HEALTH | EDUCATION | WORLD | CHARITY
Antibiotic Resistance The Reality of a Horrific Nightmare
Edition 5 Volume 1
CONTENTS Feature Interview
a ews l l e N
ll ef G e K i Ch
in or m ja ct
n Dire e B t Ar
ia ief E h d h
o dC L g r an a ir e
Ch ound F
“Does going to the gym for weight training on an empty stomach effect the results of the workout?” Question by Jay Himat
Thank you for your question! When people talk about ‘results’ in exercise, it can be very subjective. For some, the results are image based: getting bigger muscles, having a leaner and thinner body-type; for others, it could be performance- being able to lift heavier weights, get through more repetitions or other markers. These markers will differ for every individual and depending on their general lifestyle and diet. The other subjective area is the workout. Some forms such as weighttraining, cross-fit training, callisthenics will aim for different results and the exercise routine can impact on the ‘results’. Now in theory, training on an empty stomach can impact on the way our body responds to the workout. Whenever we eat, sugars and carbohydrates in our food are broken down into glucose. Glucose is the body’s ‘sugar’ and main ‘energy’ source. Glucose goes from our food into our blood very quickly and is the first source of energy our bodies use. Any glucose not used by the body is eventually converted into fats and stored for later use.
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When the body is ‘fasted’ or in other words, when we have low amounts of glucose in the blood from not eating, there will be no glucose in the blood. When the body does not have glucose to use as an energy source, the body will begin to break down ‘fat stores’ and convert these fat stores into energy that the body can use. If the body does not have blood glucose to use or fat stores, the body will start breaking down proteins in the body, such as muscle tissue, to provide energy for the body. This is the crude and simplified explanation of
how our bodies use sugars, or glucose, fats and proteins as possible energy sources in the body. Whilst the theory is sound, there are few studies that have investigated this satisfactorily. The theory above would suggest that exercising on an empty stomach would break down fat, however; of the few studies that have been conducted satisfactorily, the results show no difference to fat metabolism in exercising on an empty stomach compared to 1 hour post-eating. The studies suggested only a difference in heart-rate control and loosely suggest that heart-rate is more stable when exercising 3 hours after eating compared to 1 hour after eating.
It is important to note that the studies were carried out on very few individuals and have very poorly controlled variables despite all coming to the same conclusion. The studies conducted all had the same question: why is there no significant increase in fat metabolism if there is no glucose in the blood? There are many possible reasons for this: - Fat is metabolised in a resting state, not an active state - The individuals of the studies’ own genetic makeup and nature of their metabolism - Too many different variables subject to change around the individuals - Short-term studies compared to long-term studies
Having said this, there may be a window for weight loss by exercising in the evenings after dinner, so that during their sleep, there is little glucose left in the blood and the body will metabolise fat whilst asleep. The other major impact on a workout is mentality. Exercising on an empty stomach can have significant impact on a person’s psyche and what a person thinks they are capable off. Training on an empty stomach can have a negative impact on how a person feels about a workout. Whilst professional athletes
are known for performing at a high level even after hours of training or competition, the same is not necessarily the same for a beginner or weekday-gymgoer. It is a bit of an inconclusive bombshell to end on, but in answer to your question, I feel that going to the gym on an empty stomach compared to shortly after eating can have some impact on the results of the workout, particularly mentally, but it cannot be said conclusively what the biological impact will be. The studies have also focused on ‘fat metabolism’ blood glucose levels and heart-rate. There have been no reliable studies on the impact had on performance, possibly because there are too many variables and biases involved in the studies. It would not be advisable to exercise if your blood glucose levels are too low as this increases the risk of going faint or passing out. If you must workout on an empty stomach, consider taking a small food source high in sugar before the workout and to stop the workout if you start to feel faint or dizzy. For results, my suggestion would be to find a personal trainer and outline your short-term and long-term goals for exercising and training to find a routine of eating and exercising that works for your lifestyle and aims. In regards to a healthy lifestyle, finding any time to exercise is highly recommended compared to not exercising at all! ■
Ariane Duchesneau Val d’Or, Québec, Canada
LOOKING FOR THE WAY OF PEACE Inspired by the Cuban revolution, the FARC: ‘Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de ColombiaEjército del Pueblo’ which translates in English as ‘Revolutionary Armed Forces of Coloumbia – People’s Army’ is a military and ideological group based in Colombia. The group claims to fight for democracy and the fair distribution of wealth. The FARC are considered as a terrorist group due to their involvement in narcotic drug trafficking, bombings, kidnappings and extortions. According to Human Rights Watch, the conflict between the FARC and the
Colombian government has forcibly displaced more than 5.7 million Colombians since the birth of the group. Since the past decade, the strength of the FARC had weakened. The Colombian government estimated 16 000 fighters in 2001 and today they are around 7000, however; these statistics were highly criticized. Despite of everything, the government launched a successful operation in 2004, increasing the pressure on the FARC.
