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ISSUe 129




What’s required to get fleets into electric vehicles?


FLEETS AND NET ZERO OBJECTIVES The GF100 Most Influential share their views on how fleet operators can meet net zero goals by 2050


Cover image: Hyundai Kona Electric


ISSUe 129


Getting fleets into electric vehicles



What’s required to get fleets into electric vehicles?


FLEETS AND NET ZERO OBJECTIVES The GF100 Most Influential share their views on how fleet operators can meet net zero goals by 2050


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While the Covid-19 virus continues to cause disruption in the UK, the green transport agenda continues apace. With reports that the government is planning to bring forward the ban on new petrol and diesel vehicles to 2030, the fleet and transport industry has less than ten years to ensure they can operate in electric or other zero-emission vehicles. While there are plenty of fleets showing that an electric fleet can work, there are still challenges that need to be overcome before all fleets can confidently make the switch. We discuss these challenges in our Electric Vehicle Special, starting on page twenty-one. Meanwhile on page 17, we asked our current GF100 Most Influential for their views on the move to net zero operations by 2050. The report uncovered a range of recommendations on how fleets can eliminate emission, including a call for government to put in place additional grant funding for electrical upgrades for depot based fleet charging. It was also cited that haulage operators need more certainty on the commercial viability of both BEV and hydrogen trucks. This point was also picked up during our virtual Commercial GREENFLEET event which took place on 23 September, where it was said that haulage companies need a clear pathway to becoming zero emission. Read the review on page 51. Angela Pisanu, editor

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Contents GreenFleet 129 12

07 News

Gill Nowell from the newly formed Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England discusses its recent research, which shows people in England are generally in support on phasing out petrol and diesel vehicles in pursuit of cleaner air

12 Interview:

38 EV Special: Roundtable

Green Tomato Cars


London-based car service Green Tomato Cars has been using hydrogen-fuelled cars and other low-emission vehicles since 2015. We speak to Jonny Goldstone, the company’s founder and managing director, about why he continues to back hydrogen as an alternative fuel

17 GF 100 Report

The GF 100 Most Influential is made up of fleet managers, vehicle manufacturers, government officials, NGOs, fleet suppliers and energy companies that have shaped the green transport agenda over the year. With this cross-sector perspective, we asked the group what needs to happen to ensure fleets can successfully transition to net-zero. Here’s what they said Sponsored by

23 EV Special: Report

Recent reports suggest that the government is set to bring forward the ban on sales of new petrol and diesel vehicles, including hybrids and plug-in hybrids, from 2040 to 2030. Evidence shows that there is support for such measures, but that barriers remain in place before fleets can confidently make the switch to electric vehicles


27 EV Special: Energy COMMerCiAL GreenFleet


Alex Haffner, strategic insight manager at National Grid ESO, shares insights from the 2020 Future Energy Scenarios report, which for the first time reflects net zero targets in its predictions

28 EV Special: EV Market

Despite the impact of Covid-19, the electric vehicle market’s collective accomplishments over the past two years signal a pattern of ongoing growth, which is expected to continue over the course of the next decade. Jamie Hamilton, head of electric vehicles at Deloitte, explains further


31 EV Special: Expert Panel


36 EV Special: EV Drivers

Low Carbon Transport Loan in Scotland to now include used EVs; Opportunity to reduce commuter emissions being missed; and M74 in Scotland and M6 in England most EV-friendly motorways

Many large companies have made public commitments to switch to zero emission vehicles, with many already on that journey. But barriers still need to be overcome to ensure those who want to switch to electric vehicles, can. Our panel of experts discuss the challenges on route to zero-emissions

GreenFleet magazine

As fleets are coming to terms with the enduring effects that COVID 19 has had on operations, attention is now turning once again to the long term need to become zero emission. To discuss progress and current challenges a diverse group of fleets and emission reduction specialists attended GreenFleet’s virtual roundtable on 9th September.

42 Road test - First Drive: Honda e Advance

The Honda e is the Japanese company’s first all-electric model and shows a distinct style and appeal. Richard Gooding digs a little deeper to see if the e’s zero-emission technology shares its premium appearance desirability

44 Road test:

Volvo XC40 Recharge Plug-In Hybrid T5 FWD R-Design

The popular XC40 spearheads Volvo’s electrification push, with the range encompassing mild and plug-in hybrids, as well as an all-electric version. Richard Gooding finds out if the most powerful plug-in XC40’s combination of all-electric and petrol-assisted running is the ideal one

48 Commercial GreenFleet: News Larger lorries and gas-powered trucks confirmed for Primark; VN5 electric van completes final testing phase; and Counter terror advice for commercial vehicle operator

51 Commercial GreenFleet: Event Review

Commercial GREENFLEET took place on our computer screens on 23 September, with the aim of exploring the options for eliminating emissions from van and truck fleets

54 Commercial GreenFleet: Electric Trucks

Heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer, Scania, has launched its first electric truck range, with both full electric and plug-in hybrid variants. The company explains why it is backing electrification

56 Commercial GreenFleet: Electric & Hydrogen Trucks

Daimler trucks has outlined its electrification strategy, including plans for hydrogen and all electric long-haul trucks, at an online presentation on 16 September Issue 129 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE




Low Carbon Transport Loan in Scotland to now include used EVs

The Scottish Government Low Carbon Transport Loan, which helps people make the switch to ultra-low emission and electric vehicles, will be extended to cover used electric vehicles for the first time. Delivered through Energy Saving Trust, the extension will now enable an individual or business to obtain a loan of up to £20,000, interest free, over five years. Cabinet secretary for transport, infrastructure and connectivity Michael Matheson said:

“Expanding our Low Carbon Transport Loan will make it easier for more people to access the benefits of modern ultralow emission vehicles. The global shift towards electric vehicles means that prices are coming down year on year, but the price point for new vehicles remains high for many. We want to make it easier for people to switch by providing interest free finance options for used vehicles. “We’ve set a bold ambition to phase out the need for new petrol and diesel cars and vans by 2032. Globally, it’s clear that the shift to electric vehicles is becoming an inevitability – but no one who requires a vehicle should be left behind from the benefits these modern vehicles can bring, both in terms of running costs and the environmental benefits. This is where we can help. “For Scotland’s Climate Week, consider the benefits of an electric vehicle – but remember, you don’t always need to own a vehicle to enjoy those benefits. Across

the country, we’ve funded registered social landlords to procure the services of electric vehicle car clubs, so that they can provide affordable access whilst reducing the need for car ownership. For those who prefer two wheels – support is also available through Energy Saving Trust for e-bikes including e-cargo bikes.” Ellie Grebenik, senior programme manager at Energy Saving Trust said: “The extension to the Low Carbon Transport Loan is welcome news and will enable businesses and consumers alike to secure greater access to sustainable travel options. We also hope that this extension will further stimulate the electric vehicle market in Scotland, and encourage more drivers to make the switch to greener travel with the uptake of more electric vehicles.” READ MORE



KiaMobility launched for flexible mobility services

Air cleaning technology inside new Volvos

Kia has launched a new dealer-led car usership service which allows users to rent vehicles from dealers for just a single day or up to a whole year. ‘KiaMobility’ offers a new mobility option at a time when people are seeking new modes of transportation following the COVID-19 outbreak. The company has developed its own fleet management platform for the mobility service, allowing collective operation of vehicles at the dealership. The platform is designed to provide personalised service for customers to reserve vehicles of their choice, pay via a mobile app, and visit the dealer for pick-up and drop-off of the vehicles, which undergo thorough sanitation to ensure safety.

‘KiaMobility’ is first being launched at 16 locations through dealerships in Italy and Russia. Following the pilot scheme, Kia plans to expand the service next year in Europe and other regions such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Middle East. Kia announced its shift to become a provider of personalised, customer-centric and sustainable mobility services under the ‘Plan S’ strategy it revealed in January. The plan outlined the company’s intentions to develop a diverse range of mobility services and popularise electric vehicles worldwide. READ MORE

Volvo Cars has introduced a technology which cleans out fine particulate matter from the cabin of its cars. The company’s new Advanced Air Cleaner technology comes with a sensor that measures PM 2.5 levels inside the cabin, creating a feature not available in any other car currently on the market. Available on all 60 and 90 series Volvo models based on the Scalable Product Architecture (SPA) since this spring, the Advanced Air Cleaner cleans out fine particulate matter from the cabin. Thanks to a synthetic fibre-based filter and ionisation, up to 95 per cent of all PM 2.5 particles are kept out of the cabin. This optimises air quality inside the car, limiting the adverse health effects that are associated with air pollution and fine particulates. Drivers of relevant Volvo models can also use the Volvo On Call smartphone app (where available) to easily schedule an extra cleaning of the cabin air ahead of their journey. The app then tells drivers about the actual PM 2.5 levels inside the cabin after cleaning. Volvo’s engineers also have a longstanding focus on removing emissions from organic substances in the car and minimising the amount of allergycausing materials from its interiors. READ MORE




Wash your hands more often for 20 seconds Use soap and water or a hand sanitiser when you: • Get home or into work • Blow your nose, sneeze or cough • Eat or handle food


PROTECT For more information and the Government’s Action Plan go to




Opportunity to reduce commuter emissions being missed

Mobilityways has released data that shows 10 billion kg of CO2e could be saved if people commuted more sustainably, either by walking, cycling, using public transport or car sharing – the equivalent of London’s carbon emissions for almost four months. In the UK, commuting accounts for 18 billion kg

of CO2e – 25 per cent of transport emissions and five per cent of total emissions. Mobilityways, a new organisation committed to helping businesses achieve zero carbon commuting, analysed travel data for 285,000 commuters across 200 major UK employers. The data shows that 42 per cent of commuters could walk or cycle, 46 per cent could use public transport, and 92 per cent have one or more colleagues living within one mile of them who they could share a lift to work with. The average commuter has over five people they could share a lift with within walking distance of their home. But census data for England shows that only 15 per cent of commuters currently walk or cycle, 18 per cent use public transport and just 10 per cent share a car with a co-worker. According to Mobilityways, the opportunity to reduce commuter emissions is currently

being missed. The Department for Transport’s Decarbonising Transport document, published in March 2020, does not mention commuters or the importance of employer travel plans. In addition, current rules for public sector and business greenhouse gas emission reporting do not make the inclusion of commuting and ‘grey fleet’ business miles compulsory, bypassing an important opportunity to incentivise and motivate employers to tackle the issue. Mobilityways is launching the UK’s first average commuter emissions level (ACEL) online calculator to help businesses and public sector organisations to make data-driven decisions on mobility planning and policy. READ MORE



Minerals for EV batteries can be found in deep sea rocks

MG welcomes new electric and PHEV models to its range

New research by Deep Green shows up to 90 per cent carbon footprint reduction for critical minerals for electric vehicle batteries when sourcing them from deep-sea polymetallic nodules, compared to conventionally mined land ores. The peer-reviewed study, published in the Journal of Cleaner Production, is a comparative life cycle assessment of EV battery metal sources, quantifying the direct and indirect emissions and disruptions to carbon sequestration services realised in the mining, processing and refining of battery metals. The carbon intensity of producing metals like nickel has led to growing interest in low-carbon metal sources and a recent plea by Tesla’s Elon Musk promising “a giant contract” for nickel mined “efficiently and in an environmentally sensitive way.” The new study goes beyond just considering carbon emissions

from human operations to look at the disruption of ecosystem carbon sequestration services caused by changes in land and seabed use to produce battery metals. The study found that producing battery metals from nodules can reduce active human emissions of CO2e by 70-75 per cent, stored carbon at risk by 94 per cent and disruption of carbon sequestration services by 88 per cent. The researchers found that polymetallic nodules could deliver metals for one billion EV batteries with up to 11.6 Gt less of CO2e compared to terrestrial sources. This represents a significant potential saving given the remaining carbon budget of just 235 Gt for a 66 per cent probability of staying at 1.5°C global warming.

MG has launched two new electrified vehicles, the MG5 EV, which is on sale now, and MG HS Plug-in hybrid, which goes on sale in October. MG5 EV is powered by a 115kW electric motor (equivalent to 156PS), giving acceleration of 0-60mph in just over eight seconds, with a 52.2kWh LithiumIon battery pack that can be charged from zero to 80 per cent in just 50 minutes using a rapid charger. MG5 EV has a WLTPapproved combined range of 214 miles in normal day-to-day use; this rises to 276 miles if the car is used solely for urban driving. Prices start from just £24,495 after the Plug-In Car Grant and users will benefit from 0% Benefit-in-Kind tax during the 2020-21 tax year, or 1% in 2021-22. Two trim levels are available – Excite and Exclusive. A full charge at home using Type 2 fast charging can be attained in around

eight and a half hours. The new MG HS Plug-in SUV goes on sale in October with an entry price of £29,995. It becomes MG’s first model to feature a Plug-in Hybrid drivetrain, using the existing model’s 1.5-litre turbocharged engine working in tandem with a 90kW electric motor to give an EV-only range of 32 miles. Together the electric and petrol motors develop a combined power output of 258PS, giving the model a performance advantage, too. It has the ability to accelerate swiftly from 0-60mph in 6.9 seconds. MG HS Plug-in also introduces an innovative new 10-speed transmission which works with both the petrol and electric motors to optimise power delivery and efficiency. Overall, CO2 emissions are 43g/km. READ MORE





M74 in Scotland and M6 in England most EV-friendly motorways CarGurus has revealed which of Britain’s motorways are best prepared to serve electric vehicle (EV) drivers, with the M74 in Scotland and M6 in England crowned the most EV-friendly. The M74 in Scotland is the most EV-friendly motorway overall, with the shortest average distance between charging point locations. The 40-mile route, which runs south-east from Glasgow, has three public EV charge points along its length, giving an average distance of just 13.3 miles between locations The M6, which is the UK’s longest motorway and connects the West Midlands to the North West of England has a charging point location on average every 14.5 miles along its 232-mile route.

Meanwhile, the M8 which connects Glasgow to Edinburgh in Scotland has just one service station and no charging points across its 60-mile length, despite being Scotland’s busiest motorway. Similarly in England, the 32-mile M60 Manchester ring road lacks any EV charging facilities at its motorway service stations. According to CarGurus search data analysis, the EV-preparedness of motorways like the M6 doesn’t necessarily correlate with genuine interest in electric vehicles from local residents. In fact, CarGurus found that despite the nearby M6 ranking highly, just 10% of buyer searches for EVs on the CarGurus marketplace platform came from the West

Midlands and North West, despite these areas accounting for a fifth of the UK’s population. The M25, which is often named among the nation’s least favourite motorway and by far the busiest, has just four charging locations along its 117-mile length. Yet, with a charging location nearly every 30 miles, it ranks a lowly 15th, despite Greater London accounting for over a third (37%) of EV searches in the UK. On the other end of the spectrum, Northern Ireland’s M5 made it into the top three most EV-friendly motorways, despite accounting for just 1% of EV interest nationwide. READ MORE



Green energy credit for Volkswagen EV customers

Eighty-one Peugeot e-208s ordered for police and fire services

Volkswagen is offering customers in the UK who move to Octopus Energy’s renewable energy tariffs and purchase an electric vehicle a credit of up to £90 to their energy account, thanks to a new partnership between the two companies. The offer will also be available to existing Octopus Energy customers who purchase an EV from one of the participating Volkswagen brands. Greg Jackson, CEO and founder of Octopus Energy, commented: “Tackling climate change means focusing on the biggest polluters, so switching transportation from dirty fossil fuels to clean green power has

Peugeot is providing 1,500 new cars and vans to 38 different police and fire authorities across the UK, including 81 electric e-208s. The vehicles ordered also include the allnew 208, 308, 508, the 3008 SUV and 5008 SUV and Partner, Expert and Boxer vans. So far this year, Peugeot has delivered 611 vehicles to the 38 forces. A growing number of Police and Fire services are considering electric and hybrid vehicles, with 13 per cent of the vehicles ordered from Peugeot this year being full electric. These vehicles have been put to operational use, supporting frontline activity across the UK. Gary Mallett, fleet manager - West Midlands Police, said: “Peugeot have provided eight loan vehicles to us throughout the period the UK has been affected by the Covid-19 pandemic. These vehicles are used as support and backup vehicles for West Midlands Police. This in turn has ensured West Midlands Police can support the communities it serves.” All of the vehicles supplied were used either for operational or support purposes, with the police and fire authorities requiring reliable and efficient models. David Peel, managing director of Peugeot UK, said: “It’s a great testament of build quality, reliability and performance that so many of our vehicles continue to be chosen for operational purposes by the UK’s police and fire departments. There are few greater tests than the daily use of our police and fire departments, and we look forward to continuing to work with our public services in the future.”

to be top of the agenda. It’s super exciting to see the world’s largest car manufacturer fully commit to electric vehicles – the only way to decarbonise our roads and protect our planet. Our partnership with Volkswagen is an important step towards transitioning to a renewable energy future globally, and we can’t wait to get started.” The partnership is to start with Volkswagen and extend to Audi, SEAT, ŠKODA, and Cupra brands. READ MORE






Major retail names confirmed for UK’s first electric forecourt Soon to open electric forecourt GRIDSERVE has announced multiple new partnerships with retail, service and technology giants. Due to open near Braintree, Essex, this November, GRIDSERVE has confirmed partnerships with WHSmith, Costa Coffee, Post Office, Booths, and Gourmade. It has also confirmed partnerships with charging infrastructure partners ABB, and Tesla, as well as customer support from the AA. The UK’s first Electric Forecourt® near Braintree, Essex, will be the first of over 100 sites to be built by GRIDSERVE in the next five years, as part of a £1bn programme to help make EV driving ultraconvenient and stress-free. The Electric Forecourt® has been financed by GRIDSERVE together with Hitachi Capital UK PLC and Innovate UK. Thirty electric vehicles can be charged simultaneously with high power chargers that can deliver up to 350kW of charging power, enabling people to add 200 miles of range in just 20 minutes, and much faster in the future as battery technologies within the cars mature. While vehicles charge, drivers will be able to use the two-

story building houses a waiting lounge, free superfast Wi-Fi, high-end washrooms, a dedicated kid’s area, wellbeing area and business meeting room pods. On the ground floor, there’s a retail space, operated by WHSmith, which includes a coffee shop, convenience supermarket, as well as fresh and frozen food. Well known brands include WHSmith, Costa Coffee, Post Office, Booths, and Gourmade. The Electric Forecourt® will also include an education centre to showcase electric vehicles, providing people with the confidence, knowledge and support to transition to an allelectric future. GRIDSERVE and Hitachi Capital UK PLC have also partnered to accelerate the uptake of electric vehicles by offering simplified electric vehicle solutions that reduce upfront costs and have charging included in competitive monthly costs designed to bring the cost of using electric vehicles below the overall costs of using petrol or diesel cars. READ MORE


Government considers green coloured parking spaces for EVs The government is considering ways to encourage the take up of electric vehicles through proposals such as green painted parking spaces for electric vehicles, charge points at supermarkets and popular tourist sites, and consistent and clear public signage for drivers on UK roads. These recommendations were made in a governmentcommissioned report by the Office for Low Emission Vehicles. Local authorities could be given guidance on painting EV parking spaces green as part of the plans. The government also announced it is investing £12 million in funding for research and development (R&D) to support a series of

competitions for some of the most promising EV technologies. Together with Innovate UK, the funding will support a range of ground-breaking projects designed to open up significant commercial opportunities, one of which could see cars of the future benefit from a 6-minute battery charge. The Department for Transport has also worked closely with Autotrader, a popular site for buying and selling cars, to develop a dedicated EV section on their website to help potential EV purchasers with their decision, with more sites expected to follow.

