of Chang’an was translated into the pattern for Kyoto. The critical question is not whether this is right but, rather, the one which Augustin Berque asks: ‘What in fact is being transferred when a foreign town or city is imitated?’ (Berque, 1997). This raises broader issues of cross-cultural communication and, ultimately, the complex web of themes associated with translation. As Shields (1999) emphasizes, ‘our ‘space’ is not the French l’espace; nor is it the German raum. None of these corresponds to what Kant and Leibniz called ‘spatium’ (a spatial field or area); nor do they signify what Descartes referred to as ‘extensio’ (extension, pure space). The semantic fields of these words do not neatly coincide’. Berque (1997) writes about a bilateral conference in the Maison franco-japonaise in Tokyo on the theme of the quality of the city’ where ‘it clearly emerged from this that not only did the same words not have the same meaning, but that they could be used to talk about different things.’ The same view emerges from an overview of Japanese studies in ten countries, edited by Befu and Kreiner (1992). And that is my experience in international design workshops. Languages express wider cultural differences. As Lewis (2003) suggests, ‘…in Asia lateral clearances are imperative. The Westerner looks at a situation and thinks in a linear fashion, considering alternatives and gradually eliminating them until a logical course of action becomes evident. The Asian is less interested in eliminating alternatives than in combining them in a multifaceted harmonious solution. Opposing arguments need not collide ­– better that they converge and eventually merge; different

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da se sukobqavaju - boqe je da oni konvergiraju i kona~no se me{aju; razli~iti delovi }e postati jedna celina. Ovaj na~in razmi{qawa se tako|e primewuje i na me|uqudske odnose. Pojedinac je nepotpun i nema zna~aja ukoliko ga ne upotpuwavaju druge osobe”. U me|ukulturalnim studijima urbanisti~kog projektovawa mo`e se uvideti kako mo`e biti te{ka pozicija predava~a, ~asnog ajarn-a ili sensei-a, onoga koji bi “trebalo da zna”. Jednostavno priznawe neznawa, otvorenost prema druga~ijem i sposobnost da se prepozna drugost Drugog mo`e da me|u-kulturalnu nastavu u~ini uzbudqivom i to za sve u~esnike u procesu, bez obzira na wihovu ulogu. Intelektualna atmosfera ovakvih nastavnih iskustava mo`e da se uporedi sa sve{}u o esenciji urbaniteta, o kojoj smo prethodno govorili - stvaraju}i fluks ideja koje se me{aju “horizontalno”, u duhu saradwe, pri kom svi u~esnici u~e jedni od drugih, uo~avaju}i i po{tuju}i razli~itost, razmewuju}i i znawe i ose}aje, bez `eqe za dominacijom, ili za pot~iwavawem.

parts will become one whole. This way of thinking also applies to human relationships. An individual is incomplete and must be supplemented by others to have any significance’. In the context of cross-cultural urban design studios one regularly finds out how difficult the position of a teacher, a revered ajarn or a sensei, the one who ‘should know’, can be. The simple admission of not knowing, an openness to difference and an ability to recognize the otherness of the other can make cross-cultural teaching exciting for all participants irrespective of their official roles. The intellectual atmosphere of such educational experiences can be compared to the notion of the essence of urbanity, discussed above – providing a flux of ideas that can merge horizontally, an air of collaboration in which all the participants learn from each other by observing and cherishing difference, by communicating both knowledge and feeling, without the desire to dominate, or being dominated.

Teaching in cross-cultural environments, teaching urban design Nastava u me|ukulturalnom okru`ewu, nastava urbanisti~kog projektovawa Ideja internacionalne saradwe je, u su{tini, bliska duhu universitas, univerzalnoj te`wi ka znawu, ili te`wi ka univerzalnom znawu. U kontekstu ubrzane globalizacije sa wenim pozitivnim, ali i negativnim konotacijama, svest o drugom dobija na zna~aju. Me|ukulturalno deqewe nije nov pojam. ^ak i pre nego {to su uspostavqene formalne discipline i obrazovawe na ovom poqu, arhitektura, pejza`na arhitektura i urbanisti~ko projekto-

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The idea of international collaboration is, in essence, close to the spirit of universitas, the universal aspiration towards knowledge, or the aspiration towards universal knowledge. In the context of accelerating globalization and its both positive and negative connotations, awareness of the other gains importance. Cross-cultural sharing is not new. Even before formal disciplines and education in those fields were established, architecture, landscape architecture and urban design were always highly internationalized. Ideas have never known knew


vawe su uvek bili prili~no internacionalizovani. Ideje nikada nisu poznavale granice. Kao primer mogu da poslu`e dalekose`ni uticaji gr~kog ili kineskog urbaniteta. Projektantski koncepti i uticaji putovali su preko okeana, nekada da bi bili srda~no prihva}eni, nekada da bi izrazili mo}, nekada da bi potvrdili dominaciju. Kolonijalizam je verovatno bio najefikasniji mehanizam za transfer arhitektonskih i urbanih paradigmi, budu}i da je bio orijentisan pre na impoziciju nego na razmenu, i da je bio zasnovan na pretpostavci rasne superiornosti. Aparat orijentalizma “kao zajedni~ka korporacijska institucija koja se bavi Istokom - bavi se wim daju}i o wemu izjave, opisuju}i ga, podu~avaju}i ga, sme{taju}i ga, savladavaju}i ga” (Said, 1978, kurziv D. Radovi}), javio se kao “zapadni stil za dominaciju, restruktuisawe, i sticawe prava na Orijent”. Dana{wa situacija jedva da je ne{to druga~ija - uprkos glasinama o wegovoj smrti, izgleda da je kolonijalizam veoma aktivan. Kako novozelandski istra`iva~ Linda Tuivai Smit (Linda Tuhiwai Smith) (1999) potvr|uje, “imperijalizam i daqe povre|uje, i daqe uni{tava i stalno se reformi{e”. Urbanisti~ko projektovawe predstavqa odli~an teren za susretawe, pro`ivqavawe i obra}awe celosti drugog. Wegov domen, u naj{irem smislu je grad, fenomen ~ija kompleksnost odslikava kompleksnost dru{tva. (Lefevr,1996.). Kao disciplina, urbanisti~ko projektovawe je uslovqno kriti~nom dvosmisleno{}u, neprecizno{}u, nejasno}om koja proizilazi iz same prirode intervencije u urbanom. Kao projektovawe - karakteristi~no je ekskluzivan; u isto vreme, budu}i da je urban, trudi se da zadr`i i unapredi

boundaries. The far-reaching influence of Greek or Chinese urbanity serve as examples. Design concepts and influences traveled across oceans, sometimes to be welcomed, sometimes to express power, sometimes to confirm domination. Colonialism was probably the most efficient mechanism for the transfer of architectural and urban paradigms, being orientated towards imposition rather than exchange and based on an assumed racial superiority. The apparatus of Orientalism, ‘as the corporate institution dealing with the Orient – dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it’ (Said, 1978, my italics), emerged as ‘a western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient’. The situation today is hardly different and, despite rumors of its demise, colonialism appears to be very active today. As a indigenous New Zealand researcher, Linda Tuhiwai Smith (1999) confirms, ‘imperialism still hurts, still destroys and is reforming itself constantly.’ Urban design provides an excellent field to encounter, experience and address the totality of the other. Its subject, in its broadest sense, is the city: a phenomenon whose complexity mirrors that of society (Lefebvre, 1996). As a discipline, urban design is conditioned by the critical ambiguity which emanates from the very nature of its intervention in the urban. As design, it is characteristically exclusive; at the same time, being urban, it strives to maintain and enhance the fundamental inclusivity, the unfinished character of the urban (Jacobs, 1984). However, on encountering the otherness of new places and cultures, to be culturally responsible

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fundamentalnu inkluzivnost, nedovr{eni karakter urbanog. (Xejkobs, 1984.) (Jakobs).

rather than imperialistic, a designer (whether a teacher, a student or a practitioner) must ask:

Ipak, pri susretu sa drugo{}u novih mesta i kultura, a da bi bio kulturalno uvi|avan pre nego imperijalisti~an, projektant (bilo student, predava~ ili prakti~ar) mora da postavi pitawe:

-Are Western analytical and design methods directly applicable in the East? -To what extent do research, design and design research methods belong only to the cultural contexts that have shaped them? -Does the otherness of Oriental cultures demand new approaches? -Shouldn’t the host culture be a partner, rather than a passive recipient of our ideas?

-Da li su zapadwa~ki projektantski metodi direktno primewivi na Istok? -Do koje granice istra`iva~ki, projektantski i istra`iva~ko-projektantski metodi pripadaju jedino kulturnom kontekstu koji ih je uobli~io? -Da li drugost orijentalnih kultura zahteva novi pristup? -Zar ne bi trebalo da doma}inska kultura bude pre partner nego pasivni primalac na{ih ideja? · Nepreciznost, nejasno}a samo dodaje uzbu|ewe pri susretu sa urbano{}u drugog i kompleksno{}u projektovawa za drugo. Moj osnovni pedago{ki ciq, posebno na dodiplomskom nivou, je bio da “gurnem” studente (koji su povremeno bivali i iz redova iskusnih projektanata) u oblast koja je van wihove uobi~ajene profesionalne zone i da ih osposobim da prepoznaju i svoje granice i granice odgovornog intervenisawa u drugom i za drugo. U~esnici me|u-kulturalnih ve`bi moraju biti svesni potencijalnih opasnosti vezanih za “izlete” u drugo, posebno opasnosti za ciqnu kulturu. U prvoj re~enici Tuivai Smitove Dekoloniziraju}e metodologije, istra`ivawe i autohtono stanovni{tvo (1999), ona ne sumwa da “iz perspektive kolonizovanog, pozicije iz koje ja pi{em i biram da je privilegujem, termin ‘istra`ivawe’ je nepobitno vezan za evropski i imperijalni kolonijalizam”. Isto se odnosi i na podu~avawe.

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Those questions only add a thrill to the encounter with the urbanity of the other and complexity to the design for the other. Especially at graduate level my main educational objective was to push students (who occasionally came from the ranks of experienced design practitioners) beyond their professional zone of comfort and help them to recognize both their own limits and the limits of responsible intervention in and for the other. Participants in cross-cultural exercises need to be aware of the potential dangers associated with excursions into the other, particularly the dangers to the target culture. The first sentence of Tuhiwai Smith’s Decolonizing Methodologies, Research and Indigenous Peoples (1999) leaves us in no doubt that ‘from the vantage point of a colonized, a position from which I write, and choose to privilege, the term ‘research’ is inextricably linked to European imperialism and colonialism.’ The same applies to teaching. The opening anecdote of Tuhiwai Smith’s work demonstrates that, even without intending to, a foreign teacher can do significant damage. Teaching and research are based on ideals that are laden with cultural baggage. The benefit of research to humankind should be an important part


Uvodna anegdota u ovom tekstu pokazuje kako, ~ak i nenamerno, strani predava~ mo`e da nanese znatnu {tetu. Podu~avawe i istra`ivawe su zasnovani na idealima koji su optere}eni kulturnim nasle|em. Dobrobit qudske vrste bi trebalo da bude zna~ajan aspekt rada ali to nije uvek slu~aj. Ipak, “mnogi istra`iva~i jednostavno podrazumevaju da oni kao pojedinci personifikuju taj ideal i da su oni wegovi prirodni predstavnici kada rade sa drugim zajednicama”. U Problemu japanske kulture (1940; ovde citiranom iz uvoda Masao Abe (Masao Abe), 1987) Ni{ida Kitaro postavqa fundamentalno retori~ko pitawe koje otvara tekst: “Zar ne postoji logika iza zapadwa~kog na~ina razmi{qawa? “ U wegovom bogatom filozofskom opusu, Ni{ida je identifikovao kriti~nu razliku izme|u Istoka i Zapada.

of the agenda, but this is not necessarily the case. Nevertheless, ‘many researchers simply assume that they as individuals embody this ideal and are natural representatives of it when they work with other communities’ In The Problem of Japanese Culture (1940; cited in Masao Abe’s introduction to Nishida, 1987) Nishida Kitaro put forward the fundamental rhetoric question ‘Is there no logic besides the Western way of thinking?’ In his rich philosophical opus, Nishida identifies the critical difference between the East and the West.

Iz BMB radionice, Melburn, april 2004. From the BMB workshop, Melbourne, April 2004

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Staviti projektanta/istra`iva~a u stawe kreativne i pripravne sumwe.

To put the designer/researcher in a state of creative doubt and alertness.

Ovde je sugerisano da kreativna sumwa i spremnost da prepustimo na{e pozicije preispitivawu, predstavqaju conditio sine qua non kulturalno odgovornog i uvi|avnog okru`ewa u studiju. @ ive}i i rade}i vi{e od jedne dekade van mog kulturnog prostora, uspeo sam da prihvatim ideju kulturnog relativizma Horhe Luisa Borhesa, ^aslava Milo{a (Czeslaw Milosz) i sli~nih koji “ne veruje u mogu}nost komunikacije van zajedni~kog jezika, zajedni~ke istorije” (Milo{, 2001). I sa Vortonom koji ka`e da je u kwi`evnom prevodu “onaj prostor izme|u kultura i jezika koji je najzanimqiviji i to je podru~je kojem treba da se obratimo...to je zona nesigurnosti, zona samo-ispitivawa i samo-preispitivawa u kojoj pro`ivqavamo iskustvo drugosti - a ta drugost ne predstavqa samo razliku i udaqenost od druge kulture koju prou~avamo, ve} i razliku i udaqenost od na{e ‘sopstvene kulture’ “. (Vorton, 1998).

It is suggested here that creative doubt and the readiness to be open to questioning constitute a conditio sine qua non of a culturally responsible and responsive studio environment. Having lived and worked for over a decade outside my original cultural space, I have grown to agree with the cultural relativism of Jorge Luis Borges, Czeslaw Milosz and the like who ‘do not believe in the possibility of communication outside a shared language, a shared history’ (Milosz, 2001). Opening up (and opening up to) that space is the key to successful architectural and urban design/ research. The awareness of the other, of Derrida’s tout autre (1995), is more liberating than false confidence in ‘absolute knowledge’ and ‘universal truths’, as preached by neo-colonialists

Otvarawe tog prostora (i prema tom prostoru) je kqu~ za uspe{no arhitektonsko i urbanisti~ko projektovawe/istra`ivawe. Svest o drugom, o Deridinom tout autre (1995) je vi{e osloba|aju}a od la`nog samopouzdawa u “apsolutno znawe” i “univerzalne istine”, koje su propovedali neokolonijalisti.

Od teoretskog okvira do metoda u nastavi Tipi~no, na{ projekat se sastojao iz tri faze - pred-terensko istra`ivawe; terenski rad; i post-terenska sinteza. Ovakva struktura centralni zna~aj pridaje posetama lokalitetu. Kako su me|unarodna studija, kao istra`ivawe

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Opening up (and opening up to) that space is the key to successful architectural and urban design/ research. The awareness of the other, of Derrida’s tout autre (1995), is more liberating than false confidence in ‘absolute knowledge’ and ‘universal truths’, as preached by neo-colonialists.

From theoretical frameworks to teaching method Typically, our project consisted of three phases – the pre-fieldwork investigations; the fieldwork and the post-fieldwork synthesis. This structure gives central importance to site visits. Since international studios, as an exploration of the other, depend on the quality of fieldwork, first-hand experience is fundamental to the understanding of concrete place as a unique set of physical conditions and


drugog, zavisna od kvaliteta terenskog rada, iskustvo “iz prve ruke” je fundamentalno za razumevawe konkretnog mesta kao jedinstvenog spoja fizi~kih uslova i socijalnog prostora. Razvoj osetqivosti prema ciqnoj kulturi i socio-lektu je kriti~an za odr`ivi razvoj. Kao “pesma (tj. poezija), projektantsko istra`ivawe nije ne{to {to samo potvr|uje prethodno postoje}e znawe, teoriju ili hipotezu; ono je ‘eksploziv’, razbijawe i uzdrmavawe na{ih temeqa” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991) (Mc Allester Jones). Razbijawe i uzdrmavawe svojih sopstvenih temeqa je ne{to {to svakom istra`ivawu, a posebno onom koje se sprovodi u interkulturalnoj areni treba. U me|u-kulturalnim projektima taj proces po~iwe sa dobro organizovanim kulturnim {okom - koji tako|e zovemo terenski rad. Fenomenologija nas u~i da nikada ne zanemarimo li~no iskustvo. Kroz pre-terensku, terensku i post-terensku fazu provu~eno je pet gotovo sukcesivnih ve`bi: (1) Zami{qawe i vizuelno predstavqawe; (2) Raslojavawe; (3) Uslojavawe; (4) Analiza; i (5) Sinteza. Pre-terenski rad je obele`en opse`nom razmenom mi{qewa o razli~itim ekolo{kim i socijalnim aspektima mesta koje }e se posetiti. Odre|eni broj predavawa, od kojih neka odr`e i kolege koji pripadaju ciqnoj kulturi, dopuwena su opse`nim literarnim i drugim informativnim izvorima u ciqu {to boqeg upoznavawa predmetnog lokaliteta i {to boqe pripreme za terenski rad i intervjue sa lokalnim stanovni{tvom. Preliminarni rad kulminira u ovoj fazi.

as a social space. Developing sensitivity to the target culture and sociolect is critical for sustainable development. Like ‘a poem, design–research, is not something that confirms a preexisting body of knowledge, a theory or a hypothesis; it is ‘an explosive’, a shattering and shaking of our foundations’. (McAllester Jones, 1991) The shattering of one’s own foundations is what all research, and in particular that which operates in the intercultural arena, needs. In cross-cultural projects that process begins with well organized culture-shock – which we also call the fieldwork. Phenomenology teaches us never to disregard personal experience. Across the pre-fieldwork, fieldwork and post-fieldwork phases were spread five loosely consecutive exercises: imagining, de-layering, re-layering, analysis and synthesis. The pre-fieldwork activities are marked by extensive briefings about various environmental and social aspects of the place to be visited. A number of lectures, some of which are delivered by colleagues from the target culture, combine with a voluminous reader to provide sufficient material for an informed appreciation of the site and discussions with locals. That preliminary work culminates in the first exercise.

Exercise 1: Imagining (the city) Immediately before departing for the fieldwork students are requested to formulate and succinctly present the way they imagine the place, through a definition of what constitutes the place, what its boundaries are, relevant scales and key elements. Communication is limited to the maximum of three

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Ve`ba 1: Zami{qawe i vizuelno predstavqawe grada

A3 drawings, supported by an integrated, but minimal textual elaboration.

Neposredno pre polaska na teren od studenata se tra`i da formuli{u i sa`eto predstave kako oni zami{qaju mesto, ~ijim definisawem se stvara to mesto; {ta su wegove granice; relevantne razmere i kqu~ni elementi. Komunikacija je limitirana na maksimum tri A3 crte`a koje prati minimalno tekstualno obja{wewe.

Several objectives frame this exercise. The simplest purpose is to remind the students that all the readings, all the factual and theoretical information we ask them to digest, are there only to facilitate a better understanding of the place they are going to encounter. The key purpose of the imagining exercise is to establish a stable point of reference and to record the starting moment of ‘innocence’. That record defines individual expectations; the difference between the expected and the ‘real’ condition amplifies the culture shock experienced and makes it an important part of the learning experience. The sharp awareness of one’s own prejudice facilitates an understanding of the scope of the knowledge appropriated at and from the site. It opens the inbetween condition into which, as Worton explains, all design proposals will, eventually, fall.

