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German, French, Italian and Spanish road legislation under the spotlight



Stringent measures for the European transport sector


HYDROGEN MOBILITY Germany’s ambitious plans to commercialise hydrogen





The New Citroën C4 Picasso and Grand C4 Picasso are totally adapted to your business needs. This is a revolution in the world of MPVs, providing the best technology for your employees. With its larger and brighter interior, thanks to its panoramic windscreen, the New Citroën C4 Picasso and Grand C4 Picasso are open to the world. The technology is extensive throughout. The 7’’ touchpad screen controls all of the functions, including the customisable 12’’ wide-screen HD monitor and the rest of the technology on board. This allows you to always be connected to your business partners. Choose the New Citroën C4 Picasso or Grand C4 Picasso for an unrivalled driving experience, whilst still controlling your consumption and CO2 emissions. Handle your business more efficiently from your car and standout in the world.








German, French, Italian and Spanish road legislation under the spotlight

® GREENFLEET MAGAZINE Bienvenue • Willkommen •

Benvenuti Welkom • Velkommen • Tervetuloa Üdvözlet • Witam Ci • Bem-vindo Bienvenidos • Välkommen • Welkom



Stringent measures for the European transport sector

Cover image copyright Daimler




HYDROGEN MOBILITY Germany’s ambitious plans to commercialise hydrogen


GreenFleet Europe distribution

Dear Readers We are delighted to present the first issue of GreenFleet Europe, which is distributed throughout 28 countries in the EU. The magazine’s aim is to expand on the success of the UK version, which has been published since 1999 and has been instrumental in promoting sustainable fleet management to both private and public sectors. In the EU, cars are responsible for around 12 per cent of total CO2 output. Fleets are often in the vanguard of new technology, and in recent years vehicle manufacturers have made great strides in reducing tailpipe emissions through refining the combustion engine, and through introducing new a host of technologies, such as hybrid drivetrains and stop start systems, which drive CO2 and costs down. GreenFleet Europe aims to provide a useful source of information in order to help fleet managers make informed decisions about these technologies. Starting with six issues per year, we will feature the latest developments in environmental motoring, alternative fuels (such as hydrogen, biofuels and CNG/LNG) telematics, driver training and a host of other hot topics that surround green motoring and help fleets run on time and within budget. From small firms operating 20 vehicles

through to multinational companies with fleets operating across Europe, case studies and in-depth interviews will explain how the pioneers in environmental fleet management are slashing CO2 and costs. In this issue, we feature Klaus Bonhoff from Germany’s National Organisation for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell technology, who explains the country’s ambitious plan to commercialise hydrogen (p16), freight telematics (p19) and logistics (p26), Car‑to-X technology (32) and there’s also a look at the latest green models to feature at the Tokyo Motor Show (12), as well as those which will enter the market in 2014. Please let us know how you would like to see the magazine develop, and if you would like to contribute to GreenFleet Europe, please email contribute@greenfleeteurope. com. We hope you enjoy the ride. Angela Pisanu, editor

P ONLINE P IN PRINT P MOBILE P FACE-TO-FACE If you would like to receive 6 issues of GreenFleet Europe magazine for €145 a year, please contact Public Sector Information Limited, 226 High Road, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055


226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: www.psi-media.co.uk EDITOR Angela Pisanu PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION CONTROL Jacqueline Lawford, Jo Golding WEB PRODUCTION Reiss Malone EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Danny Wright PUBLISHER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Victoria Leftwich ACCOUNT MANAGERS Carl Skinner REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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© 2013 Public Sector Information Limited. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the editorial content the publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher. ISSN 1362 - 2541



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Contents GreenFleet Europe 1.1 07 News Compromised deal on new car CO2 limits reached; Europe backs directive for alternative fuel infrastructure; €4m EU project for sustainable transport

12 Tokyo Motor Show 09

GreenFleet Europe reports on the 43rd Tokyo Motor Show, which was awash with green technology

16 Alternative fuels Dr Klaus Bonhoff, chair of Germany’s National Organisation for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW), explains the country’s ambitious plans to commercialise hydrogen

19 Telematics: truck convoys 12 19

The grand vision of Europe’s freight transport is of sleek convoys of autonomous trucks travelling along ‘smart’ roads, writes Siegfried Mortkowitz

26 Telematics: Car-to-Car technology Whilst some see ‘Car‑to-X’ technologies as the first step towards driverless motoring, their importance in reducing road accidents cannot be underestimated, writes Miriam Leibovitz

30 Road safety Simon Elstow from the Institute of Advanced Motorists looks at the rules of the road in France, Germany, Italy and Spain

32 Freight & logistics The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport International examines the European Commission’s stringent targets for carbon reduction for the transport sector

35 Passenger transport Electric buses, such as BYD’s ebus, are making an impact in Europe and could soon be a common sight on the roads

30 26


GreenFleet Europe magazine

www.greenfleeteurope.com Volume 1.1 | GREENFLEET EUROPE MAGAZINE



Decision time for fleet managers 7 reasons why you shoulD consiDer Kia. We would like you to meet a fleet designed to match your needs. A complete model range that will satisfy the employees and even the CFO. A fleet that is as unique in terms of its model line-up as it is in terms of its service approach. A fleet focused on design and quality, aligned to value for money. A fleet that will give you peace of mind for at least 7 years. And these are not just all promises. They are the commitments and key objectives of one of the fastest-growing mainstream brands in Europe. A brand that renewed its entire product range within 24 months, with new product launches in the A, B, C, C-MPV and D segments.


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EU agrees compromised deal on new car CO2 emissions limits A new compromised deal has been agreed by the European Union on stricter new car emissions limits, after pressure from the German Government ended the previous agreement. The new agreement delays full implementation of a limit of 95 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre (CO2/km) for all new cars until 2021 from a previous deadline of 2020. It also changes the rules on flexibility, giving more leeway to luxury car manufactures such as Daimler and BMW whose emissions are higher than those of smaller, lighter automakers such as Fiat. “We have worked together with the European Parliament for limited additional flexibility. Tonight we have found a very delicate balance,” said Arunas Vinciunas, the ambassador for Lithuania, which holds the six-month rotating EU presidency. He added the deal would be first presented to a meeting of EU diplomats, with a view to getting their agreement. It would then have to be signed off by member state governments and the European Parliament. Chancellor Angela Merkel argued the case for the big German carmakers, declaring

READ MORE tinyurl.com/onf6jm7

German Chancellor Angela Merkel led the fight for her country’s concessions

she was protecting German jobs, and persuaded other EU states to agree to scrap an agreement on 2020 emissions targets that was reached in June. Germany has won some of the concessions it sought. Apart from the phase-in, under which 95% of new car sales will have to comply in 2020 and 100% in 2021, the agreement also changes the rules for “supercredits”.