LowCVP’s Andy Eastlake Partnership is the cement that will bind the net zero aggregate Change is in the air. You can hear it, feel it and – increasingly – see evidence of it on our roads and in all kinds of communications about our transport future. The strange times we’ve been living through haven’t knocked the road transport transition off course; indeed, the disruption may even be accelerating it. Electric vehicle sales have been far more robust than those of ‘traditional’ vehicles throughout the pandemic and we’re hearing daily announcements of new product launches, technical advances and progress even in the larger, long distance and hard-to-electrify transport applications. We’re still only in the foothills of the challenge, though. Setting targets and announcing bold ambitions is one thing but delivering on them to a tightened timescale is another. Fleets, companies, cities and, indeed, nations are all making bold statements, committing to ambitious net zero, or zero carbon plans, with target dates in the near future. (As I write, the papers are full of reports that the UK Government is preparing to announce the ending of sales of cars powered by internal combustion engines as soon as 2030.) While it’s great to see and hear these passions and ambitions from across the private sector, almost all are accompanied by loud calls on government and related authorities for more grants, more infrastructure more incentives and other support mechanisms in what could cynically be seen as lining up excuses for failure! Electrification of light vehicle fleets is a good example. The real work comes not in making the bold statement but in collaborating constructively to do the detailed work in shaping the world to enable success. There’s no lack of ambition from most of the people I meet, but there is often a lack of tangible and wellthought-through plans commensurate with that ambition. LowCVP, of course, advocates as rapid a transition as possible wherever this can be delivered. But it’s going to take a plethora of policy measures to deliver the future we’re aiming for. These supporting measures will need to be detailed, developed, scrutinised, communicated, monitored, constantly reviewed and – crucially - accepted by all key stakeholders if they’re to be effective and offer true value for government money. And, of course, we’ll need to introduce both ‘sticks’ to drive the laggards, as well as nurturing the ‘carrots’ to entice the early adopters. I strongly believe that it’s only in a multi-stakeholder environment that these reasoned conversations can take place, and we need them as a vital counterweight to the, sometimes, entrenched views of those who for one reason or another may be opposed to change. So, as we all wait with bated breath on the Government’s 203X car and van ICE phase-out announcement, we must remember that whatever the date and the phasing, we will all have to work cohesively together and use every tool in the box (and maybe even some we don’t have yet). Then, with fair winds, following seas and partnership, I’m confident we can build the future we need. FURTHER INFORMATION





“We’ve tried every zero-emission solution out there” London-based car service Green Tomato Cars has been using hydrogen-fuelled cars and other low-emission vehicles since 2015. We speak to Jonny Goldstone, the company’s founder and managing director, about why he continues to back hydrogen as an alternative fuel Please give some background on Green Tomato Cars: what made you start and what was the lowemission car market like then? When we launched Green Tomato Cars in 2006 our mission was clear – and it’s exactly the same today: to demonstrate that environmentally focused businesses can be commercially sustainable too. Sustainability really is our ‘north star’. Our commitment has always been to using the lowest emitting vehicle that does the job – and that proviso is what brought us to hydrogen. At the start, the Toyota Prius was the obvious choice by far. Remember, this was back when nobody knew what a hybrid car was. We were the first private hire operator to use the Prius, and many of the established industry players thought we were from another planet. Today, more than 50 per cent of all taxis and private hire cars in London – and probably most other cities on the planet – are Prius and other hybrids. That isn’t to say every other car in 2030 will be hydrogen-fuelled, but we’re confident that we understand the current situation and what lies ahead – and we’ve always been prepared to take the lead. We hope others will follow again this time round.


You were an early adopter of hydrogen fuelled vehicles: What made you choose hydrogen? What were the challenges? We started with Hydrogen in 2015 because it’s in our DNA; we owe it to our drivers, passengers and the broader community around us – to do all we can to improve air quality in London. We’ve tried every zero emission solution out there, so it made sense to give hydrogen a go too. The challenge we’ve always faced with Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) is that our drivers need vehicles with decent range – at least 200 miles; but they can’t afford for it to take a long time to recharge or refuel. The cars also need to be affordable at scale, so while it was viable for us to have one Tesla S, that was never going to make sense as a mass fleet solution. Hydrogen FCEVs appeared to tick all three boxes: in 2015 the range was around 300 miles, now some of our drivers are getting closer to 400 miles on a single tank; the refuel time is comparable with a petrol pump; and the price – while not insignificant, thanks to some grant funding assistance* from the EU and OLEV with the early cars – means we’ve been able to afford to scale up.


Our initial trial lasted two years and involved just two cars. The biggest challenge was around the infrastructure, but with only two cars that was rarely an issue as we were able to micro-manage the logistics if one of the stations (there were only three around London in 2015) needed to be taken offline for maintenance or an upgrade. You have 50 Toyota Mirai hydrogen cars in use, with another 14 on order: What makes you continue to back hydrogen as an alternative fuel? We could only move from two to twenty-five, and then fifty cars, once we were confident the cars were reliable and the infrastructure was sufficient to operate that many vehicles. In terms of the cars themselves, as you would expect from Toyota, we’ve never had a problem with the technology. On top of that, our drivers love them and our passengers do too – they’re a premium model compared to the Prius, and of course the drive is incredibly smooth. And the refueling infrastructure had moved to the scale we needed too. When the trial began there were (full time) stations in Teddington, Rainham and Heathrow; new stations at Cobham, Gatwick and Beaconsfield have now doubled that infrastructure, with more to come soon. You’ve recently made a public call for the number of hydrogen refuelling stations to increase - how big of a problem is the limited refuelling infrastructure? The lack of infrastructure is of course a relative issue – the current number of stations is fine for our own fleet and the few other fleets using hydrogen. But if you want to go from tens of cars to hundreds, let alone thousands, then there needs to be a proportionate increase in supply. That means more stations, better distributed – currently, Rainham is the only station east of the City, and there are no stations anywhere close to central London. As the number of cars increase, drivers will not

Are there other challenges to operating hydrogen fuelled vehicles? There is a shortage of vehicle types (and competitive tension between manufacturers) for the timebeing, but that’s inevitable at such an early stage. Of course, one of the main advantages of hydrogen over battery in this context is around vehicle size – a bigger battery means an ever-heavier car, whereas hydrogen offers a much lighter solution. So for us, we would love to see a hydrogen MPV on the market soon and we’re sure the manufacturers are looking at that angle too. As for cost, we managed to make the starting affordable and that will only come down with time and volume, so we’re optimistic on that front too. You also have PHEVs on your fleet. What are your views on the government planning to ban the sale of new plug-in hybrid cars and vans? We’ve been beating this drum for what feels like a long time now – removing all forms of petrol and diesel cars from the roads is the right ambition, but the alternatives have to exist first. It’s no good forcing everyone to move to BEVs, HFCEVs or any other kind of zero emission transport until the vehicles and supporting infrastructure are in place. Not only does moving too far too fast make politicians and town planners look stupid, but it also gives sustainability a bad name by association. The deniers and nay-

The lack of infrastructure is of course a relative issue – the current number of stations is fine for our own fleet and the few other fleets using hydrogen. But if you want to go from tens of cars to hundreds, let alone thousands, then there needs to be a proportionate increase in supply. sayers can lazily blame the problem on being forced to ‘go green’, rather than the poor planning and execution of the change. So, we urge government at all levels to do things as urgently as they can, but in the right order: over-commit on infrastructure, and incentivise manufacture and uptake, before taking away and penalising the old options for which there will now be viable substitutes. Other countries have shown how well that model works, I don’t see why we can’t do the same in the UK. What are your thoughts on pure battery electric vehicles? I have chosen BEVs as my personal cars since 2013. I’m a massive fan of the technology and of course there’s much greater choice of models than with HFCEVs. In terms of Green Tomato Cars, a growing number of our network partners also drive BEVs for work purposes, so it’s encouraging to see that those drivers are making them work. As soon as there’s enough infrastructure we expect them to become a meaningful part of our corporate fleet alongside HFCEVs. Although pure battery cars do have less range than hydrogen cars, the bigger challenge is about the scale, suitability and accessibility of


have the luxury of knowing they are likely to be the only one turning up at a refueling station; and it is going to become more pressing to have a refueling option relatively close to wherever they are dropping off or picking up their next passenger.

the infrastructure required for an operation like ours - and the right combination of carrot and stick from government on all levels. Can you see hydrogen becoming a viable fuel to the masses? What needs to happen to achieve this? I would be surprised to see anything like as many hydrogen FCEVs as battery EVs in the future – but that’s when it comes to private passenger cars. For heavy duty vehicles - larger vehicles and higher mileage vehicles, such as taxi and private hire – we see hydrogen playing a significant role because of the advantages it holds in terms of range and refuelling time. For that to happen we need to see investment from across the board – business and government – to create the perception of scale amongst stakeholders, and build the confidence that will ensue. And we need the battery and hydrogen players to appreciate that it will be far better for both sectors if they support one another, rather than trying to score points against each other. I find the “our zero emissions are better than your zero emissions” exchanges that you see on LinkedIn and other platforms both infantile and a complete waste of time, when both groups have so much further to go – and could be doing so much to raise the tide for each other. Please share any advice for companies looking to add hydrogen-fuelled vehicles to their fleet? For now the key question around operating a hydrogen fleet is access to the refueling infrastructure. If your operations are suitably located, give it a go. If not, you’ll have to wait until the necessary infrastructure is in place – or look at sourcing a ‘mobile’ solution to give yourself a suitable level of fuel security.

* Grant funding includes direct funding from the EU’s ‘ZEFER’ project. This project has received funding from the Fuel Cells and Hydrogen 2 Joint Undertaking under grant agreement n.779538. This Joint Undertaking receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Hydrogen Europe and Hydrogen Europe Research. FURTHER INFORMATION Jonny Goldstone founder and managing director of Green Tomato Cars




Blackpool Preston

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Bolton Wigan






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Peak District National Park



Sheffield Worksop

Macclesfield Chesterfield

Chester Congleton Matlock





Wrexham Stoke-on-Trent


Whitchurch Market Drayton


Nottingham Derby






Burton upon Trent







The GF 100 Most Influential is made up of fleet managers, vehicle manufacturers, government officials, NGOs, fleet suppliers and energy companies that have shaped the green transport agenda over the year. With this cross-sector perspective, we asked the group what needs to happen to ensure fleets can successfully transition to net-zero. Here’s what they said


ER H T O 3% 1



the same time as mild hybrids. He said: “PHEVs have an essential role to play in the decarbonisation of transport and overcoming the barriers of range anxiety.” The issue perceived about PHEVs is that there is no way to ensure they are being charged and used in EV mode. But putting this to one side, the challenge for OEMs is to deliver PHEVs with a longer electric range, retaining the ICE technology but reducing the dependency to occasional longer journeys. There is an underlying assumption that BEVs will continue to offer greater range, and faster recharging, thereby meeting the needs of most drivers.

35 20 4%

Support for an ICE ban in 2035 The ban on new petrol, diesel and hybrid cars and vans is currently set at 2040. This date is being reviewed by OLEV as it is believed that 2040 is too late if the UK is going to achieve net-zero by 2050. The proposed new date for the ban is 2035 or possibly earlier. The consultation was broadly supported by individuals within the GF100 Most Influential, with over 70 per cent of respondents in favour of bringing forward the current 2040 date. Looking in more detail, 34 per cent said they supported 2035 date, while 38 per cent said they supported a more ambitious target of 2030. However, it should be noted that fleet respondents were much more cautious, with the majority favouring 2040. Fleets were quick to remind us that non-standard vehicles, payload and range remain a concern. It was felt that the selection of vehicles available today was too limited, and there was a lack of confidence in the public charging infrastructure. Chris Lane from Birmingham University commented: “By bringing the date forward by five years it may focus the mind of those that think 2040 is twenty years away, even if we miss the new date it will greatly increase the chance of achieving the original one.”

Including PHEVs in the ban is controversial When asked specifically whether Plug-in Hybrids (PHEVs) should be banned at the same time at petrol and diesel vehicles, only 19 per cent of respondents agreed, with a further 35 per cent stating that PHEVs should only be banned once fully Zero Emission vehicles are more viable. It was suggested that tools such as geofencing could be mandated to create “no ICE” zones with penalties for vehicles that do not switch to battery. Mike Hawes, chief executive officer, SMMT is among those who believe that PHEVs should not be banned at

15 40 %

In June 2019, the UK became the first major economy in the world to commit to bring all greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050. Whilst many fleets have already begun the transition to ultra-low emission, achieving net zero by 2050 is a huge undertaking. We surveyed the GF100 Most Influential – a group of the most influential people that have shaped the zero and low-carbon fleet industry over the year – in advance of the GF100 LIVE! event which took place online on 27 August. They were asked their opinions on the barriers and priorities for the fleet industry in the coming years, with the aim of identifying the key steps that need to be taken in order to ensure fleets successfully transition to net-zero by 2050. The survey considered all ultra-low emission technologies, and it is clear that there is more than one path to achieving net-zero. Electric vehicles feature heavily as they are more widely available than other technologies, however other alternative fuels particularly, hydrogen, did feature as an important contributor for the journey to net-zero. Here’s what the GF100 said.


GF100 Special Report Written by Kate Armitage

GF100 Most Influential: getting fleets to net zero

2030 38%

“By bringing the date forward by five years it may focus the mind of those that think 2040 is twenty years away, even if we miss the new date it will greatly increase the chance of achieving the original one.” Chris Lane – Birmingham University.


At the same time as petrol/diesel vehicles


Not the same time as petrol/diesel vehicles


Not be banned until zero emission vehicles are more viable


They should Never be banned

19% 4%

Yes, they should be banned

Findings from the survey suggest that government should consider a tiered approach to the ban by fuel type; first petrol/diesel (inc hybrid) and PHEVs later. The government should also consider a tiered approach to the ban by vehicle application, e.g. earlier targets for taxis and urban delivery vans. Availability and cost of charging remains biggest barrier It is frequently said that there is no silver bullet to achieving zero emission road transport. Respondents from the GF100 identified a wide number of barriers reflecting the scale of the challenge the industry is facing. The three barriers for the uptake of zero emission vehicles is lack of public charging and its difficulty of use (23 per cent); limited availability of vehicles and long waiting lists (19 per cent); and a lack of knowledge and experience when it comes to zero-emission vehicle technology. The lack of reliable public rapid charging to support high mileage company cars and vans is a real issue. As of September

2020 ZapMap reports that there are 7,230 rapid (50kW DC) chargepoints and 1153 High-Power (100kW+ DC) chargepoints, in 2340 locations across the UK. While there are new public rapid chargers being added every day, fleets require the rapid infrastructure to match the speed and reliability currently enjoyed in ICE fleets. Some fleets reported long lead times/ waiting lists for vehicles (pre-Covid 19). It was also noted that choice across the full range of vehicle segments is still limited; this was particularly highlighted for vans where bespoke requirements (eg refrigeration) are currently not met. The problem of long lead times must not be amplified by Brexit, and government intervention is required to ensure frictionless supply of ULEVs to the UK. Chris Chandler, principal consultant at Lex Autolease, commented: “A critical element of policy making in the short term, especially with Brexit and leaving the EUs CAFÉ system, is to ensure that UK is able to secure cost effective supply of electric vehicles to meet the growing demand.”

Vehicle Availability Vehicle availability is already reported as a barrier by some respondents and this may become a bigger issue as we move into the decade. One respondent suggested the OEMs are adopting a compliance rather than an ambitious approach to the zero emission vehicles; post COVID this might get worse as revenue and R&D budgets will be squeezed.

Chris Chandler, principal consultant at Lex Autolease, highlighted the further risk associated with Brexit: “A critical element of policy making in the short term, especially with Brexit and leaving the EUs CAFÉ system, is to ensure that that UK is able to secure cost effective supply of electric vehicles to meet the growing demand.”

Government needs to take a longer term view on policy OLEV has created a number of very successful incentives and policies for ULEVs (such as the Plug in Car and Plug in Van Grant, home and workplace charging and BIK taxation). OLEV has also been proactive in providing knowledge and education tools for fleets (eg Go Ultra Low for Business). It has also recently committed £500m towards Project Rapid. However, there are two further areas that are particularly important for fleets. Thirty-eight per cent of respondents want more certainty about grants & tax. Despite the announcement in the March budget that BIK rates for ZE vehicles would remain at two per cent through to 24/25, there was still a feeling that more longer term certainty was needed. Twenty per cent expressed a need for further funding for recharging infrastructure. The cost of charging infrastructure is seen as prohibitive, particularly when electricity networks need to be upgraded. This issue is compounded for fleets that do not own the car park or depot. It is therefore recommended that the fleet industry needs the taxation policies to be fixed beyond 2025, and that government should consider additional grant funding for electrical upgrades for depot based fleet charging.

GF100 Special Report


Question mark over trucks While doubts around 2050 net zero targets for trucks exist, in particular long haul, specialist and utility vehicles that provide auxiliary power, the majority of respondents (65 per cent) believe technology will develop fast enough to produce zero emission, fit-for-purpose, and cost effective trucks by 2040. “Achieving zero emission long-haul HGVs will be challenging in this timeframe, though demonstrators will be in place,” comments Andy Eastlake, managing director at the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership (LowCVP). It was noted by one respondent that despite facing heavy penalties in the future, OEMs remain focused on efficient diesel. Hydrogen was a recurring theme for fit-for-purpose trucks; the technology is proven, however the timetable for mass production and the associated infrastructure remain unclear. Graham Thomas, Fleet Operations Manager, Ocado noted: “Unfortunately too many local authorities and think tanks are completely BEV centric and have restricted the opportunities for hydrogen to develop both in terms of the technology and infrastructure.” Commercial viability to produce fuel cell vehicles, refuelling infrastructure and the hydrogen itself was also called into question, with one experienced low emission HGV fleet operator noting “hydrogen is very inefficient as a road fuel, which means it will be expensive vs BEV and catenary. Good efficiency should be a priority for any alternative fuel.” It was generally felt that more government support was required if hydrogen was going to become a commercially viable ZE alternative to BEVs. E Issue 129 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


GF100 Special Report





27% 65%

Fleet Planners have a vital role to play too The complexity of the transition to ZE calls into question traditional methodologies, and ultimately over this period of dramatic change it will be the fleet managers and planners who will need to adapt and modify business practises. Nigel Morris, Swansea University provided these words of encouragement: “If we do this, this and this, we can make it work. Shift the fuel and maintenance, ULEZ/ Congestion charge budgets into the lease cost, invest in a corporate or collaborative charging solution, use PV, battery storage and controls to shift to off peak renewables and reap benefits moving forward.” There is little doubt that there are exciting times ahead, and with the support and encouragement from leaders and innovators, such as the GreenFleet 100 Most Influential, there is every opportunity for fleets to be net zero by 2050. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Report findings After asking the GF100 Most Influential their views on net zero targets for fleets, the following is recommended:


“Unfortunately too many local authorities and think tanks are completely BEV centric and have restricted the opportunities for hydrogen to develop both in terms of the technology and infrastructure.” Graham Thomas – Ocado  By far the majority of respondents felt that the 2050 deadline for net zero operations for transport is achievable, with only 12 per cent saying it was an unfair expectation of fleets. Colin Ferguson from the Algorithm People commented that the “expectation is fine; but there should be further discussion about the road map and its way points on the road to zero”. Carbon offsetting remains an option for operations that cannot be made zero emission, but is it being considered by the industry? Fifty-eight per cent of respondents felt that it was quite or very likely that they would off-set vehicle emissions if necessary, while others felt that it would not be necessary by 2050.