Ovu ve`bu prati nekoliko ciqeva. Najprostija svrha je da se studenti podsete da sva literatura, sav faktografski i teoretski materijal koji tra`imo da prou~e, slu`i da omogu}i boqe razumevawe mesta sa kojim }e se susresti. Kqu~na svrha faze Zami{qawa i vizuelnog predstavqawa je uspostavqawe stabilne referentne ta~ke i uo~avawe po~etnog momenta “nevinosti”. To zapa`awe defini{e individualna o~ekivawa; razlika izme|u o~ekivanog i realnog stawa poja~ava kulturni {ok i ~ini va`an deo iskustva u~ewa. Jasna svest o sopstvenim predrasudama omogu}ava razumevawe opsega znawa koje je ste~eno na mestu i usvojeno iz wega. Ovo otvara stawe-izme|u u kojem }e, kao {to Vorton obja{wava, svi predlozi projekta eventualno nastati. Ve`ba 2: Kartirawe i raslojavawe (mesta) Pre polaska na teren od studenata se tra`i da identifikuju i kartiraju prostorno reprezentativne informacije izdvojene iz literature i predavawa. Ishod ovoga je po~etni portfolio karti koje sadr`e tematski struktuirane informacije prikazane u vidu slojeva nezavisnih pojava (u postoje}em stawu) na lokaciji. Ovo je tako|e ve`ba tehnike raslojavawa, koja postaje osnovno

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Exercise 2: Mapping and de-layering (the place) Before their departure, students are also asked to identify and to map spatially representable information from their readings and lectures, the outcome of which is a starting portfolio of maps containing thematically structured information, drawn as layers of independent phenomena (at that stage known to be) present at the location. This also is an exercise in the technique of de-layering which becomes the principal tool for presenting the results collected during the fieldwork. The key to this exercise is rigor: each layer contains a single factual or experiential phenomenon related to or represented on the site. Before the fieldwork, therefore, students deal only with secondary data. During the fieldwork the


sredstvo za prikazivawe sakupqenih informacija u pre-terenskoj fazi. Kqu~ ove ve`be je ta~nost; svaki sloj, sadr`i pojedina~ni stvarni ili iskustveni fenomen koji se odnosi na mesto ili se nalazi na wemu. Stoga, pre terenskog rada studenti barataju samo sekundarnim podacima. Tokom terenskog rada naglasak se izme{ta na hic et nunc iskustva i akumulaciju primarnih podataka. Kona~ni ukupni portfolio se sastoji iz dva dela. Prvi je grupno generisan i sadr`i sve faktografske slojeve, ~iji je spisak razmatran i definisan tokom rada u studiju. Drugi deo je kompilacija individualno generisanih slojeva, i predstavqa specifi~no interesovawe svakog studenta. Ovi slojevi predstavqaju va`an izraz l’intuition de l’instant, “kriti~no zasnovanih na subjektivnom iskustvu” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991). Kao portfolio oni su ponu|eni ostatku grupe, radi inspiracije, ali i radi upotpuwavawa baze podataka. Metod raslojavawa se koristi zbog wegovog hipoteti~kog potencijala za osloba|awe podataka od (tereta) kulturnog nasle|a. U okviru teorije urbanisti~kog projektovawa ovaj metod je inspirisan Jezikom obrazaca Kristofera Aleksandera (Christopher Alexander) (1977) ; kao polazna osnova za inspiraciju za grafi~ki prikaz dat je Urbani tekst Gandelsonasa (1991). Ve`ba 3: Uslojavawe (mesta) Istovremeno sa raslojavawem po~iwe i igra uslojavawa podataka. Uslojavawe mo`e biti svesno i nasumi~no, analiti~no i intuitivno, individualno ili timsko spajawe pojedina~nih slojeva iz prethodne faze.

emphasis moves to here and now experiences and the accumulation of primary data. The resulting overall portfolio is composed of two chapters. The first is group generated and contains all factographical layers, the list of which has been debated and agreed upon during the studio sessions. The second chapter is a compilation of individually generated layers, representing the particular interests of individual students. Those layers are important expressions of l’intuition de l’instant, ‘critically based on subjective experience’ (McAllester Jones, 1991). As a portfolio they are offered to the rest of the group both for inspiration and as a contribution to the studio database. The de-layering method is used because of its hypothetical potential to release the data from (the burden of) cultural baggage. In terms of urban design theory this method was inspired by Chris Alexander’s Pattern Language (1977); as an initial inspiration for graphical presentation we used Mario Gandelsonas’ Urban Text (1991). Exercise 3: Re-layering (the place) Simultaneously with de-layering begins a game of re-layering the data. The re-layering can be conscious and random, analytical and intuitive, an individual or a team exercise of assembling individual layers from the previous phase, back together. Re-layering is a heuristic intellectual tool aimed to facilitate the emergence of the state of open imagination. There are various techniques that help to establish a creative, open-minded atmosphere in the studio. One of the techniques used comes from rhythm analysis. In his Poetry and the Dialectics of Duration Bachelard explains how ‘rhythm analysis will look anywhere and everywhere in

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Uslojavawe je heuristi~ni intelektualni alat usmeren da studente dovede do stawa pripravne otvorene imaginacije. Postoje mnoge tehnike koje potpoma`u stvarawu kreativne, slobodoumne atmosfere u studiju. Jedna od upotrebqenih tehnika zasnovana je na analizi ritma. U svojoj Poeziji i dijalektici trajawa Ba{lar (Bachelard) obja{wava da: “analiza ritma }e tragati bilo gde i svuda u `eqi da otkrije nove mogu}nosti za stvarawem ritma” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991). Wena razigranost lako komunicira sa heuristi~nom prirodom projektovawa, a kao takva, ona neguje instinkte projektanta. Dobro odigrana igra uslojavawa nekada spre~ava, osuje}uje ili heuristi~no, ~ak i zamewuje potrebu za nastupaju}om fazom analize. U ciqu daqeg osloba|awa kreativnih instinkata i u ciqu odr`avawa spremnosti umova za do`ivqavawe iznena|ewa od drugog, na ovom stupwu se uvodi ideja o ne-znawu Xorxa Bateja (George-a Bataille). “Su{tinski on izaziva znawe, ono koje preuzima status koji samo podrazumeva. Mo`e se re}i, ~ini mi se, da Batej smatra da je znawe varqivo. U tvrdwama u ime znawa relacija mo}i je uvek nagove{tena” (Ri~ardson, 1998). (Richardson). Ovom studijskom tehnikom studenti se podse}aju da je u projektantskim studijima teorija veoma va`an deo, ali da ona nije sve. Kao {to Batej obja{wava, “svest o neznawu je tako|e usmerena protiv bilo koje velike teorije ili projekta. Znawe je kona~no iluzija, a implikacije toga su da je bilo koji iskaz o istini kao o krajwem ciqu (u bilo kom smislu) pogre{an”. U fazi uslojavawa, u~esnici studija se ohrabruju da veruju da su oni i daqe nevini i pro~i{}eni prirodom igre. U ovoj fazi mi samo sumiramo sakupqeni materijal za

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order to discover new opportunities for creating rhythm’ (McAllester Jones, 1991). Its playfulness easily connects with the heuristic nature of design and, as such, nourishes the designer’s instincts. A well-played game of re-layering sometimes pre-empts or, heretically, even replaces the need for the subsequent phase of analysis. In order to further liberate creative instincts and to keep minds alert to surprises of the other, Georges Bataille’s idea of non-knowledge is introduced at this stage. ‘Essentially, he is issuing a challenge to knowledge, one that bears on the very status it assumes. It may, I think, be said that Bataille regarded knowledge as fraudulent. In the claims made for it, a power relation is always implied’. (Richardson, 1998) In this studio technique students are reminded that in design studios, theory is an important ingredient but not an end in itself. As Bataille explains, ‘the notion of non-knowledge is also aimed against any grand theory or project. Knowledge being ultimately illusion, the implication is that any claim to truth as an ultimate end (in any sense) is false’. At the relayering stage, studio participants are encouraged to believe that they are still innocent and are being purified by the nature of play. At this stage we are only tabling the material for all possible readings. This is an inclusive phase which stimulates the appetite for the forthcoming, by its nature exclusive and selective, design synthesis.

Re-layering is used as a temporary tool: as value statements, philosophical and theoretical influences start to emerge and re-layering can transgress into serious analysis. The exploration and objective testing, of both subjectively and objectively derived


MOST Studio Peking 2000 - stranice iz grupnog portfolija MOST Studio Beijing 2000 – pages from the group portfolio

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sva mogu}a tuma~ewa (~itawa). Ova faza, koja je po prirodi ekskluzivna i selektivna, pove}ava apetit za predstoje}om projektantskom sintezom.

layers and their relationships, signals the necessity of the next stage in the process: analysis.

Uslojavawe se koristi kao privremeni alat: kao vrednosni iskazi, filozofski i teoretski uticaji se javqaju i uslojavawe mo`e da pre|e u ozbiqnu analizu. Istra`ivawe i objektivno testirawe, i subjektivno, i objektivno izdvojenih slojeva i wihov me|usoban odnos, signalizira potrebu za uvo|ewem nove faze u proces, a to je analiza.

Analysis

Analiza Ovde nisu detaqno pokrivene ni faza analize ni projektantske sinteze, pre su samo nagla{eni neki wihovi kqu~ni aspekti koji su bitni za razumevawe ove tehnike nastave projektovawa. Nagla{eno je da analiza ne treba da se posmatra kao objektivan ili neutralni metod. Naprotiv, isti~e se da kao i svo (urbanisti~ko) istra`ivawe, i (urbanisti~ka) analiza je kontaminirana razli~itim pristrasnostima, po~ev{i od samog izbora istra`iva~kog materijala. Dok se u fazi uslojavawa upotrebqava nasumi~nost i {ansa za eliminaciju ili redukciju kroz mogu}nost poigravawa, pristrasnost, u analiti~koj fazi, izbor materijala koji }e biti jukstapozicioniran , superimpozicioniran, koji }e biti dodat ili istra`ivan na druge na~ine je vi{e sekvencionalno svestan. Uspe{na analiza se bazira na strogoj primeni izabrane teorije, uz svest o tome da je i sama selekcija tako|e neizbe`no kulturalno specifi~na (sama teorija je obele`ena socio-lektom iz kog poti~e).

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In this essay neither the analysis nor the design synthesis are covered in detail. Rather some key aspects relevant to the discussion are outlined where they distinguish this design teaching practice. It is emphasized that analysis should not be seen as objective or neutral. Rather, it is put that, as with all (urban) research, (urban) analysis is contaminated by various biases, beginning with the selection of research material. While the re-layering phase uses randomness and playful chance to eliminate, or at least reduce, bias, in the analytic phase the choice of material to be juxtaposed, superimposed, added or explored in other ways is more sequential and conscious. Successful analysis is based on the rigorous application of the selected theory, recognizing that selection is also and inevitably, culturally specific (theories themselves tending to be marked by their originating sociolects). While many educators might see both subjective and cultural biases as negative aspects of the analysis stage, in our philosophical framework bias is accepted as long as the participants are conscious of its existence and associated dangers. The principal objective is to generate awareness of the difference and to learn from it. Such awareness defines the key difference between an honest and open farang or gaijin approach, as promoted in this teaching approach, and that of open or latent imperialist and colonizer.


Dok mnogi pedagozi mogu videti subjektivnu i kulturalnu pristrasnost kao negativne aspekte faze analize, u na{em filozofskom konceptu pristrasnost se prihvata sve dok su u~esnici svesni wenog prisustva i sa wom povezanih opasnosti. Osnovni ciq je da se stvori svest o razli~itosti, i da se od we u~i. Ova svest defini{e, odre|uje kqu~nu razliku izme|u po{tenog i otvorenog prilaza jednog farang-a i gai|ina-a, za {ta se ovaj pedago{ki metod zala`e, od otvorenog i latentnog kolonizatorskog i imperijalisti~kog prilaza. Onaj ko dolazi i da u~i i da podu~ava zna da ~esto “kada nau~ni metod ne uspe, to zna~i da je ne{to novo otkriveno, jer ‘gre{ka je nova ~iwenica, nova ideja’” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991). Sam neuspeh da se shvati neki stran koncept predstavqa jedno iskustvo novog i iskustvo otvorenosti. Kada jedan slobodouman predava~ ili istra`iva~ na~ini gre{ku sli~nu onoj navedenoj u na{oj anegdoti, on samo napreduje zajedno sa svojim studentima. S druge strane, kada se takav “neuspeh” desi “ekspertu” imperijalisti~ke orijentacije, to se jedna~i sa propa{}u ~itavog pogleda na svet koji je wega ili wu ustoli~io na poziciju mo}i.

Projektantska sinteza Ovim pristupom me|ukulturalnom podu~avawu projektovawa, studenti se podsti~u da shvate da projektantska sinteza ne ~eka da prethodni koraci budu zavr{eni. U idealnom slu~aju, projektantov um je pripravan i budan za sve stimulanse, pa je projektantska sinteza potencijalno prisutna u svim gore navedenim fazama od samog po~etka i trebalo bi dozvoliti da se ona pojavi u bilo kojoj fazi procesa.

One who comes to both teach and learn knows that often ‘when a scientific method fails, it means something new has been found, for “failure is a new fact, a new idea”’ (McAllester Jones, 1991). The very failure to grasp some alien concept brings an experience of newness and openness. When openminded researchers or teachers makes an error similar to the one in our anecdote described above, they only advance together with their students. On the other hand, when such a ‘failure’ happens to ‘experts’ of an imperialist provenance, that amounts to defeat of the whole worldview which elevated them to their position of power.

Design synthesis With this approach to intercultural design teaching, students are encouraged to recognise that the design synthesis does not have to wait for the previous steps to be completed. Ideally, the designer’s mind is alert to all stimuli and the design synthesis is potentially present in all the above phases, right from the very beginning, and should be allowed to surface at any stage of the process. This approach is supported by a poetic passage from Bachelard’s essay, ‘The Hand Dreams: On Material Imagination’: ‘The hand has its dreams too and its own hypotheses It helps us come to know matter in its secret, inward parts. The hand, then, helps us dream the matter. The hypotheses of ‘naïve chemistry’ which stem from the work of homo faber are at least as important psychologically as the ideas of ‘natural geometry’.’ (McAllester Jones, 1991, my italics) The potential for intuition and for the hand are equal, and it is suggested to students that research rigor can facilitate, but never replace the heuristic capacity of intuition.

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Ovo gledi{te je podr`ano re~ima iz poetskog pasusa Ba{larovog eseja Snovi ruke: o materijalnoj imaginaciji: “[aka ima tako|e svoje snove i svoje sopstvene hipoteze (kurziv D. Radovi}). Poma`e nam da upoznamo stvar u wenim tajnim, unutra{wim delovima. Ruka nam onda poma`e da sawamo stvar. Hipoteza ‘naivne hemije’ koja poti~e iz dela ’homo faber-a’ je u najmawu ruku psiholo{ki va`na isto koliko i ideje ‘prirodne geometrije’ ” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991). Potencijal za intuiciju i za ruku su jednaki, a studentima se sugeri{e da istra`iva~ka ta~nost mo`e da nadomesti, ali nikada da potpuno zameni heuristi~ki kapacitet intuicije.

“Istok” u ovom metodu Gradovi, arhitektura i mesta se ~esto upore|uju sa tekstom i opisuju kao palimpsest skrivenih isprepletanih poruka i zna~ewa. Raslojavawe predstavqa najzamorniju fazu, me|utim ono omogu}ava studentima da pripreme materijal za “~itawe, i{~itavawe” grada, u onom smislu u kojem ~itawe shvata Gaston Ba{lar (koji je ~esto opisivao sebe jednostavno kao ~itaoca). U tim ~itawima neko “~ita slike, a ne ideje ....materijalne i dinami~ke slike, ni perceptualne ni racionalne, ni ekspresivne slike pro`ivqenog iskustva, ve} slike koje su ispisane, koje su u jeziku i koje su kroz jezik. U tom smislu, ‘izgleda kao da je ~italac pozvan da nastavi pi{~eve slike, on je svestan da se nalazi u stawu otvorene ma{te’.” (Mek Alister Xons, 1991.) Ba{lar je znao da nam ~itawe poetskih slika donosi “iskustvo otvorenosti, novog” , nove slike, novi jezik, nove mogu}nosti u svetu i u nama samima. Dakle, ako je u studiju urbanisti~kog projektovawa tekst sam grad, na{i studenti

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‘The East’ in this method Cities, architecture and places are often compared with texts and described as palimpsests of interwoven messages and meanings. De-layering is the most laborious phase. It enables students to prepare the material for their readings of the city as text, readings akin to those preferred by Gaston Bachelard (who used to describe himself, simply, as a reader). In such readings one: ‘reads images, not ideas …. material and dynamic images, neither perceptual nor rational, nor expressive of lived experience, images which are written, which are in and through language’. In that sense ‘it would seem that the reader is called upon to continue the writer’s images, he is aware of being in a state of open imagination’.’ (McAllester Jones, 1991) Bachelard knew that reading poetic images brings us ‘the experience of openness, of newness’, new images, new language, new possibilities in the world and in ourselves’. Consequently, if the text in the urban design studio is the city itself, our urban design students should be capable of undertaking such readings. In a method rooted in phenomenological reduction (Husserl, 1975), de-layering is used to isolate elements of singularity (Gandelsonas, 1991) and to separate all possible ‘pure’ phenomena. The layers can record anything and represent complex material ready for re-composition and re-reading. That material is our site, reduced to its identifiable and relevant aspects by and for each studio participant. Students are encouraged to accept that they should never pretend to be able to grasp the totality of place (Relph, 1976), rather that they can only distil some of its constituting elements and this process is never objective. It is tainted by subjectivity and is an instrument of the designer’s goal. Rather than


urbanisti~kog projektovawa bi trebalo da budu sposobni za ta ~itawa. U metodu koji je zasnovan na fenomenolo{koj redukciji (Huserl, 1975) (Huserl), raslojavawe je upotrebqeno za izdvajawe elemenata pojedina~nog (Gandelsonas, 1991) i za razdvajawe svih mogu}ih “~istih” fenomena. Slojevi mogu da ozna~e bilo {ta i predstavqaju kompleksan materijal koji je spreman za rekomponovawe i i{~itavawe. Taj materijal je na{ lokalitet, sveden na wegove identifikovane i relevantne aspekte za svakog u~esnika studija i od strane svakog u~esnika studija. Studenti se ohrabruju da prihvate ~iwenicu da ne treba da se trude da budu sposobni da obuhvate totalitet, celinu mesta (Relf, 1976) (Relph), oni pre treba samo da destiluju neke od wegovih konstitutivnih elemenata. Predo~ava im se da taj proces nikada nije objektivan. On je uprqan subjektivno{}u i podlo`an je manipulaciji zavisno od ciqa dizajnera. Me|utim, ovde subjektivnost igra va`nu i kriti~nu ulogu u procesu, neguju}i razvoj esencijalne kreativne energije, pre nego predstavqa ne`eqeni izraz nesavr{enosti. U ovim studijima naglasak je na samom iskustvu, ~ak i na (neuprqanom) ~istom iskustvu koje posmatra pojedina~ne pojave onakvima kakve one jesu (Ni{ida, 1987). Dok se pri pomenu ovog koncepta na zapadu mo`e o~ekivati sumwi~avost, na{ projekat je baziran na radu Ni{ide Kitara, gde “iskustvo zna~i da poznajemo stvarnost ta~no onakvu kakva ona jeste (jijitsu sono mama). Ona se upoznaje samo potpunim odbacivawem patvorenosti na{eg bi}a, sle|ewem stvarnosti” (Dejl, 1986). Ovakvo gledi{te dobija na zna~aju i prihvatqivosti kada se shvati da su ciqne kulture koje te`imo da razumemo i kojima se kroz dizajn

being an unwanted expression of imperfection, subjectivity plays a critical and valuable part in the process, fostering the development of essential creative energies. In these studios the emphasis is on experience, even the (unattainable) pure experience of seeing individual phenomena as they are (Nishida, 1987). While the mention of such a concept can be expected to raise eyebrows in the West, our projects it is based on Nishida Kitaro’s work, where ‘experience means to know reality exactly as it is (jijitsu sono mama). It is to know by entirely abandoning the artifices of the self and by following reality’ (Dale, 1986). Such an approach gains relevance and acceptability when it is recognized that the target cultures we aim to comprehend and address through design are Asian. When, for instance, we deal with Japanese space and urbanity, it is reasonable to know that ‘Japanese thought has tended to privilege particular experience of the concrete over general and abstract conceptualizations, or what is encapsulated in Basho’s adage ‘masts no koto wa matsu ni narae’ (literally: ‘What a pine is, learn it from the pine.’) and illustrated in notions such as Nishida Kitaro’s ‘pure experience’ or, quite simply, in Nakazawa Shin’ichi’s ‘taiken’, which might be translated as ‘intimate lived experience’.’ (Berque, 1997). The affinity of those ideas with Western phenomenology is of special importance. In the readings of place covered in this studio method, we also strive ‘against the tendency of theorizing space in terms of its own codes and logic’ (Shields, 1999). As our example at the beginning of the text shows, and as Bataille eloquently puts it, such knowledge is relative and contextual and its implementation, therefore, has its cultural and geographic limits. Many urban design theories