These allow manufacturers that make very low emission vehicles, such as electric cars, to claim extra credits for them, so they can continue to produce more heavily polluting vehicles as well. The previous agreement had set a limit for use of supercredits at 2.5 grams per year, while the new deal sets a cap of 7.5 grams of carbon dioxide for the years 2020-2022, so a manufacturer could opt to use all the flexibility in the first year. Greg Archer of campaign group Transport & Environment said that it was “disgraceful” that Germany’s lobbying had paid off, but “this revised deal will provide much-needed regulatory certainty and ensure cars continue to reduce their CO2 emissions and improve fuel efficiency.” So far Europe has a 2015 CO2 limit of 130g/km as an average across the EU fleet, a goal many manufacturers are Green campaigners such as already meeting or Greg Archer strongly criticised very close to doing so. Germany’s lobbying



Europe backs directive for greener fuel infrastructure

Winners of the 2013 Fleet Europe Awards announced

A proposal for a new directive which foresees the deployment of alternative fuel stations across Europe has been backed by the transport committee in the European Parliament, in a move to get Europe’s

transport running on cleaner power. One of the main problems to the take-up of alternative fuels has been the lack of recharging and refuelling stations and the incompatibility of systems in different EU countries. This directive sets out minimum requirements for alternative fuels infrastructure and common technical specifications by December 2020. The directive states the minimum number of recharging points for electric vehicles to be put into place by member states, especially in towns. In countries where hydrogen refuelling points already exist, a sufficient number of refuelling points should be made available, at intervals not exceeding 300km. MEPs added a requirement for building up numbers of hydrogen refuelling points in member states where they do not yet exist, with a deadline of 31 December 2030. For heavy duty vehicles, refuelling points for LNG along the roads on the TEN-T Core Network should be established at intervals not exceeding 400km, and a sufficient number of CNG refuelling points should be available, at maximum intervals of 100 km. READ MORE tinyurl.com/oxus9ur

The 2013 Fleet Europe Awards, held this year in Prague on 21 November, rewards excellence in fleet management across Europe. Pascal Serres from ALD International won the International Fleet Hall of Fame award, which recognises fleet industry leaders who have significantly contributed to the international fleet management profession. Serres won the award for successfully guiding the ALD organisation towards an integrated global fleet services approach. Capgemini’s Jack Knol received the International Fleet Innovation Award for its innovative cost control tool that gives flexibility in cost prediction. Laura Gobbis of Luxottica was presented the International Fleet Green Award for the company’s integrated green car policy which ensures the vehicles are fuel efficient, with CO2 capping per HR band. Gobbis also won International Fleet Mobility Award. Nestlé’s Andrzej Sacha was awarded the International Fleet Safety Award 2013 for his global strategy for safety which takes into account local; and the International Fleet Industry Award went to Mobileye for the Mobileye 5 Series + Enhancement Box which gives information on driver behaviour.






HGV manufacturers agree a global approach to carbon reduction

Fleet management tech deployed in CVs to reach 6.4m by 2017

Manufacturers of heavy-duty commercial trucks and engines endorsed a harmonised global approach towards improving energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions from commercial vehicles at a meeting of CV chief execs in Chicago in November. The chief executives from Europe, Japan, and the United States discussed fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions reductions, diesel fuel specifications, and topics related to heavy-duty engine and vehicle regulation and certification. The meeting was chaired by Tom Linebarger, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cummins Inc. This was the eleventh meeting of the chief executives to discuss global issues and address challenges facing commercial vehicle and engine manufacturers. Summarising the meeting, Linebarger said: “The meeting affirmed that it is important for our industry to partner with policymakers across the globe to develop and implement agreed upon standards and procedures that will continue to drive environmental improvements, while delivering high quality products to our customers.” Read more at tinyurl.com/n4hdh37

Research by analysts Berg Insight has predicted the number of active fleet management systems deployed in commercial vehicles across Europe will hit 6.4 million by 2017. The company showed that in Q4 of 2012, there were 3.05 million systems in fleets across the continent. At the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16 per cent, the figure should reach 6.4 million by 2017. The study also showed that a group of international aftermarket solution providers have emerged as the leaders on the European fleet management market. Masternaut are ranked as the largest player overall in terms of installed base, with close to 287,000 units deployed. TomTom Business Solutions were the fastest growing vendor in the past year, and have now surpassed 275,000 European subscribers. Digicore and Trimble have also joined the exclusive group of fleet management providers in Europe having more than 100,000 active devices in the field. Transics are number one in the heavy trucks segment, with an estimated 80,000 active units installed. A major trend in the past two years, Berg Insight claim, is the

standard line fitment of fleet management solutions. Since the end of 2011, Scania have rolled out the Scania Communicator as standard on all European markets, and include a four-year basic service subscription. Meanwhile, the new generation of Actros trucks from Mercedes-Benz contain the FleetBoard vehicle computer as standard in all EU27 countries. Volvo are also going in the same direction, offering Dynafleet as standard in Europe, while MAN TeleMatics is now standard on the new truck model TGX EfficientLine.