The importance of renewable energy Renewable energy was the one area where virtually the entire GreenFleet 100 Most Influential was in agreement. There is an undeniable correlation between the switch to an ULEV and using renewable energy, with ULEV drivers described as “the vanguard of using green electricity”. But battery electric vehicles aren’t just users of electricity; it should also be remembered that through smart charging and Vehicle to Grid technology, the batteries in the electric vehicles can be used to provide flexibility and storage services that will become increasingly important as we increase the volume of wind and solar generation onto the grid.


Government should consider a tiered approach to the ICE ban by fuel type, with the PHEV ban coming into effect later than petrol and diesel. Government should consider a tiered approach to the ICE ban by vehicle application, e.g. earlier targets for taxis and urban delivery vans Government intervention is required to ensure frictionless supply of ULEVs to the UK post Brexit. The fleet industry needs the taxation policies to be fixed beyond 2025. Government should consider additional grant funding for electrical upgrades for depot based fleet charging. More certainty is needed on the commercial viability of both BEV and hydrogen trucks for haulage operators. Kerbside emissions are just half the story; the energy industry must continue the switch to renewable energy.



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Recent reports suggest that the government is set to bring forward the ban on sales of new petrol and diesel vehicles, including hybrids and plug-in hybrids, from 2040 to 2030. Evidence shows that there is support for such measures, but that barriers remain in place before fleets can confidently make the switch to electric vehicles

Alex Haffner, strategic insight manager at National Grid ESO, shares insights from the 2020 Future Energy Scenarios report, which for the first time reflects net zero targets in its predictions

Despite the impact of Covid-19, the electric vehicle market’s collective accomplishments over the past two years signal a pattern of ongoing growth, which is expected to continue over the course of the next decade. Jamie Hamilton, head of electric vehicles at Deloitte, explains further

31 Expert Panel

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38 Roundtable

A number of large companies have made public commitments to switch to zero emission vehicles, with many already on that journey. But barriers still need to be overcome to ensure those who want to switch to electric vehicles, can. Our panel of experts discuss the challenges on route to zero-emissions

Gill Nowell from the newly formed Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England discusses its recent research, which shows people in England are generally in support on phasing out petrol and diesel vehicles in pursuit of cleaner air

As fleets are coming to terms with the enduring effects that COVID 19 has had on operations, attention is now turning once again to the long term need to become zero emission. To discuss progress and current challenges a diverse group of fleets and emission reduction specialists attended GreenFleet’s virtual roundtable on 9 September



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Electrifying business The Volvo range has undergone an exciting transformation over the last few years and has made significant steps into the electrification space. As we see plug-in hybrid and electric car sales in the UK accelerate, Volvo is well placed to support you and your businesses with taking the next step

Ever since its inception, the Volvo brand has always been synonymous with safety. And we continue to lead the way with the safety technology on our vehicles. But in a world where the threat of climate change is growing and global warming is heading towards three degrees, it’s important that our approach to safety extends to protecting the world around us. For Volvo Cars it’s about minimising our environmental impact, maximising our social impact and caring for our customers and employees. And for our fleet and business customers specifically it is about assisting and supporting you with your own CSR objectives and helping steer you through what can be a challenging area. Volvo Cars has one of the most ambitious sustainability programmes in the automotive sector and was recognised in 2019 by the Ethisphere Institute, a global leader in defining and advancing the standards of ethical business practices, as a World’s Most Ethical Company®. This is the third consecutive year that Volvo Cars has received this recognition. And recently our CEO Hakan Samuelsson received Autocar’s most prestigious personal award in recognition of his leadership – a large part of which was

his ambitious electrification strategy. By 2025 Volvo has three headline sustainability ambitions. The first is to have one million electrified cars on the road and half of all annual sales to be fully electric. We already offer plug-in hybrids across our entire range. And over the next five years we will launch five pure electric vehicles, starting with our XC40 P8 which is available to order now. Our second ambition is for at least 25 per cent of the plastics used in every newly launched Volvo to be made from recycled materials. And our final 2025 target is that we aim to achieve climate neutral manufacturing operations. This is part of a wider climate plan that aims to reduce the overall carbon footprint per car by 40 per cent between 2018 and 2025. And by 2040, Volvo Cars aims to be a climate-neutral company. Plug-in hybrid technology Right now, plug-in hybrid technology is a great option for fleets. Although the initial capital outlay can look high compared to traditional engine alternatives, over the life of the vehicle your business stands to make significant savings due to lower running costs and tax benefits. Lower Benefit-in-kind rates

Steve Beattie Head of Fleet and Remarketing Volvo Car UK

mean plug-in hybrids can also be a costefficient option for company car drivers too, providing the vehicle is driven appropriately and the battery is charged regularly. When it comes to electrified vehicles, range anxiety is still a concern amongst drivers and whilst a more extensive charging infrastructure is established nationwide, plug-in hybrids help alleviate that worry. With a pure electric range of up to 36 miles our Volvo plug-in hybrids will comfortably manage the average UK commute emission free. Volvo has branded its plug-in hybrid range ‘Recharge’. By introducing new powertrains, we have been able to increase the choice when it comes to power output and list price. For example, our award-winning XC40 is now available as a T4 plug-in hybrid. Built on our CMA platform it is our entry level PHEV with a P11D of under £40,000. And at 12 per cent BIK it will cost a 40 per cent tax payer just £156 a month. The diversity of our plug-in hybrid powertrains is further demonstrated by our recently launched T6 available now on the XC60 mid-size SUV and the V60 estate. Once again we see low BIK rates resulting in attractive monthly costs for drivers – and that’s before taking in to account the money saved through reduced fuel costs. Also available to order now is our XC40 Recharge P8 pure electric which was the first fully electric premium compact SUV on the market in the UK. The 75kwh lithium-ion battery delivers an estimated range of over 250 miles on a single charge and 408 hp. It’s an exciting time for Volvo and with our ‘Recharge’ range of vehicles, we feel we have the right products at the right time. In addition to our cars we also offer expert and dedicated fleet support to our business customers. Our aim is to be a brand that is easy to do business with and which ensures that our customer’s individual needs are always met. If you would like to speak to one of the team for advice on how Volvo can support your business please contact us below. L FURTHER INFORMATION 0345 600 4027



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Report: making the switch to electric Recent reports suggest that the government is set to bring forward the ban on sales of new petrol and diesel vehicles, including hybrids and plug-in hybrids, from 2040 to 2030. Evidence shows that there is support for such measures, but that barriers remain in place before fleets can confidently make the switch to electric vehicles The UK government is seeking to phase out petrol and diesel powered vehicles to get everyone into electric or other zero emission vehicles in order to reach its net zero emission targets by 2050. Recent reports suggest that the government is set to bring forward the ban on sales of new internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, including hybrids and plug-in hybrids, from 2040 to 2030. It comes following a concern voiced by the Committee on Climate Change (CCC) that the original 2040 date wasn’t soon enough to meet the net-zero target. Evidence shows that many in the fleet and road transport industry are willing for this to happen. According to the results of a GreenFleet poll ran at the JUICE online event on 30 July, the overwhelming majority of delegates (96 per cent) believed that ending the sale of new ICE cars and vans could be done before 2040. Half of the respondents thought that the ban should take effect by 2030, 20 per cent thought it would be feasible by 2035, and twelve per cent thought that 2032 is achievable. Twelve per cent meanwhile thought it would be possible to bring the ban into effect earlier than 2030. Only six per cent said that 2040 is when the ban should come into effect. Many organisations have electric vehicles on their fleet, and there is a rising trend for large fleets to make public commitments to transition their fleets to zero emission vehicles, to show to industry and government that demand is there. However, the issue of charging infrastructure comes up as a barrier time and again. Sir John Armitt, Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC), told GreenFleet: “Electric vehicles are now a realistic option for many drivers and businesses as the technology matures and manufacturers invest in new models. But if we’re to get close to 100 per cent electric new car and van sales by 2030 – which our National Infrastructure Assessment says is achievable – then a major barrier to changing behaviours has to be addressed: range anxiety. “There is a straightforward solution. Government should build on the steps it has already taken to boost take-up and commit to a national rapid-charging network. This

would allay the entirely understandable fear many drivers have of being left without power far from home, with nowhere to plug in and quickly charge up. Subsidising chargers in rural and hard-to-reach areas where the market is unlikely to deliver in the short term is a good place to start. But progress also means getting councils to set-aside more of their parking spaces for future conversion to charge points, and making sure the electricity grid is optimised for this growth in demand. “The government’s national infrastructure strategy, expected this autumn, is a great opportunity to commit to this approach and send a clear signal to drivers that the UK’s roads are ready for an electric future.” It is not just the limited number of public charge points that is cited as an issue - its the network’s ease of use that is also a hindrance. Drivers currently still often need to use multiple apps and cards to pay to charge on different networks. This can lead to what Zap Map has called ‘charger anxiety’ – concern about being able to access the right charge point when needed. In a recent survey of the GF100 Most Influential - a cross-industry group of individuals who have all helped shape the low-carbon transport agenda over the year, 23 per cent (the majority) said that the uptake of zero emission vehicles is hindered by the lack of public charging and its difficulty of use. In an attempt to boost the UK’s charging infrastructure, in January this year the Government doubled its EV charger fund allocation to £10 million

Fleet demand Many fleets are already on the journey to switching their fleet to zero emission vehicles, and many have made public commitments to electrify their fleets in the coming years. Environmental charity Global Action Plan started the Clean Van Commitment, which is a public pledge to move to zero emission vans in cities by 2028. Signatories to the Clean Van Commitment include ENGIE, Tesco, Network Rail, London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The Climate Group meanwhile commenced EV100, where companies make a public commitment to integrate electric vehicles into their fleets or to install charging infrastructure. The Climate Group has also launched the UK Electric Fleet Coalition, which aims to provide a strong and positive message to government that some of the biggest companies in the UK are prepared and eager to make the transition to electric vehicles, but they need that ambition matched by the government. Founding member of the UK Electric Fleets Coalition, Openreach, has one of the UK’s largest fleets with around 27,000 vehicles. In a move that kicks off its electric vehicle ambitions, the company has recently placed an order of 270 fully electric Vivaro-e vans and nine Corsa-e cars. EV100 signatory Mitie has reached a major milestone in its electric vehicle rollout, having taken delivery of its 250th electric vehicle. However, Mitie has pointed out that there needs to be more charge points – both on-street residential and rapid chargers as well as greater availability of larger electric vans before it can meet its pledge to convert its entire fleet to electric by 2030. Simon King, director of sustainability and EV strategy at Mitie, said: “As this important milestone shows, our electric vehicle commitment is picking up pace as we rapidly rollout electric vehicles all over Britain, putting 75 new EVs on the roads every month. However, if the UK is going to meet crucial targets to reduce carbon and minimise the effects of climate change, we need more businesses, like Heathrow Airport, as well as government departments and city councils, to join us in the switch to electric vehicles. The first step to achieving this is ensuring an adequate number of charge points, in the places where they are needed most, are installed all over the UK, so that drivers are sure they can charge where and when they need to.” E Issue 129 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


 Eliminating emissions from vehicles The ban of the sale of new petrol and diesel vehicles has concentrated the efforts of vehicle manufacturers to produce zero emission vehicles, with most auto-makers having an electrified variant out, or soon to be out. Despite upheaval caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, 2020 to date has been positive for the electric car market. According to SMMT figures, registrations for pure-EVs in the first eight months of 2020 are up 157 per cent compared to 2019. More than 44,700 pure-EVs have been sold in 2020 to the end of August. Looking at all plug-in vehicles, that figure rises to over 74,500 units. Globally, Deloitte has adjusted its market predictions to say that by the end of the decade, a third of all new car sales worldwide will be electric. This would bring the total number of electric vehicles sold in a single year to 31.1 million globally; ten million more than previously forecast. EV sales are still expected to reach 2.5 million worldwide in 2020, despite disruption from Covid-19. Based on a compound annual growth rate of 29 per cent, Deloitte’s research estimates this to top 11.2 million in 2025 and 31.1 million by 2030. At this milestone, fully electric vehicles will account for 81 per cent of all new EVs sold according to the research, outperforming their plug-in hybrid peers. A current issue cited as a barrier to electric vehicle adoption is their high upfront cost. But with any new technology, there is a high price tag until economies of scale are realised. Jamie Hamilton, head of electric vehicles at Deloitte, commented: “The price premium attached to many electric vehicles restricted some early adopters but, as the cost of EVs have converged with petrol and diesel equivalents, the pool of prospective buyers is set to increase. A wider range of new electric vehicles, combined with a growing secondhand market, means EVs are becoming a more viable option for many. However, overcoming consumer concerns around driving range and perceived lack of charging infrastructure will be important factors as more drivers consider the practicalities of switching to electric.”


“Electric vehicles are now a realistic option for many drivers and businesses as the technology matures and manufacturers invest in new models. But if we’re to get close to 100 per cent electric new car and van sales by 2030 – which our National Infrastructure Assessment says is achievable – then a major barrier to changing behaviours has to be addressed: range anxiety.” — Sir John Armitt, Chair of the National Infrastructure Commission (NIC) Availability of vehicles While the electric car market is growing, a limited choice of EVs is another issue cited by fleets as a barrier. What’s more, for those electric models that are out, fleets have been put off by long waiting times. Last year, it was reported that popular electric models had lead times of more than one year as demand outstripped supply However, in April, What Car? conducted analysis of all 26 electric models currently on sale and showed that lead times had fallen dramatically, with the majority of new electric vehicles now available within 12 weeks. Steve Huntingford, editor of What Car?, said: “As the new car market recovers from the coronavirus crisis, many of the most popular electric vehicles can be delivered as quickly as a petrol or diesel vehicle, which is a real boost for prospective buyers keen to get on with electric motoring.” The analysis showed that the Kia e-Niro had a waiting list that extended to more than a year, and is now available within 26 weeks. The availability of large electric vans has been brought up as an issue, with many fleets lamenting that what’s on the market is unable to meet their range and cargo requirements. Mitie’s Simon King told GreenFleet last



6% 20%

2035 2032


2030 Earlier than 2030 Poll results from the JUICE event on 30 July


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September that in order to electrify its entire fleet by 2030, then “we need to see real, viable alternatives to diesel models for our larger van fleet. At the minute, there’s nothing out there, meaning we have some 2,000 vehicles that can’t yet be switched to electric”. However, a number of vehicle manufacturers have announced they are introducing electric vans to the market, of varying size and range. Creating jobs Labour has recently called on the government to end the sale of new petrol, diesel, and hybrid cars and vans by 2030, saying not only will it help cut emissions and reduce air pollution, but it will also create jobs. Matthew Pennycook MP, Labour’s Shadow Minister for Climate Change said: “2030 is an ambitious but achievable date by which to phase out the sale of new petrol, diesel, and hybrid vehicles, one that would give a new lease of life to the UK car industry, whilst combatting climate breakdown and cleaning up the air that dangerously pollutes so many of our towns and cities. “But as well as accelerating the phase out, the Government must also set out a credible plan to get there – one that backs the low-carbon jobs and industries of the future and ensures that workers and communities are properly supported in the transition to a fairer and cleaner economy. “It’s time for Ministers to seize this opportunity as part of a world-leading green recovery from the coronavirus pandemic, creating good jobs across the country, and generating real momentum for next year’s COP26 climate summit.” With Boris Johnson due to announce that the new petrol/diesel vehicle ban will be moved forward to 2030, the time is ticking for those involved in moving goods and people to switch to zero emission vehicles. Appetite is high amongst fleet operators, as we have seen in this report, and all that stands in the way is to overcome certain barriers; namely ensuring a fast and convenient charging infrastructure is in place, growing the choice list of EVs, especially larger vans, reducing waiting times for vehicles, and bringing upfront costs down. L September 2020 | COMMERCIAL GREENFLEET


Alex Haffner, strategic insight manager at National Grid ESO, shares insights from the 2020 Future Energy Scenarios report, which for the first time reflects net zero targets in its predictions ©EVclicks

The use of electric vehicles (EVS) is and, even in the slowest decarbonising rapidly growing. By 2040 we could see scenario, there will be no new cars sold over 30m electric cars on UK roads. with an internal combustion engine after In 2019, battery electric vehicles (BEVs) 2040. This results in all cars on the road and plug in hybrid electric vehicles being ultra-low emission by 2050. (PHEVs) made up just over three per Our fastest decarbonising scenario sees a cent of all new vehicle sales. 75 per cent reduction in total energy demand While overall numbers of EVs are low, the for road transport due to a combination of recent increase in sales has been steep electrification, automation and and gives us a strong indication changing consumer behaviour. that they will continue to One of the interesting A grow, reinforced by changes aspects of the road smart in company car tax in transport scenarios c harging April 2020 that further relates to the number will dec system incentivise EVs as of vehicles. Our company cars (which research shows the is the b ide when e s make up nine per cent gradual transition t t i m charge e to of cars on UK roads). to BEVs in every a vehicle n electric There are several scenario out to reasons for this increase 2050. We have time-of based on in popularity. They are approximately 32 -use tar iffs cheaper to run, maintain million cars on the and of course better for the road now. Our population environment. The idea of electric is predicted to grow but cars being slow has been extinguished the number of vehicles doesn’t with the success of Formula E and even some necessarily grow with it. With the use of sportscars now being electrically powered. autonomous vehicles (AVs) commonplace (potentially as many as 6.3m) by 2050, our Electric Vehicles and our Future modelling has assumed that in some cases Energy Scenarios (FES) AVs might reduce the total number of vehicles, We recently published our 2020 Future dependent on the level of societal change and Energy Scenarios. For the first time, we have an increase in the use of public transport. explicitly reflected net zero in the analysis An example of this is how some – with three scenarios demonstrating consumers may decide to rely on ride how the UK can meet net zero by 2050. hailing services or other forms of mobility Electrification is key to decarbonising transport rather than owning a personal vehicle.