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obra}amo azijske. Kada se, na primer, bavimo japanskim prostorom i urbanitetom, smisleno je znati da je “japanska misao te`ila da privileguje specifi~no iskustvo konkretnog u odnosu na generalne i apstraktne konceptualizacije, ili kao {to je to formulisano u izreci Ba{oa (Basho) ’masts no koto wa matsu ni narae’ (doslovce: “[ta je bor, u~ite od bora”), a ilustrovano u ideji kao {to je Ni{ida Kitarino “~isto iskustvo” ili, prili~no jednostavno, u Nakazava [ini~ijevom (Nakazawa Shin’ichi) ’taiken’ koje se mo`e prevesti kao “intimno pro`ivqeno iskustvo” (Berk, 1997). Bliskost ovih ideja sa zapadwa~kom fenomenologijom je od posebnog zana~aja. U ~itawima mesta kojima se bavi ovaj metod u studiju, tako|e se zala`emo “protiv tendencije teoretizirawe prostora u uslovima wegove sopstvene logike i kodova” ([ilds, 1999) (Shields). Kao {to na{ uvodni primer pokazuje i kao {to to Batej elokventno formuli{e, takvo znawe je relativno, kontekstualno i wegova primena, dakle, ima svoje kulturne i geografske limite. Mnoge teorije urbanisti~kog projektovawa tra`e hijerarhiju, jasno}u, red - posebnu hijerarhiju, posebnu jasno}u i poseban red - red wihovog sopstvenog kulturnog porekla. Te teorije predstavqaju tu hijerarhiju i same jesu ta hijerarhija, taj red. U isto vreme, kao {to Ni{idino i Roanovo delo pokazuje, postoje i drugi koncepti ideja koji izra`avaju, podr`avaju i tra`e upravo suprotno - haos. Posmatrano iz perspektive dominantnog znawa te druge ideje jesu sam “haos”, nesumwivo drugo. Dakle, sugeri{e se da je u me|ukulturalnim studijima neophodno pro{iriti vidike u~esnika da bi oni bili sposobni da prihvate, u najmawu ruku drugost, i da ~ak prihvate, u najboqem slu~aju, kompletno strano, toute autre. Paradigmati~ka razlika izme|u Istoka i Zapada se ~esto rezimira na slede}i na~in:

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seek hierarchy, clarity, order – a particular hierarchy, a particular clarity and a particular order – the order of their own cultural origin. Those theories are that hierarchy, they are that order. At the same time, as Nishida’s and Rohan’s works show, there are other frameworks of ideas that express, support and seek the exact opposite – chaos. Seen from the perspective of dominant knowledge, those other ideas often are chaos itself, inconceivably other. In cross-cultural studios it is necessary to broaden the views of participants, so they are able to accept, at the very least, otherness, and even embrace, at the other extreme, the totally alien, the tout autre. The paradigmatic difference between East and West is often summarised as follows (Lewis, 2003):


ZAPADNO/WESTERN AZIJSKO/ASIAN demokratija/democracy jednakost/equality samopouzdawe/self-determination individualizam/individualism qudska prava/human rights jednakost za `ene/equality for women socijalna mobilnost/social mobility

hijerarhija/hierarchy nejednakost/inequality fatalizam/fatalism kolektivizam/collectivism prihvatawe statusa/acceptance of status mu{ka dominacija/male dominance yspostavqene dru{tvene klase/established social classes

status kroz dostignu}a, uspeh/ status ro|ewem, kroz bogatstvo/ status through achievement status by birth, through wealth ~iwenice i brojke/facts and figures socijalna pravda/social justice nova re{ewa/new solutions izdr`qivost/vigor linearno vreme/linear time orijentacija ka rezultatima/result orientation Paradigmati~ka razlika izme|u Istoka i Zapada: (Luis, 2003).

Prenesene na japanski urbanitet, ove jukstapozicije ukqu~uju :

odnosi/relationships strukture mo}i/power structures dobri uzori, prethodnici/good precedents mudrost/wisdom cikli~no vreme/cyclic time orijentacija ka harmoniji/harmony orientation

The paradigmatic difference between East and West (from Lewis, 2003)

Translated to Japanese urbanity, those juxtapositions include (Shelton, 1999):

ZAPADNO/WESTERN JAPANSKO/JAPANESE Mre`a/networks Vertikalno/vertical Integrisano/integrated Centralizovano/centralized Fiksno, u smeru kazaqke na satu/fixed and clock-like order Stalno ili ~ak ve~no/permanent or even eternal Fiksirano/fixed Jasne granice izme|u objekata i okru`ewa/clear boundaries between objects and their surroundings Karakteristike zapadnog i japanskog urbaniteta (bazirano na [eltonu,1999) (Shelton)

Pa~vork/patchworks Horizontalno/horizontal Pojedina~no/piecemeal Decentralizovano/decentralized Promenqivi i skokoviti red /shifting and cloud-like order Privremeno/temporary Fleksibilno/flexible Nejasne granice izme|u objekata i okru`ewa/vague boundaries between objects and their surroundings Characteristics of Western and Japanese urbanity (based on Shelton, 1999)

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[elton veruje da na nivou vrednosti japanskog urbanisti~kog projektovawa mo`emo na}i “omiqeni, prote`irani areal (u odnosu na linearnu i sukcesivnu) organizaciju; fragmentaciju (u odnosu na integraciju); diskonekciju, nepovezanost (u odnosu na konekciju, povezanost); transformaciju i metamorfozu (nad statikom i nepromenqivo{}u); autonomiju (nad me|uzavisno{}u) delova; ve}u pa`wu prema detaqima i fragmentima nego prema celini; fleksibilno i nedovr{eno (nad fiksnim i zavr{enim); i superimpoziciju i koegzistenciju delova koji nisu sli~ni (nad kompromisom i integracijom)”. Kao {to Masao Abe ka`e (u Ni{idi, 1987): “Isto~wa~ki na~in razmi{qawa je svojim nagla{avawem verbalnog i konceptualnog izraza kvalitativno razli~it od zapadwa~kog... Prenos misli je pre indirektan, sugestivan i simboli~an, nego opisan i precizan”.

Shelton believes that at the level of values in Japanese urban design we can find ‘favored areal (over linear and sequential) organization; fragmentation (over integration); disconnection (over connection); transformation and metamorphosis (over the static and unchangeable); autonomy (over interdependence) of parts; attention to details and to fragments before wholes (more than wholes before parts); the flexible and indefinite (over the fixed and finite); and superimposition and co-existence of unlike parts (over compromise and integration)’. As Masao Abe says (in Nishida, 1987) ‘the Eastern way of thinking is qualitatively different from the Western, with its emphasis on verbal and conceptual expression.… Communication of thought is often indirect, suggestive, and symbolic, rather than descriptive and precise’.

Embracing the other Prihvatawe drugog Na nekoliko portreta wegove voqene Gale, Salvadora Dalija, nalazi se i lik slikara. Portreti obi~no prikazuju objekat, ili umetnikov do`ivqaj objekta u odre|enoj situaciji. Na taj na~in i ve}ina filozofa posmatra svet. Oni “po~iwu sa opozicijom subjekat-objekat i vide objekat iz subjekta - to jest, posmatraju svet iz svoje ta~ke gledi{ta. Iz te subjektivisti~ke perspektive smatra se da sopstvo (bi}e) stoji, nalazi se izvan sveta”, ka`e Abe Masao u svom uvodu u Ni{idino prvo, a verovatno i najoriginalnije delo Istra`ivawe dobrog (Ni{ida, 1987). Dali pravi va`an korak unazad, ka nama posmatra~ima, i fokusira na{u pa`wu na posmatra~a, posmatranog i wihov odnos. Mi postajemo nastavak tog poqa. Abe

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Several of Salvador Dali’s portraits of his beloved Gala include a view of himself, the painter. The portraits usually represent the object, or the experience of the object in a particular situation as seen by the artist. That is also how most philosophers see the world. According to Abe Masao in his introduction to Nishida’s first, and probably most original work, Inquiry into the Good, they ‘start with subject-object opposition and see the object from the subject – that is, they grasp the world from the standpoint of the self. From such a subjectivistic perspective the self is understood to stand, as it were, outside the world’. (Nishida, 1987). Dali takes an important step back, towards us as viewers, and focuses our attention on the observer, the observed and the relationship between the two.


to prenosi na poqe filozofije nagla{avaju}i kako “svet nije ne{to {to stoji nasuprot bi}u (sopstvu), ve} ne{to razotkriva samo bi}e”.

We become an extension of the field. Abe would translate that into the realm of philosophy by stressing how ‘the world is not something that opposes the self but something that envelops it’.

Dalijevi kompleksni portreti/auto-portreti prikazuju idealnu situaciju za kulturalno osetqivo istra`ivawe drugosti - umesto da jednostavno uokvirimo egzoti~ni objekat, moramo postati svesni celokupne situacije. Ova situacija podrazumeva samoistra`ivawe, istra`ivawe objekta na{eg interesovawa, kao i zajedni~kog poqa u kome mi me|udejstvujemo, komuniciramo. Dalijev ~esto cini~an sopstveni prikaz nagla{ava wegovu samokriti~nost, koja je ~esto neophodna za uspostavqawe recipro~nog odnosa sa drugim. Po stupawu na to zajedni~ko poqe, na{e postojawe je fundamentalno me|uzavisno, te se mi trudimo da dostignemo istinski dijalo{ki odnos izme|u dve jednake strane. U uvodu Istra`ivawa Ni{ida Kitaro je napisao: “Iskustvo ne postoji zato {to postoji individua, ve} individua postoji zato {to postoji iskustvo”. On nije bio zadovoqan dualisti~kim poimawem iskustva, jer je to bilo strano wegovoj sopstvenoj kulturi. Abe isti~e, “sopstvo se tako|e do`ivqava, isku{ava. U stvarnom iskustvu ne do`ivqava sopstvo odre|enu stvar ili doga|aj, ve} se samo sopstvo tako|e do`ivqava, isku{ava”. Slika Gale i Dalija je metafora za na~in na koji smo formirali dva studija - MOST i BMB (Bangkok-Melburn-Bordo). Takva direktna iskustva su fundamentalno trans-individualna” (ibid.). Kao {to Ni{ida ka`e, “znawe, ose}aj i voqa nisu me|usobno razgrani~eni...Jedinstvo intelektualnog znawa i prakti~ne emocije-voqe je najdubqi zahtev qudskih bi}a i ozna~ava `ivu, kona~nu

Salvador Dali, L’Angelus de Gala, 1935, (MoMA) Salvador Dali, L’Angélus de Gala, 1935, (MoMA)

Dali’s complex portraits/self-portraits depict an ideal situation for the culturally sensitive exploration of otherness: rather than simply framing the exotic object, we must remain aware of the whole situation. That situation includes and opens to investigation ourselves, the objects of our interest and the field of forces within which we interact. Dali’s often cynical depiction of himself exemplifies the self-criticism which is often necessary to establish a reciprocal relation with the other. After entering the field, our existence is fundamentally relational and we strive to achieve truly dialogic relationship among equals.

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realnost”. Mi `elimo da se trenuci ~istog iskustva pojave pri susretima i da prate susrete sa drugim. Od 1998. godine metod koji je ovde obrazlo`en pro{ao je kroz brojne inkarnacije. Kao {to je to Batej rekao za filozofiju, metod istra`ivawa ili podu~avawa u urbanisti~kom projektovawu “nikada nije ku}a; on je gradili{te”. Iz svog do`ivqaja istra`ivawa na{i studenti ka`u da cene “horizontalno” deqewe ideja i znawa zasnovanog na razmeni, pre nego na nizvodnom toku informacija. Tolerancija, prepoznavawe i uva`avawe razli~itosti u okviru studija su uo~ene kao veoma bitne komponente tog procesa.

In his preface to the Inquiry, Nishida Kitaro wrote: ‘It is not that experience exists because there is an individual, but that an individual exists because there is an experience’. He was not satisfied with the dualistic understanding of experience which was alien to his own culture. Abe stresses that, ‘the self is also experienced. In actual experience it is not that the self experiences something but that the self as well is experienced’. The painting of Gala and Dali are the metaphor for the way we compose the MOST/BMB (MOST/ Bangkok-Melbourne-Bordeaux) studios. Such direct experiences are fundamentally trans-individual. As Nishida said, ‘knowledge, feeling, and volition are undifferentiated.… The unity of intellectual knowledge and practical emotion–volition is the deepest demand of human beings, and it indicates the living ultimate reality’. We want moments of pure experience to occur and to facilitate encounters with the other. Since 1998 the method discussed here has gone through many incarnations. As Bataille said for philosophy, an urban design–research and teaching method is ‘never a house; it is a construction site’. In their responses to surveys, our students say that they value the horizontal sharing of ideas and knowledge based on exchange, rather than a the top-down flow of information. Tolerance, recognition and an appreciation of difference within the studio were recognized as significant components of the design process.

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IMPERATIV ODR@IVOG RAZVOJA* IMPERATIVE OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT* Dobar urbani dizajn

F

Urbanisti~ko projektovawe je jedna od disciplina koja izmi~e jednostavnom definisawu. Ovo proizilazi ne samo iz slo`enosti koja je svojstvena tom aspektu procesa fizi~kog oblikovawa gradova i iz kompleksnosti koja le`i u wegovoj multidisciplinarnoj prirodi, ve} i iz ~iwenice da je dobro urbanisti~ko projektovawe uvek (situaciono) mesno i vremenski specifi~no, i da su re{ewa uvek duboko kontekstualna i u osnovi neponovqiva. Me|utim, poku{aj da se opi{e {ta to ~ini dobro urbanisti~ko projektovawe, sa naglaskom na uvek kontraverzno pitawe kvaliteta, je jo{ te`i i jo{ neizvesniji postupak. Na primer, mogli bismo da tvrdimo da me|u univerzalnim ciqevima uspe{nog urbanisti~kog projektovawa uvek prepoznajemo: (a) tragawe za odgovaraju}im odnosom izme|u javnog i privatnog interesa, i (b) tragawe za “najharmoni~nijim balansom izme|u kontrole i slobode, tragawe za redom koji pre osloba|a nego {to ste`e” (Elin, 1996) (Ellin). Dobro urbanisti~ko projektovawe tako|e treba da izrazi i pozitivnu viziju, `equ za kreirawem boqeg sveta. Javno/privatno, kontrola/sloboda, “boqi svet”, svaka od ovih karakteristika te`i da prona|e razli~it fizi~ki izraz, od kojih svaki korespondira sa odre|enom dru{tvenom, geografskom situacijom, situacijom u okru`ewu, situacijom

Good urban design

F

Urban design is a discipline that escapes easy definition. That comes not only from the complexity inherent in the process of physically shaping cities and from the complexity rooted in its multidisciplinary nature, but also from the fact that good urban design is always place-specific and time-specific, so that quality solutions are always deeply contextual and basically not repeatable. But to describe what makes good urban design, with an emphasis always on the controversial issue of quality, tends to be even more elusive. For instance, we could argue that among the universal aims of successful urban design is a search for the appropriate relationship between private and the public interests, and a quest for ‘the most harmonious balance between control and freedom, a search for the order which liberates rather than oppresses’ (Ellin, 1996). Good urban design also has to express a positive vision, a desire to create a better world. Public–private, control–freedom, a ‘better world’: each of these characteristics tends to find a different physical expression, each of which corresponds to the particular social, geographic and environmental situation characteristic of a specific community, at a particular time, in a distinct location. In a Lefebvrian way, a specific society always finds its true inscription in the soil of real environmental situations (Lefebvre, 1996). Thus, examining historical

*Originalna verzija ovog eseja iz kog su izdvojeni fragmenti objavqena je kao “UniverCity –new campus for the University of Shenyang”, kao jedan od priloga nagra|enog konkursnog rada (2000) *The original text from which these fragments were taken was published as “ UniverCity –new campus for the University of Shenyang”, within the awarded competition entry (2000)

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karakteristi~nom za odre|enu zajednicu u odre|enom trenutku, na specifi~noj lokaciji. Na lefevrianski na~in, konkretno dru{tvo uvek nalazi svoj istinski izraz na tlu konkretne situacije u `ivotnom okru`ewu (Lefevr, 1996). Tako, ispitivawe istorijskih primera urbanisti~kog projektovawa pru`a zna~ajan informacioni korpus o vremenu wegovog formirawa, razvoju i promenama, o strukturama mo}i, vladaju}im idejama o pro{losti i budu}nosti, vode}im idealima i dru{tvenim ciqevima.

А Problemi, sada i ovde

А АА ААА 432

АААА

Ukoliko se zamislimo o tome koja od karakteristika univerzalnog zna~aja koje karakteri{u na{u eru treba da ima fundamentalni uticaj na urbanisti~ko projektovawe, ~itav spektar razli~itih aspekata nam pada na pamet. Kada procewujemo wihov relativan zna~aj, kriza `ivotne sredine je svakako jedna karakteristika koja je prisutna u svim aspektima qudskog postojawa. S druge strane, ubrzana globalizacija koja dovodi do nezamislivog nivoa dru{tvene homogenizacije - koja je verovatno najboqe izra`ena u izgleda nezaustavqivom konzumerizmu (potro{a~kom mentalitetu), je jedna od veli~ina za pore|ewe. Pore|ewem te dve karakteristike, u ovom momentu, postaje o~igledna ne samo kompleksnost, ve} i te`ina i razmera aktuelne krize. Dominantne ekonomske i tehnolo{ke paradigme, agresivan progresivisti~ki pogled na svet su o~igledno u suprotnosti sa samom su{tinom odr`ivog razvoja. Sa druge strane, zaokret paradigme ka ekolo{ki odr`ivom razvoju, o~igledno predstavqa jedini mogu}i na~in za opstanak i nastavak qudske vrste.

examples of urban design provides a significant corpus of information on the times of its formation, its development and changes; on the power structures, ruling visions of the present and the future, its guiding ideals and social aims.