Volvo Trucks offers Dynafleet fleet management app as standard in Europe


€4m EU project to support sustainable transport

Swiss campaign for low‑noise tyres wins award A Swiss communication campaign promoting the use of low-noise tyres has won the European Soundscape Award 2013. The campaign was devised by a consortium of public and private partners led by The Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). It focused on the frequently-overlooked option of choosing quieter tyres. Low-noise tyres are already on the market, are not more expensive than regular tyres and do not show obvious trade-offs in other areas such as durability. A database of tyres was developed to enable car owners to compare the rolling noise of different products. The campaign used a range of promotional measures including a campaign website, TV advertising, online-ads,


billboard advertising, posters and flyers for car repair shops, a Twitter campaign and a lottery giving away prizes of quality tyres. The campaign was communicated in German, French and Italian. A telephone survey showed that there was widespread awareness of the campaign. The award was presented by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and the Dutch Noise Abatement Society, at the Gouden Decibel Award Ceremony in the Netherlands on 5 November. READ MORE tinyurl.com/pmjqe37


A €4 million grant agreement for a three-year project to support sustainable transport in the EU has been signed by the European Commission. Called ‘Civitas Capital’ – an acronym for cities, vitality and sustainability – the project is funded by the EU’s research programme to support cities in their efforts to innovate more sustainable urban mobility. The agreement was signed by the Commission and a consortium of 14 EU research institutes and consulting companies, including 10 SMEs. Civitas Capital will issue recommendations on future research and development priorities which the Commission will integrate in its 2014-2020 research programme, develop training packages and organise placement and exchange of professionals. It will also manage an activity fund of around €500,000 (£418,847) to support the transfer of green transport measures to other cities. Commission Vice-President Siim Kallas, who is responsible for transport said the project is “one of the most important EU initiatives in this field and will deliver tangible results”. In 2011, the Commission set a target of phasing out the use of conventionally‑fuelled vehicles in urban areas by 2050. Read more at tinyurl.com/ouxzzdd



IKEA installs EV chargers at all of its UK stores READ MORE tinyurl.com/pt4ethu

TomTom launches European toll reporting tool A new road toll reporting tool giving greater cost transparency for all European routes has been added to TomTom Business Solutions’ fleet management platform. WEBFLEET truck toll reporting provides a real-time breakdown of the toll costs incurred for each trip, allowing transport companies to better manage expenses and provide customers with transparent invoices. The functionality accounts for all applicable national tolls in France, Germany, Austria and Slovakia. It will also cover the proposed French Ecotaxe, reporting on the CO2 emissions for each trip and estimating the total costs.

EVs in Hamburg may get special number plates

Swedish home furnishing retailer IKEA is installing electric vehicle fast charging points across all 18 of its store’s car parks in the UK. Research conducted by the retailer revealed that one in six Britons would be encouraged to switch to an electric car if more charging points were available across the UK. IKEA is working with its sustainability partners, car manufacturer Nissan and green energy provider Ecotricity, to introduce the dedicated fast charging points in all of its car parks so customers can confidently

charge their vehicles while shopping in store. Developed by Nissan, the fast charger units can recharge an electric vehicle from empty to 80% full in just thirty minutes and IKEA will be the first major retailer in the UK to make them available to its customers. The fast-chargers will be installed in all IKEA UK stores across the country by the end of December 2013. The charging points will be free for all customers to use and there’ll be no charge for the 100% sustainably sourced green electricity from Ecotricity.

The city of Hamburg in Germany is calling for electric-powered vehicles to be fitted with special number plates to mark them out from their internal combustion‑engined counterparts. To encourage the growth of zero-emission vehicles in the city, which is a major transport hub in Northern Germany, electric cars will be exempt from paying for parking, while being allowed access to less-congested lanes usually reserved for buses and taxis. In order for them to be instantly identified by the city’s police and traffic wardens, their number plates will feature unique blue numbers accompanied by a letter E. READ MORE


Public transport ITS market in Europe predicted to exceed €1.4 billion by 2017

According to research from analyst firm Berg Insight, the market value for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in public transport in Europe was €0.94 billion in 2012. Growing at a compound annual growth rate of 9 per cent, this number is expected to reach €1.44 billion by 2017. The European market for ITS for public transport is in a growth phase which will continue throughout the forecasted period, according to Berg Insight. The fluctuating economic climate has, in most countries, had little effect on the market as public investment in ITS initiatives have remained stable throughout the periods of crisis. The local markets in southern Europe which have been affected to a greater extent by decreasing investments are expected to recuperate in the near term. “The European market for public transport ITS is expected to develop favourably in the upcoming years, spurred by developments

on both national and EU level,” said Rickard Andersson, Senior Analyst, Berg Insight. Public investments in ITS are set to grow in many regions at the same time as international initiatives such as the EBSF EU project and UITP’s sought-after doubling of the public transport ridership are anticipated to boost industry activity. “The global trend of smart city initiatives is furthermore a major driver as intelligent transport systems in general and public transport ITS in particular are key elements to enable sustainable smart mobility.” Mr Andersson adds that open sharing of public transport data is a prerequisite to enable seamless multimodal, multi‑operator and cross‑border journey planning tools which travellers increasingly come to expect. READ MORE


SEAT factory installs 53,000 solar panels

SEAT’s Martorell factory has installed 53,000 solar panels, covering a 270,000 square metre area – equivalent to 40 football pitches. It is thought to be the biggest solar panel installation in the automotive industry. The SEAT al Sol (SEAT Sun) project, the third and final phase of which was completed this month, generates 15,000,000 kWh per year, which is a quarter of the energy required annually to produce the new SEAT Leon. That reduces Martorell’s environmental impact significantly, saving 7,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year in the production process.






GreenWay looks to break EV mileage record

Telematics for Fleet Management, 12-13 March, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Now in its 11th year, the conference and exhibition will reveal the future of the commercial vehicle telematics market, including the impending legislations and the need‑to‑know industry trends. TNT Express, Mercedes-Benz, Continental, Volvo, Renault Trucks, Shell, Zurich and more will explore how to assess the needs of the end user, address expectations of telematics solutions and meet demands to deploy a fully integrated services portfolio and data package. Visit telematicsupdate. com/fleeteurope

European Hydrogen Energy Conference, 12-14 March, Seville, Spain

According to the Green Car Website, Slovakian electric mobility start-up GreenWay has unofficially set a new world record for the most distance travelled in an electric van over a 24-hour period, covering an amazing 2,048.2 kilometres (1,272 miles). The Slovakian firm operates a series of battery-swapping station for electric vehicles. It set out on the journey to prove the capabilities of EVs and the quick and convenient nature of its battery swapping system. Currently, the official record for the longest distance covered in 24 hours by an electric vehicle stands at 1,200 kilometres (745 miles) – almost half of that achieved by GreenWay. The firm plans to repeat it can repeat its success in the near future under the watchful eyes of independent verifiers to set a new world record. GreenWay used a specially-converted Citroën Jumper (Relay in the UK) van, compatible with its battery-swapping system. With a range of around 124 miles per charge, a recharge of the van would take around six hours, but downtime is cut to less than 10 minutes by swapping there battery. Taking the van on a journey back and forth between Bratislava and Nitra, a team of drivers managed to cover an extra 848.2 kilometres (527 miles) more than the old record, only making brief stops of around seven minutes to swap the battery over. GreenWay now hopes it can replicate this unofficial record breaking achievement

in the presence of independent testers and the public to claim a new world record. The company was set up by MyEnergy to build battery‑swapping infrastructure across Slovakia, opening its first station back in October 2012 in Bratislava. The firm hopes to expand into neighbouring European countries in time, to help electric vehicles provide a true alternative to Europeans to the convenience and fast-refuelling combustion vehicle. Using the firm’s services, commercial operators lease electric vans, paying a single monthly fee which also covers the use of GreenWay’s battery swapping stations. READ MORE tinyurl.com/pys45bq