The rapid change in consumer behaviour could also see demand for public transport increase. Buses will be mainly electric, but also green hydrogen (this is where hydrogen is created from renewable electricity via electrolysis). In our scenarios, the UK government supports decarbonisation of buses, cars, vans and HGVs, which mean all vehicles quickly switch over to zero emission alternatives. We capture the growth in electric cars and anything which impacts the GB energy system within our future energy scenarios. Road haulage The distances covered by lorries and the capacity and weight of the battery are challenges to using electricity for road freight. Gas, whether biomethane or hydrogen fuel cells, is an alternative, but there is currently an inadequate supply and no refuelling network. As lorries move goods across borders, solving this part of the puzzle relies on international compatibility as well as innovation in truck design and improvements in complementary infrastructure like rail and refuelling points. Hydrogen is the most common solution for trucks in all the net zero scenarios. Electrification is greatest in Consumer Transformation but is limited by high infrastructure costs for HGV charging facilities (such as catenary wires on motorways), and current weight and volume considerations mean batteries are not feasible for the largest vehicles.

Written by Alex Haffner, strategic insight manager at National Grid ESO

EVs and the impact on the energy system

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Smart charging Today, most EV owners plug in their vehicles only when they need to charge, regardless of the time of day. In future, EV owners will be encouraged to keep their vehicles plugged in. A smart charging system will decide when is the best time to charge based on time of use tariffs designed to encourage charging when there is excess renewable energy and to avoid charging at times of peak demand. This will help network operators to manage electricity supply and maximise use of renewable resources. Additionally, Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) technology will enable the car to provide energy storage. This could store electricity in the home (for example, from solar panels), or even generate income for the owner, as the EV’s battery is available to store excess renewable generation or to feed its charge back on to the local network during peak demand. As long as the car is plugged in, this resource can be remotely accessed, with little owner intervention required. In the case of AVs, their capacity for V2G could mean that they are directed to parts of the grid further away, to support a network fault. Of course, there will be occasions when the car needs to be charged at a certain time. But most people’s car usage is fairly predictable and, by making sure that car charging infrastructure is available at places of work as well as home, V2G could reduce the running costs of the car and the network. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Electric Vehicle Special Written by Jamie Hamilton, head of electric vehicles at Deloitte


Electric vehicles expected to account for a third of the market by 2030 Despite the impact of Covid-19, the electric vehicle market’s collective accomplishments over the past two years signal a pattern of ongoing growth, which is expected to continue over the course of the next decade. Jamie Hamilton, head of electric vehicles at Deloitte, explains further Before the COVID-19 pandemic shook up the automotive industry, electric vehicles (EVs) were moving steadily into the spotlight. So much so, a milestone was reached in 2019 when the combined annual sales of battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles tipped over the twomillion-vehicle mark for the first time. Despite the impact of COVID-19, the EV market’s collective accomplishments over the past two years signal a pattern of ongoing growth, which is expected to continue over the course of the next decade. In Deloitte’s latest insight report, our global EV forecast is for a compound annual growth rate of 29 per cent achieved over the next ten years. This would see total EV sales growing from 2.5 million in 2020 to 11.2 million in 2025, then reaching 31.1 million by 2030. On this trajectory, EVs would secure approximately 32 per cent of the total market share for annual new car sales by the end of the decade.


The UK will be at the forefront when considering the switch to full electric. of the electric revolution Major investment in infrastructure and In the UK, a mix of favourable government overcoming consumer concerns around the policies and greater consumer awareness availability and accessibility of charging on climate change have been facilities is vital in order for the UK catalysts for EV growth to to keep pace with the leading date. With ambitions to EV regions. However, once the E ncoura meet wider net zero necessary infrastructure is g uptake ing emissions by 2050, and in position, other factors of electric a proposed ban on mean that the UK is well vehicles the sale of polluting placed to see demand w ithin th vehicles brought shift beyond early e fleet market forward to 2035, adopters, reaching wider w i driving ll be a key the stage is set for segments of the market force o further adoption. and potentially surpass f EV growth Deloitte’s analysis the 32 per cent global EV in found that 50 per cent market share by 2030. the UK of UK consumers would consider an EV as their next Companies have an vehicle purchase. However, 33 important role to play per cent indicate that a lack of charging Sales of new cars to businesses represents infrastructure remains the greatest concern a significant proportion of all cars sold,


standing at 62 per cent of all new cars sold in the UK in 2019. Encouraging uptake within the fleet market will therefore be a key driving force of EV growth in the UK. We are already seeing many businesses support the transition to electric. Having a clearly defined ‘purpose’ continues to top of the corporate agenda, with an increasing number of companies seeking to differentiate and demonstrate how they can act as a force for positive change. With travel often a major, and very visible, contributor of businesses emissions, more are considering how they can support a shift to electric vehicles. Traditional company car schemes are often seen as one policy ripe for reinvention, with companies finding that there are not only emissions savings, but also cost savings and improved employee satisfaction through the provision of cash and or broader mobility options. Increasing business commitment to EVs is demonstrated through the numbers signing up to the Climate Group’s EV100 initiative; a public pledge to accelerate the transition to electric. To date, 67 companies from across the world and differing industries have signed up, representing over US$880 billion in revenue and 3.4 million employees. EVs more attractive due to financial incentives The reduced environmental impact of EVs make their widespread adoption a necessary step towards achieving the UK’s climate change goals. In addition to pledging to reduce emissions as part of the Paris Agreement, the UK has also committed to a ‘net zero’ target for greenhouse gasses by 2050. To achieve this, emissions from across the transport industry, now the highest emitting sector in the UK, will need to be tackled. Targeting corporate fleets has the potential to displace the maximum amount of fossil-driven miles, making these ‘net-zero’ targets more achievable. In order to encourage fleet transition to electric, favourable tax rates have been introduced in the UK that make EVs more financially appealing. New company car tax rates that came into effect from April 2020 have seen the lowest rate of company car tax available on electric vehicles reduced from 16 per cent to 0 per cent. Earlier this year, companies and their employees were given clarity over the length of time that this incentive would be available as the government confirmed that the maximum rate of tax for fully electric cars will be limited to just two per cent in the next five years. As a result, businesses can currently offer EVs to employees cheaper than petrol or diesel equivalents, resulting in major financial benefits to both the employee and the company, whilst also contributing to the reduction of businesses’ environmental impact. Based on our calculations, an employee could experience savings of 95 per cent and above over a four-year period by choosing an EV as their next company car instead of a diesel of comparative value. Meanwhile, a company operating a large fleet (of 900 vehicles

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In order to encourage fleet transition to electric, favourable tax rates have been introduced in the UK that make electric vehicles more financially appealing or more) could benefit from savings in excess of £1.9 million annually by changing the profile of their fleet to electric. Transitioning your fleet to electric requires careful planning The tax rates available on EVs offer an opportunity for businesses to achieve their emission and sustainability commitments, whilst also realising considerable monetary savings. Although uptake of the scheme has been slowed by COVID-19, we expect it to be an increasingly attractive option for employers and employees in the future. There are several factors businesses should consider before making wholesale changes to their employee benefits and mobility schemes. One such consideration is the viability of using EVs if employees are required to travel long distances on a regular basis, with ‘range anxiety’ superseding the cost benefits offered by this scheme. Another is the fact that most businesses, currently, do not yet have the infrastructure in place to support a large switch to EV. Significant improvements will be required to make this viable in many workplaces, including investment in on-site charging points. From an HR perspective, it is also important to consider whether salary sacrifice for EVs will actually work as an attractive benefit

and a way of switching people from older private cars to newer EV company cars. Given the potential level of savings available, businesses should consider the way in which they provide EVs in order to share savings with employees and maximise the potential benefits of any new arrangements. From a financial perspective, changing the profile of a fleet to electric is appealing. But with the majority of savings currently coming from tax and social security efficiencies, many businesses will need to seek out specialist tax advice to maximise their benefits and ensure they are compliant. Fleet providers will also need to consider the structure of their portfolio in the short to medium term as EV residuals normalise. A large take up of EV could bring added risk to their ability to achieve desired residual values. Once these, and other factors are taken into account, then businesses can look to develop their longer-term fleet and EV strategy in partnership with experts to ensure that it will be both cost effective and deliver on wider operational, employee and environmental objectives. L FURTHER INFORMATION



GreenFleet Talks

Electric vehicles GreenFleet

TALKS with 0Zone’s Lee Brown

GreenFleet’s Kate Armitage talks with Lee Brown of OZone, turning their attention to the future, and asking what more needs to be done by Government and industry to make sure fleets are ready for 2035 and beyond.

GF Driving e-Mobility 30



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EXPERT PANEL A number of large companies have made public commitments to switch to zero emission vehicles, with many already on that journey. But barriers still need to be overcome to ensure those who want to switch to electric vehicles, can. Our panel of experts discuss the challenges on route to zero-emissions Gill Nowell, director, EVA England Gill has worked on EV-grid integration projects since 2012. She works for ElectraLink, the UK’s Energy Market Data Hub, on data-driven solutions for a more flexible, smarter energy system. Gill is a Board member of Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England, a consumerfocused organisation offering a voice to EV drivers in England, and runs EVclicks – a free, open source library of EV images. Gill is an EV driver and smart charger.

Lee Brown, head of 0Zone, The Grosvenor Group Lee Brown is head of 0Zone, the Grosvenor Group’s innovative and market leading solution to help companies navigate their way smoothly towards ultra-low emission and electric vehicles. Lee is also managing director of Interactive Fleet Management, the Grosvenor Group’s specialist fleet management business, which means he brings a perfect balance between how fleets can drive down their emissions and the implications of policy setting. Lee joined the Grosvenor Group in 2001, became finance director of Interactive Fleet Management in 2012 and managing director in 2020, and is well-known for his clear and inciteful advice for companies with car and light commercial vehicle fleets.

Dean Hedger, EV new business development manager, The AA Dean joined the AA in 2018, and, most recently, took on an EV advocacy role. In collaboration with the AA’s senior management team, Dean is delivering new product and services innovation, focusing on EV capability in managed services, customer experience and digital integration.

There is a trend for companies with large fleets of vehicles to make public pledges to electrify their fleets, to show industry and government that the demand is there. The Clean Van Commitment, for example, is a public pledge to move to zero emission vans in cities by 2028. Led by charity Global Action Plan, signatories include ENGIE, Tesco, Network Rail, London Borough of Tower Hamlets. The Climate Group meanwhile commenced EV100, where companies are invited to make a public commitment to integrate electric vehicles into their fleets or to install charging infrastructure at premises for staff and customer use. The Climate Group has also launched the UK Electric Fleet Coalition, a group of companies that are eager to make the transition to electric vehicles, but have voiced that they need their ambition matched by the government. Founding member of the UK Electric Fleets Coalition, Openreach, has one of the UK’s largest fleets with around 27,000 vehicles. The company has recently placed an order of 270 fully electric Vivaro-e vans and nine Corsa-e cars to kickstart its journey to an electric fleet. These public pledges from businesses show that the appetite for electric vehicles is there. But barriers still need to be overcome to ensure those who want to switch to EVs can. Lee Brown, head of 0Zone at the Grosvenor Group, said: “The key concerns, when you talk to companies with vehicle fleets, are typically the same. Is the infrastructure ready? Can vehicles with a limited range meet the needs of the corporate market? Are the electric vehicles on the market fit for purpose to enable employees to carry out their jobs? “The Government has placed huge financial incentives in place to draw both drivers and companies towards electric vehicles. It has also put conditions in place to ‘force the hands’ of the motor manufacturers to produce electric vehicles, and it is continuing to invest in the charging infrastructure. “You might argue that the Government could always do more, but we can clearly see a shift towards EVs taking place.” Gill Nowell, director of Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England, comments: “The benefit in kind tax advantages available for company car users has been, and is, E September 2020 | COMMERCIAL GREENFLEET


Electric Vehicle Special


 a huge boost for EV uptake. This is exactly the kind of materially effective incentive that should be sustained by government. Underpinning such incentives needs to be reliable and accessible information on EVs and associated charging options. “Electric cars should be seen as the ‘go to’ option for fleets and company car users, as well as domestic drivers. Publicly available charging infrastructure needs to continue to grow - payment options need to be streamlined, personal safety for those charging at night in remote locations, accessibility and reliability are key priorities that are and should remain at the forefront of both Government and industry agendas.” Dean Hedger, EV new business development manager at the AA, believes there is a some way to go before universal adoption of alternative fuelled vehicles (AFVs) can be achieved. He explains: “Batteries, range, payload and charging infrastructure are just a few of the areas which will need to develop significantly to ensure widespread AFV usage. While there are more models coming to market over the next 24 months, the availability of batteries remains a key challenge. We’ve called for UK investment in gigafactories to keep up with demand and improve supply of batteries. It would be good to see bold steps being taken in this area. “Ensuring our grid infrastructure is fit for purpose is key for guaranteeing access for all to UK-wide charging infrastructure. Similarly, across all AFVs, a far wider choice of suitable vehicles has to be made available. “From government, the scrapping of VAT on AFV sales and the removal of the ‘premium

VED rate’ would go a long way towards increasing adoption. Scrappage schemes and incentivisation to invest in workplace charging could also play a part. Meanwhile. the leasing of infrastructure could reduce business investments in this area.” Dean also believes that organisations need a greater understanding of how they can develop their fleet. “Undertaking research into areas such as whole life costs and total cost of ownership, while examining how vehicles are used and driven, will help fleet managers see what type of AFVs could easily be introduced into their fleets,” Dean comments. The contract hire and fleet management sector is vital for encouraging customers into electric vehicles, believes Lee Brown, and the sector could play an even bigger role. He says: “At Grosvenor Leasing, our 0Zone team is dedicated to supporting businesses through the transition to electric vehicles and I firmly believe that this has been instrumental in EV adoption rates across our client base. If we were to sit back and do nothing I don’t believe progress towards a zero emission future would be as quick throughout our customers’ businesses. “The leasing sector contributes towards a huge proportion of new vehicle registrations in the UK market and, if I was in Government, I would put incentives in place which reward those leasing companies that place orders for EVs so that they, in turn, encourage their customers to move to zero emission fleets. “Looking at Grosvenor’s latest order bank stats, EVs and hybrids make up over 50 per cent of our car order intake at the moment and I firmly believe that this is down to the


advice, support and guidance we have given to our customers over the last three or four years, and the work we have been doing developing low emission policies for them.” What about hybrids? The government announced earlier in the year that it would also ban plug-in hybrid cars and vans (PHEVs) alongside ICE vehicles, which took many by surprise. The concern with PHEVs its that there is nothing to ensure drivers charge them and maximise the use of the electric range - instead using mainly the ICE engine. This would, for obvious reasons, hinder the government’s net zero plans. However, many in the industry believe that PHEVs are the ‘stepping stone’ needed as the UK transitions to electric. The BVRLA for examine, has said that the government should only end the sale of new hybrid car and van sales if battery electric vehicle supply, affordability and infrastructure is able to meet the requirements of all fleet segments. Lee Brown comments: “I agree that it’s a bit soon [to ban PHEVs] but if too many drivers are opting for hybrids but then never using their electric capacity then that defeats the object. My suggestion is that this is driven by the Government’s frustration that many drivers have been opting for hybrids to take advantage of lower fuel and tax bills but it’s not truly meeting the emissions objectives. “Rather than ending the sale of new hybrid cars and vans, I believe they can achieve the same results by what they are already

Electric Vehicle Special

doing – which is to make the financial advantages of pure EVs so unequivocally attractive that it makes no real sense to opt for a hybrid compared to an EV. “For a lot of drivers who choose hybrids, it’s a cultural thing. They’re making a half step towards EVs by moving to ultra-low emission vehicles without the range anxiety. Perhaps now more of us are working from home and replacing long travel to meetings with the ability to see customers and prospects instantly by Zoom or Teams, that range anxiety will decline and the uptake of EVs will increase.” Dean Hedger points out that PHEVs are preferable to old, polluting cars, while EV technology is growing: “Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), which are often cited as a stepping stone to full AFV adoption, are not in all cases used optimally and to their full effect. This is due partly to a lack of education, and so in some cases PHEVs are gaining an unfair reputation for inefficiency. Nevertheless, their higher payloads when compared with EVs mean they are still preferable to the older, more polluting vehicles they have been designed to replace, at least while we wait for zero emissions technology to catch up. Where full EV adoption isn’t yet deemed desirable or possible, a PHEV makes an attractive alternative. For example, a PHEV, which can do around 25 miles on battery alone will emit 49g/km CO2, attracting a BiK rate of just 12 to 14 per cent. “However, with many different models for sale on the market – mild, self-charging and plug-in hybrids – the potential for confusion among business and consumer purchasers is high.” Gill Nowell meanwhile believes that while plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are a useful stepping stone to fully battery electric vehicles, action to mitigate the climate emergency cannot wait. In a survey conducted by EVA England in response to the government consultation on

the phase out date for new sales of petrol and diesel cars and vans, 82 per cent of respondents in England believe the phase out date for ICE sales should be moved to an earlier date than 2035, with 65 per cent of respondents in England supporting a 2030 phase out date. On the question of what should be included in the ban, 97 per cent of participants indicated that new diesel cars should be phased out. 91.5 per cent of participants included new petrol cars in their phase out definition. 67 per cent of participants included new hybrids in their phase out definition, while 48 per cent of respondents suggested new plug-in hybrids should be phased out. 33 per cent suggested new range extended EVs should also be phased out. Gill comments: “Against the backdrop of these survey results, and speaking on behalf of EVA England here, we understand that many drivers today opt for Plug-in Hybrids, but the urgency of the climate and air quality crises have driven us to take the position that, at the soonest possible date (ideally 2030), only zero-tailpipe emission cars and vans should be sold.” Vehicle to grid Electric vehicles have a hidden advantage inside them – the ability to store electricity. This has the potential to help the grid deal with peaks of demand. During peak times of the day, more electricity has to be generated, and traditionally this uses fossil fuels. But the battery from an electric vehicle could store electricity, ideally from renewable sources at non-peak times, then feed this back power to the grid when it needs it. The vehicle / charger communicates with the grid, and of course, makes sure the battery has a full charge for when it’s needed. Our panelists are in general agreement that this has huge potential for the future, but that the technology is still in its infancy. Lee Brown comments: “This is a rather

exciting concept which has been talked about within the energy sector for a few years now. “The principle of the system is to essentially utilise the huge amount of power stored in the batteries of electric vehicles to cope with spikes in electrical demand across the national energy grid. “This will work via a large smart network which communicates with both the national grid and each individual vehicle, whereby a vehicle (or vehicle charger) may be instructed via the network to reverse its operation and give back some of the energy stored in the vehicle to effectively top up the national grid. “This will be managed in such a way that the vehicle will always be ready and fully charged by the pre-determined departure time which the driver has set. “In terms of advice to our customers, there is very little they need to consider at this stage, however its worth having an eye on future developments and how they may be benefit companies with a large, all electric, vehicle fleet.” Gill Howell says: “Smart charging is a simple and widely available solution for optimising EV use in terms of supporting grid integration, as well as keeping the costs of charging your car to a minimum – some smart charging apps allow the user to opt to charge when there are most renewables on the energy system, for example. “Vehicle to grid is likely to be a viable option for fleet charging and management, however the costs of the kit may currently be on the high side (as opposed to smart charging technologies), given that it is still a relatively nascent technology.” Dean Hedger adds: “There are questions around whether vehicle-to-grid is truly market ready in terms of the number of compatible vehicles currently for sale on the market. Any vehicle you purchase for this purpose must be vehicle-to-grid compatible.E



Electric Vehicle Special

Final thoughts Dean Hedger It’s clear that there is a long way to go before universal adoption of alternative fuelled vehicles (AFVs) can be achieved. Batteries, range, payload and charging infrastructure are just a few of the areas which will need to develop significantly to ensure widespread AFV usage. While there are more models coming to market over the next 24 months, the availability of batteries remains a key challenge. We’ve called for UK investment in gigafactories to keep up with demand and improve supply of batteries. It would be good to see bold steps being taken in this area.