А Problems here and now If we reflect on what characteristics of universal importance mark this era and will have the fundamental impact on urban design, a whole spectrum of different aspects comes to mind. In terms of their relative importance, the environmental crisis certainly is one that is present in all aspects of human life. On the other hand accelerating globalization that brings with it an unprecedented level of social homogenization – probably best represented by seemingly unstoppable consumerism, is of comparable magnitude. Through examining those two contemporary characteristics, it is not the complexity but also the difficulty and the extent of the current crisis that become apparent. Dominant economic and technological paradigms, and an aggressive progress-oriented worldview is clearly opposed to the very essence of ecologically sustainable development. On the other hand, a paradigm shift towards ecologically sustainable development obviously represents the only possible way towards survival and the continuation of humankind. Like so many other fields of human endeavor, urbanism in late 1980s and early 1990s has been marked by this fundamental controversy. During that period market-led urban development became narrowly pragmatic. Initially developed in traditionally pragmatic Anglo-American countries, this trend spread across the world and the financial profitability of proposals globally became one, and too


Kao i mnoga druga poqa qudske delatnosti urbanizam kasnih osamdesetih i ranih devedesetih godina XX veka je obele`en tom fundametalnom kontraverzom. Urbanisti~ki razvoj koji je tr`i{no usmeravan postao je usko pragmati~an. Inicijalno formiran u tradicionalno pragmati~nim anglo-ameri~kim zemqama, kao trend on se ra{irio svetom, te je finansijska isplativost urbanisti~kih re{ewa globalno postala jedan, a ~esto i jedini kriterijum za “dobro” urbanisti~ko projektovawe. U stremqewima da bude pragmati~an, urbanizam je isuvi{e ~esto gubio tu osnovnu `equ za kreirawem boqeg sveta. (Elin, 1996) Ili je vizija onoga {to je “boqe” pre~esto postajala kratkovida i usko pragmati~na. Kvalitet `ivotne sredine i okru`ewa je retko uziman u obzir, iako je `argon odr`ivosti postao va`an deo politi~ke korektnosti . U osamdesetim i devedesetim godinama urbanisti~ko projektovawe je izgubilo jedan od svojih osnovnih ciqeva: da vr{i nepristrasnu medijaciju izme|u javnog i privatnog domena. Aktuelna situacija u `ivotnom okru`ewu - ozbiqna kriza `ivotnog okru`ewa - zahteva ba{ taj izgubqeni kvalitet - viziju boqeg sveta, veoma specifi~nu, definisanu viziju. Ta vizija ne samo da zahteva dramati~ne promene, ve} zahteva i da se te promene veoma brzo odigraju i to na odgovaraju}i i jedini mogu}i prihvatqiv na~in. Globalni kulturni zaokret ka odr`ivosti, koji je davno opisan i ve} dobro prou~en, ali retko primewivan, }e rezultovati boqim, regionalno, mesno/situaciono i kulturalno - specifi~nim planirawem i projektovawem.

often the only, criterion of ‘good’ urban design. In it’s endeavor to be pragmatic, urbanism has too frequently lost its fundamentally desire to create a better world (Ellin, 1996). In a similar development, the vision of what is ‘better’ too often became profoundly short-sighted and narrowly pragmatic. Environmental quality is seldom taken into consideration, although lip service to sustainability became an important part of political correctness in the discipline. In the 1980s and the 1990s urban design lost one of its essential aims: to mediate impartially between the public and the private realms. The current situation – characterized by a severe environmental crisis – demands exactly the quality that was lost 20 years ago: the vision of a better world, a very particular, definable vision. Such a vision asks not only for dramatic changes to be made, it also demands that those changes should be made quickly, and in the proper, the only acceptable, direction. A global cultural shift towards sustainability, described long ago, already well researched but rarely implemented, would result in better regional, place-specific and culture-specific planning and design.

Good urban design for an ecologically sustainable future Place-specific and time-specific responses have always been among the crucial characteristics of the successful urban design. Important components of sustainable urban development include an awareness of the global dimension of environmental agendas and the need to re-establish culture-specific understanding of place and urbanity (often lost or at least questioned in recent times). The interpretations of these components through urbanism

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Dobro urbanisti~ko projektovawe za ekolo{ki odr`ivu budu}nost Mesno/situaciono i vremenski-specifi~ni odgovori su oduvek bili me|u najbitnijim karakteristikama uspe{nog urbanisti~kog projektovawa. Istovremena svest o globalnoj dimenziji okru`ewa i ponovno uspostavqawe kulturalnospecifi~nog shvatawa koncepta mesta i urbanosti (koji je ~esto izostajao ili je osporavan u posledwe vreme), i wihova specifi~na interpretacija kroz urbanizam otvara zna~ajne mogu}nosti za odr`ivi urbanisti~ki razvoj. Na sli~an na~in kao {to je Italo Kalvino (Italo Kalvino) opisao analiziraju}i savremenu literaturu i neposrednu budu}nost, i urbanizam, i urbanisti~ko projektovawe moraju biti sposobni da “zajedno upli}u razli~ite grane znawa, razli~ite ‘kodove’ u vi{ezna~nu i mnogostranu viziju sveta” (Palazma, 1994) (Pallasmaa). Dok se filozofija ekolo{ki podobnog razvoja bavi otkrivawem specifi~ne, lokalne reakcije, savremeno istra`ivawe u okviru brojnih disciplina je uspostavilo skup pricipa i pravila koja imaju univerzalni zna~aj. Lokalne interpretacije, prilago|avawe specifi~nim okolnostima, i kulturalna integracija ovako kompleksnog interdisciplinarnog tela }e rezultovati modelima razvoja koji bi mogli da vode u ekolo{ki odr`ivu budu}nost. Osnovni principi Osnovni principi ekolo{ki odr`ivog razvoja su: (a) odgovaraju}a tehnologija i wen odnos prema odr`ivom razvoju; (b) ideje dru{tva male potro{we; (v) svest o globalnom zagrevawu i odnos prema wemu; (g) imperativ u smawewu uni{tavawa neobnovqivih resursa, ukqu~uju}i i fosilna goriva; (d) napori za o~uvawem

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must be incorporated in design. In a way similar to the challenge Italo Calvino described for the literature of our era and the immediate future, urbanism and urban design have to be ‘capable of weaving together the various branches of knowledge, the various “codes” into a manifold and multifaceted vision of the world’ (Pallasmaa, 1994). While the philosophy of ecologically appropriate development is concerned with discovering particular, local responses, contemporary research in its diverse disciplines has established the set of principles and rules that have universal relevance. Local interpretations, circumstantial adaptations and cultural integration of such a complex interdisciplinary body of knowledge will result in development patterns that could lead towards an ecologically sustainable future. General principles The general principles of sustainable urban development are (a) appropriate technologies and their relationship to sustainable development, (b) ideas of a low-flow society, (c) awareness of global warming and its fundamental relationship to (d) the imperative to minimize the depletion of non-renewable resources, including fossil fuels; (e) efforts to conserve nutrients, (f) maximize bio-diversity, (g) establish health as a guiding principle, (h) improve social equity, (i) introduce community participation and (j) repair the Earth, i.e. to correct any local environmental damage already done or about to be done.


fonda hrane; (|) pove}awe biodiverziteta; (e) ustoli~avawe principa zdravqa kao vode}eg principa; (`) unapre|ewe socijalne jednakosti; (z) uvo|ewe u~e{}a zajednice i (i) obnova Zemqe, tj. sanirawe bilo koje lokalne degradacije `ivotne sredine koja se ve} dogodila ili koja bi tek trebalo da se dogodi.

Od principa do strategije i prakse i postupaka za prilago|avawe okolnostima Lista koja sledi ima ~isto ilustrativan karakter. Ona izgleda gotovo kao “~ek-lista� planera ili urbaniste ukqu~enog u rad na dono{ewu ekolo{ki odr`ivih urbanisti~kih re{ewa. Postoje dve glavne grupe postupaka. Jedna grupa se bavi biofizi~kim aspektom odr`ivog odnosa sa okru`ewem, dok se druga bavi stvarawem potrebnih dru{tvenih organizacija i fizi~kim strukturama. Ovi postupci za odr`ivi urbanisti~ki razvoj mogu voditi ka sadr`ajnom `ivqewu koje se brine o `ivotnom okru`ewu. (1) O~uvawe materijala, energije i `ivotne sredine Dru{tvo niske potro{we: ~initi vi{e, koriste}i mawe; proizvodi dugog veka; ekolo{ki prihvatqivi materijali; upotreba, ponovna upotreba i recikla`a materijala, komponenti i proizvoda; dru{tvo niske potro{we energije; gra|evine i ostali proizvodi; dru{tvo niske potro{we energije; transport i gra|evine niske energije; obezbe|ivawe tople vode; nizak stepen emisije gasova staklene ba{te; energija vetra; fotoenergija; ~uvawe energije; energetski {tedqivi aparati; zemqi{te kao osnovni resurs. (2) Promocija nezavisnog (samo-dovoqnog) dru{tva

From principles to strategies and practices for circumstantial adaptations The following list has an illustrative purpose only. It looks almost like a checklist for a planner and urbanist involved in making decisions that will lead towards a sustainable future for an urbanized area. There are two major groups of actions. One set deals with ensuring the biophysical aspect of a sustainable relationship with the environment, while the other deals with creating the social organizations and physical structures that are required. Those practices for sustainable urban development can lead towards convivial living that repairs and maintains the environment. (1) Conserving materials, energy and the environment A low-use society: doing more with less; long-life products; environmentally acceptable materials; the use, reuse and recycling of materials, components, and products; a low-energy society: buildings and other products; low-energy transport and buildings; low-energy hot water; low greenhouse gas emissions; using wind power; photovoltaic energy; storing energy; using energy-efficient appliances; using the soil as a major resource.

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Lokalno samo-izgra|uju}e dru{tvo; gra|ewe fizi~kih struktura; gra|ewe socijalne strukture; samo-obnovqivo dru{tvo; globalno (umre`eno) dru{tvo; dru{tvo samozapo{qavawa; rad na nove na~ine; kompjuteri i informacione tehnologije u obrazovawu (3) Dru{tvo niske pokretqivosti Mehanizovani i nemehanizovani saobra}aj; sistemi javnog saobra}aja (4) Odr`ivi tretman reqefa Geologija i geomorfologija kao determinante za urbanu formu; urbano rudarstvo; profilisawe terena (5) Odr`ivi tretman zemqi{ta (6) [tedwa vodnih resursa Odr`ivi vodni re`im; urbani akvati~ni sistemi (7) Nega biodiverziteta Biodiverzitet; o~uvawe postoje}e autohtone flore i faune; odr`avawe i unapre|ivawe koridora i ekolo{kih linkova; tampon zone i konfliktna podru~ja; za{ti}ena podru~ja prirode; menaxment i ekologija; o~uvawe budu}nosti; `ivotiwe-partneri (8) Promocija produktivnih pejza`a i odr`iva poqoprivreda Dru{tvo koje samo obezbe|uje hranu; permakultura i odr`iva urbana bio-produkcija (9) Tretman otpada kao resursa (10) Odr`avawe kvaliteta vazduha (11) Urbana forma (12) Upravqawe, administracija i ekonomija odr`ivih podru~ja Upravqa~ki i participatorni projekat; finansijske strukture; balansirawe li~nih dohodaka (13) Kulturni kontinuitet i nasle|e

(2) Promoting a self-reliant society A locally self-building society; building physical structures; building social structures; a self-repairing society; a (globally) networked society; a selfemploying society; working in new ways; computing and information technology in education. (3) A low-movement society Reforming mechanised and non-mechanised transport; improving public transport systems (4) Managing landforms for sustainability Using geology and geomorphology as determinants of urban form; urban mining; land profiling (5) Managing soils for sustainability (6) Husbanding water as a resource Incorporating sustainable water regimes and urban aquatic systems (7) Nurturing biodiversity Biodiversity; conserving existing indigenous flora and fauna; maintaining and enhancing wildlife corridors and ecological links; buffer zones and conflict areas; refuge areas/wildlife sanctuary areas; management and ecology; preserving the future; companion-animals (8) Promoting productive landscapes and sustainable agriculture The self-feeding society; Permaculture and sustainable urban bio-production. (9) Managing waste as a resource (10) Maintaining air quality (11) Urban form (12) The governance, administration and economics of sustainable areas Governance and participatory design; financial structure; balancing payments (13) Cultural continuity and heritage

Sve ove kategorije zaslu`uju pa`qivo preispitivawe sa pozicija lokalnog znawa i svesti o okru`ewu i `ivotnoj sredini; gotovo svaka od

All of those categories deserve careful and thorough examination from positions of local knowledge and environmental awareness. Almost each of them


wih nosi ogroman potencijal za izra`avawe lokalne osobenosti i, kona~no, za ona najfinija prilago|avawa stimulacijama iz okru`ewa koja su od kqu~nog zna~aja. Ono {to je tako|e zna~ajno je i o~igledna slo`enost i interdisciplinarnost ekolo{ki odgovaraju}eg urbanisti~kog projektovawa. Urbana forma, na koju je urbanisti~ko projektovawe dana{wice veoma ~esto svedeno, je veoma va`na, me|utim ona je samo jedan od brojnih aspekata koji se kre}u od onih koji izra`avaju odre|ene dru{tvene ideale, do aspekata specijalisti~kog znawa, posebno prirodnih i humanisti~kih nauka. Samo wihova dijalekti~na sinteza, balansirawe prilago|eno pojedinoj specifi~noj situaciji, mo`e da dovede do pojave perspektiva za ukupan pozitivan ishod u `ivotnom okru`ewu i sredini.

holds a huge potential for the expression of local peculiarity and consequently for the utmost important fine adjustments to environmental stimuli. What is also important is the obvious complexity and inherent interdisciplinarity of ecologically appropriate urban design. Urban form, to which urban design of our times is often reduced, is very important, but it is only one among the numerous aspects ranging from those that express certain social ideals to those requiring specialistic knowledge in particular natural sciences or the humanities. Only their dialectic synthesis; a balance appropriate tuned to each individual situation, can bring around prospects of environmentally positive overall outcomes.

Towards conclusions Ka zakqu~cima Generalno, mo`emo govoriti o dva aktuelna pristupa problemu odr`ivog urbanisti~kog razvoja. Neko posmatra grad i urbani `ivot kao izraz ne-odr`ivog stava. Drugi pristup razlikuje istinski urbani kvalitet od problema koje su stvorili savremeni urbani sistemi. Prvi prilaz je generalno prisutniji u “novom svetu”, gde se glavni urbani razvoj odigrao tokom ili posle industrijske revolucije, a prema tome je i od po~etka bio povezan sa prili~no ozbiqnom degradacijom `ivotne sredine i okru`ewa. Drugi izgleda da je vrlo evropski i verovatno predstavqa jedinu realnu bazu za nastavak urbanog razvoja visoko urbanizovanog Starog kontinenta. Oba prilaza jasno pokazuju da, kao {to je Manuel Kastels (1978 ) pretpostavio, “urbano i ekolo{ko pitawe su izgleda blisko povezani, zajedno opisuju}i

Generally we can speak of two current approaches to the problem of sustainable urban development. One takes city and urban life as expressions of a non-sustainable attitude. The other approach distinguishes genuine urban quality from problems generated by contemporary urban systems. The first approach is generally more present in ‘new worlds’, where major urban development happened during or after the Industrial Revolution and, therefore, was from the very beginning associated with rather grave environmental degradation. The second seems to be a very European experience and possibly constitutes the only realistic basis for the continuing urban development of an highly urbanized ‘old continent’. Both approaches clearly show that, as Manuel Castells (1978) guessed, ‘the urban question and the ecological question appear to be closely linked, together outlining a new axis of social and political change’. They both stress that

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novu osu dru{tvene i politi~ke promene”. Oba gledi{ta isti~u da je dijalekti~ki odnos urbanog i `ivotnog okru`ewa isuvi{e kompleksan da bi bio prepu{ten silama “spontanog” razvoja, ili jo{ gore, da bi bio vo|en silama uskih interesnih grupa, kao {to su to ve} dugo vremena feti{izovane sile tr`i{ta. Oba uvi|aju urgentnu potrebu za planirawem i regulacijom procesa urbanog razvoja, kako bi na{li odgovaraju}i put ka odr`ivoj budu}nosti.

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dialectics of environmental and urban relationship is far too complex to be left to the forces of ‘spontaneous’ development or, even worse, to be guided by forces inclined in favour of any single group of its determinants, such as long-fetishised market forces. They both see an urgent need to plan and regulate the processes of urban development in order to find a proper way towards a sustainable future.


EKOLO[KA ODR@IVOST ENVIROMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

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URBANITET* URBANITY* U svojoj raspravi o urbanoj krizi "Grad pod napadom", Xorx Stajner (George Steiner) postavqa u jukstapoziciju tri razli~ite tradicije, tri obrasca razmi{qawa koji su usa|eni u na{e razumevawe fenomena grada - gr~ku tradiciju, hebrejsku tradiciju i zapadwa~ku tradiciju.

In his discussion of the urban crisis, ‘The City under Attack’, George Steiner juxtaposes three different traditions, three patterns of thought built into our understanding of the phenomenon of the city – the Greek tradition, the Hebraic tradition and the Western tradition.

Grad zrele gr~ke civilizacije, polis, je mesto gde se razvila gr~ka misao. "To je lokalitet gde su gustina i specifi~na te`ina teorije najve}i". To je mesto umetnosti i verovalo se da, kako je Euripid govorio "biti bez grada, je (isto {to i) biti nag". U svom ranom delu, prvoj kwizi Politike Aristotel ka`e: "O~igledno je da polis pripada stvarima koje prirodno postoje, i da je ~ovek po prirodi bi}e koje je stvoreno da `ivi u polisu". On veruje da se ~ovek i grad moraju prou~avati zajedno zato {to: "nijedno ne mo`e da postoji bez drugog, i nijedno nema zna~aja bez onog drugog". Tako, mo`emo videti da je va`an aspekt gr~ke filozofije bila i urbofilija.

The city of mature Greek civilization, the polis, is the place where Greek thought was developed. ‘It is the locale where the density and the specific gravity of discourse are greatest.’ It is where artistic creation takes place and it was believed that, as Euripides used to say: ‘To be without a city is (the same as) being naked.’ In his early work, the first book of The Politics, Aristotle declares: ‘it is evident that the polis belongs to the things that exist by nature, and that man is by nature a creature intended to live in a polis‘. He believes that man and the city have to be studied together because ‘neither can exist without the other and neither has significance without the other.’ Thus we can see that an important aspect of Greek philosophy was urbophilia.