Fast-charging stations planned for Slovakia As well as setting a new world record for the most distance travelled in an electric van over a 24-hour period, GreenWay plans to build a full network of fast charging stations in Slovakia on the main highways D1 and R1, with the emphasis to be placed on key points between Bratislava and Košice. Selected locations will have up to 15 stations, which will allow the owners of electric vehicles to recharge their cars to 80 per cent of total capacity in just 30 minutes. In addition, GreenWay will allow to their clients to use fast charging stations for free.

The European Hydrogen Energy Conference (EHEC) is the European reference framework for updates on hydrogen and fuel cell related technologies, and the best setting to present the advances in research, products and projects we are all developing in the sector. As well as transport applications for hydrogen, including infrastructure deployment in Europe, the conference will look at hydrogen reforming, storage, fuel cell components and stacks, and safety and environmental issues. Visit www.ehec.info/

The Commercial Vehicle Show, 29 April-1 May, Birmingham, UK The Commercial Vehicle Show is the largest and most comprehensive road freight transport event staged in Britain, catering for every operator’s requirements from trucks, vans and all types of trailers through to handling equipment, insurers, tyre, telemetry and training providers, fuels and lubricant suppliers. To ensure the industry’s wheels keep turning at maximum efficiency, the Workshop sector alone features 100+ stands showcasing everything from OE components and replacement parts to garage and workshop equipment. Visit www.cvshow.com

eCarTec Munich, 21-23 October

Munich Trade Fair Centre, Germany eCarTec and its accompanying congress is an international platform, which deals exclusively with the topic of electric mobility. It shows electric vehicles, storage technologies, powertrain and engine technology and additional deals with the themes of energy, infrastructure and financing. An additional test site, where end-users can test the latest electric vehicle and get familiar with the technology, is also integrated. Visit www.ecartec.de



TOKYO MOTOR SHOW Written by Richard Gooding

Green fun in the land of the rising sun The 43rd Tokyo Motor Show was awash with green technology vehicles. From conventionally-powered production cars, to the latest electric, hybrid and fuel cell concepts, there was plenty of green fun in the land of the rising sun Not as large as the traditional early autumn motor shows, the Tokyo Motor Show is still big enough to attract many manufacturer debuts and new models. The 43rd running of the event at Tokyo Big Sight from 22 November to 1 December 2013 brought all 14 manufacturers from Japan as well as 18 brands from overseas together under one roof. Here are GreenFleet’s highlights. ELECTRIC VEHICLES Nissan e-NV200 Nissan once again showed its 100 per cent electric e-NV200 van. Appealing to fleet operators for zero C02 at the point of use, the e-NV200 shares its all-electric drivetrain technology with the Nissan Leaf. With a similar 124-mile theoretical range as the Leaf,

charging can be carried out in 30 minutes with the e-NV200s Quick Charge capability. The 4m3 carrying capacity isn’t affected, as the compact batteries are stored under the load space floor. Nissan New Mobility Concept (NMC) The Japanese company also displayed a version of the Renault Twizy, the two-seater electric city car. Called the ‘Nissan New Mobility Concept’, the badge-engineered vehicle is expected to use the same 20bhp electric motor and lithium-ion batteries as the Renault version. Nissan Bladeglider Concept While the e-NV200 is a production reality and the NMC could easily become one, the Bladeglider is a concept, pure and

simple. A vision of Nissan’s future electric vehicle development, the company says that it’s an ‘exploratory prototype of an upcoming production vehicle’. With striking glider-like styling, the zero-emissions car has a Delta‑wing triangular shape when viewed from above. As with the e-NV200, the Bladeglider shares engineering technology with the production Nissan Leaf, as well as featuring a carbon-fibre underbody and in-wheel motors. TUM Create EVA e-Taxi Technische Universität München (TUM) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU) brought along the EVA e-Taxi to Tokyo's Big Sight hall. A vehicle which showcases the results of innovations and developments at TUM Create, a joint research programme, EVA features 15-minute super-fast charging and weight-saving technologies. Based on Singapore driving patterns, TUM Create says that the EVA e-Taxi has a realistic range of 124 miles.

olf gen e-G Volkswsa

Nissan er Bladeglid Nissan e-NV200 van

TUM Cre ate EVA e-Taxi

Nissan NMC

Audi A3 Sportback e-tron



Volkswagen Twin-Up

Mazda3 SKYACTI V-CNG C oncept 300h Lexus RC

Honda Accord Pl ug-In Hyb rid

Volkswagen e-Golf After its Frankfurt debut, VW once renewed interest in its all‑electric e-Golf. The zero-emission hatchback has a 113bhp 24.2kWh motor giving a theoretical range of 118 miles. HYBRID VEHICLES Audi A3 Sportback e-tron Like the e-Golf, Audi’s first plug-in hybrid appeared at the Frankfurt Motor Show. On sale in spring 2014, the A3 Sportback e-tron can travel up to 37 miles on all-electric power from its 204bhp powertrain. The 150bhp 1.4‑litre TFSI petrol engine is paired with a 75kW electric motor, producing emissions equivalent to 35g/km in hybrid mode, along with a 584‑mile range. Honda Jazz and Accord Plug-in Hybrid Honda revealed a range of new engine technologies at Tokyo’s Big Sight hall. The single-motor Intelligent Dual Clutch Drive (i-DCD) system will become available in the 2015 Jazz and Honda says it is 30 per cent more efficient than the current Jazz Hybrid. Made up from a 1.5-litre direct-injection engine with a seven-speed dual-clutch automatic gearbox with built-in lithiumion battery motor, it has yet to be decided whether this will come to the UK. The Japanese and US Accord Hybrid and Plug-in Hybrid meanwhile has two-motor Intelligent