 “Further awareness is required around the Whole Life Cost (WLC) equation, including the cost of implementation. More information in this area which goes beyond the upfront investment cost will help fleet managers and business owners to make informed decisions about investing in new technology over the total cost of a vehicle’s working life.” Net zero In June 2019, the UK became the first major economy in the world to commit to bring all greenhouse gas emissions to net zero by 2050. As transport is a major emitter of CO2 and other air pollutants, fleet and transport operators will be expected to transition to net zero operations. But is this an unfair expectation on the sector? Lee Brown believes that we need to have a target to aim for – otherwise there will be no focus. He says: “In my mind, if it drives the UK towards a zero emission future, whether it happens precisely by that date or not is not the issue. It’s more important that we change the negative impact we have been having on our planet and only by setting deadlines will that be given any chance of happening. “If you narrow this deadline down for vehicle fleets, most companies work to a three year replacement cycle. It basically begs the question, therefore, as to whether a company can move its fleet to zero emissions during its next 10 order cycles over a 30 year period. “With the rate at which fleets are now looking proactively at EVs, and ordering them, and the speed at which technology is moving I see no reason why this cannot be achieved in the car sector. “To put technological advances in perspective, the first iPhone was only launched 13 years ago. This triggered a global shift of how we live through our Smart phones and Apps. Technology is moving at a blistering pace, and I find it hard to believe that EVs and the technology to support zero emission travel won’t be ready well in advance of 2050.” A clearer roadmap is needed for fleets to become net zero in their operations, says


Dean Hedger: “We have consistently called for a phased plan which provides fleets and businesses with the incentives to switch to zero emissions vehicles. If we want to see widescale adoption of zero emission alternatives, we need to provide fleet managers and businesses with a forward-looking roadmap that delivers clarity and plenty of carrots rather than sticks to help them make the change. “There is a big risk for the next few years that operators will decide to hang on to older vehicles longer than they should because they’re cost effective, convenient and fit-forpurpose electric options aren’t at scale yet. We may see the age profile of fleets going up because like-for-like alternatives aren’t available in a cleaner fuel derivative. “To avoid unnecessary business disruption, organisations need genuine choice so they can pick the vehicles and powertrains which are fit for purpose for their individual needs. Integrated transport policies must also provide clarity about what is coming down the track.” Gill Nowell highlights the dilemma facing government between climate targets and the economy. “There is a need to reduce carbon and related emissions to reduce air pollution and to ensure the UK’s compliance with the commitment to Net-Zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. On the other hand, Government also needs to consider the concerns of the motor industry and its employees and current non-EV drivers. However, as underlined by the ‘The Road to Zero’, transport greenhouse gas emissions have fallen by only two per cent since 1990 despite all the Government’s initiatives to date, set against the Government’s commitment to achieving net-zero by 2050. “A reconciliation of the environmental and economic issues is, therefore, imperative. Against the backdrop of battery technology development that is advancing apace, costs reducing and range increasing rapidly, I have no doubt that fleets will be have the options available to them such that they will be able to operate within net zero emissions by 2050.” L


Lee Brown The leasing sector contributes towards a huge proportion of new vehicle registrations in the UK market and, if I was in Government, I would put incentives in place which reward those leasing companies that place orders for EVs so that they, in turn, encourage their customers to move to zero emission fleets. Looking at Grosvenor’s latest order bank stats, EVs and hybrids make up over 50 per cent of our car order intake at the moment and I firmly believe that this is down to the advice, support and guidance we have given to our customers over the last three or four years, and the work we have been doing developing low emission policies for them. Gill Nowell The benefit in kind tax advantages available for company car users has been, and is, a huge boost for EV uptake. This is exactly the kind of materially effective incentive that should be sustained by Government. Underpinning such incentives needs to be reliable and accessible information on EVs and associated charging options. Electric cars should be seen as the ‘go to’ option for fleets and company car users, as well as domestic drivers. Publicly available charging. infrastructure needs to continue to grow - payment options need to be streamlined, personal safety for those charging at night in remote locations, accessibility and reliability are key priorities that are and should remain at the forefront of both Government and industry agendas.

The journey to electrification is far from simple, but the AA is committed to meeting increased electric vehicle (EV) driver demand. Dean Hedger, EV new business development manager, reports

The drive to reduce the carbon footprint of road vehicles, nationally and internationally, continues to gather momentum. World governments have already committed to ambitious transport targets around climate change, with many using varying combinations of ‘carrot’ and ‘stick’ to encourage both business drivers and private owners to switch to cleaner fuels. In the UK, the February 2020 budget committed more than £1 billion to driver incentivising measures. Some £500m will support the rollout of a super-fast electric vehicle charging network, while the existing plug-in grant has been extended for a further three years to 2023, with £533 million available to support schemes for ultra-low emission vehicles. Meanwhile, homeowners seeking to go electric can also claim a £500 grant towards the installation of a charge point

Committed to meeting increased demand Since lockdown, we have seen an increase in EV interest and sales. Indeed, AA Populus research shows one in five people would buy an electric vehicle to maintain the air quality benefits experienced during lockdown. Digging deeper, our research suggests one in six UK drivers hung up their keys completely in April, while just one in 20 were driving as much as before the lockdown. This led to improvements in air quality, as well as reductions in traffic and congestion. As a result, in May, four fifths of people said they would take action to help maintain cleaner air, suggesting opportunities for business owners and managers to review the make-up of their fleets. As an organisation, we remain power agnostic. That means a deep and continued commitment to ensuring the availability of both the expertise and the technology to meet the needs of fleets and individual drivers throughout their vehicle lifecycle, including electric. Indeed, AA Drivetech provides specific EV driver training. A third of the AA Prestige garage network is already EV capable, and most of our company cars area already EVs or plug-in hybrids. As we develop our expertise, including having the largest group of EV Level 2

trained technicians in the UK, the logical next step is to ensure we can support the infrastructure accompanying EV vehicle adoption. As an example, our partnerships with several electric charging and energy companies, such as SWARCO eVolt, is providing even greater assurance and support for EV drivers. As part of this managed services offer, we will support drivers if they need help at the charge point, handling calls about both the electric car and electric charging infrastructure. Refuelling routines are different for EV drivers, and it’s important they are supported as they adjust to the new methods of charging and driving EV ownership requires. Networks vary widely, as does the charging technology available, hence the understandable confusion new EV drivers often face. World EV Day This autumn, we were a Founding Partner for World EV Day, launched by ABB and Green.TV on 9th September. The event, expected to become an annual celebration of the EV industry, recognises the role reliable and fast charging infrastructure, grid reinforcement and renewable power generation integration must play in enabling a truly sustainable transport ecosystem. Current and prospective EV drivers, alongside local transport authorities and fleet operators, were encouraged to recognise the crucial role they play in driving the shift to sustainable road transport and a zeroemission future as part of a day of global e-mobility appreciation. Technology is moving rapidly and there is now plenty of variety on the market for drivers with diverse vehicle needs, whatever their individual requirements.

Written by Dean Hedger, EV new business development manager, the AA

at their home. For businesses, the good news is that zero emission electric cars were removed from company car tax in Apr 2020, while EVs are exempt from Vehicle Excise Duty (VED). A slight discount of £10 is also available for hybrid vehicles.

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The road to electrification

The road to universal adoption It is clear there is a way to go before universal adoption can be achieved. For adoption to increase, perceptions need to change – but for that to happen, the reality must alter too. Batteries, range, payload and charging infrastructure ae just a few of the areas which will need to develop significantly. That is why simplifying the journey for all EV drivers is a huge priority. We are keen to help both established and new EV drivers get to grips with technology so they can get as much enjoyment as possible from their EV driving experience, ensuring they are fully supported at every mile of their journey. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Electric Vehicle Special Written by Gill Nowell, EVA England



Support for the transition to zero emission transport Gill Nowell from the newly formed Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England discusses its recent research, which shows people in England are generally in support on phasing out petrol and diesel vehicles in pursuit of cleaner air Registrations of new electric vehicles are But what of charging skyrocketing in the UK. According to figures infrastructure? from the Society of Motor Manufacturers People with off-street parking tend to charge and Traders, July 2020 saw a 259 per cent at home, overnight. For the 40 per cent of increase in new registrations of fully electric households without access to off-street cars and vans, compared with the same time parking, charging hubs and on-street charging the previous year. The total car parc of electric solutions are emerging. Workplace and vehicles (both fully electric and plug-in hybrid) destination charging also have a key role to stands at nine per cent of all car sales in the play in the ‘charging mix’. Motorway service UK in July. Set against a backdrop of charging is set to become more a 97 per cent decline in overall reliable, with updated and new car sales in the UK over ‘partnered’ infrastructure 96 the same period, the appetite being planned to offer per cen for electric vehicles is as more charging stations of respo t ndents clear as the air that we across the UK. agree t hat an would all like to breathe. earlier phase o Electric vehicles u t d a are probably still a te petrol a nd dies of relatively new concept v e h el icles w to many people in the UK. Challenges in in bette ould result r pu perception remain, such health blic as those over range anxiety, cost and purported lack of public charging infrastructure. However, with the vast majority of automotive OEMs committing to electric drivetrains, and new makes and models being launched on an almost monthly basis, the UK has seen the number of electric car options catapult from just a handful a few years ago, to over 100 available to choose from today. In terms of numbers, back in 2013 there were just 3,500 electric cars on UK roads; today there are almost 250,000. Battery size and therefore range on a single charge is increasing, with the majority of models now offering between 100 to over 300 miles of range – with start-up companies such as Rivian in the US promising 400 miles’ electric range for its all-terrain vehicles. And watch out for Lucid Motors, with a purported range of 517 miles on a single charge for its forthcoming all-electric luxury sedan. Safe to say, that the majority of electric cars can now travel around 200 miles on a single charge, and when we consider that most people only drive an average of 25 miles each day, this is more than enough to satisfy most drivers.


Electric fleets Fleets of course will have a hugely important role to play in the decarbonisation of road transport in the UK. With company car drivers paying zero Benefit in Kind for 2020-2021 if they choose to go electric, the incentive is demonstrably significant, and presents a great opportunity for fleets to make the switch. The rapidly increasing range and choice of EVs is also a key driver for the transition to zero tailpipe emission transport for fleets, as well as the steady improvement in charging infrastructure. It is evident too, that with the government’s Plug-in Car grant no longer available for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, more drivers will opt to move to EVs with the associated grant incentive. EVA England Mass adoption of electric vehicles in the UK is becoming a reality. With this in mind, Electric Vehicle Association (EVA) England has been set up. Inspired by similar associations in Scotland, Norway, the Netherlands, Canada and the USA, EVA England is committed to providing a voice for EV drivers in England, with a focus on personal car drivers. The founding group first met in March 2020 before being fully incorporated as a Community Interest Company in early June 2020. The founding Board of Directors is a diverse group from a range of professional and personal backgrounds, with over 15 years’ experience in the EV and automotive industry; all directors are united in the need for a consumer voice for EV drivers in England.

The aims and objectives of EVA England are to promote electric vehicle use in England, as well as promote the environmental and health benefits to the public in England. It also aims to represent the interests of current and prospective electric vehicle drivers in England and serves to provide services to electric vehicle drivers in England. From the outset, EVA England has been keen to accelerate the transition to green mobility to understand the requirements and opinions of EV drivers in England. The immediate need for a unified consumer voice has been further compounded by the powerful influences of the motor, electricity generating and distribution, and renewable energy industries. EVA England survey EVA England has conducted its own survey in order to understand people’s views about the UK Government’s planned phase out date for the sale of new petrol and

diesel cars and vans, with 82 per cent of respondents believing the phase out date should be brought forward from 2035. EVA England’s survey of 1,114 individuals - who were predominately drivers or prospective drivers of EVs, as well as other drivers who have not yet made the change - was designed to inform the organisation’s core views. Responses to the survey were primarily secured in collaboration with the 35-plus regional electric car clubs in England, largely thanks to the EV Groups Nexus. The survey highlighted that 82 per cent of respondents in England believe the phase out date for ICE sales should be moved to an earlier date than 2035, and 65 per cent of respondents in England support a 2030 phase out date. Ninety-six per cent of all respondents believe an earlier phase out would have a positive impact on public health. A majority (72.9 per cent) of survey participants believe that an earlier phase out date would positively affect the UK economy.

Safe to say, that the majority of electric cars can now travel around 200 miles on a single charge, and when we consider that most people only drive an average of 25 miles each day, this is more than enough to satisfy most drivers

74 per cent either agree or strongly agree that the motor industry will be able to supply enough electric cars to meet demand. 78.5 per cent of participants do not believe an earlier phase out date would put unfair pressure on the automotive industry and its employees. Based on the results of the survey, EVA England will be encouraging the government to bring forward the phase out date for the sale of new petrol and diesel cars and vans to 2030. Other popular actions highlighted by the survey include the government introducing a scrappage scheme for petrol and diesel internal combustion engine cars, and the continuation of grants, as well as to implement a loan scheme. Implementing a seamless payment scheme for charging would also be helpful, as well as faster investment by local authorities in public charging infrastructure. Respondents were in general acutely conscious of the health benefits of lowering air pollution and the urgency of the UK’s need to meet the 2050 commitment, with 96 per cent of respondents agreeing that an earlier phase out date would result in better public health. EVA England looks forward to continuing to grow and offer a consumer-focused voice to EV drivers in England – and to opening up to members later in 2020. L

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ROUNDTABLE Fleet policy for a zero emission future

As fleets are coming to terms with the enduring effects that Covid-19 has had on operations, attention is now turning once again to the long term need to become zero emission. To discuss progress and current challenges, a diverse group of fleets and emission reduction specialists attended GreenFleet’s virtual roundtable on 9 September

One of the few benefits of the lockdown It is clear that lots of planning and analysis earlier this year is the improvement in air is already happening behind the scenes; quality in towns and cities across the UK, including fleet analysis, surveying buildings, with NO2 levels in some London roads understanding power requirements and dropping by 55 per cent according to King’s infrastructure, as well as developing new College London. This has really partnerships and supply chains. A highlighted the dramatic theme throughout the roundtable Whilst impact that road traffic was the need for more flexibility small ele has on air quality, and both in terms of fleet ctric vans ha has propelled the policies and operations. v agenda for cleaner Some fleets, such as derogat e a weight io transportation and the Southern Health n t h at categor zero emission. NHS Foundation Trust, y B licen allows ce hold to drive The ongoing have already updated ers EVs introduction their fleet policies whilst there re up to 4.25t, and extension others have completed a mained some of low emission comprehensive strategy frustratio n over zones across the review, in the case of London vehicle UK has further Ambulance resulting in a choice accelerated the need to fleet plan extending to 2030. align fleet policies around compliance. And the pressure Impacts of COVID 19 is on; some fleets are preparing for a full Speed of response was of paramount ZE Zone in London as early as 2025. importance at the start of the pandemic with



some operators reporting exceptional demand for goods and services. Chris Rutherford, head of fleet strategy at London Ambulance, commented that the service has changed beyond recognition: “The NHS has proved that they can make dramatic changes in a short period of time, decisions are made more agilely, and you can see change happening much more quickly.” The aim is to ensure that this momentum can now be directed towards creating a zero emission fleet. “It is my responsibility to make sure the decisions are the greener options,” Chris added. Servicing and maintenance was identified as another, less obvious, benefit to having battery electric vehicles on the fleet during lockdown: “EVs take nowhere near the effort that petrol and diesel vehicles do when keeping them on the road,” observed Mick Cook from Babcock International. And the electric vehicles were reported to be much more reliable when out on the road; with less moving parts the full battery EVs have less to go wrong.

Specialist vehicles One of the areas where electric vehicles remain problematic is the ability to power auxiliary equipment. Phoenix Medical runs a fleet of large temperature controlled vans for the delivery of pharmaceuticals to wholesale customers. Maxus is one of the few suppliers of large vans that is able to support refrigerated vehicles, allowing the vehicle battery to also run the cooling through a DC/DC convertor. The company’s Mike Haran explained that it reduces the battery voltage to work with the chiller. The vehicle is available in two battery options, the larger battery can do up to 200 miles or a smaller battery might be sufficient for a light payload. Vehicle weight is also particularly important for fleets that carry large volumes of equipment with the observation that vehicles need to go on a diet!

Electric Vehicle Special

On the negative side it was suggested that the inability to test drive vehicles during lockdown may have caused some drivers to defer their decision to switch to electric, preferring to stick with tried and tested ICE or hybrid technology. PHEVs and fleet policy Fleets were urged to think carefully about the inclusion of PHEVs within fleet policies. In terms of weight, cost and servicing PHEVs were described by Sara Sloman, energy & infrastructure specialist at Foot Anstey as “the worst of both worlds”. It was conceded there may remain some limited payload and duty applications where PHEVs may be necessary. Sam Clarke, chief vehicle officer at Gridserve drew some distinction: “From a commercial environment PHEVs have their place [for the shorter term]. From a consumer environment I would see them banned tomorrow as there are BEVs today that are perfectly capable of doing the job.” Chris Rutherford agreed added: “If you need PHEVs for national resilience or particularly big mileage, they have a place in the here and now. As soon as we can phase them out the better, but with the caveat that there has to be suitable full electric drivetrains in place.”