Juan Manuel Santos, who is the current President of Colombia, is one of the main officials of the peace process going on. As the Defence Minister in 2006 under Uribe’s government, he helped the country to fight against the FARC. Well known by the people for his military operations, he won the elections with the highest number of votes in Colombia’s history. He made a break from the policies of his predecessors by normalizing the relations with Hugo Chavez, the Venezuelan President and he also prosecuted members of the previous government for abuse of power. At the end of 2012, Santos announced preliminary peace talks which were taken in place in secret, in Cuba. Two months later, the FARC agreed on a framework for a formal peace agreement which lead to a ceasefire in November 2012. After four years of negotiations, the peace deal was ready to be sign including aims to disarm the FARC fighters and push their relocation into disarmament zones set up by the United
Nations. It also grants FARC an amnesty for political crimes, but not for massacres, torture or rape and block the transformation of the FARC into a political party. Despite all Santo’s will, the peace deal was rejected by the Columbians on popular vote. One of the most supported reasons for rejection by the people was that it would promote impunity for the guerrilla and members of the armed forces. Fortunately for Columbia, the quest for peace is not over. Despite the rejection of the agreement, Juan Manuel Santos decided to continue the peace negotiations with the FARC and said he will redouble his efforts to end the war. His doggedness earned him the Peace Nobel Prize of 2016. He dedicated his prize to all Columbians and he is going to do a donation of the 990 000 dollars coming with the prize. This Nobel Prize is without a doubt a hope for the future of peace in Colombia. ■
3,2,1…Making resolu regards to your hea might actually stick As the last few days of 2016 draws out to a close, I find myself thinking more and more about my New Year’s resolutions for 2017, especially the ones in regards to my health. We all know the feeling of finishing the year off with a very bloated, sick stomach as we vow to join a gym straight away on January 1st the next year. And that by January 14th (or even earlier in my case) the goal of exercising at the gym three times a week slowly dwindles to twice a week….and then to once a fortnight… and then never again.
Keep in mind that life resolutions should not only be about your physical health, but also your mental and social health too.
Jeenal Patel, Health Editor Melbourne, Australia Email: jbpatel525@ gmail.com
For me, and for many others, New Year’s health resolutions such as ‘staying fit’ or ‘losing 10kg’ are daunting, unattainable and unrealistic. Hence, in 2017, I will not be making any New Year’s resolutions but will instead be embracing the concept of ‘life resolutions’ that have been proposed by PTW. I encourage everyone to make life resolutions that will enable them to live a happy and healthy life. Set yourself small targets for your physical health, and be flexible if your priorities change over the course of the year. Keep in mind that life resolutions should not only be about your physical health, but also your mental and social health too. Take some time to focus on yourself and find your own way to ‘recharge your batteries’. Finally, while actively working on your health is important, remember to learn lots and have fun while doing so! ■
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Set yourself small targets for your physical health, and be flexible if your priorities change over the course of the year.
Nesa Rassouli What does 'health' mean to you? Simply put, it is just to live a balanced lifestyle; health to me isn’t about having the perfect body or eating a certain diet. To be healthy is to be happy. Everyone’s ‘balance’ is different. My balance is to be able to exercise daily, fuel my body with all the nutrients and whole foods it needs to help me perform as a high performance athlete BUT there’s always balance, I will treat myself when I have a craving most of the time, and I always give myself plenty of downtime to just hang out relax too. I do so much on a day to day basis to ensure I’m living an active and ‘healthy’ lifestyle, that sometimes I just give myself a break from it all and unwind.
How many times a week do you train and for how long? It varies day-to-day, week-toweek. I try to train 5-6 times a week, but I like to make sure I change up my workouts. So on a weekly basis, I’ll do everything from Calisthenics, to Muay Thai, and Weightlifting to Yoga and anything and everything else I can squeeze in. The length of the training really depends on the day, my mood, and whom I am training with- but generally I try and keep it at an average at about an hour to an hour and a half tops.