Toyota FC V Conce pt

Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) arrangement, featuring a petrol engine linked to an electric continuously variable (CVT) transmission and two electric motors with a lock-up clutch so it can operate in three driving modes. Lexus RC 300h Toyota’s upmarket stablemate unveiled the production-ready RC 300 coupé in Japan. Built on the GS platform, the two-door sports car comes in a 2.5-litre petrol-hybrid version and is Lexus’ first hybrid coupé. The 141bhp/ 105kW electric motor is driven through an electronic continuously variable transmission. Details of exact European specifications will be released in 2014. Volkswagen Twin-Up Volkswagen’s big news at Tokyo was a plug-in hybrid version of its Up city car. The Twin-Up concept marries the hybrid powertrain of the XL1 eco-coupé with the five-door city car body. An 0.8-litre two-cylinder turbodiesel engine is mated to a 27kW electric motor and a seven-speed DSG gearbox. Economy is 256.8 mpg, maximum power is 55kW and the 8.6kWh lithium-ion battery pack and 12V battery are located between the rear seats and boot. CO2 emissions are 27g/km. FUEL CELL VEHICLES Toyota FCV One of five new Toyota vehicle concepts

i New Min

unveiled in Tokyo, the Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) previews an upcoming production vehicle. The hydrogen-powered car has a range of 300 miles and features a lightweight fuel cell stack and a pair of high-pressure (70mPa) hydrogen tanks. The FCV can carry four people, and has a 3kW/l power output density, and a maximum power output of at least 100kW. The company also debuted the JPN Taxi Concept, a next-generation LPG‑hybrid model that has been designed in line with Japanese government guidelines for accessible transport that meets regional needs. CONVENTIONAL-ENGINED CARS Mazda3 SKYACTIV-CNG Concept The Mazda3 SKYACTIV-CNG concept had its world premiere in Japan. The SKYACTIV‑CNG Concept runs on compressed natural gas (CNG), and along with the Japanese‑market Mazda3 hybrid, showcases the manufacturer’s future technological direction. New Mini Cooper D Launched on 18 November, the all-new iteration of the Mini has more fleet market appeal. The Cooper D should appeal to those watching their finances. With VED Band A CO2 emissions of 98g/km, the small hatchback is said to be capable of 80.7mpg, as well as offering decent performance from its 114bhp diesel engine. L



With distance function, park assistance function and role model function. The new E-Class. Efficiency in top form.

A Daimler Brand

The new benchmark for efficiency. With a combined consumption of just 4.1 l/100 km, the E 300 BlueTEC HYBRID has CO₂ emissions of only 107 g/km. That makes it one of the most economical models in its class and the ideal vehicle for any fleet. www.mercedes-benz.com/fleet

Fuel consumption urban/extra-urban/combined: 14.4–4.1/8.2–3.8/10.5–4.1 l/100 km; combined CO₂ emissions: 246–107 g/km. Figures do not relate to the specific emissions or fuel consumption of any individual vehicle, do not form part of any offer and are intended solely to aid comparison between Provider: Daimler AG, Mercedesstraße 137, 70327 Stuttgart

Efficiency class: F–A+. different types of vehicle. The vehicle shown features optional equipment.

ALTERNATIVE FUELS Written by Dr Kalus Bonhoff, chair, NOW

German hydrogen-fuelled mobility strides ahead In Germany, plans are in place for there to be a H2 refuelling station at least every 90 kilometres of motorway between densely populated areas by 2023. But how will this be achieved and what challenges stand in the way? Dr Klaus Bonhoff, chair of Germany’s National Organisation for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW), explains As part of the process of establishing a new and green transportation system and infrastructure in Germany, the National Organisation Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NOW) is responsible for the coordination and management of the German National Innovation Programme for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP) of the German Federal Government. Currently, NIP is subject to plans for adaption to further promote the market introduction of hydrogen technology. In addition, the H2 Mobility Initiative, an important industrial partner of NOW, recently announced new targets for market introduction of hydrogen infrastructure and mobility. Re-thinking energy use Industrial society faces a process of dynamic change: it involves rethinking and reshaping the way we explore, transform, distribute and use energy.

While there is broad public acceptance in Germany regarding long-term targets – especially concerning the overall reduction of greenhouse gases by 80 per cent until 2050 – there is lively debate on numerous other issues including how the transformation process should commence, what technologies should be chosen and what the role of both government and industry should be in this. Improving incumbent drive-train technologies and the use of natural gas provide near-term solutions to help further reduce current CO2 tailpipe emissions. Longer-term targets will require affordable hydrogen and electric vehicles as well as refuelling and charging stations that are widely available and publicly accessible. Hydrogen takes centre stage In recent years, great advances in technology were achieved in the development and large‑scale field testing of hydrogen

Germa H2 Mo ny’s Initiativ bility invest € e plans to to build 350 million an a total d operate hydrog of 400 en re stations fuelling b 2023 y



Making it viable The task at hand is to organise the second phase towards the commercial market breakthrough. Hydrogen and fuel cell technology is in direct competition with machinery and processes that have been optimised and subsidised for generations. Besides the comparably high price of hydrogen cars, another major obstacle for consumers is the lack of refuelling infrastructure. While it is true that around 1,000 hydrogen refuelling stations are needed to reach 100 per cent of the population in Germany, only the first few hundred stations will require a public-private risk-sharing instrument. For the near-term future, we have confirmed government and industry funding for 50 stations until 2015 in the framework of the CEP. These are necessary to further develop and test the technology implemented in the refuelling station as well as the various hydrogen pathways in a real-world environment. Based on these targets, the H2 Mobility Initiative in Germany, with its partners Air Liquide, Daimler, Linde, OMV, Shell and Total, plans to commercially build and operate hydrogen stations mitigating the initial risk in a joint venture. The initiative aims to invest €350 million to build a total of 400 refuelling stations in Germany by 2023. The objective is to provide an H2 refuelling station at least every 90 kilometres of motorway between densely populated areas. According to this plan, drivers of fuel cell‑powered vehicles in metropolitan areas will have at least ten hydrogen refuelling stations available each from 2023. Together with the growing infrastructure, scale effects will lead to a decrease in prices for hydrogen vehicles, to an affordable and competitive level. Thus, zero tailpipe emission H2‑mobility will become increasingly attractive for customers. The political situation With the execution of these plans, hydrogen and fuel cell technology can become a key pillar of a sustainable and economic energy system in the transport sector as well as in many areas of clean power generation and storage, by the middle of the next decade. But for this to happen, a further energy-political


vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure in Germany. With its broad programmatic focus, the networking of different industry sectors and its more stable, longer-term programme framework, the National Innovation Programme Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP) has proved its worth. Since the German Government set up the NIP in 2006 with a total budget of €1.4 billion for a 10-year period, German market leaders in the fields of energy and transportation have cooperated and pooled their knowledge in large-scale demonstration projects and lighthouse projects with future perspectives. Together with the Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) – a network of automotive manufacturers, energy supply companies and public transport service providers that was established in 2002 – a fleet of hydrogen vehicles has been tested on public roads with the hydrogen provided through a range of trial refuelling stations.