Mick Cook agreed, noting that Babcock reserve the BEVs for jobs that have a lighter load. The choice of single or dual rear wheels also impacts the gross vehicle weight, something that event sponsors Maxus were keen to highlight in their 4.05t electric van. Whilst small electric vans currently have a weight derogation that allows category B licence holders to drive EVs up to 4.25t (higher than the ICE cap of 3.5t), there remained some frustration that the choice of vehicles by payload wasn’t adequate. Chris Rutherford explained that 7t is too big and 3.5t is too small in terms of payload, the target for London Ambulance is 5t. The role of telematics Telematics was a recurring topic, particularly when developing a fleet policy. Phoenix Medical has 80 small vans to be replaced in the next 12 months, and they are hoping to

switch to electric. Sam Clarke, who founded the all-electric delivery service Gnewt Cargo explained : “Telematics is an extremely useful tool to help understand not only what vehicles are doing now, but also what they are capable of doing moving forward. Find the low hanging [BEV] fruit and implement that straight away with a view to improving the fleet over time.” It is important to understand not only what the vehicles are doing when on the road; for electric vehicles the time spent off the road will also help inform the recharging strategy. Event sponsor Quartix is developing an EV tracker that will launch next year. Amongst other suggestions was providing information on plug-in time and energy transfer were highlighted as valuable features. When developing a fleet policy consider a mix of vehicle types; a single or two badge policy may limit the choice or availability of vehicles. Sara Sloman highlighted the choice of vehicles is ever growing and it is importance to experience the different vehicles. Leasing is good for this as the market is changing very quickly. It is vital that fleets understand the data they have, Sara Sloman suggested that telematics providers should invest more time in client care, making sure that fleets are getting the insight they need from the data, beyond equipment, reports and numbers. There needs to be a human side to data. Sean Mahar, head of sales at Quartix agreed: “If the driver understands then you can start bringing around change.” Employee buy-in Revising company car policies are a good first step to getting more ultra-low emission vehicles onto a fleet. This can be challenging, as typically ULEVs have a higher P11D value which may lead to these vehicles being pushed into a premium vehicle banding. However, as the range of EVs E Issue 129 | GREENFLEET MAGAZINE


Electric Vehicle Special

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GreenFleet roundtable attendees Kate Armitage, chair and GreenFleet ambassador Sam Clarke, Gridserve Mike Cook, Babcock International Mike Haran, Maxus Sean Maher, Quartix Chris Rutherford, London Ambulance Service Sara Sloman, Foot Antsey Martine Smith, Phoenix Healthcare

 continues to grow more affordable options are available. The introduction of 0% BIK tax for fully electric vehicles has also really caught the attention of employees, creating a much higher demand for these vehicles. Martine Smith, Phoenix Medical advised that they are in the process of being reviewing the company car policy with a view to adding more manufacturers. “We are a two badge company, and it hasn’t really worked, and it is not on whole life cost, and that is all being changed,” she said. It is also important to get employee buy-in for essential business users, with advice to get demo vehicles into the fleet as soon as possible and encourage as many drivers as possible to experience zero emission. “Get some demos in, get a bit of buzz around it and you’ll find pretty quickly that all the hurdles that you are expecting are potentially eased because people will genuinely want a zero emission drive,” advised Chris Rutherford. “They will appreciate the lack of vibration because there is no engine [and] how clean it is to fuel.” There was a strong feeling that once employees have gone electric they refuse to go back. Many fleet vehicles are based at the employees home. For employees that have access to off-road parking this can work extremely well, as a home charger is relatively cheap to install (typically £500 with the OLEV grant). The employee will need to be reimbursed for the cost of electricity; HMRC currently recommend a payment per mile for full battery electric vehicles and plug-in vehicles and the fleet policy will need to be updated to reflect this. For employees without off-road parking, access to public charging networks will need to be set up.


Charging infrastructure Planning the charging infrastructure is essential, and fleets reported being at different stages of the development from initial surveys through to installation. London Ambulance is currently planning a new depot location and the electrical supply capacity (to support DC and AC charging) is a key criteria. For fleets that operate larger vans for 23 hours per day the need for high-power DC Event Sponsor

charging (HPC) up to 350kW charging was seen as essential and could get a vehicle with a 100 kWh battery to 80 per cent state of charge in 20 minutes. However the cost to a fleet of installing HPC is prohibitive; instead public charging on new and existing service forecourts is a popular solution. Gridserve is planning to build up to 100 all electric forecourts across the UK over the next five years; the flagship forecourt is scheduled to open in Braintree, Essex later this year and will feature 12 HPCs. The Gridserve model was received well by the fleets who were keen to understand where these forecourts will be located. In addition to retailing electricity Gridserve has also unveiled partnerships with household brands including WHSmith and Costa Coffee. Sam Clarke noted: “The irony is that we will welcome petrol and diesel drivers because less than one per cent of vehicles on the road are electric and we want them in to realise that they have got the wrong car!” L Event Sponsor

Mike Haran, fleet account manager, Maxus UK

Sean Maher, UK field sales manager, Quartix

Mike has worked in the automotive business for the last 27 years. Wanting to stay at the cutting edge and recognising that electric powered vehicles was the way forward, Mike joined LDV/Maxus in late 2019. Mike is responsible for key fleets for Maxus.

Sean Maher is UK field sales manager at Quartix. He has been with Quartix for 11 years and in vehicle tracking for 18 years. Sean’s experience enables him to understand customer needs and help companies realise the savings that can been seen from operating a vehicle tracking system.


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More choice for businesses looking for a greener fleet 2020 has heralded the start of a new era in which MAXUS (formerly LDV) can offer customers even more variety in terms of zero emission commercial vehicles

Experts estimate that there will be 140 million electric vehicles on the road globally by the end of the decade as a direct result of governments signing the 2030 Paris Climate Agreement. This means that in the next ten years, combustion engines will be phased out and everyone – businesses included – will have to think practically and seriously about greener transport options. MAXUS has become a favourite with business owners and fleet managers across the UK who want to make the switch to electric LCVs. The range, reliability and versatility of MAXUS vans are key to their popularity, but most important is its focus on customer service and the support customers get from the MAXUS dealership. MAXUS is distributed by Harris Automotive Distributors and is supported by a nationwide dealership network across all seven territories in right-hand drive markets in Europe. It believes that offering a specialised service that helps customers navigate the switch to electric driving is an integral part of the business. 2020 has been an historic year for MAXUS and, having rebranded from its original LDV moniker in April, MAXUS launched the newest EV in the brand’s stable, the e DELIVER3, which is the first van in the MAXUS portfolio that will not offer a diesel engine alternative.

The e DELIVER3 has it all when it comes to offering the customer the pure driving experience and at incredible value with prices from £22,800 with an approved UK government electric vehicle grant ex. VAT. The MAXUS e DELIVER3 is a fully electric small van of zero emissions with a remarkable range, clocking up to 198 miles (NEDC) / 150 miles (combined WLTP) on a single charge (52.5kWh battery). The eDELIVER3 joins its ‘big brother’ the EV80 in bringing an outstanding range of zero omission LCV options to fleet managers and business owners right across the country. The MAXUS e DELIVER3 is available in three variants with two wheelbase options: a short wheelbase panel van, a long wheelbase panel van and a long wheelbase platform chassis. Mark Barrett, GM of Harris Automotive Distributors UC (MAXUS/LDV), sums it up nicely: “For MAXUS, this latest addition to our electric range is proof that green motoring is the future, and the future is now. As part of our commitment to a green motoring industry, we work hard to ensure the right support infrastructure is in place for both current and future customers. “Charging points are the key to supporting EV drivers, and without those supports in place, there can be no motoring revolution. It’s something we take very seriously and urge governments to

prioritise in the coming months and years, especially as 2030 targets loom closer.” Over the last few years, MAXUS (formerly LDV) has been paving the way for the development of the commercial EV market in the UK and Ireland, following the launch of its first electric van, the LDV EV80 in 2016. Designed with zero emissions technology together with advanced electric power systems and boasting a 120mile range on a single charge, the EV80 was predicted a game-changer among industry experts. This proved to be true. Now, the LDV EV80 remains a reliable choice for fleet drivers and decision makers who want to avoid hefty congestion charges, future-proof their business and join the green revolution. This means the natural next step for the MAXUS brand was to extend more choice to customers. With the launch of the e DELIVER 3 and soon the all new e DELIVER 9 with many variants and battery size options, there is now even more choice for businesses looking to invest in a green fleet. The name behind MAXUS Innovative, thought-leading and futurefocused, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) is the name behind MAXUS and is the largest automotive company in China. Based in Shanghai, SAIC produces almost seven million vehicles each year for both domestic and international markets and is a Fortune Global 500 listed company of almost 100,000 employees. The Harris Group acts as sole distributor for SAIC in the UK, Ireland and across right-hand drive Europe. SAIC has several well-known brands within its portfolio including, since 2010, the acclaimed MAXUS range of LCV’s. SAIC has invested more than €2billion in this brand, with a strong focus on safety, innovation and the introduction of new products to the range, including a suite of EVs that are already setting the standard for the future of eco-fuelled commercial motoring. The e DELIVER3 is the latest addition to this ever-growing suite. MAXUS is supported by an experienced, customer-focused nationwide dealership network. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Road Test


Honda e Advance

Written by Richard Gooding

The Honda e is the Japanese company’s first all-electric model and shows a distinct style and appeal. Richard Gooding digs a little deeper to see if the e’s zero-emission technology shares its premium appearance desirability

What is it? The retro-styled Honda Urban EV Concept wowed the crowds at the 2017 Frankfurt motor show. The first public taster of Honda’s new-found electric car ambitions, order books for the city car opened in early 2019 when the production version debuted. Toned down in appearance compared to the concept, and with an extra pair of doors, the Honda e is an all-electric small car with a 131-137-mile range, a cool and striking design and a very digital interior. All that style comes at a price, though – starting at £26,660, Honda believes the e’s cute looks and digital tech will appeal to those looking for a compact and stylish electric car. How does it drive? Whie it’s true the Honda e doesn’t wholeheartedly transfer the looks of the Urban EV Concept to a mass-produced vehicle, it’s hard not to fall for the styling of Honda’s first all-electric car. The e’s short, stubby silhouette is imbued with details,


from the concave front and rear light panels, the black roof and alloy wheels, to the cameras mounted on the doors, which have pop-out handles. Cameras mounted on the doors? Yes, the first small car to feature a side camera mirror system as standard, the pods reduce drag by 90 per cent compared to conventional door mirrors. They relay what would be shown in a rear view mirror onto a pair of six-inch colour screens inside the car, at either end of the dashboard. And it’s the dashboard which is the car’s other big talking point. Largely all-digital, the front of the interior space is dominated by a bank of screens. The two ‘mirror’ feeds sit at either end, with a pair of 12.3-inch LCD screens in the middle, along with an 8.8” TFT display ahead of the driver. It’s a little bewildering at first, but the set-up soon seems second nature. A nice touch is that the pair of central larger displays can be flipped between the driver and passenger, and shortcut keys also display the most recently-used apps.


The wing cameras can be adjusted just like wing mirrors, and where specified, the rear view mirror is either fed by a live camera in the rear window, or can be used like a conventional interior mirror. Despite the digital screens, there are still physical buttons, mounted atop the wood-effect dashboard, which creates an interior ambience like no other small car. High quality seat materials help create an upmarket feel and Honda equates the e’s interior to that of a ‘lounge’. It’s certainly a bold and highly appealing place to be. The design of the e sets it apart from other electric cars, as does its stated range and price. The driving experience is more in keeping with other small EVs, but even here, the petite Honda offers enough engagement to keep drivers hooked. Available with 100kW or 113kW electric motors, the e has a 50:50 weight distribution and is rear-wheel drive, long a preserve of driving enthusiasts. A low centre of gravity is also present, thanks to the 35.5kWh battery pack being mounted

Honda’s own 7.4kW wall or pedestal-mounted Power Charger is available to charge the e at home or work and can also be connected to a smartphone to keep drivers informed of a variety of the car’s functions.

in the floor. The 113kW/152bhp of the topspec Advance model is plenty and it feels faster than its 8.3 seconds to 62mph time suggests, thanks to 232lb ft of torque. Supremely refined for a small car, the e’s ride is very well judged. It doesn’t feel overly firm but it’s not under-damped either. Enjoying a grown-up demeanour, the e is comfortable and rides very well. However, it’s not all bigcar manners: with a turning circle of just 4.3m and no power going through the front wheels, the car can be turned on the literal sixpence. The rear wheel drive set-up gives the e almost sports car-like dynamism, too, and with little body roll, it can be ushered through corners briskly, with little fuss. It’s a very engaging proposition, even if that engagement will dent the car’s already precious range. What range does it have? Honda has deliberately pitched the e as an ‘urban commuter’, and very firmly believes that its ‘right-size’ battery and range are where they need to be in terms of capacity and distance. That belief results in a WLTP-certified range of 137 miles for cars wearing 16-inch wheels, dropping to 125 miles when 17-inch rims are fitted. That the smaller-capacity 35.5kWh battery delivers less distance than the 238-mile range Renault Zoe’s 52kWh unit is perhaps a given, but some may see the fewer miles the e can travel before it needs recharging an issue. But, if the car is used in what Honda states is its favoured habitat, that is less of a problem. It’s perhaps unfair to compare the Honda e to cars like the Zoe anyway – the Mini Electric is more of a comparable rival in terms of its £24,900£30,900 price and 140-145-mile range. The Honda’s range can be eked out via its single pedal control system, which allows it to be driven using just the accelerator. It works very well. As well as eliminating creep from the fixed-ratio reduction gearbox, the single pedal set-up engages more regenerative braking, the three stages of which can be controlled by the paddles either side of the two-spoke steering wheel. ‘Normal’ and ‘Sport’ drive modes allow for further control. There is no ‘Eco’ mode, as Honda believes the car is as optimised as it can be. How long does it take to charge? The Honda e features DC fast-charging capability as standard. Eighty per cent of range can be refilled in around 30 minutes,

while a full top up takes around four hours on a 7.4kW wallbox or supply. Honda has made an obvious point of the charging flap and socket and has centrally located them towards the end of the ‘bonnet’. Lit up at night, it’s easy to find, and also informs the driver of battery charge status. What does it cost? Honda has kept it simple with its first electric car. Only two trims are available, entry-level e, and range-topping e Advance. Starting at £26,660 including the government’s Plug-in Car Grant, the entry-level car comes highly specified with adaptive cruise control, ambient lighting, auto LED lights, Bluetooth connectivity, climate control, heated front seats, parking sensors, a rear view camera, rear privacy glass, 16-inch alloy wheels, and those impressive 12.3-inch touchscreens, pop-out door handles and the side camera mirror system. The e is only available with a 100kW electric motor. Move up to the £29,160 e Advance, and the 113kW motor tested here becomes an option. Only available with the more powerful motor, the more technologicallyequipped e Advance adds a heated steering wheel, Honda’s Parking Pilot automatic parking system, blind spot monitor, a centre camera rear view mirror, ‘premium’ audio, and a choice of 16 or 17-inch alloy wheels. Both versions of the Honda e come with a very comprehensive array of safety systems that include functions for collision mitigation, lane keeping assistance, and traffic sign recognition How much does it cost to tax? In common will all fully electric cars, the Honda e is exempt from VED charges in both the first and also subsequent years under current taxation bands. The zeroemission Honda attracts a zero per cent Benefit in Kind (BIK) rate for 2020-2021, rising to one per cent in 2021-2022, and two per cent in 2022-2023. Why does my fleet need one? The e is a bold statement of Honda’s electric intent, at least in terms of appeal. There’s no doubt the pinch points of range and price will come into the equation, but for fleets that operate in largely urban areas, the striking appearance and premium air will offer many chances to get noticed.

Road Test

On a charge

The Japanese firm has also partnered with Ubitricity which offers lamp post charging solutions that feature mobile metering devices that allow charging costs to be tied to the customer’s energy tariff, removing the need for multiple supplier subscriptions. There are currently around 1,700 such points on streets in the UK and Germany. Another Honda EV collaborator, Vattenfall, will provide the world’s first flexible electricity tariff specifically tailored for EV owners. Initially only available in the UK and Germany, the energy tariffs will play a key role in the effectiveness of Honda’s Power Manager bidirectional charging system which connects electric vehicles to a smart power grid. The vehicle t­ o g ­ rid technology enables the collection and distribution of electricity between EVs and the grid, to balance the demand and supply of energy. Honda’s European Energy Management Business plans to proliferate the use of domestic power chargers, urban charging solutions, commercial energy services and advanced vehicle to grid technology.

The more limited range will mean Honda’s piece of electric car jewellery isn’t for everyone or every fleet, but with plans brought forward to electrify every model in its range by 2022, the e is the first sign of things to come from the Japanese manufacturer. An additional all-electric model is on the way, which may address the e’s limited range. But for now, the Honda e is a both a highly engaging and desirable proposition if the usage case and cycle demands it. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Honda e Advantage ENGINE: 113kW / 152bhp electric motor and 35.5kWh lithium-ion battery RANGE (WLTP):

125-137 miles

CO2 :



£0 first-year, £0 thereafter



PRICE (OTR): £29,160 (including VAT and government PiCG, £29,710 as tested)



Road Test Written by Richard Gooding


Volvo XC40 Recharge Plug-In Hybrid T5 FWD R-Design The popular XC40 spearheads Volvo’s electrification push, with the range encompassing mild and plug-in hybrids, as well as an all-electric version. Richard Gooding finds out if the most powerful plug-in XC40’s combination of all-electric and petrol-assisted running is the ideal one What is it? As statements go, it is bold. Volvo has an ambition to be climate-neutral by 2040, and aims to reduce tailpipe emissions by 50 per cent per car. By 2025, the brand also plans for half of its new vehicle sales to be electric. While the 2016 XC90 T8 Twin Engine was the company’s first ‘new-generation’ plug-in hybrid, its first PHEV offering was the diesel-engined V60 Plug-in Hybrid of 2013. Launched in 2017, the small XC40 crossover was European Car of the Year in 2018, and is the Swedish brand’s most popular model in the UK. Alongside petrol and (now discontinued) diesel models, a 177bhp Recharge T5 plug-in version was added to the stylish compact SUV range in 2019. A lower-powered T4 variant followed in August 2020, powered by a 129bhp version of the T5’s 1.5-litre three-cylinder petrol engine, mated to the same 60kW electric motor and 10.7kWh lithium-ion battery.