Hebrejska tradicija nudi radikalno druga~iji pogled na grad i urbani `ivot. Bog, kao takav, nalazi se u vrtu; ciq svih qudi bi trebalo da bude da se vrate u Raj. Proro~anska literatura je gotovo jednoglasno "protiv prostitucije-nemorala gradova". Grad je autogeno, uro|eno lo{. Vavilon, Enos, Sodoma, Gomora... Spisak gradova predstavqenih kao mesta zla je ogroman i to, kako Stajner nagla{ava, o~igledno nije slu~ajno. "Stari Jevreji su nomadski narod kojima nije

Hebraic tradition offers a radically different view of the city and urban life. God himself is set in a garden; the aim of all humans should be to re-enter Eden. Prophetic literature is, almost univocally, ‘against the whoredom of cities‘. The city is intrinsically bad. Babylon, Enoch, Sodom, Gomorra… The list of cities as places of evil is endless and, as Steiner points out, this is obviously not by accident. ‘The early Jews are nomadic people coming to

*Original ovog eseja je objavqen kao “Urbanity and Ecologically Sustainable Development” u ANZAScA, A. Dawson (ed.), Geelong: Deakin University: pp.165-171 (1994) *The original version of this essay was published as “Urbanity and Ecologically Sustainable Development” in ANZAScA, A. Dawson (ed.), Geelong: Deakin University: pp.165-171 (1994)

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blizak koncept ure|enog `ivota poqoprivredne zajednice (...). Za Xeremaju, Jerusalim predstavqa samo spoqa{wi simbol, odoru Izraela. On nije, kao {to je Atina za Perikla, manifestacija kreativnog genija ~oveka, ve} je samo kameni {ator". Stajner polemi{e da ~ak i danas, bez obzira na ~iwenicu {to su Jevreji, posle ru{ewa Hrama postali izrazito urban narod, "iako je izgra|en Tel-Aviv, a Jerusalim ponovo osvojen, koren ideala jo{ uvek je u kibucu i Negevu". Dakle, hebrejska tradicija je u osnovi urbofobi~na.

uneasy terms with the settled existence of agriculture.… For Jeremiah Jerusalem is only an outward garb of Israel. It is not, as is Athens for Pericles, a manifestation of man’s creative genius, but merely the tent of stone’. Steiner argues that even today, regardless of the fact that after the destruction of the Temple the Jews became a distinctly urban people, ‘though Tel Aviv is built and Jerusalem reconquered, the root of the ideal is that of the kibbutz and the Negev‘. Thus, the Hebrew tradition is fundamentally urbophobic.

Prema Xorxu Stajneru, u tre}oj, zapadwa~koj tradiciji "vizija Atike je prevagla". Avgustinski smisao za stawe qudskog roda ovaplo}en je ne u Svetoj Gori, ve} u Bo`jem gradu. Me|utim, bez obzira na ~iwenicu da je generalno prihva}en moto evropske sredwovekovne kulture Stadt Luft macht frei , vidimo da je apstraktni okvir zapadne civilizacije dovoqno prostran da se u wega smeste razli~ita gledi{ta; klice ideja bliske prvobitnim urbofobi~nim tradicijama nikada nisu prestale da postoje, stoje}i veoma blisko uz ideje o uro|enoj urbofiliji.

According to George Steiner, in the third, Western tradition ‘the Attic vision prevailed’. The Augustine sense of the human condition is crystallized not in the Holy Mountain, but in the City of God. But despite the fact that a generally accepted motto of European medieval culture was Stadt Luft macht frei, we see that the framework of Western civilization is wide enough to accommodate diverse views; germs of ideas close to original urbophobic traditions never ceased to exist side by side with a genuine urbophilia.

Kraj dvadesetog veka je obele`en jakom krizom, ~ije su dve komponente - urbana i ekolo{ka posebno zna~ajne. Neke od najupe~atqivijih ideja okrenutih re{avawu ozbiqnih problema, uobi~ajeno se nazivaju filozofijom odr`ivog razvoja. U aktuelnoj raspravi o raznim aspektima odr`ivosti, gradovima se veoma ~esto pripisuje veliki nedostatak ekolo{kog kvaliteta.

The end of the 20th century was marked with a strong crisis, whose urban and environmental components are of major concern. Some of the prominent ideas of this period which aimed towards the solution of these grave problems are commonly described as a philosophy of sustainable development. In current discussions on various aspects of sustainability, cities are very often associated with major failures of the quality of the environment.

Jedan prilaz odr`ivom urbanom razvoju posmatra grad i urbani `ivot kao izraz ne-odr`ivog stava. Re{ewa koja po~ivaju na ovakvim pretpostavkama, ~esto negiraju neke od najva`nijih, ~ak kqu~nih

One approach to sustainable urban development takes the city and urban life to be the material expression of a non-sustainable attitude. The solutions sought on the basis of such presumptions

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aspekata urbanosti. Predlo`ena re{ewa naglasak stavqaju na autarhi~an samodovoqan na~in `ivota i nagiwu ka rusoovskom konceptu "jednostavnog `ivota". To ~esto vodi poimawu odr`ivog razvoja kao pukog fizi~kog opstanka qudske vrste, predstavqaju}i samo novu interpretaciju drevnih urbofobi~nih tendencija. Drugi prilaz problemima odr`ivog razvoja pravi razliku izme|u uro|enog urbaniteta i problema koji su nastali u savremenim megalopolisima. Grad koji Dikens, Zola, Drajzer, Dostojevski kritikuju je parazitski, prerasli, dehumanizovani proizvod odre|enog obrasca razvoja, kameni Kolos koji je Osvald Spengler (Oswald Spengler) ozna~io kao izraz propasti zapadne kulture. Prerazvijeni metropolis je anomalija, koja se ~esto brka sa gradom. Kritika fenomena urbanog ne mo`e biti zasnovana na propasti ovakvog pseudo-grada. [tavi{e, odgovaraju}e definisani i odre|eni kvaliteti urbanog `ivota i wihovi prostorni izrazi treba da budu ponovo proceweni, zbog toga {to u razvijawu samih osnova istinske urbanosti le`i veliki potencijal za pove}awe osobine odr`ivosti.

Odgovor na na{e pitawe Da li je urbanost zaista protiv odr`ivog razvoja? mo`e se dati, a prvi koraci ka urbanom odr`ivom razvoju mogu biti u~iweni samo na osnovu ta~no formulisanih definicija. Kao filozofski koncept razvoja, odr`ivost je veoma kompleksna i izmi~e jednostavnom definisawu. Ovaj koncept se odnosi na naj{iru Brantlendovu (Bruntland) definiciju koja odr`ivost posmatra kao obrazac razvoja usmeren na to da odgovori potrebama sada{wih generacija, bez ugro`avawa mogu}nosti budu}ih generacija da zadovoqe svoje potrebe. Ovo je blisko

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often deny some of the most important, even fundamental aspects of urbanity. They emphasize autarchic, self-reliant modes of life and incline towards Rousseau-like concepts of ‘living simply’. That often leads to understanding sustainable development as the mere physical survival of humankind, and represents a new interpretation of the ancient urbophobic tendency. The other approach to problems of urban sustainability distinguishes between genuine urbanity and the problems associated with and generated by the contemporary megalopolis. The city which Dickens, Zola, Dreiser and Dostoyevsky criticize is the parasitic, overgrown, dehumanized product of a certain pattern of development, the stone colossus recognized by Oswald Spengler as the expression of the end of Western culture. The overgrown metropolis is an anomaly that is often confused with the city itself. A critique of the urban phenomenon itself, however, cannot be grounded on the failure of such pseudo-cities. Furthermore, the positive qualities and spatial expression of urban life, properly defined, need to be examined and re-assessed, because the potential for sustainability lies in development that rests on the very basis of a true urbanity.

It would be useful if we could arrive at correct definitions for the concepts we are using, since to do so would enable our inquiry, ‘Is urbanity really opposed to sustainable development?’ to be properly grounded and the first steps towards sustainable urban development undertaken. However, as a philosophical concept of development, ‘sustainability’ is complex and escapes easy definition. It is generally associated with the Brundtland definition which describes it as a pattern of development


konceptu subzistencije1 i asocira na Hajdegerove (Heidegger) ideje o sparung-u. U poku{aju da se objasni su{tina urbanog, mogu se prona}i sli~ne reference u poznatim i ve} priznatim filozofskim idejama. Definisawe urbanog samo jednom odrednicom, ili ~ak jednom familijom determinanti, neminovno je neuspe{an poku{aj. Grad predstavqa fizi~ki izraz dru{tvene i civilizacijske kompleksnosti i prema tome dozvoqava, podr`ava i ~ak zahteva razli~ita (ponekad ~ak i me|usobno iskqu~uju}a, protivre~na, ali i daqe pojedina~no validna) tuma~ewa. Grad je mesto koje "dozvoqava razli~itosti"; {tavi{e, on "podsti~e koncentraciju razli~itosti i razlika", bez obzira na fizi~ku veli~inu naseqa. Poznajemo brojne primere malih, a ipak izrazito urbanih naseqa, kao i slu~ajeve velikih, pseudo-urbanih konglomerata kojima nedostaju ~ak i najosnovnije karakteristike urbanog `ivota. Aristotelovski koncept koinonie - kqu~ni termin u wegovoj definiciji polisa koju nudi u Politici, daje verovatno jednu od najboqih definicija ovog fenomena i slo`enog odnosa qudi i gradova koji zovemo urbanost. Ovaj termin je shvatan kao "osnovna veza-nit (...) izme|u polisa i gra|anina koja ozna~ava aktivan i svrsishodan odnos, a podrazumeva prisustvo i kori{}ewe energije".

U kwizi “Topofilija” Ji -Fu Tuan (Yi-Fu Tuan) pi{e: "Kada jednom dru{tvo dostigne odre|eni nivo slo`enosti i patvorenosti, qudi }e po~eti da prime}uju i cene jednostavnost prirode". Nalazim da je suprotno gledi{te podjednako istinito: kada gradsko iskustvo postane previ{e

aimed at meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It is close to the concept of subsistence1 and evokes ideas similar to Heidegger’s sparung. Similar references to known and established philosophical ideas can be found in an attempt to explain ‘urban essence’. It is also futile to define urbanity with a single term, or even by a single family of terms. The city is a physical expression of the complexity of both a society and a civilization and therefore it allows, supports and even demands different (sometimes mutually exclusive, but still individually valid) readings. The city is ‘a place that permits differences‘: furthermore, it ‘encourages the concentration of differences’ regardless of the physical size of a settlement. We know numerous examples of tiny settlements that are still distinctly urban despite their size and cases of vast, pseudourban conglomerations that lack even the basic qualities of urban life. The Aristotelian concept of koinonia – a cardinal term in his definition of the polis offered in The Politics, gives probably one of the best definitions of that phenomenon, and of the complex relationship of humans and cities that we call urbanity. It was understood as ‘the basic link … between the polis and the citizen that ‘signifies active and purposeful relationship and implies the existence and use of energy’.

In his book, Topophilia, Yi-Fu Tuan writes: ‘Once society had reached a certain level of artifice and complexity, people would begin to take note and appreciate the relative simplicities of nature’. I find the opposite to be at least equally true: when the

1. na~in `ivota sa minimumom tro{ewa materije i minimumom zadovoqavawa potreba 1. the way of life that includes minimum of consuming materials, as well as minimum of needs satisfaction

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osiroma{eno, qudi su skloni da po~nu da cene kompleksnost prirode. Svo|ewe fenomena grada na wegovu jednu, osnovnu funkciju (kao {to se

experience of the city becomes too impoverished, people tend to admire the complexity of nature. Reducing the phenomenon of the city to its mere

desilo sa progresivisti~kim te`wama devetnaestog i dvadesetog veka) i rezultuju}e opadawe kvaliteta `ivota u urbanizovanim naseqima dovele su do fatalnog upro{}avawa i pogre{nog razumevawa ~itavog koncepta urbanosti. Kao {to sam Tuan u predgovoru izdawa svoje kwige iz 1990. godine, ispravno (premda delimi~no kontradiktorno) ka`e: "pokret za `ivotnu sredinu u svom besu i zanosu, ima slabe ta~ke, od kojih je najuo~qivija nespremnost na priznavawe ~iwenice da intezivno humanizovan svet mo`e da poseduje svoje sopstveno ekolo{ko bogatstvo i lepotu". Od kriti~ne je va`nosti uo~iti da u samoj prirodi qudskog postoji tendencija ka urbanim kvalitetima, kao {to su zajedni~ki `ivot, `ivot u blizini drugih qudskih bi}a, `ivot u ure|enoj grupi, stvarawe okru`ewa koje je sposobno da odgovori svim slo`enim potrebama individue i

function (as happened among progressive thinkers of the 19th and 20th century) and the resulting diminution of the quality of life in urban settlements, led to a fatal oversimplification and misunderstanding of the whole concept of urbanity. As Tuan himself, in the preface to 1990 edition of his book, rightly (though partly self-contradictorily) puts it, ‘the (environmentalist) movement, in its indignation and zeal, has blind spots, the most prominent of which is the reluctance to recognize that intensely humanized worlds can have their own ecological richness and beauty.’ It is of critical importance to recognize that in the very nature of humanity exists a tendency towards urban qualities, such as living together, close together with other human beings, living in a structured group, and creating an environment capable of supporting and fulfilling all the complex needs of the individual and the group. That under-

grupe. Ovo shvatawe se nalazi u osnovi filozofije odr`ivog razvoja, tako|e. Deqewe i briga, me|usobna odgovornost i me|uzavistan zajedni~ki `ivot, reciprocitet, solidarnost, pouzdanost, po{tovawe individualnog i odgovornost prema "celini" - to su kqu~ne re~i za definisawe kako kvaliteta urbanog, tako i potencijala uspe{nog odr`ivog razvoja.

standing underpins the philosophy of sustainable development, as well. Sharing and caring, mutual responsibility and an interdependent life, reciprocity, solidarity, reliability, respect for the individual and responsibility for the whole – those are key words defining both urban quality and the potential for successful sustainable development.

Urbanost, "urbano i gra|ansko dostojanstvo" gra|anina, nalazi svoj izraz u svim aspektima `ivota, ukqu~uju}i i fizi~ke karakteristike grada. Isto va`i i za zahteve koje postavqa subzistencija.

Urbofobi~ne tendencije u ekolo{koj teoriji se zala`u za odbacivawe grada kakvog ga poznajemo

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Urbanity, the ‘urban and civil dignity’ of the citizen, finds its expression in all aspects of living, including the physical properties of the city. The same stands for demands put by imperative of sustainable living.

The ‘urbophobic’ tendency in ecological thought argues for the end of the city as we know it and a return to more ‘natural’ suburban patterns of life. The approach I am advocating favors the recognition


i povratak "prirodnijim", suburbanim obrascima `ivota. Pristup koji ja zagovaram, insistira na prepoznavawu odre|enih esencija urbanosti

of certain essentials of urbanity as being equally important for the development of sustainable settlements. I believe that three components (exactly

kao jednako va`nih za razvoj odr`ivih naseqa. Smatram da tri komponente (i to ta~no one koje su naj~e{}a meta napada dana{wih protivnika urbanizma) moraju da budu u fokusu urbanizma koji je usmeren ka urbanom odr`ivom razvoju - gustina, veli~ina urbanog naseqa i pitawa namena povr{ina i wihovog zonirawa. To zahteva pronala`ewe puta koji je rezultanta izme|u osobina ruralnih i suburbanih modela razvoja i fundamentalnog urbaniteta. Pitawa energije i propratni problemi urbanisti~ke gustine i veli~ine grada su glavne ta~ke divergencije ova dva gledi{ta.

those that are most often attacked by today’s opponents of urbanism) have to be in the focus of the urbanism aimed towards sustainable urban development – those of density and size of urban settlement and the issue of uses and their zoning. This approach asks for a strategy that captures some of the qualities of both rural and suburban patterns of development while maintaining its basis in a fundamental urbanity. Questions of energy and related issues of urban density and the size of the city are the major points of divergence between the two approaches.

Kada se govori o socijalnim aspektima i urbanog, i odr`ivosti, neophodno je ista}i da je polis (re~ koju koristim kao metaforu za op{ti urbanitet) "bio lokalitet gde su gustina i specifi~na te`ina teorije najve}e". Da bi ispunio svoju osnovnu socijalnu ulogu, grad mora biti srazmerno gust. Polemike koje idu u prilog mawim gustinama ~esto nude high-tech sredstva komunikacije kao zamenu za `ivot van centra aktivnosti (Mi~el, 1994) (Mitchell). Me|utim, da li informaciona tehnologija mo`e biti prava zamena za agoru, trg, ulicu? Sokrat, kako je opisano u Platonovim Dijalozima, sre}e se sa svojim prijateqima, u~enicima i protivnicima da bi raspravqao o idejama i da bi dolazio do novih ideja. "Grad je, doslovce, okvirni kontekst ili scena za um", i sla`em se sa onim ~ika{kim urbanistima koji su "osetili da je gustina tajna mo} grada koja stimuli{e". (Senet, 1993) (Sennett)...

In relation to the social aspects of both urbanity and sustainability it is necessary to underline that the polis (a word I use as a metaphor for the whole of urbanity) ‘was the locale where the density, the specific gravity of discourse are greatest‘. In order to fulfill its basic social role, the city has to be reasonably dense. Arguments in favor of lower densities often offer high-tech communication media as a substitute for living in the centre of activity (Mitchell, 1994). But can information technology be a truly social substitute for an agora, for a square, for a street? Socrates, as described in Plato’s Dialogues, meets his companion, disciples and opponents to discuss and generate ideas. ‘The city is, literally, the framing context or scene of the mind‘, and I agree with those Chicago urbanists who ‘felt density to be the secret of the city’s powers of stimulation’ (Sennett, 1993). Density is just as important for the more measurable aspects of sustainable quality. Its importance can be illustrated by the issue of energy and related problems in urban development. This illustration

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Gustina je jednako va`na za merqivije aspekte osobina odr`ivosti. Wen zna~aj mo`e biti ilustrovan pitawem energije i sa wim poveza-

justifies the serious consideration of nodal regional development, networks of interactive, dense urban nucleuses supported by the appropriately scaled

nim problemima u urbanom razvoju, a tako|e ta ilustracija upu}uje na ozbiqnu analizu nodalnog (ta~kastog) regionalnog razvoja, mre`a interaktivnih, gustih urbanih jezgara (nukleusa) podr`anih odgovaraju}om srazmernom potporom, proizvodnim zale|em. (Kardareli, 1982; re: Radovi},1994.) (Kardareli) Odr`ivi prilaz urbanizmu bi trebalo da te`i da smawi potra`wu za energijom pomo}u odgovaraju}ih planerskih i projektantskih odluka, kao i uvo|ewem novih obnovqivih resursa gde god je to mogu}e. Zna~aj ovog pristupa je uo~en za vreme energetske krize u toku ranih sedamdesetih godina u zemqama koje su zavisile od energenata iz uvoza. Razli~ite strategije ve} imaju zna~ajan sta` iz kog mo`emo u~iti. Va`no je uo~iti da {tedwa energije ne podrazumeva autarhiju. Najboqa re{ewa se zasnivaju upravo na suprotnom konceptu, na mre`i me|uzavisnih

supportive, productive hinterland, too (Cardarelli, 1982; re: Radovic, 1994). A sustainable approach to urbanism should take appropriate planning and design decisions to reduce the demand for energy and introduce new and renewable resources wherever possible. In countries that depend on imported energy, the importance of this was recognized during the energy crisis of early 1970s, and there are different strategies with a considerable history from which we may learn. What is important to recognize is that thriftiness with energy never implies a drive towards autarchy. The best solutions are based on the opposite concept of a network of interdependent settlements, functions, groups and individuals who have high levels of concern for the environment.

naseqa, funkcija, grupa i individua sa prisutnim visokim stepenom ekolo{ke svesti.