"Nesa Rasouli has been growing as a social media butterfly with her dynamic and fun videos and photos which have motivated people around the world to get fit, get active and stretch past their limitations."
How do you ensure you don't over-train? I just listen to my body really. Some days I just really don’t feel like it, so I won’t. Some weeks I could work out twice a day, every day- but that doesn’t mean I will, I try to make sure that I take at least one day off a week, sometimes even two. Even if I want to train and I’ve already had a full week of training, I’ll try to have an active rest day, which would include something fun, so for example, a really slow and relaxing yoga flow, or go paddle boarding.
What's your favourite types of ways to stay healthy and fit? Well, my favourite way to stay fit is to train Calisthenics and Muay Thai! I always say that if you want to stay healthy and fit, you have to find something that makes you want to jump out of bed in the morning to get to. These two sports always leave my hungry for more. But I also love to try new things too, and put my strength that I train on a day-to-day basis to the test. So for example, I took up lots of aerial arts such as Lyra, Hoop and Static Pole! The best way to stay fit is to try new things, even when you’re in a routine, it’s great to put your strength to it’s test when you’re doing something you’re not mentally or physically used to.
I know the human body is capable of anything and everything if you treat it well,
watching people’s workouts, or see certain goals that they are achieving, and it reminds me why I started my fitness I’m pretty lenient with journey in the first place. I myself, I do track my macro guess what I’m trying to say intake usually to make sure is it’s what you make of it and I’m getting everything my body needs to be fueled and how you set your frame of recover from all my workouts, mind. but there’s also things I have What positive on a day-to-day basis, like transformations do you chocolate- in moderation of course, just because I don’t want for yourself, and see any point in depriving the world in 2017? myself of it, life is too short! 2017 for me is going to be all Do you feel that the about making myself into a well-rounded athlete. I spent social media age so much of 2016 just trying is making fitness to build up a certain level of more about visual strength, which I achieved! impressions rather than But now I want to venture fitness performance? out a little more and focus on things I’m not so great at. For That’s a tricky one! I think it example, I’m taking up crossfit depends on the person and also who you’re following on and spinning because they social media. I’ve seen lots of are totally out of my comfort zone. I know the human body people who are just inspired is capable of anything and to exercise because of the physique models they see on everything if you treat it well, this year is about putting my their feed, or because they body to the test and seeing want to look a certain way. how much I can achieve if For me, social media is what I work on my weaknesses. has made me the athlete I Through my Instagram, am today. I follow certain
How free are you with your diet?
figures on instagram that post fun ways to eat healthy, or different types of workouts to help my training stay fun and push my boundaries.
There have also been plenty of times that I’ve found myself lacking motivation to exercise, and I’ll just be scrolling through my instagram feed
although I do have a limited reach, I’d love to see the world fall in love with fitness the way I did. My aim is to share with people my daily fitness journey and inspire people to start any form of training, because if I can do it, really anyone can! I’d also love to see more support in the world. I’ve seen a lot of bullying and hate in my industry and the fitness scene where I live, it would be a dream come true to see everyone sharing love and support for one another, because I can honestly say that I wouldn’t be where I am today without all the support I have been getting through my fitness journey, and even just life. Spread the love people, it takes more muscles up to frown than to smile at someone, remember that! ■
"Social Media's 'fitspiration' has taken the world by storm and aspiring gymnast Elle Hatamiya has been motivating the world by outweightlifting people double her age and double her size." See next
When did you start gymnastics and weightlifting? I have been doing recreational gymnastics almost all of my life, but I started doing competitive gymnastics when I was 8. I started doing CrossFit for strength training for gymnastics but I didn’t really like it. Then I tried the Olympic lifts and I just kept training and then decided to compete. What is your weekly training and diet regime like? Do you get time off to have fun with friends and get a chance to eat desserts? In one week I do 22 hours a week of gymnastics, 2 hours of weightlifting, and 2 hours of karate. Most of the time Sunday is my rest day so I can have friends over. I do get to eat desserts but not too often.
How do you keep motivated to continue and enjoy the sports that you are in despite how much hard work it takes? I just like to do them and it is fun for me to motivate myself and I like to get better. What are your goals for gymnastics and your other activities over the next few years? I want to become a level 10 in gymnastics before college and I want to get a one-hundred kilogram total in weightlifting.