How does it drive? From the outside, there’s little to tell the plug-in XC40 from its siblings. The only giveaway is the charging socket located under a flap on the passenger front wing. That it is similar in looks to the rest of the range is a good thing, as few compact SUVs measure up to the XC40 in terms of style. It’s a similar story inside, too, with the cabin finished in high quality materials. Carpetcovered door panels add to the premium feel and the portrait-orientated nine-inch colour touchscreen has a sharp resolution. It’s not the easiest system to use, however, with the battery charge modes needing too many swipes of the screen to appear. Out on the road, the plug-in XC40 is as refined as we’ve come to expect from newgeneration Volvos, with engine noise well suppressed. With a system output of 259bhp, the Recharge T5 has decent pace – even if


it does weigh a hefty 1,741kg – thanks to its 195lb ft of torque. The car’s seven-speed twin-clutch automatic gearbox is easy to use, and the lever can be knocked into ‘D’ or ‘B’ (for more regenerative braking) with a flick of the wrist. Tactile paddles behind the steering wheel allow various levels of regeneration to be chosen, the selected level displayed on the digital driver’s display. Five driving modes are available – Hybrid, Pure, Power, Off-Road and Individual. ‘Hybrid’ is the default setting with the three-cylinder petrol engine and the electric motor working either together or individually for optimum efficiency; ‘Pure’ prioritises economy and all-electric running; ‘Power’ maximises performance and driving dynamics; ‘Off-road’ optimises the XC40’s performance on slippery surfaces (the car is front-wheel drive); while ‘Individual’ allows tailoring of the modes to whichever

Volvo’s electric XC40 is now available to order in the UK. Priced from £59,985, the 402bhp XC40 Recharge Pure Electric P8 has an official range of 249 miles and can be fast-charged to 80 per cent in 40 minutes. The initial batch of £59,985 First Edition models are due to arrive with UK drivers in early 2021, and the XC40 EV is the first of five all-electric Recharge-branded cars to be launched by the Swedish company over the next five years.

suits the driver best. Additional ‘Hold’ and ‘Charge’ functions allow the level of battery charge to be held and used later or charged up using the car’s petrol engine, which is the least economical way of doing so. Despite the plug-in XC40’s weight, it handles well, and doesn’t feel like a high-riding SUV on more demanding roads. There’s reasonably sharp turn in with little roll, and although the ride is on the firm side, it only gets caught out on really deep potholes and ruts, which caused our test car’s interior plastics to creak. Wind noise is virtually nonexistent, with road noise only noticeable on the harshest of surfaces. Another plus is that there’s no loss of practicality, as the battery pack is mounted under the floor, so cabin space and the 452-litre luggage compartment is shared with other XC40s. What range does it have? The XC40 Recharge T5’s 10.7kWh lithiumion battery and 60kW electric motor give an official zero-emission range of 28 miles – up to 78mph – under WLTP testing procedures. How long does it take to charge? Only one charging cable – a 10A mains socket AC Type 2 – is included with the Volvo XC40 Recharge T5. On a 10A supply, the battery is recharged in around 3.5 hours, or 6 hours at a 6A rate. An optional fast-charging cable is available for £50 and will refill the battery in 2.5 hours. What does it cost? Although the range starts with Momentum and Momentum Core trims, the cheapest Volvo XC40 Recharge model is the R-Design variant tested here. Priced from £41,030, standard specification includes a high gloss black front grille and window surrounds, 19-inch alloy wheels, a powered tailgate and sports pedals. Inside, there’s aluminium inlays, black headlining, leather and nubuck upholstery and the same portrait nine-inch touchscreen system with voice-activated control, as well as Volvo’s Sensus Connect web app and Sensus Navigation and systems. The cruise control system, LED headlights, rear parking sensors and 12.3inch TFT digital driver’s display are shared with other XC40s.

The £42,430 R-Design Pro adds active headlights, heated front seats, a heated windscreen, and 20-inch alloy wheels among other niceties. Inscription models start at £41,380 and feature chrome window trim, ‘driftwood’ interior inlays, a power-operated driver’s seat with memory function, a rear parking camera, and an Orrefors crystal gear lever. From £42,430, Inscription Pro trim adds active bending headlights, a powered front passenger seat and a headlight cleaning system. All Volvo XC40 Recharge models are not eligible for the government’s Plug-In Car Grant (PICG) due to their all-electric range being less than 70 miles. How much does it cost to tax? The same as other plug-in petrol-electric hybrids, Volvo XC40 Recharge T5 models are classed as ‘alternatively-fuelled vehicles’ (AFVs), so they are exempt from the first year VED charge, as they attract a £10 AFV discount – the standard charge for cars emitting 1-50g/km of CO2 is £10. In years two to six, the premium VED rate of £465 minus the £10 AFV discount applies, as even the cheapest XC40 plug-in hybrid model costs over £40,000. With WLTP-certified emissions of between 48 and 55g/km, the lowest-emitting versions of the XC40 Recharge T5 sit in the 12 per cent Benefit In Kind (BIK) rate band, with the highest attracting a 14 per cent levy. It’s worth noting that the less powerful Recharge T4 R-Design and Inscription models attract a lower £150 standard rate of VED – as opposed to the premium rate of the T5 – as, at £39,130 and £39,475 respectively, they are priced at less than £40,000. Why does my fleet need one? In common with all PHEVs, the XC40 plug-in hybrid combines all the benefits of zero-emission running, but with the added safety net of a small petrol engine for a longer overall driving range. This means less range anxiety of course, but as with its rivals, if longer journeys are the prime use of the car, these advantages will be of small consequence and add little to the experience. Around urban areas, though, the plug-in Volvo comes into its own and the zero-emission part of the powertrain can be used to its full advantage. With a raft of high-quality

Road Test

Recharging the brand

The electric XC40 is a sign of things to come – diesel-engined XC40s have been dropped, replaced by mild-hybrid and plug-in hybrid models (such as the Recharge T5 tested here) instead. Over 600,000 vehicles based on the CMA platform which underpins the XC40 and the new Polestar 2 have been sold since 2017, and Volvo has recently launched its ‘Care by Volvo’ subscription service in the UK. This gives drivers access to a car, along with data services, maintenance and servicing, all covered by one monthly payment.

technology, materials and finishes, the XC40 plug-in is a pricey proposition; a little too pricey. While the high list price is offset a little by any cost savings, the range of the – still expensive – all-electric model may be a more sensible option for some, even if it does cost considerably more than the plug-in hybrid. A slightly confused model when it comes to economy, if your fleet driving needs favour short distances to use the electrified part of its powertrain, then the XC40 Recharge T5 will no doubt appeal. L FURTHER INFORMATION

Volvo XC40 Recharge Plug-In Hybrid T5 FWD R-Design ENGINE: 1,477cc three-cylinder turbocharged petrol engine, 60kW electric motor, 10.7kWh lithium-ion battery, 259bhp system output ELECTRIC RANGE (WLTP): 26.1-27.3 Miles MPG (WLTP, combined): GF MPG:



117.7-134.5 47-55g/km

£0 first-year, £455 thereafter




£41,030 (including VAT, £44,880 as tested)



SePTeMbeR 2020



ELECTRIC TRUCKS Heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer Scania has launched its first electric truck range, with both full electric and plug-in hybrid variants




Commercial Vehicle News


Larger lorries and gas-powered trucks confirmed for Primark

Primark has announced the introduction of a new fleet of 15 Longer Semi Trailers (LSTs) which will each carry twice the volume of stock as the company’s existing trailers and will mean 1,600 fewer trailer journeys annually. This amounts to 728,000 fewer kilometres travelled each year and the elimination of 680 CO2 equivalent tonnes from Primark’s transport operation in the UK.

The delivery of the new LSTs, manufactured in the UK by Don Bur (Bodies & Trailers) Ltd in Stoke-on-Trent and arranged in partnership with DHL Supply Chain, marks the start of a new phase in Primark’s move towards a more sustainable transport model. Each trailer is 15.65 metres long, has two decks and is designed to carry larger volumes of both hanging garments and

palletised products to Primark depots across the UK. Primark has also confirmed that later this year it will take delivery of 10 new Iveco tractor units which will be fuelled by liquified natural gas (LNG), a more environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative to traditional diesel fuel. Gaspowered trucks typically reduce CO2 emissions released into the atmosphere by 15 per cent, compared with diesel-powered trucks, and these new Iveco tractor units deliver a 60 per cent reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions to the environment. Each tractor unit will cover approximately 200,000 kms per year, enable quieter urban deliveries and will further reduce the environmental impact of the company’s logistics operations. Ian Hicks, head of transport at Primark, said: “We have been working hard for many years to reduce the environmental impact of our logistics operations and we are delighted to take this next step in boosting the

sustainability of our transport model. These new trailers have double the capacity of standard trailers and will significantly reduce our transport emissions in the UK. We are proud to bring these new additions into our transport fleet, to help make a more positive impact on the environment. The new trailers with their unmissable Primark branding can be seen on UK roads from this week.” In 2016, Primark successfully introduced LNG trucks into its Spanish logistics fleet, which are used to distribute merchandise to Primark stores in Madrid and Barcelona. Primark has also introduced similar double decker trailers to its Northern European logistics operations, in collaboration with its Dutch logistics partners, as part of the ongoing commitment to reduce the environmental impact across the business. READ MORE


LEVC’s VN5 electric van completes final testing phase LEVC’s new range-extended electric van - VN5 has completed its final testing phase and will start production in Q4. Prototypes of the vehicle, built on the same production line as the TX, have spent the last 32 months undergoing a strict development and homologation programme including hot and cold climate testing, durability and crash testing. In total the vehicles have completed equivalent of 850,000 kilometres of testing, ensuring the VN5 will more than live up to the task of daily use. During development, VN5 has undergone a raft of tests including ‘extreme event and abuse’, which places huge demands on the powertrain, suspension and brakes, with rapid deceleration over potholes, multiple kerb strikes as well as wading through waist deep water. This phase has also made sure that VN5’s classleading manoeuvrability, with a city-friendly turning circle of just 10.1m, stands up to the test.


Engineers have also carried out ‘general durability’ testing, designed to replicate a lifetime of usage, as well as climatic chamber testing, simulating the effect hostile temperatures and weather can have on vehicle functions and materials. Dynamic ride and handling testing using various loads has also taken VN5’s braking, acceleration and cornering ability to the limit and beyond. VN5 delivers a total flexible range

of more than 300 miles (489 km) with ultra-low emissions of just 21 g/km CO2 on the combined WLTP1 cycle. This cycle delivers a pure electric zero emissions range of 61 miles (98 km) and green driving could ​achieve a 76-mile (122 km) range in pure EV mode, according to WLTP city methodology. With up to 5.5m3 capacity, VN5 cargo capacity easily accommodates two Euro sized pallets with a gross payload of


up to 830kg. It has been built with a large side-loading door (enabling a pallet to be sideloaded) and a 60/40 split door at the rear to make loading and unloading easy for the driver. Available to order now, first VN5 deliveries commence in RHD form in Q4, with LHD models available from March 2021.


Counter terror advice for commercial vehicle operator

Logistics UK’s Natalie Chapman Clean air zones are under review: A chance to improve air quality for good? Natalie Chapman, head of urban policy, Logistics UK

The Department for Transport (DfT) has issued new guidance designed to prevent terrorists getting access to commercial vehicles, amid concerns over the rise in attacks where a commercial vehicle has been used. In 2017, three of the five attacks which took place in London and Manchester used a vehicle as a weapon. In the wake of these attacks, the DfT worked alongside security experts from Counter Terrorism Policing to create an industryspecific guidance document

to help transport businesses, operators, managers and drivers mitigate the threat of their vehicles being used in an attack. The guidance covers all aspects of vehicle and site security, including a 10-point checklist for vehicle security for commercial drivers – which will help prevent crime and acts of terrorism, protect an organisation’s reputation and, ultimately, keep us all safer. READ MORE


Volta Zero 16-tonne electric truck launched Volta Trucks has launched its new Volta Zero, reported to be the world’s first purposebuilt full-electric 16-tonne commercial vehicle designed specifically for inner-city parcel and freight distribution. The Volta Zero will start trials with some of Europe’s largest parcel delivery and logistics companies in H1-2021. Orders have already been taken and are due to be delivered when production starts in 2022. The Volta Zero will use 160 - 200 kWh of battery power and the Lithium Iron Phosphate battery will be highly modular, enabling Volta Trucks to adapt the vehicle to an operator’s specific requirements. The truck offers an electric range of 95 – 125 miles. The Volta Zero will be the first road vehicle to use a sustainably sourced natural Flax material and biodegradable resin in the construction of exterior body panels, with the cab’s dark body panels and many interior trims constructed from the natural material. At the end of their useful life, the Flax composite parts can be burnt within the standard waste

management system and used for thermal energy recovery, unlike alternative composite materials that are usually sent to landfill. The Volta Zero has been designed to optimise its load-carrying capacity, thus minimising the number of vehicles on an operator’s fleet, and the consequent congestion on city streets. The principle is that thanks to its overall design, the Volta Zero can operate in narrow city streets and undertake the role that three or four 3.5-tonne vehicles would ordinarily do. The Volta Zero offers a payload of 8,600kgs, with an overall volume of 37.7m 3 and is designed to accommodate 16 Euro pallets. A refrigerated cargo box will also be available, without reducing overall volume as a result of the vehicle design. Volta Trucks is integrating the use of the vehicle’s battery for the cooling and refrigeration unit of the cargo box that’s normally dieselpowered, thus further reducing CO2 or particulate emissions from commercial vehicle operations.


Commercial Vehicle News


Air pollution has declined significantly during the COVID19 pandemic, leading some local authorities to evaluate whether Clean Air Zones (CAZs) are a necessary requirement in the long-term fight against poor air quality. This is now the position of many city councils, including Bristol and Leeds, which have begun to explore alternative measures. At Logistics UK, we have long been warning national and local governments of the shortfalls of CAZs, both in achieving and maintaining decreased pollution levels and their impact on logistics businesses operating in urban environments. The review of CAZs in many cities has been welcome news for our members and we are pleased that many urban administrations are taking this opportunity to pause and assess whether these schemes truly are the most effective way to maintain decreased levels of pollution in the long-term. However, as COVID-19 is a respiratory illness, the need for clean air is more important than ever; whatever solution is reached in the long term, we must get it right. In the view of Logistics UK, CAZs were never the best approach to take to improve the air that we all breathe. We believe that CAZs will not provide any lasting benefit to air quality, as the Euro VI/6 vehicles required to enter a zone without charge will come into fleets of their own accord, as part of the natural fleet replacement cycle. Euro VI has been mandatory in all new trucks since 2014 and by the end of 2022, Logistics UK estimates that almost 80 per cent of the UK truck fleet will already be Euro VI, rendering these schemes redundant. In the short term, they would be a punitive tax on those tasked with keeping our cities stocked with the goods and services they need to function. Furthermore, many logistics businesses are facing a tough and uncertain future as the economic fallout of the pandemic bites. These schemes hit hardest those who can least afford to upgrade their fleets, such as small businesses, operators of specialist vehicles, and those servicing parts of the economy which continue to struggle due to the pandemic including events, hospitality and aviation. Logistics UK’s Logistics Performance Tracker results show that many businesses are finding cash flow challenging and as a result and therefore do not have the funding nor the resources to undertake the necessary vehicle upgrades, or alternatively, bear the charges of non-compliance currently. We hope to continue to work with national and local governments to develop air quality measures that deliver long-term results without penalising the recovering logistics sector, such as incentivising the uptake of alternatively fuelled and electric commercial vehicles and allowing the retiming of deliveries.

FURTHER INFORMATION For more information about Logistics UK and its work, including its research into the impacts of COVID-19 on the supply chain, please visit




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Commercial GREENFLEET took place digitally on 23 September, with the aim of exploring the options for eliminating van and truck emissions ahead of 2050 Sponsored by van manufacturers Maxus, Commercial GREENFLEET was hosted by LowCVP’s managing director Andy Eastlake, who opened the event with praise for the van and lorry fleets that have kept the UK functioning during the pandemic. Michael Mansbridge from the Office for Low Emission Vehicles (OLEV) kicked off the presentations with an overview of the government’s strategy for zero emission vehicles. He highlighted that the UK is making good progress, with 240,000 vehicles funded with the plug-in grant. Acknowledging that the van market is in an earlier stage, he said that 10,000 vans have been purchased using the plug-in grant, and that there are over 20 van models that are eligible, signalling that the market is developing. The issue with HGVs however is more complex. “Due to their size, they need larger batteries, which makes them heavier and has an impact on price, payload and range,” explains Michael, adding however that a number of manufacturers are announcing plans for zero emission trucks. Rhona Munck from Transport for London spoke about the Mayor of London’s vision for a zero carbon city by 2050, and the transport measures put in place to make this happen, such the capital’s Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Project. The city has an aim for 300 rapid chargers by the end of 2020, and has so far achieved 260.

Logistics Natalie Chapman from Logistics UK (formerly the Freight Transport Association) pointed out that targets to achieve net zero by 2050 gives a clear end goal, but the challenge is identifying the necessary steps to make this possible. “We need a clear pathway for HGVs,” commented Natalie. “We need to finalise the ultra-low truck definition, and an ultra-low emission fuel definition is also needed.” This, Natalie explains, will help manufacturers and fleet operators concentrate their efforts on the right solution. In the meantime, large goods vehicles need to concentrate on the vehicle efficiencies available now. Having a large payload is one way of reducing emissions, as it means less journeys taking place.

zero tailpipe emissions, greater range and faster refuelling - addressing many of the issues faced by electric vehicle drivers. The hydrogen refuelling infrastructure however is very limited at the moment, as well as the choice of hydrogen fuelled vehicles. Marcus Helliwell, sourcing developer at IKEA is responsible for sourcing all suppliers who provide a service to IKEA customers, placing sustainability at the heart of procurement. Marcus spoke about IKEA’s aim to transition to a zero-emission delivery fleet by 2025, and how the company is taking a staggered approach to EV adoption. Event sponsor Mike Haran from Maxus UK, formerly LDV, spoke about the company’s newest electric van, the e DELIVER 3, which is the company’s first van that will not offer a diesel engine alternative. The van has a range of up to 198 miles (NEDC) or 150 miles (WLTP) on a single charge of the 52.5kWh battery. The van comes in three variants with two wheelbase options.

Hydrogen for zero emissions Hydrogen is being touted as the zero emission solution for long haul heavy trucks. The fuel has seen increased attention in the last few months, with the establishment of Charging infrastructure the UK Strategy Now campaign – which Taking on the subject of the electric vehicle comprises over 60 cross-party MPs and charging infrastructure, Sam Clarke gave an peers, as well as more than 50 UK and update on the UK’s first electric only European businesses who are driving forecourt GRIDSERVE, of which forward the hydrogen agenda. he is chief vehicle officer. Anthony Green from the Targets Sam brings years National Grid spoke to achie of experience with about the advantages of net zer ve him to the role, E hydrogen, which include

2050 g o by clear en ives a d the cha goal, but identify llenge is ing to mak the steps et possiblehis





 having established last mile logistics company Gnewt Cargo in 2009. Sam highlighted that while the current 2,000 rapid charging locations may be ok for the amount of electric vehicles on the road now, it is not good enough in the future. When it comes to ultra rapid chargers, there are only 40 locations (excluding Tesla) and those ones are oversubscribed. Perhaps due to inexperience when chargers where installed, many of the charging locations are unsuitable, with Sam pointing out one occasion where he had to park in a flower bed in order to access a charge point. As a solution to this, electric forecourt GRIDSERVE will be opening soon in Braintree, Essex, and the company has over 100 more sites in the pipeline. The forecourt allows for thirty electric vehicles to be charged simultaneously with high power chargers that can deliver up to 350kW of charging power, enabling people to add 200 miles of range in just 20 minutes. Event sponsor Dean Hedger, new business development manager at The AA, covered electric vehicles from a breakdown and maintenance point of view. Dean highlighted that while less than one per cent of breakdowns is from an electric vehicle, as the market grows, this will increase. A perceived lack of EV engineers could be a reason for fleets not investing in electric, and so Dean explained how the AA is addressing this problem by upskilling all its engineers so they can deal with EVs.