-A compact urban structure with residences, services and places of work concentrated in nodes in a spatial network of mutually supportive settlements and their rural basis. This implies correct urban and extra-urban zoning, which determines or suggests a target of ideal mixed use. -A determination to develop an appropriate urban and architectural typology that is adapted to the opportunities and constraints of each particular site, especially its climatic and microclimatic demands.

Startegija za urbano odr`ivi razvoj, sa aspekta energije, generalno podrazumeva: -Kompaktne urbane strukture sa stanovawem, uslugama i mestima za rad koji su koncentrisani u ta~kama (~vori{tima) prostorne mre`e koju ~ine me|usobno podr`ana naseqa i wihova ruralna baza. To podrazumeva korektno urbano i ekstraurbano "zonirawe" koje odre|uje ili sugerira idealnu me{avinu namena kojoj treba te`iti. -Odlu~nost da se razvije odgovaraju}a urbanisti~ka i arhitektonska tipologija, a koja je prilago|ena razli~itim potencijalima i ograni~ewima svakog specifi~nog lokaliteta, a naro~ito wegovim klimatskim i mikroklimatskim odrednicama.

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A strategy for sustainable urban development, from the point of view of energy, generally implies:

In developed countries one third or an even bigger portion of energy is consumed in the transport sector. Reducing this consumption means development in which residential areas are as close to working places as possible, and are even physically integrated with them. It also means that industries should be as close as possible to sources of mate-


U razvijenim zemqama jedna tre}ina, ili ~ak i ve}i procenat, ukupne potro{we energije pripada sektoru saobra}aja. Namera da se ta potro{wa

rial necessary for production so that a new functional, energy-related zoning system can emerge. Furthermore, as a part of a strategy towards

smawi podrazumeva razvoj gde su stambene zone {to je mogu}e bli`e, ili su ~ak i fizi~ki integrisane sa zonama rada. To tako|e zna~i da bi industrijska postrojewa trebalo da budu {to je mogu}e bli`e resursima potrebnim za proizvodwu, te se tako javqa potreba za novim funkcionalnim sistemom zona koje re{avaju ovaj energetski aspekt. Daqe, kao deo strategije okrenute razvoju ovakvih naseqa minimalne pokretqivosti, va`no je zameniti {to vi{e sredstava kolektivnog transporta sredstvima individualnog transporta, stimuli{u}i pe{a~ku cirkulaciju u stambenim i komercijalnim centrima i obezbediti uslove za kori{}ewe jednostavnih mehani~kih vozila (bicikl, tandem, itd.).

developing settlements that require minimal movement, efficient collective means of transport need to be substituted for individual ones, pedestrian circulation should be stimulated in residential and commercial centers and there should be facilities for simple mechanical vehicles (such as the bicycle and tandem).

Na regionalnom nivou, ovakvi energetski-svesni gradovi bi trebalo da budu interaktivni

On a regional basis such energy-conscious cities should represent the interactive part of an urban– rural network, similar to that described by Christaller in his study of the mid-European urban heritage, Die Zentralen Orte in Süddeutchland. In Southern Germany the existence of a network of urban centers, predominantly of mercantile nature, was recognized as the basis of the historic development of Lower Bavaria in Germany. The smallest centers are situated at a distance of about 7 km (a two-hour

delovi urbo-ruralne mre`e, sli~ne mre`i koja je opisana u studiji sredwe-evropskog urbanog nasle|a Die Zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland Kristaler-a (Christaller). Ovde je prisustvo mre`e urbanih centara, prete`no trgovinske prirode, prepoznato kao osnovica istorijskog razvoja dowe Bavarije u Nema~koj. Najmawi centri se nalaze na me|usobnoj udaqenosti od oko 7 kilometara (dva sata hoda, jedan sat jahawa ili vo`we ko~ijom) od najbli`eg suseda. [estougaoni region povr{ine od oko 45 km2 obezbe|uje osnovne potrebe centra. Centri slede}eg nivoa zna~aja su locirani na udaqenosti od 3 x 7 km sa srazmerno brojnijim stanovni{tvom i ve}im regionom. ^vori{ta svakog superiornijeg nivoa se nalaze na tri puta ve}oj udaqenosti, a uvek su podr`ana odgovaraju}im zale|em. Odnos veli~ine i slo`enosti svakog pojedina~nog centra prema

walk or one hour’s ride or drive in a coach) from their nearest neighbor. A hexagonal region of about 45 square kilometers supports the basic needs of the centre. Centers at the next level of importance are located at distances of 3 x 7 kilometers and their populations and regions are consequently larger. The nodes of each higher level are distances that are three times further away; always, however, supported by the appropriate hinterland. The relation of the size and level of complexity of each particular centre to the size of its supportive hinterland is a basis of the concept of an urban–rural continuum. Within that concept different potentials of nodes and the highly productive area that supports it are related to each other’s needs. A typology of urban structures needs to take into account the energy needs of high density settlements. It would be valid for almost all situations ex-

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veli~ini wegovog zale|a je osnova koncepta urboruralnog kontinuuma, u kome su razli~it potencijal ~vori{ta i wegovog proizvodnog podru~ja

cept those in hot and wet climates, where extreme climatic conditions require a different strategy. But in hot, dry climates and in temperate and cold

povezani u smislu me|usobnog zadovoqavawa potreba i preraspodele sopstvenog kapaciteta nosivosti.

climates, for different reasons compact structures are preferable, as they save measurable amounts of energy and improve comfort levels and even enhance cultural continuity. It is even more important since the introduction of new and renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy, to build structures of the right volume and which relate to their urban context taken as a whole.

Energetski aspekt urbo-arhitektonske tipologije tako|e podrazumeva prisustvo relativno visoke gustine. Ovo uop{teno mo`e da se prihvati kao va`e}e za skoro sve situacije izuzev onih u toplim i vla`nim klimatima, gde ekstremni klimatski uslovi zahtevaju druga~iju strategiju. Me|utim u toplim i suvim, kao i u umerenim i hladnim klimatima iz razli~itih razloga, pogodnije su kompaktnije strukture, i iz razloga potro{we energije ({to je merqivo) i, {to je jednako va`no, iz razloga relativno nemerqivog kvaliteta kao {to su udobnost, pa ~ak i kulturni kontinuitet. Uvo|ewe novih, obnovqivih izvora energije, posebno solarne energije, daje dodatnu te`inu zna~aju ta~nog definisawa gra|enih volumena i wihovom odnosu prema kontekstu na mnogo {irem nivou nego {to je to nivo pojedina~nog objekta ili grupe objekata. Problem gustine i razdaqina doti~e i blisko za wih vezane probleme veli~ine urbanog naseqa: wegovih dimenzija i volumena. Aristotel je tra`io "dru{tvo ograni~ene veli~ine, ono koje se meri ne prema ogromnom potencijalu koji tehnologija mo`e da ostvari, ve} prema onome {to skromni stas ~oveka mo`e da podnese ... Postoji ograni~ewe u veli~ini dr`ava, kao i u veli~ini drugih stvari - biqaka, `ivotiwa, alatki; jer ni{ta od ovoga ne zadr`ava svoju prirodnu snagu i mo} kada je preveliko ili premalo, ve} ili potpuno gubi svoju prirodu, ili se kvari" (Kol, 1980) (Kohl). Preporuka filozofa da ni jedan grad ne treba da ima obim ve}i od onoga u okviru

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The issue of density and distances brings us to closely related problems of the size of an urban settlement: its dimensions and volume. Aristotle asked for ‘a society of limited size, one that takes its measure, not from what the vast potential of technology can achieve, but from what the small stature of man can absorb.… There is a limit to the size of states, as there is to other things – plants, animals, implements; for none of these retain their natural power when they are too large or too small, but they either wholly lose their nature, or are spoiled’ (Kohl, 1980). The philosopher’s prescription that no city should have a circumference exceeding that in which a cry for help, wherever uttered, can be clearly heard at the outer gates (Downey, 1976), comes from the very essence of urbanity as an expression of communal solidarity, mutual care, sharing. At the same time it is a city that can be easily crossed on foot, where vehicular transport is reduced by providing for simple human ways of communication and transport. That is just another illustration of the point where sustainability and a truly urban quality are in harmony.


H koga se mo`e ~uti vapaj za pomo} gde god da biva izgovoren, i koji se mo`e jasno ~uti na spoqa{wim kapijama (Dauni, 1976) (Downey), dolazi iz same

Furthermore, I believe that a methodology to articulate relevant planning decisions can be developed on the basis of an urban heritage. All this suggests

su{tine urbanosti, kao izraz solidarnosti zajednice, me|usobne brige, deqewa. U isto vreme to je i grad koji se lako mo`e prepe{a~iti, gde je motorni saobra}aj sveden na jednostavnu mogu}nost humanih na~ina komunikacije i transporta. Ovo je samo jo{ jedna ilustracija momenta gde su odr`ivost i istinski urbani kvalitet u harmoniji.

a strategy often defined as a ‘return to the city’. The model of the traditional city is based on the philosophy of the polis and on certain aspects of medieval urban settlements, especially their mutual dependence (such as the one discovered by Christaller that was built in a network) proposes a compact urban structure, dense ‘in buildings and inhabitants‘, that is on many grounds important for both sustainable and urban development. As suggested above, the way towards a sustainable urban future should come as a result of the imaginative interpretation of traditional urban quality combined with an innovative approach to the potential of our own era. Humanism was never opposed to sustainable living and development. Modern technology can be utilized for both human and sustainable purposes. At the meeting point of traditional urban wisdom and contemporary technology a path towards sustain-

H Pored toga, verujem da se veliki deo metodologije za artikulaciju relevantnih planerskih odluka mo`e razviti na osnovama urbanisti~kog nasle|a. Sve ovo ukazuje na strategiju koja se ~esto defini{e kao povratak gradu. Model tradicionalnog grada je zasnovan na filozofiji polisa i u izvesnim aspektima na sredwevekovnim urbanim naseqima, pogotovu na wihovoj me|uzavisnosti (kao onoj koja je ugra|ena u mre`u koju je opisao Kristarel) koja nudi kompaktnu urbanu strukturu, gustu i zasi}enu "objektima i stanovnicima" , a koja ima opravdawe u mnogim osnovama koje su bitne za odr`ivi i urbani razvoj istovremeno. Kao {to je prethodno re~eno, put ka odr`ivoj urbanoj budu}nosti treba da se otvori kao rezultat ma{tovite interpretacije tradicionalnog urbanog kvaliteta i inovativnog prilaza potencijalima na{eg doba. Humanizam nikada nije bio u suprotnosti sa odr`ivim `ivotom i razvojem. Moderna tehnologija se (ukoliko ne postane sama sebi svrha razvoja) mo`e upotrebiti jednako, i za humane i za odr`ive svrhe. U ta~ki susreta tradicionalne urbane mudrosti i savremene tehnologije mogao bi da otpo~ne put ka odr`ivoj budu}nosti .

able future could emerge.

It is a very common ‘idea that cities are artifacts and worlds of artifice placed at varying distances from human conditions close to nature’. Tuan suggests the opposite move: ‘back to nature‘. That philosophy became one cause of the urbophobic misunderstandings of environmentalism. It is often considered that ‘cities may be ranked according to how far they depart from farm life‘, and judged on that basis. The fact that human conditions are not necessarily or only natural is permanently neglected in such thinking. Subsistence, a purely survival perspective, is a reduction of the human species to its mere biological components. The city is a physical and functional phenomenon, but it is, as it always has been, one of the strongest symbols of

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Veoma je uobi~ajena "ideja da su gradovi artefakti koji se nalaze na razli~itoj udaqenosti od qudskog postojawa bliskog prirodi". Tuan predla`e obrnut proces: "povratak prirodi". Ta filozofija je postala povod za urbofobi~na, pogre{na tuma~ewa teorije o `ivotnom okru`ewu i sredini. ^esto se navodi da "se gradovi mogu kategorizovati u odnosu na to koliko se `ivot u wima razlikuje od `ivota na farmi, ili koliko su daleko od farme", i da se oni u odnosu na to mogu vrednovati. Чiwenica da "qudsko postojawe" ne mora jedino i obavezno biti prirodno, redovno se zanemaruje. Subzistencija, perspektiva pukog pre`ivqavawa, predstavqa svo|ewe qudske vrste samo na wene biolo{ke funkcije. Grad je fizi~ki i funkcionalni fenomen, ali on je, uvek je to i bio, jedan od najsna`nijih simbola qudskog roda. Urbanitet predstavqa bazu tog simbola, a odr`ivi urbani razvoj }e tu bazu samo osna`iti i opravdati wegovu snagu. Neki poklonici odr`ivog razvoja smatraju da se nova religija ne mo`e upra`wavati na paganskim mestima, kao {to je Sveti Isidor govore}i o hri{}anstvu sli~no formulisao. To nije ta~no. Civilizacija je zasnovana na kontinuitetu, sa urbanim `ivotom kao jednim od wenih bitnih ~inilaca. Nova urbofilija nudi "mesta bez centara ili granica, beskrajne podele prostora (dakle) protestantsku prostornu etiku (...) Ujedna~eno okru`ewe koje poru~uje qudima da se ni{ta va`no ili uzbudqivo ne de{ava ‘napoqu’", "neutralnost kao prostor za dru{tvenu kontrolu". Potrebno je shvatiti da ovo name}e potrebu za prili~no radikalnom dru{tvenom promenom. S druge strane, smatram da urbofil vidi ono {to je "Bodler (Baudlaire) video u modernom gradu. Mogu}nost da se qudi okrenu ka spoqa

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humankind. Urbanity is the basis of that symbol and sustainable urban development will only strengthen it and offer further justification for its power. Some believers in sustainable development think, as St Isidore did in relation to Christianity, that their new religion cannot be practiced in a pagan urbs. That is not true. Civilization is based on continuity and urban life is its great constituent. New urbophobia offers ‘places without centers or boundaries, spaces of endless division of space (that was) the Protestant ethic of space.… A bland environment [that] assures people that nothing disturbing or demanding is happening “out there”’, ‘neutrality as a space of social control.’ It is necessary to understand that this implies quite radical social change. On the other side the urbophile, sees what ‘Baudelaire saw in the modern city. The possibility (to) turn people outward, not inward; rather then wholeness, the city can give them experience of otherness. The power of the city to reorient people has at least the possibility to step outside themselves.’ We have lost that wholeness which the poet needs, and that loss is the very basis of the major disorientation that civilizations are suffering today. Sustainable but highly urban development is a way towards the resolution of those problems. As Bogdan Bogdanovic suggests, ‘if the city is really a small analogue of the world, standing between space and man, it can be taken as a didactic model which enables the human condition to be more readily understood.’ That makes the relation between the city and issues of sustainable development an imperative and obligatory part of the education of planners, urbanists and architects.


(spoqa{wosti), a ne unutra (unutra{wosti); pre nego ose}aj potpunosti, kompletnosti grad mo`e da im ponudi iskustva do`ivqavawa drugog i druga~ijeg. Snaga grada da qude nagoni na promenu orijentacije, sadr`i u sebi makar mogu}nost da potakne qude da ‘iskora~e iz sebe’, da se ‘otvore ka spoqa{wem’". Tu kompletnost i potpunost, za kojom pesnik Bodler ~ezne, mi smo izgubili, i upravo zbog tog gubitka, koji se nalazi u osnovi kompletne dezorijentacije civilizacije, mi patimo. Odr`iv, ali ipak visoko urbani razvoj je put ka re{avawu ovih problema. Kao {to Bogdan Bogdanovi} sugeri{e "ako je grad vrlo mali analogon ~itavog sveta, koji stoji izme|u prostora i ~oveka, onda se on mo`e prihvatiti kao didakti~ki model koji omogu}ava da se boqe razume qudsko stawe". Prema tome, veza izme|u grada i pitawa odr`ivog razvoja postaje obavezni i kqu~ni deo obrazovawa planera, urbanista i arhitekata.

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URBANIZAM* URBANISM* Va`no je ista}i da oba prilaza odr`ivom razvoju (urbofobija i urbofilija) jasno isti~u, kao {to je Manuel Kastels (1978) (Manuel Castells) pretpostavio, da su "urbano pitawe i ekolo{ko pitawe blisko povezani, i da oni zajedno trasiraju jednu novu osu politi~ke i dru{tvene promene". Oba prilaza isti~u da je dijalektika odnosa urbanog i ekolo{kog isuvi{e slo`ena da bi bila prepu{tena "spontanom" razvoju, ili jo{ gore, da bi bila usmeravana od strane uskih interesnih grupa (kao {to je to bio slu~aj sa dugo feti{izovanim zakonima tr`i{ne ekonomije). Obe uvi|aju urgentnu potrebu za planirawem i regulisawem procesa urbanog razvoja u ciqu pribli`avawa odr`ivoj budu}nosti.

What is necessary to underline is that both approaches (urbophobia and urbophilia) to sustainable urban development clearly admit that, as Manuel Castells (1978) guessed, ‘the urban question and the ecological question appear to be closely linked, together outlining a new axis of social and political change‘. They both stress that the dialectics of environmental and urban relationship is far too complex to be left to the forces of ‘spontaneous’ development or, even worse, to be guided by forces inclined in favor of any single group of its determinants (like long fetishized market forces, for example). They both see an urgent need to plan and regulate processes of urban development, in order to approach a sustainable future.

L

L

odgovornost disciplina fizi~kog planirawa i arhitekture, a posebno onih oblasti u kojima se one preklapaju - ta~nije urbanizma i urbanisti~kog projektovawa. Trenutno, planirawe je suvi{e udaqeno od prakti~nih problema i realisti~nih re{ewa, dok je arhitektura ~esto sklona da odgovara jedino zahtevima tr`i{ta, negiraju}i ~ak i najosnovniju ekolo{ku svest. Kako bi se izbegla ova razmimoila`ewa, urbani procesi i arhitektonski razvoj moraju biti pa`qivo regulisani urbanisti~kim propisima i zakonima. Takva regulativa bi trebalo da obezbedi osnovno izra`avawe i zadovoqewe javnog interesa na nivou (urbane) arhitekture, i da garantuje odgovaraju}e zadovoqewe i dru{tveno

overall urbophobic or urbophilic preferences) puts a new emphasis on the disciplines of physical planning and architecture and adds to their responsibility, especially in the fields in which they overlap – namely urbanism and urban design. Currently, planning is often too distant from practical problems and realistic solutions, while architecture usually tends to respond to market forces only, and denies even basic environmental awareness. In order to avoid this discrepancy, urban processes and architectural developments have to be subjected to careful urbanistic regulation. Such regulation should provide a necessary representation of the public interest at the level of (urban) architecture, and guarantee the appropriate expression and

Tako, ekolo{ka svest pove}ava zna~aj ali i

Thus, the environmental awareness (regardless of

*Original ovog eseja je objavqen kao "Urbanism as a Way Towards Ecologically Sustainable Urban Development" u Protecting the Future, ESD in Action Conference Proceedings, Wollongong: University of Wollongong (1995) *The original version of this essay was published as “Urbanism as a Way Towards Ecologically Sustainable Urban Development” in Protecting the Future, ESD in Action Conference Proceedings, Wollongong: University of Wollongong (1995)

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uva`avawe li~nih interesa u domenu javnog. Urbanisti~ka regulativa sposobna da defini{e tu oblast treba da bude najefikasnija ta~no na

social awareness of private interests in the public realm. Urbanistic regulation capable of defining this field should be most efficient exactly at those (often

onim (~esto neprisutnim i nerazvijenim) nivoima koji se formiraju na interdisciplinarnom znawu urbanisti~kog planirawa i wemu srodnih disciplina ({to ~esto nedostaje arhitekturi), dolaze}i do konkretnih rezultata ({to nije slu~aj sa aktuelnim urbanisti~kim planirawem) uti~u}i i usmeravaju}i arhitekturu ka wenom socijalno optimalnom obliku i, u novoj dru{tvenoj klimi, ka ekolo{ki odr`ivoj urbanoj formi.

missing or underdeveloped) levels which draw upon the multidisciplinary knowledge of urban planning and the research associated with it (research that architecture much too often lacks).At the same time it should produce concrete results (which is not the case with current urban planning) that affect and guide architecture towards socially optimal and ecologically sustainable urban structures in the social climate of the future.