By the year 2025, more than 500 public hydrogen refuelling stations should be installed in Germany

framework must now be properly established. Government and industry must discuss and agree on the question of how to continue the National Innovation Programme (NIP), which, as it currently stands, will terminate at the end of 2016. On the political side, with the recent election and a new government that is yet to be formed in Germany, relevant federal energy and transportation policies will undergo evaluation and changes. On the industrial side, NIP partners expect to receive temporary and digressive – but nonetheless consistent – support at the market introduction phase in an internationally distorted competition environment. The representatives from industry and research in the NOW Advisory Council have developed a strategic paper outlining the continuation of the NIP. Firstly, it suggests continuing research, development and demonstration efforts with a clear focus on strengthening the supply base in Germany as well as on cost reductions. Secondly, it recommends supporting ‘market activation’ in the three technological fields: a technology introduction programme for stationary fuel cells; the increase of electrolysis capacity; and support for a nationwide hydrogen infrastructure. Although possible funding for these activities must be discussed with the new Government, the strategy paper already identifies targets for the respective markets. Looking ahead By the year 2025, more than 500 public hydrogen refuelling stations should be installed. They will provide sufficient capacity to deliver fuel for over half a million fuel cell passenger cars on the roads and 2,000 fuel cell buses operating in the public transport sector. In order to guarantee a safe and clean source of hydrogen, a further 1,500 MW capacity of electrolysers will be needed to link the sustainable mobility with Germany’s fast growing sources of renewable energy. Here the definition and implementation of successful business models for power to gas and large scale hydrogen storage systems will be required to not only back up mobility but also to ensure the continued growth of renewable energy in the overall energy supply. The total resources needed for the further development of the NIP – comprising not only the transport sector, but also fuel cells in stationary applications – for the period 2014

to 2023 amounts to around €3.9 billion. Of this, industry will bear €2.3 billion. The required support from public funding for R&D activities and temporary, sharply-digressive market introduction instruments totals around €1.6 billion spread over a period of ten years. It is anticipated that a self-sustaining market can emerge in this way by 2023. The challenge ahead – to manage the transition towards an energy system based on renewables – must be accepted by all relevant players. Government must play a vital role in this, by, for example, further developing the NIP and by establishing public-private partnerships that ensure the availability of sufficient energy infrastructure. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.now-gmbh.de

About the author

Dr Klaus Bonhoff is managing director (chair) of NOW (National Organisation Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology). NOW is responsible for the coordination and management of the National Innovation Programme for Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology (NIP) of the German Federal Government and the Electromobility Model Regions programme of the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development.



TELEMATICS Written by Siegfried Mortkowitz

Autonomous truck convoys: the question is when, not if The grand vision of Europe’s freight transport is of sleek convoys of autonomous trucks travelling along thousands of miles of ‘smart’ roads. Siegfried Mortkowitz reports on what it will take to realise it A streamlined convoy of autonomous trucks travelling along thousands of miles of ‘smart’ roads, with the driver’s function reduced to maintenance and security, is the grand vision of Europe’s freight transport. “I would say we will eventually see part of long-haul transport on roads that are ‘green corridors,’” says Fredrik Callenryd, senior business analyst for truck manufacturer Scania. “So that we would see autonomous trucks travelling in road trains in the foreseeable future, with drivers navigating only when they leave these green corridors, to travel to the depot, for example.” European Union legislation due to come into effect is likely to speed the realisation of this vision, according to Gareth Owen,

principal analyst at ABI Research. The directive, which takes effect in November 2015, calls for all newly introduced models of trucks 3.5 tons and over to be equipped with both advanced emergency braking systems (AEBS) and lane departure warning systems (LDWS). AEBS uses sensors to alert the driver to an upcoming obstacle, such as a traffic jam or when his vehicle is coming too close to a vehicle in front of him. If the driver

does not react in time, the system automatically triggers a braking response that either prevents a collision or reduces the force of the impact. LDWS alerts the driver when the vehicle begins to drift out of the lane.

ed Advancncy emergeystems s brakingors to alert s use senriver to an the d g obstacle The road to in driverless trucks upcom uch as s Both AEBS and LDWS jam are integral elements of a traffic advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) that are slowly taking over the truck driver’s decision‑making duties, and which – E






Combined consumption (l/100 km): from 3,7 to 5,8*. CO2 emissions (g/km): from 95 to 134*. *With 17” or 18” tyres depending on the engine specifications.

The new Peugeot 308 is a compact hatchback with a pure and a charismatic design. It offers a new driving experience, intuitive and intense, with its Peugeot i-Cockpit®: a compact steering wheel, head-up instruments, a large touchscreen and the high centre console.


Volvo trucks are already equipped with several features, such as adaptive cruise control, lane change support, and driver alert support

Volvo’s take on AEBS and LDWS Most truck manufacturers already offer a version of AEBS and LDWS. Claes Avedal, traffic safety manager at Volvo Group Trucks Technology, says Volvo has been offering LDWS on its FH and FM models since 2007, and AEBS on the FH since 2012. Volvo’s lane departure warning system uses an optical camera sensor to detect when a vehicle begins to drift out of its lane and audible and visual warnings to alert the driver. However, the technology is not yet foolproof. “Functionality is dependent on visible lane markings,” Avedal says. Fog, rain and darkness are usually no problem. But if there are no lane markings, the system will not work. Snow and ice on the road which cover the lane markings are also problematic. For AEBS, Volvo uses both camera and radar sensors to detect traffic ahead. “Radar is used to detect traffic at longer distances, and the camera is used for object detection at shorter distances ahead of the truck,” Avedal says. “By combining camera and radar technology we can detect more traffic scenarios, like stationary vehicles, and avoid false warnings.“ The initial visual AEBS warning is projected on the windscreen in the driver’s forward field of vision so that the driver will react quickly. In addition, Avedal says, Volvo trucks are equipped with several other ADAS features, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC), which automatically adjusts the vehicle’s speed to E