To me it means people are discovering new things and finding cures for cancers and other diseases. Also people trying to make the world a better place.
Who do you look up to in life? I look up to athletes in the Olympics because they are the best athletes in that sport in the world and they train very hard to do it. I also look up to my mom because she always makes sure that I have what I need; food, enough sleep, and all the necessities I need. What does being healthy mean to you? Being healthy to me means getting enough sleep, getting nutritional food, and getting exercise. With your busy schedule, how do you fit time for schooling and homework? I always make sure that I have time to do homework and school. Most of the time I have to do my homework in the morning right after I wake up. I feel that I can achieve the high standards at school too. What is a positively transforming world to you?
How do you make sure that you push yourself safely when lifting heavy weights? My coach will make sure that I am feeling ok and ready to do certain weights. I always try my best because I want to get better but if I am injured then I will tell my coach and I might do a different lift instead. How much time do you spend recovering with your very intense regime and do you often get injuries? I don’t get injured very often but when I do it is mostly overuse injuries from gymnastics. After workouts I drink a protein shake and get sleep to recover. My rest day is Sunday except if I have a meet.
To me it means people are discovering new things and finding cures for cancers and other diseases. Also people trying to make the world a better place. What change in the world, or, what improvement in the world do you hope for in 2017? I hope that people will treat girls fairly. I hope that more people will realize that girls can be as strong as boys and do the same things that they can do. What changes do you feel need to be made to give fairness and equality to girls? I think more people need to learn that girls can be strong and do the same things that boys can, and often even better. ■
The Future of
FROM TISSUE GRAFT TO ENTIRE-ORGAN GRAFT Alyssa Bolter
PA - S Chicago, IL, USA
3D BIO PRI NT ING
Almost everyone who lives in the developed world today is familiar with computer printers. It is easy to find an image online, click print, and watch that small piece of machinery spit out a copy of what was once on the screen. Whatâ€™s less familiar is the concept of 3D printing: a process that transforms programmed three dimensional digital images into solid objects by way of layering plastic materials. From this, we can explore the world of 3D bioprinting, a method of creating biologic tissues such as skin, and maybe even organs! It may sound like something from a crazy science fiction movie, but 3D bioprinting could rapidly change the future of medicine. With simple 2D printers, a 3D printer first needs a design to know what to print. However, this virtual design file needs to be created using a 3D modeling application or a 3D scanner. Once the 3D model is created, it then undergoes a process called slicing, where superior software divides the model into hundreds or thousands of horizontal layers. After the slicing has occurred, the file needs to be uploaded to the 3D printer. The printer takes the file and produces the 3D object by depositing layer upon layer of polymer resin, based on the pattern of spliced layers that were determined in the above stage of preparation.
These concepts of inorganic 3D printing are applied in the process of 3D bioprinting. This technology was first developed by modifying inkjet cartridges on desktop printers with a cellhydrogen combination. A threedimensional elevator was then lowered each time the cartridge deposited the cells and hydrogel , which resulted in miniature solid biologic structures. This method is known as the bottom-up method. In contrast, the top down method occurs when a biologic scaffolding is created as a base for the tissue, which is then seeded with cells and allowed to independently grow and proliferate. As in typical 3D printing, a design is necessary. These designs are generally created using radiology images from Computer Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans of the desired tissues. The ability to print human tissue replacements holds many benefits, including skin grafts, minor tissue transplants, and replacing animals in the testing of skin and beauty products. Biosystems is a Canadian biotechnology company developing tissues for use in the testing of new pharmaceutical compounds. Similarly, tissues sold by the Californian bioprint firm Organonovo have been used to test medications for liver toxicity; Organonovo is also working with Lâ€™Oreal to test allergic reactions of
tissues to beauty care products. SkinPrint, a biotechnology concept developed by Dutch students a few years ago, aims to develop replacement skin grafts for burn patients or for those suffering from skin disorders; they hope to have hospitals using this technology in the next 5 years. While printing blood vessels and transplant organs is still yet to be achieved, one thing remains clear: medicine and technology are evolving together rapidly. This beautiful relationship will only improve with time, and the possibilities of even better patient care are endless. â–
3D Printing in Action
Elle Hatamiya and Nesa Rasouli talk about fitness lifestyles and aiming high plus much more.