Bez obzira na potrebu za regulacijom urbanih procesa i bez obzira na pritisak koji na wu vr{i ekolo{ka kriza prisutna u na{em dobu, u aktuelnoj teoriji urbanizma ~esto smo svedoci postojawa upravo obrnute tendencije deregulacije. Weni predstavnici ~esto pozivaju na "realizam" u razumevawu savremenog grada, zagovaraju}i stav

Regardless of the urgent need to regulate urban process under the pressure of our current environmental crisis, in contemporary urbanistic theory we often witness the opposite tendency of deregulation. Its representatives often call for ‘realism’ in understanding the contemporary city, arguing that the city of the end of the 20th century is essentially

da je grad sa kraja dvadesetog veka su{tinski razli~it od urbanih fenomena iz pro{losti. Oni isti~u nepobitnu ~iwenicu da su "osamdesete bile razdobqe u kome je industrijski grad kona~no odbacio svoje posledwe obrise iz 19 veka, te je mutirao u potpuno novi oblik i vrstu" (Su|i}, 1992), me|utim oni tra`e prepoznavawe prave prirode postoje}ih trendova urbane dezintegracije i propadawa i prihvatawe neminovnosti kontinuiteta ovakvih modela razvoja. Ono {to nude je projekcija grada budu}nosti koja je bazirana na predvi|awima onoga gde }e takav razvoj dovesti qudsku civilizaciju i urbani `ivot, kao wihov kona~ni izraz.

different from all urban phenomena of the past. They underline the undisputable fact that ‘the 80s were the decade in which the industrial city finally shook off the last traces of its 19th century self, and mutated into a completely new species’ (Sudjic), but what they ask of us is to acknowledge the nature of existing trends of urban disintegration and decay and to accept that such patterns will inevitably continue. They offer a projection of the city of the future based on forecasts of where such a development will lead human civilization and urban life, as its ultimate expression.

Istinitost ovih tvrdwi i promewenu prirodu savremenog grada ne bi trebalo osporavati. Problem vezan za ovakav pristup je o~igledan nedo-

Nobody should deny validity of those facts and the changed nature of the contemporary city. The problem associated with such approaches is the apparent lack of a positive, constructive vision without which paths towards sustainable development can-

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statak pozitivne, konstruktivne vizije, bez koje se ne mo`e prona}i put ka odr`ivom razvoju. Oni ne uspevaju da uo~e razliku izme|u predvi|awa i

not be traced. They fail to recognize the difference between forecasting and planning by offering either apocalyptic projections into the future or uncritical

planirawa, pa nude ili apokalipti~nu projekciju budu}nosti ili nekriti~ki optimisti~ne vizije, dok su oba gledi{ta zasnovana na prostoj ekstrapolaciji postoje}ih trendova (a ~esto i na subjektivnosti odre|enog autora). Zaslepqeni mogu}nostima savremene tehnologije (kao {to je "elektronska trgovina, i rastu}a distribucija zabavqa~kih i obrazovnih usluga" (Mi~el, 1994)), ~ak te`e budu}nosti gde }e "elektronska mesta (mesta?!) okupqawa i susretawa konkurisati tradicionalnim urbanim javnim mestima". Ovakva ideja je ~esto formirana iskqu~ivo na linearnoj projekciji postoje}ih tehnolo{kih i tr`i{nih tendencija, a bez ikakve kriti~ke procene i vrednovawa.

optimism, based on a simple extrapolation of the existing trends (and, often, the authors’ preferences). Blinded by the possibilities of contemporary technology (such as ‘electronic trading and retailing, and increasing electronic distribution of entertainment and education services‘, [Mitchell, 1994]), they even aim towards a future when ‘electronic meeting and gathering places (places?) will rival traditional urban public places‘. Such an idea is often based solely on a linear projection of existing technological and market trends, without either critical assessment or evaluation.

^vrsto verujem da postoji sna`na potreba za afirmacijom, dozvolite da ga tako nazovem, "utopijskog" gledi{ta. Doba koje je obele`eno problemima i do sada nevi|enom globalnom krizom sa nepredvidivim posledicama zahteva kreativnu mudrost orijentisanu ka sagledavawu budu}nosti. To bi trebalo da bude orijentacija ka budu}nosti po`eqnih promena; ne smemo dopustiti bazirawe na{eg razvoja na fatalisti~koj afirmaciji postoje}ih obrazaca razvoja, za koje je ve} potvr|eno da vode u pogre{nom pravcu.

Mo`emo izdvojiti dve osnovne grupe razloga za postojawe straha od urbanizma, od kojih obe po~ivaju na ideji da je "prostor fundament za svaku ve`bu demonstracije mo}i" (Fuko) (Foucault). Prva grupa je prete`no kulturalisti~ka, filozofske prirode, i nastaje iz nezadovoqstva brojnim gre{kama urbanisti~kog planirawa i iz

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I strongly believe there is an urgent need to affirmation the opposite view, which I call, for the sake of argument, the utopian view. An era marked predominantly by problems and unprecedented global crisis of unforeseeable consequences asks for a creative wisdom oriented towards the future. That should be an orientation towards a future that is desirable: we can not afford to base our development on the fatalistic affirmation of the existing development patterns that have been proved to lead in the wrong direction.

We can name two basic groups of reasons for the present fear of urbanism, both coming from the recognition that ‘space is fundamental in any exercise of power’ (Foucault). The first one is predominantly of a culturalist, philosophical nature, and it comes from discontent with the numerous failures of urban planning and from a deep concern for democracy and individualism in a strictly regulated society. The second is more pragmatic. It is concerned with the democratic nature of planning as the imminent treat


duboke zabrinutosti za demokrati~nost i individualizam u dru{tvu u kome postoji stroga regulativa. Druga je ne{to pragmati~nija. Ona se bavi

aimed towards sharing of the power. While the first can often be associated with the academic and ethical professional circles, the second is closer

demokratskom prirodom planirawa kao prete}om opasno{}u u slu`bi podele mo}i. Prva grupa se ~esto povezuje sa akademskim ili eti~nim profesionalnim krugovima, druga grupa je bli`a odre|enim poslovnim i politi~kim ideologijama.

to those of business circles and certain political ideologies.

Strah od urbanizma ima razli~ite korene ili se u najmawu ruku razli~ito opravdava u razli~itim kulturama. Ilustracije radi, mo`e se re}i da u Australiji prva "kulturalisti~ka" kritika ~esto dolazi sa pozicija bliskih Bojdu (Boyd) gde je "suburbana prostorna estetika pokazateq vulgarnosti i nacionalne nezrelosti" (Hoskins, 1994.) (Hoskins), dok u isto vreme ona uzima predgra|a za primer planiranog naseqa sterilnog zonirawa ~iji je ciq suptilan dru{tveni in`ewering, gde planirawe, zonirawe i srodne discipline treba optu`iti za "preme{tawe urbanih zajednica radni~ke klase u planiran i kontrolisan prigradski prostor, dok je sam grad bio instrument kontrole - i eliminacije - tih kultura radni~ke klase (...) A u nehigijenskim-nekontrolisanom prostoru grada mogla je da buja politi~ka agitacija" (Hoskins, 1994). “Pragmati~na" kritika dolazi sa pozicija politi~kog konzervativizma. Kao sve` primer u Australiji, mogli bi smo da analiziramo skora{wi razvoj ideja o budu}em razvoju podru~ja melburn{kog pristani{ta. Mogli bismo gotovo potpuno da upotrebimo Kastlove re~i (1978) kako bi opisali trenutni politi~ki stav koji se protivi bilo kom sveobuhvatnom planu za pristani{te: aktuelni tretman te oblasti od kqu~nog zna~aja za Melburn je zapo~et kao "odbacivawe teoretizirawa, politi~ki pragmatizam, i teza da svo

Fear of urbanism has different roots or, at least, uses different justifications in different cultures. For the purpose of illustration only, we could say that in Australia, the first, ‘culturalist’ critique often comes from positions close to Boyd’s, where ‘the suburban spatial aesthetic (was understood as) indicative of vulgarity and national immaturity’ (Hoskins, 1994). It also takes the suburb as an example of the planned settlement and sterile zoning that aim towards subtle social engineering, where planning, zoning and associated disciplines are jointly at fault: ‘The removal of urban working-class communities to planned and controlled suburban space outside city itself was instrumental in the control – and elimination – of those working-class cultures.… And it was in the unhygienic – and uncontrolled – spaces of the city that political agitation could grow’. (Hoskins, 1994)

The pragmatic critique arises from a politically conservative position. As a recent example in Australia, we could analyze the latest development of ideas for the future of the Melbourne Docklands area. Castells words (1978) are applicable in their entirety to the present political attitude against any overall comprehensive plan for Docklands: current plans for this urban area, which is of critical importance for Melbourne, were initiated as a complete ‘refusal of all theorization, a political pragmatism, an affirmation that all knowledge could only come from practice‘. Arguments for such an approach were based on the fact that all earlier schemes and plans

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znawe treba da do|e iskqu~ivo iz prakse". Argumenti za ovakav prilaz su zasnovani na ~iwenici da su sve ranije {eme i modeli propali, i da ni

have failed, and so on that basis no development took place.

jedan predvi|eni plan nije realizovan.

In our disagreement with both current attitudes against urbanism we should ask: are we to criticize certain professional disciplines, or the forces that make them fail? Should we criticize the city because of the failure of the overgrown metropolis, which itself is the negation of true urbanity? Should we criticize urban planning because of planning failures in certain historic periods, planning based on social goals that, from today’s perspective, look wrong? Should we sacrifice, for example, the concept of zoning, just because it was abused, in order to maintain homogenized social and economic interests? Should we ask for the abandonment of utopian visions of human development because earlier visions have failed?

U neslagawu sa oba ova aktuelna stava u urbanizmu trebalo bi postaviti pitawe: Da li bi trebalo da kritikujemo odre|ene profesionalne discipline, ili pak procese i uticaje koji su doveli do wihove propasti? Da li bi trebalo da kritikujemo grad zbog propadawa prerazvijenog metropolisa, koji je sam po sebi negacija urbanosti? Da li bi trebalo da kritikujemo urbanisti~ko planirawe zbog neuspe{nosti planirawa u odre|enim istorijskim periodima izazvanog dru{tvenim ciqevima (ideologijama), koji tek danas, iz na{e perspektive deluju pogre{no? Da li bi trebalo osuditi, recimo, koncept zonirawa samo zato {to je on zloupotrebqen za odr`avawe i prolongirawe ujedna~enih dru{tvenih i tr`i{nih interesa? Da li bi trebalo da zahtevamo odbacivawe utopisti~kih vizija qudskog razvoja, samo zato {to su dosada{we verzije bile neuspe{ne? Planirawe urbanog razvoja je esencijalni deo, preduslov za ekolo{ki odr`ivu budu}nost. Jednostavnije re~eno: "Jednostavno, kada treba nahraniti puno qudi, kada je veoma mali prostor za svakog od wih na raspolagawu, i kada je veoma malo prirodnih resursa na raspolagawu, planirawe namena povr{ina postaje pitawe mudrog kori{}ewa oskudnih dobara. Pored planirawa namena povr{ina koje ima tu fizi~ku, biolo{ku, ekolo{ku i tehni~ku dimenziju, postoji i socijalna komponenta (eti~ka, D.Radovi}) a to je: kako usmeravati qudsko pona{awe ka na~inima koji ne}e dovesti do pogor{avawa stawa". (Jirgens, 1994) (Jurgens).

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Planning urban development is the essential component, the prerequisite, of an ecologically sustainable future. To put it at its simplest: ‘Clearly, when many people are to be fed, when little space is available for each, when few natural resources are available, land use planning becomes a question of using these scarce goods as well as possible. Besides land use planning having this physical, biological, ecological and technical dimensions, there is this social component [ethical, DR]: how to guide human behavior in order not to make things worse’. (Jurgens, 1994) As van Leir (1994) explains, the recent past has proved that it is the lack of policies and planning the uses of land, especially in rural areas in highly developed nations, that has led to the misuse, overuse, damage and loss of our natural systems. We should not question the need for planning, but open the debate on the forces behind planning. It is these


Kao {to Van Lir (1994) (Van Leir) obja{wava, u posledwe vreme se pokazalo da je nedostatak zakonodavstva i planirawa namena povr{ina,

forces that define planning goals which are often adverse to environmental and humanist goals. ‘In an attempt to resolve these contradictions and their

posebno u ruralnim podru~jima visokorazvijenih zemaqa, doveo do zloupotrebe, preterane upotrebe, o{te}ivawa i gubitka na{eg sistema prirode. Ne bi trebalo da preispitujemo potrebu za planirawem, ve} da otvorimo polemiku o onim uticajima koji se nalaze iza planirawa koji odre|uju ciqeve koji su ~esto u suprotnosti sa ekolo{ki i humanisti~ki odgovaraju}im razvojem. "U poku{aju razre{avawa ovih kontradiktornosti i konflikata koji iz wih proizilaze, dr`ava sve vi{e interveni{e u gradu; me|utim, kao izraz klasnog dru{tva, dr`ava u praksi deluje shodno odnosima snaga izme|u klasa i dru{tvenih grupa, a generalno u prilog hegemoni~ne frakcije dominantne klase". (Kastels, 1978). Dakle, debata o tome kako oja~ati demokratski mehanizam koji defini{e i kontroli{e proces razvoja i wegov fizi~ki izraz u smislu socijalnih ciqeva, je od

resulting conflicts, the state increasingly intervenes in the city; but, as an expression of a class society, the state in practice acts according to the relations of forces between classes and social groups, generally in favors of the hegemonic fraction of the dominant class’. (Castells, 1978) Therefore, a debate on how to strengthen the democratic mechanisms that define and control the development of societal goals into physical expression is of the critical importance.

kqu~nog zna~aja.

less how appropriate that critique generally is (a matter that is beyond the scope of this essay), it is interesting to see what these critiques define as the history of planning, and where they identify the beginnings of the discipline. Far too often we find a limited understanding of the origins of planning as dating back not further than the last century – to Victorian England, to the City Beautiful movement and early 1900s, while urban design is often related to the modernist movement only. The origins of planning in the modern sense of the word may be found here, but I am sure that a wider view of the discipline offers a better understanding and could be helpful in establishing new urbanistic methodologies needed to address the specific problems we face today.

D Slo`enost i nove dimenzije savremene kulture moraju na}i svoj sopstveni izraz u tim demokratskim mehanizmima, ali mnogo se mo`e nau~iti iz iskustva, iz istorije. U slu~aju pomenute negativne kritike planirawa, wenih metoda i rezultata, pro{lost se veoma ~esto odbacuje kao ne{to {to je pokazalo nezadovoqavaju}e rezultate. Ne ulaze}i u objektivnost i validitet ove kritike ({to nije tema ovog eseja), veoma je zanimqivo uvideti {ta zapravo ova kritika defini{e kao istoriju planirawa, gde specificira nastanak ove discipline. Suvi{e ~esto nailazimo na veoma ograni~eno shvatawe koje ne zadire u pro{lost daqe od prethodnog veka - u viktorijansku Englesku, do pokreta Grad lepote i ranih 1900-tih

D

Complexity and new dimensions of contemporary culture have to find their own expression in those democratic mechanisms, but a lot can be learned from experience, from history. In the negative critique of planning, its methods and results, the past is very often dismissed as unsuccessful. Regard-

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godina, dok se urbanisti~ko projektovawe ~esto povezuje jedino sa modernisti~kim pokretom. Poreklo planirawa u modernom smislu te re~i,

A way towards a sustainable urban future results from an imaginative interpretation of traditional urban quality, combined with an innovative use of the

zaista se tu mo`e na}i, ali ja sam uveren da {iri pogled nudi boqe razumevawe discipline i da on mo`e biti koristan u formirawu novih urbanisti~kih metodologija neophodnih za tretman specifi~nih problema sa kojima se danas suo~avamo.

unique potential of our own era. Traditional wisdom provides a valuable experience that could help us on our way towards the sustainable living and development. This wisdom has been codified in various European medieval city statutes, such as the famous Statute of the City of Dubrovnik (Fiskovic, 1977), an early and extremely successful example of urban, urbanistic regulation with some amazing seminal pieces of urban design as exemplars.

Put ka odr`ivoj urbanoj budu}nosti nastaje iz ma{tovite interpretacije tradicionalnog urbanog kvaliteta u kombinaciji sa inovativnom upotrebom jedinstvenog potencijala na{eg doba. Tradicionalna mudrost, kodifikovana u raznim evropskim statutima sredwevekovnih gradova, kao {to je ~uveni Statut grada Dubrovnika (Fi{kovi}, 1977) (za koji nalazim da je rani i izuzetno uspe{an primer urbanisti~ke regulacije sa nekim od zadivquju}ih primera urbanisti~kog projektovawa iz kojih se mo`e u~iti) nudi dragoceno iskustvo koje nam mo`e pomo}i na na{em putu ka odr`ivom `ivotu i razvoju. Kao {to Fi{kovi} (1977) navodi, te autohtone urbane forme gde "urbani pricipi i funkcije prevazilaze vrednost pojedina~nih arhitektonskih objekata i struktura" predstavqaju "verovatno najve}u vrednost jugoslovenske pro{losti". Grad Dubrovnik je izgra|en na osnovu regulative koja datira iz 1273. godine. Wegov sredwevekovni statut je primer uspe{nog urbanisti~kog planirawa i projektovawa, Dubrovnik je stvorio "ne odre|eni gospodar, projektant ili arhitekta, ve} sredwevekovne gradske vlasti koje su razvile urbanisti~ko zakonodavstvo, pravila i odredbe gra|ewa, izdavale dozvole za gra|ewa, pregovarale o pozicijama i srazmerama novih objekata i struktura, preko op{tinskih predstavnika,

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As Fiskovic (1977) puts, those autochthonous urban developments where ‘urban principles and works surpass value of architectural pieces and ensembles’ represent ‘possibly the biggest value of the Yugoslav past‘. The City of Dubrovnik was built on the basis of regulations which date back to 1273. Its medieval Statute is an example of successful urban planning and design and Dubrovnik was created ‘not by the individual masters, designers and architects, but by the medieval communal governments that have developed urban legislation, building rules and codes, issued building permits, negotiated positions and sizes of new developments, and by municipal representatives, master-builders...’ There we recognize the early effect of urbanistic legislation, rules, codes and permits on a city in which urban and environmental quality is undisputable. Doesn’t that speak in favor of my argument that planning, the regulation of urban processes, and a legalized vision of what the city in future should be, is not necessarily negative and restrictive? I believe so, and I believe that a great potential for research, a great wisdom to be learned from, lie in those often forgotten fragments of the history of planning and urban architecture.


glavnih graditeqa"... Tu mo`emo prepoznati rano urbanisti~ko zakonodavstvo, pravila, odredbe, dozvole... na primeru grada ~iji je urbani i

Old Dubrovnik regulations define the shape of the urban quarters, the position and paving of the new streets and the development of urban blocks; they

ekolo{ki kvalitet neosporan. Zar to ne svedo~i u prilog da planirawe, regulacija urbanih procesa, ozakowena vizija onoga {to bi grad u budu}nosti trebalo da bude, nije obavezno negativno i restriktivno? Verujem da je tako, i verujem da veliki potencijal za istra`ivawe, velika mudrost iz koje treba u~iti, le`i u tim ~esto zaboravqenim fragmentima istorije planirawa i urbane arhitekture.

regulate sewerage and the treatment of run-off water. They establish relationships and distances between the buildings and the size of balconies and staircases; they encourage development in stone and strictly forbid timber houses…. ‘A democratically elected “Council of the good people” used to asses the amount to be paid to a neighbor intending to lean his building on the neighboring one …’ (Fiskovic, 1977). Property transactions in the 13th century city of Trogir often mention ‘space to be left to permit the access of natural light to windows’. The Statute of the City of Sibenik (14th and 15 century) documents the kind of zoning based on excluding certain uses from the complex, live multifunctional urban tissue.