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Anthony Green from the National Grid spoke about the advantages of hydrogen, which include zero tailpipe emissions, greater range and faster refuelling addressing many of the issues faced by electric vehicle drivers The AA is also providing support for charge point operators, such as SWARCO, resolving faults at the end of the phone. The AA is also exploring a field-based technician option to maintain the country’s growing EV infrastructure. Using what’s viable now Picking up on the point Natalie Chapman raised about how HGV fleets need to do what they can now while the zero emission alternatives are not there, Graham Thomas from Ocado spoke about his experience of using natural gas trucks, calling it “the only viable alternative fuel available now”. The environmental benefits of switching to natural gas include 99 per cent fewer particulate emissions and 70 per cent less nitrogen oxide than the latest diesel standard. Natural gaspowered vehicles are also, on average, 10db quieter than diesel vehicles.

Ocado has 46 CNG trucks, which will raise to 60 by the end of the year. In January 2019, Ocado became the first UK retailer to self-fund the purchase of an onsite grid-connected gas refuelling station. The event had digital breakout sessions, where delegates could network and put forward questions to consultant experts, including Alun Davies from ElectrAssure; Owain Pearce from Oxford Direct Services, Brian Robinson from LowCVP, and Matthew Hunt from GasRec. Simon Penny-Smith from Forktruck Solutions meanwhile was on hand to discuss the company’s range of environmentally friendly lithium powered forklift trucks, warehouse equipment and utility vehicles. L FURTHER INFORMATION To watch the video of the event, visit



Electric Trucks

Electric trucks: an increasingly compelling option Heavy commercial vehicle manufacturer, Scania, has launched its first electric truck range, with both full electric and plug-in hybrid variants. The company explains why it is taking the electrific route Transport buyers, cities and consumers are having a strong pull effect on the shift of the heavy transport industry to sustainable transport solutions, particularly electrification. This is creating a positive upside on revenues at the same time as technological advances make the cost of operations much more favourable. It all adds up to the fact that electrification is a solution whose time has come.

distribution trucks will be comparable with There are several different technologies that vehicles powered by fossil fuels. Batteries will enable the world to decarbonise the will become less expensive, and their service transport system and help Scania meet its own life will grow. This paves the way not only science-based climate targets. Electrification for electrified distribution trucks but will, without question, play a crucial part also, in few years’ time, for longin achieving decarbonisation. distance electrified operations. In the mid-term, Scania However, it’s not expects that the total Off-pea just about the vehicles. cost of ownership of deliveri k e Electrification can only battery-powered heavy s b y a Scani take off if Scania works a h y bridelectric together with its customers and partners 30 per truck were c e n on the infrastructure t q u than th side and energy supply. e equiv icker daytime al It will then be possible transpoent to get electric trucks rt route running on renewable energy out on the roads. Additionally public investments in charging infrastructure and development of the energy grid is required. Shifting cost split Purchasing a new truck always represents a significant investment and electric trucks are currently more expensive than conventional vehicles. But it’s also important to note that the heavy transport industry’s true measure of value comes from total cost of ownership and operation, and this is where the electric truck proves its worth. No more dealing with high (and ever-fluctuating) fuel bills. And the electric truck customer is able to benefit from the full Scania offer, including financing, service and maintenance, and driver service and assistance packages, like any other truck buyer. As the technology develops to produce lighter, smaller, more energy-intensive models, the cost of electric-power batteries has and will continue to decrease significantly. Charging is also part of the customer offer that Scania, with partners, can provide to electric truck owners, to optimise the vehicle for current and future operational needs. Overall, there’s a trend towards a positive cost split for electric trucks, which is good news for fleet owners. Competitive advantages of electric vehicles Public policy is having a big impact on the viability of electric vehicles. A number of major



Electric Trucks

In 300kWh format, a range of up to 155 miles can be achieved on a single charge. The batteries can be charged by 130 kW DC using a Combined Charging System (CCS) connector. The charging time from zero to 80 per cent is approximately 40 minutes for the five-battery option and approximately 65 minutes for the ninebattery option. In addition, the batteries are continuously charged in motion through regenerative braking energy. Plug-in hybrid truck Scania’s plug-in hybrid truck, also available in L- and P-series rigid format, has an electric range of 37 miles, but as it has a combustion engine, it can travel for longer. The plug-in hybrid is equipped with three batteries for an installed capacity of 90 kWh for its 115 kW electric motor. The charging time from zero to 80 per cent is approximately 35 minutes. In addition to charging via regenerative braking energy, battery power can also be topped up during loading and unloading. The electric powertrain is combined with combustion engine options ranging from 280–360 horsepower.

cities around the world have signalled they will gradually phase out diesel vehicles from their streets. In fact, there are presently no fewer than 274 low-emission zones in 11 European countries that restrict access to polluting vehicles in cities, provinces and regions. Such initiatives give non-fossil-fuel vehicles, especially electric vehicles, the competitive advantage of full access to city centres, something which Scania’s new electric truck is poised to exploit. A further competitive advantage comes from electric engines’ potential for use in night-time or ‘off-peak’ distribution, using Scania’s battery electric and hybrid trucks. Many cities restrict deliveries overnight due to concerns over noise and emissions. The City of Stockholm, for instance, prohibits all heavy truck traffic between 10:00 pm and 6:00 am. However, in 2019, a trial in Stockholm by transport company HAVI, McDonald’s, the Royal Institute of Technology and Scania found that, on average, zero-emission offpeak deliveries by a Scania hybrid-electric truck were 30 per cent quicker than the average for the equivalent daytime transport route. And these night-time deliveries were an average 38 per cent quicker than daytime deliveries made during the narrower timespan of 7:00 am to 12:00 noon. Less driving time, less queuing, better parking availability and of course no emissions when a truck is switched to electric mode all make a persuasive case for electric propulsion. Distributors and refuse collection departments are taking a great interest. Better air quality The low or zero-emission transports that are a hallmark of hybrid-electric and full-electric vehicles are good news for air quality, too. The night-time trial with the two Scania

trucks also showed a clear reduction in nitrogen oxide (NOx) particle levels: these NOx particles are a major contributor to poor air quality and associated public health issues including respiratory diseases. Also, the ability of electric vehicles to operate during the night is not only a good business opportunity; it would also likely reduce the number of accidents befalling delivery drivers, as well as damage to the trucks that can occur during busy daytime delivery slots. Momentum is with the technology Ultimately, a combination of the above factors and the urgent environmental imperatives make the adoption of electric vehicles and the success of electric propulsion likely. To make this happen, the TRATON Group, to which Scania belongs, is channelling its combined research and development budget into developing electric trucks and buses and will, by 2025, spend more than €1 billion in electro-mobility. Scania’s launch of its new electric truck is, along with its plug-in hybrid electric truck, is further proof that this technology has the momentum to help change the heavy transport sector for good. Scania’s electric truck The Scania fully electric trucks, available in L- and P-series rigid format, are offered with either a 165 or 300 kilowatt hour (kWh) battery pack to power its 230 kilowatt (kW) electric motor. Five batteries are used for 165 kWh, with nine batteries employed for 300 kWh. With the combustion engine removed, one battery is placed in the former engine tunnel with the remaining four or eight batteries placed along the chassis side.

Multiple uses In addition to general cargo and temperaturecontrolled transport, e-trucks can be equipped with a wide range of bodywork, such as hooklifts, tippers, concrete mixers and refuse collectors, as well as secondary support vehicles for the emergency services. In support of operators looking to be early adopters of electric technology, Scania (Great Britain) Limited will initially be creating a series of regional servicing hubs strategically located throughout the UK. As uptake increases, additional servicing points will be added in accordance with demand. “We are convinced that progressive customers will be eager to lead the way into electrification by taking the initial steps to future-proof their fleets,” says Scania (Great Britain) Limited’s UK sales director, Vincente Connolly. “In major transport companies with large fleets, implementation gives them an early opportunity to gain experience in this area. Meanwhile, we know that large transport buyers are interested in reducing their carbon footprint. “Both the plug-in and fully electric truck will be essential for operating in the growing number of urban areas around the world with low-emission city centre zones. They also provide opportunities for increased vehicle utilisation. “With silent deliveries, transport services can be extended well into the night and early mornings, avoiding traffic congestion and parking difficulties. Studies show that offpeak deliveries can be more than 30 percent quicker than on equivalent daytime transport routes thanks to simpler parking at delivery points, less queuing, higher speeds and more frequent green lights at intersections,” adds Vincente Connolly. L FURTHER INFORMATION



Electric & Hydrogen Trucks

Daimler presents hydrogen and electric truck plans

Joint working The GenH2 Truck is based on the capabilities of the conventional Mercedes-Benz Actros long-haul truck with regard to tractive power, range, and performance. For example, the series-production version of the GenH2 Truck is to have a gross vehicle weight of 40 tons and a payload of 25 tons. Two special liquidhydrogen tanks and a particularly powerful fuel-cell system will make this high payload and long range possible, and therefore form the core of the GenH2 Truck concept. In April this year, Daimler Truck AG concluded a preliminary, non-binding agreement with Daimler trucks has outlined its electrification strategy, including the Volvo Group to establish a new joint venture for the development to series maturity, plans for hydrogen and all electric long-haul trucks, at an online production and commercialisation of fuel-cell presentation on 16 September systems for use in heavy-duty commercial vehicles and other applications. preferred for lower cargo Joining forces will decrease Daimler Trucks premiered its hydrogen weights and for shorter development costs for both fuelled Mercedes-Benz GenH2 concept Thanks distances. Fuel-cell companies and accelerate truck at an online event on 16 to the power will tend to be the market introduction of September, as well as its electric powered use of l the preferred option fuel cell systems. The joint Mercedes-Benz eActros LongHaul. iquid instead for heavier loads and venture is to benefit from The hydrogen powered truck GenH2 has o the expertise of Daimler a range of up to 620 miles on a single tank longer distances.” hydrog f gaseous Truck AG and the Volvo of hydrogen and is due to begin customer “Our customers vehicle’s en, the Group. To facilitate the trials in 2023, with series production due make rational perform is expec a joint venture with the Volvo to start in the second half of the decade. purchasing decisions n c e Group, Daimler Truck AG has Thanks to the use of liquid instead and are unwilling equal t ted to be o a dies brought together all Groupof gaseous hydrogen with its to compromise on el wide fuel-cell activities in the higher energy density, the vehicle’s their trucks’ suitability truck newly founded subsidiary Daimler performance is expected to be equal for everyday use, Truck Fuel Cell GmbH & Co. KG. that of a comparable diesel truck. tonnage and range. With our alternative drive concepts The electric Mercedes-Benz eActros from Mercedes-Benz – the GenH2 Truck, the Higher energy density LongHaul will have a range of 310 miles, eActros LongHaul and the eActros – and our Daimler Trucks prefers to use liquid hydrogen and is due for series production in 2024. electric trucks of the Freightliner and FUSO (LH2), because in this state, the energy carrier Daimler Trucks’ ePowertrain will be brands, we have a clear focus on customer has a far higher energy density in relation to the technological basis of all medium requirements and are creating genuine volume than gaseous hydrogen. As a result, and heavy-duty environmentally trucks locally CO2-neutral alternatives for them. the tanks of a fuel-cell truck using liquid the company makes – whether powered “We have now set out the key technological hydrogen are much smaller and, due to the purely by batteries or by hydrogen-based specifications of our electric trucks so that lower pressure, significantly lighter. fuel cells. It will feature high levels of the requirements are known to everyone This gives the trucks a larger cargo space performance, efficiency and durability. involved at an early stage. It is now up to and higher payload weight. At the same Martin Daum, chairman of the board of policymakers, other players and society as time, more hydrogen can be carried, which management of Daimler Truck AG said: “We a whole to provide the right framework significantly increases the trucks’ range. are consistently pursuing our vision of CO2conditions. To make CO2-neutral allThis makes the series GenH2 Truck, like neutral transport with a focus on the genuinely electric vehicles competitive, regulatory conventional diesel trucks, suitable for multilocally CO2-neutral technologies battery power and government action is needed, day, difficult to plan long-haul transport and and hydrogen-based fuel cells, which have the including the necessary infrastructure for where the daily energy throughput is high. potential to succeed in the market in the long charging with green electricity and for the Daimler Trucks is currently pressing ahead term. This combination enables us to offer our production, storage and transport of green with the development of the necessary tankcustomers the best vehicle options, depending liquid hydrogen,” Daum continued. system technologies to make liquid hydrogen on the application. Battery power will be



Interaction between battery and fuel-cell systems The two stainless-steel liquid-hydrogen tanks intended for the series version of the GenH2 Truck will have a particularly high storage capacity of 80 kilograms (40 kg each) for covering long distances. The stainless-steel tank system consists of two tubes, one within the other, that are connected to each other and vacuum-insulated. In the series version of the GenH2 Truck, the fuel-cell system is to supply 2 x150 kilowatts and the battery is to provide an additional 400 kW temporarily. At 70 kWh, the storage capacity of the battery is relatively low, as it is not intended to meet energy needs, but mainly to be switched on to provide situational power support for the fuel cell, for example during peak loads while accelerating or while driving uphill fully loaded. At the same time, the relatively light battery allows a higher payload. It is to be recharged in series-production vehicles with braking energy and excess fuel-cell energy. A core element of the sophisticated operating strategy of the fuel-cell and battery system is a cooling and heating system that keeps all components at the ideal operating temperature, thus ensuring maximum durability. In a pre-series version, the two electric motors are designed for a total of 2 x 230 kW continuous power and 2 x 330 kW maximum power. Torque is 2 x 1577 Nm and 2 x 2071 Nm respectively. Electric truck offers advantages depending on use case The Mercedes-Benz eActros LongHaul batterypowered truck will be in the same vehicle class as the GenH2 truck. Its features will be largely identical to those of the series-produced GenH2 Truck or a conventional diesel truck. The comparatively short range of the eActros LongHaul on one battery charge is offset by its high energy efficiency, as battery electric drive has the highest efficiency among alternative drive systems. This offers transport companies significant advantages in the application scenarios envisaged for the eActros LongHaul due to its low energy costs. Many of the long-haul applications in the practical operations of transport companies do not require a range greater than the approximately 310 miles that the eActros LongHaul will be able to cover on one charge. In addition, legal requirements regarding truck drivers’ driving times limit the need for longer ranges, depending on the case. In the EU, for example, truck drivers have to take a break of at least 45 minutes at the latest after 4.5 hours of driving. During this time, thanks to the latest charging technology, the battery can be charged with a large proportion of the energy needed for the ongoing journey. The eActros LongHaul will therefore be the right choice for transport companies for regular use

on plannable routes and with the appropriate distances and charging possibilities. Charging infrastructure can be available relatively soon With its market launch in the middle of the decade, the eActros LongHaul will be available some time before the GenH2 Truck. The required infrastructure can also be set up sooner – and at comparatively low cost – by the transport companies themselves for charging at their depots. This so-called depot charging is the most important step for the use of the eActros LongHaul, and means that the first areas of application can already be covered. Another key component is opportunity charging for range extension, for example, while unloading or loading when the electric truck is anyway stationary. In the future, public charging at publicly accessible stations along main transport routes will also become increasingly important – a nationwide charging infrastructure will maximise the operating range of batteryelectric trucks. New, more durable batteries will also contribute to the competitiveness of battery-electric trucks, reducing total cost of ownership over a vehicle’s lifecycle. Consulting service At the International Commercial Vehicles Show in 2016, Daimler Trucks was the first manufacturer worldwide to present a heavyduty electric truck. In early 2018, Daimler Trucks celebrated the world premiere of the further developed Mercedes-Benz eActros, and intensive practical tests have been taking place with customers since the fall of 2018. Since then, findings from customer testing have flowed directly into the further development of the prototype into a seriesproduction vehicle. So far, they have shown that the purely battery-electric eActros is outstandingly suited for sustainable heavyduty distribution transport. It is in no way inferior to a conventional diesel truck in terms of availability and performance. However, the series-production eActros will be significantly superior to the current prototype in some aspects, such as range, drive power and safely. The series-production eActros will be on a par with a conventional Actros also in terms of payload. The eActros will be launched as a two-axle and three-axle truck. Daimler Trucks will embed the vehicle in a holistic ecosystem that includes consulting services for electric mobility, such as analysing routes, checking possible subsidies, supporting operational fleet integration and developing suitable charging-infrastructure solutions. Extensive practical expertise in electric vehicles The first practical operation of the MercedesBenz eEconic low-floor truck, which is based on the eActros and was announced by Daimler Trucks this year, is planned for 2021 and series production is scheduled to start in 2022. The eEconic will mainly be used as a waste-collection vehicle in urban wastemanagement applications. This is a very good choice for battery-powered trucks due to the comparatively short and firmly planned routes

of up to about 100 kilometers and a very high proportion of stop-and-go operation. In the United States, the medium-duty Freightliner eM2 and the heavy-duty Freightliner eCascadia are also currently undergoing practical tests with customers. The vehicles have a target range for series production of up to 370 km (eM2) and up to 400 km (eCascadia). Series production of the eCascadia is scheduled to start in mid-2022 and of the Freightliner eM2 in late 2022. A small series of more than 170 FUSO eCanter light-duty trucks are in use in with numerous customers in Japan, the United States and Europe; the first of them were handed over to customers already in 2017. The eCanter offers a range of 100 km. At Daimler Buses, the Mercedes-Benz eCitaro has been in series production since the fall of 2018. It will be followed in 2022 by the version with fuel cells as a range extender. With nearly 400 vehicles in use with customers, Daimler Trucks & Buses has gained comprehensive, practice-oriented expertise with electric vehicles, and has recorded a total of well over seven million kilometers driven by battery-electric test and series-produced trucks and buses with customers worldwide.

Electric & Hydrogen Trucks

usable also in mobile applications as an energy source for series-produced fuel-cell trucks. The storage of cryogenic liquid hydrogen at -253 degrees Celsius is already common practice in stationary applications, for example in industry or at hydrogen filling stations. This also applies to the transport of liquid hydrogen as cargo.

Daimler Trucks’ consulting approach reflects new drivesystem complexity In the coming years, truck customers will face the challenge of choosing the drive technology that is best for them – depending on the industry, segment and specific application. The goal of Daimler Trucks’ consultants is to meet this gradually increasing complexity with tailored offers at the right time. They will accompany customers every step of the way and work together to develop suitable solutions for entry into electric mobility. The core of Daimler Trucks’ consulting approach to the electrification of truck fleets is that the aspects of vehicle range and charging infrastructure are treated as a single entity. The experts at Daimler Trucks therefore also look in detail at how the charging infrastructure and charging processes themselves can be optimised. With its approach to the electric-mobility ecosystem, Daimler Trucks is pursuing a holistic and global method that focuses on individual customer needs. The manufacturer is cooperating with specialised partners in all relevant sectors to offer customers access to the required components. At the beginning of the year, Daimler Trucks took an additional step by launching a worldwide initiative to establish a charging infrastructure for battery-electric trucks. Within the framework of the eTruck Charging Initiative, Daimler Trucks is bringing together the main players – electric-truck customers, power-grid operators and energy suppliers, as well as charging-hardware manufacturers and charging-software providers – and is thus driving forward joint infrastructure solutions for electrictruck customers within the network. L FURTHER INFORMATION






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