 Callenryd, Owen and other trade insiders say – are key building blocks of what ultimately will become the autonomous, or self-driven, commercial vehicle. Already, autonomous vehicles are in use in open-pit mining and at some airports. Self‑driven mining trucks are, for example, able to negotiate roads within mining sites as long as they travel along fixed routes. And driverless transit systems, which travel on rails or guide ways, are in use at some major airports, such as London’s Heathrow and Orly in Paris. Many long-haul trucks are already using cruise control systems similar to what is standard in passenger planes. According to Callenryd, there are two models of these systems: the basic system, in which the driver sets the speed of the vehicle, and the system maintains it, and the advanced version, in which the vehicle takes into account uphill and downhill sections and adapts to run at the optimum fuel-saving speeds. “These advanced systems have already proven to be more efficient than our best drivers in tests,” Callenryd says. Scania’s new solution is called Eco-roll, and it uses both GPS and topographic maps to calculate whether cruising in neutral down a hill or using engine braking with the fuel supply switched off is best for the vehicle’s kinetic energy. Eco-roll is set to come standard for long-haulage trucks in regions where topographic data is available.

Telematics for fleet management conference and exhibition The 11th Annual Telematics for Fleet Management Europe 2014 Conference & Exhibition, takes place between 12-13 March at the Movenpick Hotel, Amsterdam, Netherlands. It will reveal the future of the commercial vehicle telematics market, including the impending legislations and the need-to-know industry trends. TNT Express, Mercedes-Benz, Continental, Volvo, Renault Trucks, Shell, Zurich and more will explore how to assess the needs of the end user, address expectations of telematics solutions and meet demands to deploy a fully integrated services portfolio and data package. There will be over 30 expert speakers announcing the business models, next-gen tech and growth strategies to position your company for long-term success at brink of mass-market adoption. There will also be the opportunity to network face-to-face with over 200 senior executives and build relationships across the commercial vehicle telematics world. For more information, visit telematicsupdate.com/fleeteurope



Road, Rail, Air and Sea Transport • Haulage & Distribution Traffic Management • Legislative & Political issues • Communications Infrastructure and construction • Intelligent Transport Systems • Training & Education Travel Planning & Environmental Management • Health & Safety Passenger Transport


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 maintain a safe distance between it and vehicles and other obstacles in front of it; lane change support (LCS), which helps the driver when changing lanes toward the passenger side; and driver alert support (DAS), which alerts the driver when he is getting drowsy or nodding off. The next step for Volvo is a technology that enables vehicles to communicate and exchange information with other vehicles (V2V) and with the infrastructure (V2I), known as Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems, or C-ITS. “One example of this is to provide earlier warnings to the driver of traffic conditions ahead, such as reduced visibility, slippery road, accidents or other obstacles,” Avedal says. In addition to OEMs, manufacturers of ADAS such as Delphi are working to perfect the technology while offering aftermarket products to help fleets meet the new EU regulation. Delphi, for example, offers – among other ADAS products – a radar sensor that detects moving and stationary objects at both mid- and long-range distances.

savings,” Owen says. “First of all, you save on fuel. Trials have shown that these convoys can save up to 15 per cent on fuel, in the same way bicycle racers save energy by riding in a single file, to reduce wind resistance.” There would be savings because there are far fewer drivers to pay. And traffic safety would also improve. “Human beings are lousy drivers,” Callenryd says. “How many people died on European roads last year, 40,000? If we allowed a system to kill 40,000 people a year, then we could probably implement a fully autonomous system today. But we don’t allow machines to be as inefficient as humans.” “Some 90 per cent of accidents are caused by drivers,” Owen says. “That’s a very big target to hit.”

Convention, agreed in 1968. “In it, it is very clear that drivers should be in control of vehicles,” he says. “There are no legal policies for computer-driven vehicles. We need a new legal framework that resolves such questions as how we judge between state-of-the-art vehicles and ‘dumb’ cars.” The problem, Callenryd says, is one of liability. “If an autonomous car causes an accident, who is responsible? The car industry is not ready to take this responsibility.” Owen agrees. “In case of an accident, the blame will probably shift more to the OEMs. OEMs will not release [autonomous] vehicles until they’re sure the liability is containable,” he says. He sees the introduction of what he calls semi-autonomous commercial vehicles – in which the driver can take over some functions – by about 2020. “Truck trains may be possible by the year 2025,” he says. “It’s a gradual process.” L

Technical and legal obstacles Obviously, many challenges remain to be met, most of them technical. “The quality of real-time traffic information needs to be improved,” Callenryd says. But he adds that there have been “great improvements” in the technology over the past five years, and he expects that process to accelerate. Owen underlines the current high cost of radar sensors that are used to detect traffic and other obstacles. “But I expect a significant drop in the price of radar sensors,” he says. “They will eventually be mass market, not niche.” However, legal obstacles may actually be more difficult to overcome. According to Callenryd, cross-border road traffic in Europe is regulated by the Vienna


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Not a question of if, but when Avedal, Owen and Callenryd all agree that it is not a question of if, but of when autonomous truck trains become a reality, and all three say that the benefits are potentially very significant. “We believe that a step-by-step introduction of more autonomous functions will improve traffic safety, reduce congestions and fuel consumption,” Avedal says. “If you have a convoy of trucks with just one person in the lead truck and ten driverless vehicles behind it, you have significant cost

This article was first published in Telematics Update FURTHER INFORMATION

About the author Siegfried Mortkowitz was the Paris based English correspondent for the German Press Agency (DPA) for 10 years. He was also the Prague correspondent for Newsweek and wrote for The Dallas Morning News. Through the years, Siegfried has contributed to multiple magazines including Graphis, Monuments and World Architecture.





Sheer Driving Pleasure

At BMW i, we know the corporate world is all about efficiency, so we’ll keep this short and simple. Why should fleet managers consider the all-new, all-electric BMW i3? First, with its highly dynamic and efficient BMW eDrive technology, it’s a perfect fit for innovationminded companies. Second, with its intelligent handling of resources throughout the value chain, it makes a strong sustainability statement. Third, with its connectivity features, it’s a functional workplace when required. Fourth, it can bring down the cost of ownership. And finally, as a genuine BMW, it’s going to put a smile on the faces of all of your colleagues. And on yours. More: bmw-corporate-sales.com BMW i. BORN ELECTRIC.