Staro dubrova~ko zakonodavstvo propisuje oblik urbanih ~etvrti, poziciju i poplo~avawe novih ulica, razvoj urbanih blokova; reguli{e kanalizaciju i odvod atmosferskih voda. Ono uspostavqa odnos i razdaqinu izme|u pojedinih objekata, veli~inu balkona i stepeni{ta, podsti~e gradwu u kamenu i striktno zabrawuje gradwu ku}a od drveta... "Demokratski izabrano Ve}e dobrih qudi je odre|ivalo nov~anu svotu koju je trebalo platiti susedu ukoliko se objekat naslawao na susedov... " (Fi{kovi}, 1977). U kupoprodajnim ugovorima o nekretninama grada Trogira iz 13. veka pomiwe se "prostor koji treba ostaviti za dotok prirodnog svetla". U Statutu grada [ibenika (14. i 15. vek) dokumentovan je va`an na~in zonirawa po kome se odre|ene namene, funkcije iskqu~uju iz slo`enog, `ivog vi{efunkcionalnog gradskog tkiva. Gradski statuti i druga urbanisti~ka dokumenta sredwevekovnih zajednica Jadrana uvek pokazuju promi{qeni, slo`eni odnos izme|u javnog i privatnog interesa, zadivquju}u brigu o harmoniji izme|u op{teg i pojedina~nog, {to predstavqa su{tinu dobrog urbanizma. Ono {to je zajedni~ko za sve ove primere, i {to verovatno i predstavqa

City statutes and other urbanistic documents of medieval Adriatic communities always show an thoughtful recognition of the elaborate relationship between public and private interests, a remarkable attention to harmony between the general and the particular that are the essence of good urbanism. What is common to all of these examples and is probably the essential core of their success, is the democratic procedure that generated them. ‘Dubrovnik’s Codex and numerous decisions on urban issues made by the Minor and Major City Council reveal building codes obligatory both for the aristocrats and citizens’ (Fiskovic, 1977). What is particularly important for our topic in each of these cases is that ‘the vision of the city was first established on paper, in decisions on types and methods of building’. Then the process was carefully monitored: ‘Each site was, prior to the start of any development, visited by the Duke himself

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samu su{tinu wihovog uspeha, je demokratska procedura iz koje su oni nastali. "Dubrova~ki Kodeks i brojne odluke o urbanim pitawima koje su stvorili Malo i Veliko gradsko Ve}e daju pravila gra|ewa koja su obavezna i za aristokratiju i za gra|ane" (Fiskovi}, 1977). Ono {to je od posebnog zan~aja za na{u temu, u svakom od ovih slu~ajeva "... vizija grada je prvo nastala na papiru, i prema odlukama o tipovima i metodama gra|ewa". Zatim, proces je pa`qivo pra}en: "Svaki lokalitet, pre po~etka bilo koje gradwe, je pose}ivao Du`d li~no sa ~lanovima wegove vlade i op{tinskim glavnim graditeqem. Sve to ukazuje na zna~aj koji je pridavan svim novim - ~ak i najsitnijim intervencijama u gustom gradskom tkivu". Kao {to Fi{kovi} daqe pokazuje "o~igledno je da je urbanisti~ka harmonija na{ih primorskih gradova (biv{e Jugoslavije, D.Radovi}) svesno razvijana, i da je sprovo|ena i nadzirana pomo}u zakona koji, ni u kom smislu, nisu bili slu~ajni.

Posledwe bitno mesto za urbanizam odr`ivog urbanog razvoja, o kome bih `eleo da prodiskutujem je i koncept zonirawa. To je jedan od verovatno naj~e{}e kritikovanih planerskih metoda, koji se ~esto vezuje za najozbiqnije gre{ke. Tako Haksli (1994) (Huxsley), u wenoj zanimqivoj analizi koncepta zonirawa i wegovih negativnih rezultata kroz istoriju, polemi{e: "Zone fragmentiraju prostor i homogenizuju fragmente, kategori{u}i i postavqaju}i u hijerarhiju apstraktne matrice namena... Zonirawe tako|e doprinosi kreirawu komercijalnog i industrijskog prostora iz kog su ostale namene kao {to su prodavnice i stanovawe iskqu~eni, i ovo tako|e ima efekat na svakodnevni do`ivqaj prostora. Po mom mi{qewu, te{ko

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with members of his government and a municipal building headmaster. All that is indicative of the importance attributed to all new – even the smallest – interventions in a dense urban tissue’. As Fiskovic further demonstrates, it is obvious that the urbanistic harmony of our (former Yugoslav) coastal cities was consciously developed, that it was executed and guarded by laws and that it was by no means accidental.

The last point of interest for urbanism of sustainable urban development that I want to discuss here is the concept of zoning. This is probably the most criticized planning method and is often associated with the most severe of its failures. Thus Huxley (1994), in her interesting analysis of the concept of zoning and its negative results throughout history, argues that: “zones fragment space and homogenize the fragments, categorizing and hierarchising an abstract matrix of uses … Zoning also contributes to the creation of commercial and industrial spaces from which the other uses like shops and dwellings are excluded, and this too has effects on everyday experience of place. In my opinion, it is hard not to object that those consequences obviously are not inherent to the urbanistic technique of zoning.” Huxley continues, ‘This technical exercise of rationality and control through categorization and representation is neither socially nor economically innocent.’ One has to agree with this statement, but there is no specific solution to it. Socially neutral, ‘innocent’ urbanism is impossible. Zoning is no more than a tool to project social processes and ideals into space: its techniques are instruments of that process. Therefore, when we blame the results of the planning process, it is not planning itself to be blamed, but the ideas and aims it was supposed to actualize.


je ne prigovoriti ~iwenici da ovakve posledice nisu uro|ene urbanisti~koj tehnici zonirawa". Haksli nastavqa: "Ova tehni~ka ve`ba racionalizacije i kontrole kroz kategorizaciju i reprezentacije nije ni socijalno ni ekonomski nevina". Ovo je izjava sa kojom se pojedinac mora slo`iti, me|utim nije ponu|eno ni jedno re{ewe. Socijalno neutralan, "nevini urbanizam" je nemogu}. On nije ni{ta drugo do sredstvo za projektovawe socijalnih procesa i ideala u prostor, a wegove tehnike predstavqaju alate tog procesa. Dakle sledi da, kada osu|ujemo rezultate tog procesa planirawa, ne treba osu|ivati samo planirawe, ve} ideje i ciqeve koje je on trebalo da realizuje.

Coming back to the issue of zoning and its necessity to contemporary planning and urbanism, it is obvious that we should speak about the dynamic, context-responsive mix of uses, rather than any fixed determination. In the similar way to that mentioned in the case of medieval Trogir, the mix should be proposed on the basis of the exclusion of certain uses, on the clear definition what should not happen, without prescriptions what has to happen where. The issue of intensity and often its temporal dimension becomes critical; we speak of ‘low dynamic land-use’ versus ‘high dynamic land-use’ (Huisman, 1994).

Vrativ{i se na temu zonirawa i wegove neophodnosti u savremenom planirawu i urbanizmu, postaje jasno da bi trebalo da govorimo o dinamici, me{avini (miksu) namena koje komuniciraju sa kontekstom pre nego o bilo kakvoj fiksnoj determinaciji. Poput pomenutog u slu~aju sredwevekovnog Trogira, miks treba da bude zasnovan na bazi iskqu~ivawa odre|ene namene, na jasnom definisawu onoga {to ne bi trebalo da se dogodi, a bez ~vrstih preporuka {ta bi gde trebalo da se desi. Pitawe inteziteta i wegova temporalna dimenzija postaje kqu~no; govorimo o "kori{}ewu zemqi{ta niske dinamike" protiv "kori{}ewa zemqi{ta visoke dinamike" (Huzman, 1994) (Huisman).

To end, I would like to underline that it is crucially important to understand that the contemporary city is very different in economic and cultural terms from the one which preceded it. It is far too complex to be left to the forces of spontaneous development; urban process has to be regulated. In efforts to come as close as possible to urbanistic regulations capable of articulating urban development towards a sustainable future it is not possible to draw upon projections of trends and sophisticated modern technology alone. On the contrary, it is very important to understand the failures and successes of planning in the past and to develop mechanisms capable of facing current problems. I believe that the complexity of a problem does not necessary entail the need for complicated tools to deal with it; moreover, I believe that only simplicity can be an efficient means of responding to aggravating contemporary problems, like that of our ecological crisis.

Na kraju, `eleo bih da istaknem, da je od krucijalnog zna~aja shvatiti da je savremeni grad razli~it u ekonomskom i kulturnom smislu od grada koji mu je prethodio. On je isuvi{e kompleksan da bi bio prepu{ten silama i uticajima spontanog razvoja; urbani procesi moraju biti regulisani . U poku{ajima da se pribli`imo {to je

Similar to the challenge Italo Calvino defined for the literature of our era and the immediate future, urbanism and urban design on the way towards

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mogu}e vi{e urbanisti~koj regulaciji koja je sposobna da artikuli{e urbani razvoj ka odr`ivoj budu}nosti, shvatamo da wu nije mogu}e zasnivati iskqu~ivo na projekciji trendova i sofisticiranoj modernoj tehnologiji; veoma je va`no razumeti neuspehe i uspehe planirawa u pro{losti, ali i razviti mehanizme koji su sposobni da se suo~e sa i da odgovore na aktuelne probleme. Verujem da kompleksnost samih problema ne zahteva i komplikovane alate za wihovo re{avawe; {tavi{e, verujem da jedino jednostavnost mo`e biti efikasan odgovor rastu}im savremenim problemima kao {to je ekolo{ka kriza. Sli~no onome {to je Italo Kalvino opisao vezano za literaturu na{eg doba i neposrednu budu}nost, urbanizam i urbanisti~ko projektovawe na putu ka odr`ivoj budu}nosti moraju biti sposobni da "upletu razli~ite grane znawa, razli~ite ‘kodove’ u raznovrsno i vi{ezna~no lice sveta". (Palazma, 1994) (Palasmaa). Sredwevekovni statuti odre|enih mediteranskih gradova mogu da poslu`e kao dobar primer, i kao inspirativna po~etna ta~ka i smernica za prou~avawe prirode demokratskih procesa i urbanisti~kih metodologija koje nude {ansu za uspe{an ekolo{ki odr`iv urbani razvoj.

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sustainable future have to be ‘capable of weaving together the various branches of knowledge, the various “codes” into a manifold and multifaceted vision of the world.’ (Pallasmaa, 1994). The medieval statutes of some Adriatic cities could serve as the good example, of this and give us an inspiring starting point and guidance for research in the nature of democratic processes and urbanistic methodologies that offer a chance for a successful, ecologically sustainable urban development.


BIBLIOGRAFIJA BIBLIOGRAPHY Na ovoj listi nalaze se samo naslovi koji su eksplicitno pomenuti ili citirani pod naslovima Kulturalna odr`ivost i Ekolo{ka odr`ivost. Naredna poglavqa, Kqu~ne li~nosti, Kqu~ne re~i, Kqu~ne sentence i Kqu~ni toponimi, zajedno sa kompletnom bibliografijom radova Darka Radovi}a dopuwavaju ovu listu i usmeravaju ~itaoca ka {irim poqima ideja i izvora koji su formirali temeqe ove kwige. This list includes only the titles specifically mentioned or quoted in the essays presented in the third part of this volume – under the headings Cultural Sustainability and Environmental Sustainability. The subsequent sections, Key Persons, Keywords, Key Sentences and Key Toponyms, together with the full Bibliography of Darko Radovic’s own works, complement this list and guide the reader towards broader field of ideas and sources which informed this book. · Al Sayyad, N., (2001), Hybrid Urbanism, Westport: Praeger Publishers · Bachelard, G., (1969), The Poetics of Space, Beacon Press, Boston, · Bauer J, Bell, D. eds. (1999), The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press · Bogdanovic, B., (1975), Symbols and the city as symbol, Ekistics 232, p. 142 · Bogdanovic, B., (1973), Town and town mythology, Ekistics 209, pp.240-242 · Cardarelli, U., (1982), Urbanistica ed energia, La Nuova Italia, Firenze · Castels, M. (1978), “City, Class and Power”, Macmillan, London · De Lauwe C., (1972), in Society, Culture and Environment, IV Conference Science and Society, Herceg Novi · Dale, R., (1986), The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness: Oxford, University of Oxford · Downey G. (1976), Aristotle as an expert on urban problems, Ekistics 253 · Chang, SD, (1961), The Chinese Hsien capital: a study in historical urban context, Ann Arbor, Mich. University · Fiskovic, C., (1977), Eseji, Mladost, Zagreb · Fromm E. (…),The Evolution of Hope · Freudenreich, A., (…), Narod gradi na ogoljenom krasu (Le peuple construit sur le karst denude), · Gandelsonas, M., (1991), Urban Text,Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press · Gilette, M.B., (2000), Between Mecca and Beijing, Stanford University Press, Stanford · Gruhl, H., (1975), Ein Planet Wird Geplundert, S. Fischer verlag GmbH, Frankfurt am Main · Hawkes, J., (1951), A Land, The Cresset Press, London · Heidegger, M., (1971), On the way to Language, New York: Harper and Row · Hillis Miller, J., (2001), Others, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press · Hoskins, I. (1994), “Constructing Time and Space in the Garden Suburb”, “Beasts of Suburbia” Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 1-18 · Huisman, M. (1994), “Sustainable Land Development in the Netherlands”, “Sustainable Land Use Planning”, Proceedings to an International Workshop, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 55-67 · Huxley, M. (1994), “Planning as a Framework of Power”, “Beasts of Suburbia”, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 148-170 · Jurgens, C.R., (1994), “A Spatial Model for the Design of an Ecological Infrastructure”, “Sustainable Land Use Plan-

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ning”, Proceedings to an International Workshop, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp. 271-281 · Karahasan, D., (1994) Sarajevo, Exodus of a City, Kodansha International, New York, Tokyo, London, · Kahn, L., (1991), Writings, Lectures, Interviews, Latour, Alessandra (ed.), Rizzoli International Publications, Inc., New Your · Kohr, L., (1980), “Appropriate Technology”, “The Schumacher Lectures”, Ed. Kumar, Blond&Briggs, Lodon, pp. 182-192 · Lefebvre, H, (…) Urban Revolution · Lefebvre, H., (1996), Writings on Cities: Oxford, Blackwell · Mies, M., Vandana S., (1994), Ecofeminism, Spinifex, Melbourne · Mitchell, W.J. (1994), “Virtial Villages”, Architecture Australia, May-June 1994, pp. 68-69 · Mumford, L., (…) ,The Myth of Machine, …... · Norberg-Schulz, C., (1984), C, Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, Rizzoli, New York · Onuma Y., (1999), Towards an Intercivilzational Approach to Human Rights, in The East Asian Challenge for Human Rights, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press · Pallassmaa, J., (1994), Six Themes For the Next Millennium, Architectural Review 7 · Parkhurst Ferguson, P., (1994), Paris as Revolution, Writing the Nineteenth-Century City, University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London · Radovic D., (1993), A Bridge Too Far, in The Age, 15. 11. 1993, p. 14 · Radovic D., (1987), Bijela golubica i obnazeno djete (White Pigeon and the Naked Child), published in Komunikacija No 58, CEP, Belgrade · Radovic, D. (1994), “Urbanity and Ecologically Sustainable Development”, Proceedings of the ANZAScA Conference, Deakin University, Geelong, pp. 165-172 · Redfern, R., (1968), The Primitive World and its Transformations, Harmondsworth: Peregrine · Rerlph, E., (1976), Place and Placelesness, Pion Ltd. London · O’Riordan …, (1988),The politics of Sustainability, in Turner (ed), Sustainable Environmental Management, Bellhaven, London · … Climate and Culture, Greenwood Press, New York, Westport, London, 1988 (first edition 1961). · s. a., (s.a.), Mostar, Prva knjizevna komuna, Mostar · Sennett R., (1993), The Conscience of the Eye, Faber and Faber, London and Boston · Skinner, William, G. (1977), ed., The City In Late Imperial China, Stanford University Press · Spengler, O., (…) Decline of the West - Perspectives of World-History, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London s.a. · Steiner, G., (1976), The city under attack, Ekistics 253, pp. 322-328 · Sudjic, D. (1992), “The 100 Mile City”, Andre Deutsch, London · Sudjic, D. (1994), “The Metropolis, present and Future”, Polis, 9.1994, pp. 8-15 · Trosborg, A., (1997), Text Typology and Translation, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Pubishing Company · Tuan, YF., (1979), The city: its distance from nature, Ekistics 287, pp. 313-319 · Tuan, YF., (…), Topophilia, …. · Tyrwith, J., (1968), The City of Chang’an, Town Planning Review 39/1

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· van Leir, H.N, Jaarsma, C.F.,(1994), “Land Use Planning for the More Efficient Use of Fossil Energy”, “Sustainable Land Use Planning”, Proceedings to an International Workshop, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, pp.89-100 · Vycinas, V., (1961), Earth and Gods, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague · Wetherell, M. et al. (eds.), (2001), Discourse Theory and Practice, London: Sage Publications · Winkles, Browning, (1976 ), Climate and the Affairs of Men, Peter Davies, London · World Commission on Environment and Development, (1987), Our Common Future, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York · Worton, M., (1998), “Crossing Boundaries or Bridging Gaps: Translation, Theory and Questions of Identity”, in Mattoid, Geelong: CRCC Deakin University · Wright, A.F., (1977), The Cosmology of the Chinese City, in The City In Late Imperial China, Stanford University Press

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Profile for Public Art & Public Space

Urbofilia, pages 1-465  

Book “URBOFILIA”,first 465 pages. Pages 3-145 are missing. Total number of pages is 611, but because of the site limits it was not possible...

Urbofilia, pages 1-465  

Book “URBOFILIA”,first 465 pages. Pages 3-145 are missing. Total number of pages is 611, but because of the site limits it was not possible...

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