BMW i3


0 g CO2 / km* 125 kW (170 hp)

* Zero-carbon operation, encompassing everything from power generation to use on the road, requires energy sourced entirely from renewable resources.


Car-to-X: it’s good to talk Over the last thirty years, the rapid increase of vehicles on the world’s roads has outpaced government efforts to implement safety measures to prevent deaths and injuries. Indeed, according to the World Health Organisation, unless preventative measures are taken, road fatalities are likely to become the third-leading cause of death by 2020 compared to ninth place in 1990. Whilst some see Car‑to-X technologies as the first step towards driverless motoring, their importance in reducing road accidents cannot be underestimated, writes Miriam Leibovitz

Back in 2008, it was estimated there were more devices connected to the Internet than people on the Earth. Networking giant Cisco predicts some 25 billion devices will be connected by 2015, and 50 billion by 2020. One of the most technologically challenging elements to this rapid expansion of connected devices could be spearheaded

DRIVE C2X Funded with 12.4 million Euro by the European Commission, DRIVE C2X will carry out a comprehensive assessment of cooperative systems through field operational tests. Building up on the results of the predecessor PRE-DRIVE C2X, the project will deploy cooperative technologies in several European test sites in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and Sweden. The results of this large-scale environment will be used to raise awareness in the general public, provide feedback for standard organizations and for initiating public-private ventures, leading to a successful road to market.


by Car-to-X – a collective concept for many different research and development activities which aim to enhance safety, improve traffic efficiency and satisfy the need for convenience. It studies functions that can be better implemented, or are only made feasible in the first place, by communication between vehicles or between vehicle and infrastructure. Communication connection In its various guises, Car-to-X establishes a communication connection between a car and a different unit (such as infrastructure, other cars and even pedestrians) in order to avoid accidents. Car-to-X systems utilise Wireless Local Area Network radio technology, which enables them to rapidly transmit warnings. These systems will be based on networks using Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC), as defined by the IEEE 802.11p automotive WiFi standard and operating in the 5.9GHz band. The use of such Car-to-X communication will greatly expand a vehicle’s visual field. According to the US Department of Transportation, the technology has the potential to affect 81 per cent of all crash scenarios: “Car-to-X communication allows

drivers to see around corners in every sense of the word,” explains Dr Bernhard Klumpp, head of the Passive Safety & Sensors business unit at Tyre manufacturer Continental’s Chassis & Safety division. By allowing vehicles to reliably interact with each other when travelling at high-speeds, each vehicle can give drivers warnings about potential hazards and allow them to avoid accidents, or even automatically respond to changing driving conditions faster than typical human reaction times. Warnings about traffic blockages ahead also allow early re-routing to avoid traffic congestion. Consumption can also be lowered – the more data is available about traffic flow and density, the more efficiently a vehicle can be guided through the traffic with as little braking and acceleration as possible. In January this year, networking giant Cisco and NXP Semiconductors both announced heavy investments in Cohda Wireless, a specialist in wireless communication for automotive safety applications. Onboard and road side units developed using technologies from the three companies have been tested to global

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Automated driving Continental and BMW Group are pooling their development capacities to research highly automated driving on European freeways. In January 2013, the two companies signed an agreement to jointly develop an electronic co-pilot for this purpose. The overarching aim is to pave the way to highly automated driving functions beyond the year 2020. Starting with partially automated driving from 2016, high levels of automation are planned from 2020 and ultimately fully automated systems available from 2025. The project, which runs through to the end of 2014, intends to test several prototype vehicles equipped for automated driving. These will be built in the course of these two years, and made available to a select team of trained test participants. More than 1,300 specialists at Continental are already working on the basics of automated driving. They deal specifically with driver assistance systems, such as adaptive cruise control and emergency brake assistance. These make use of cameras and infrared and radar systems to record the vehicle environment in various driving situations, thereby alerting, assisting, and relieving the driver. In 2013, Continental is investing more than €100 million in R&D. standards in major field trials. In August 2012, the “Safety Pilot Model Deployment” trial by the US Department of Transport was initiated, and other major field trials include simTD in Germany, ScoreF in France, and ERP2 in Singapore. Collective expertise and technologies The three companies will apply their collective expertise and technologies to help automotive OEMs, suppliers, enterprises and consumers to connect vehicles with ITS infrastructure. This will be spearheaded by producing the first automotive-qualified IEEE 802.11p products for onboard and road‑side units that are ready for C2C and C2I deployments across the globe. Cohda’s technology enhances wireless communications to quality levels far beyond commercial off-the-shelf IEEE 802.11p transceivers, allowing cars to more effectively ‘see’ through obstacles or around corners. NXP, as global supplier of car radio semiconductors and security chips, brings its software-defined radio platform and ensures industry-ready data security, cost efficiency, form factor, power consumption, and performance. Together, Cisco, NXP and Cohda will develop a complete market-ready solution for the automotive and ITS industry. NXP will exclusively license the Cohda 802.11p technology together

with its chipsets as a one-stop shop to automotive customers. Cohda will be NXP’s preferred partner for automotive 802.11p reference designs. Cisco is helping the automotive and transportation systems industries deliver new functionality, enhanced safety and driver experience. By incorporating an intelligent network, OEMs, suppliers, enterprises and consumers can benefit from intelligent transportation systems, connected commercial fleets and smart connected vehicles. Cohda Wireless ceo Paul Gray: “Combining our special expertise in wireless automotive communication with that of long-established automotive companies like NXP and a global player like Cisco is a logical next step to further grow our reach into the automotive industry.” NXP and Cohda Wireless have built a solution for onboard-units based on Cohda’s existing advanced radio and NXP’s market‑proven software-defined radio technology. This makes it a key element to connect to Cisco’s vision of a highly-secure ‘Internet of Everything’. Cisco defines this as: Bringing together people, process and data to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before‑turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals, and countries. “We believe that amazing things can

happen when you connect the previously unconnected, and smarter vehicles are one of the many ways in which we will fully experience the Internet of Everything,” says Maciej Kranz, vice president of the Connected Industries Group at Cisco. In April, NXP and Cohda Wireless signed the CAR 2 CAR Communication Consortium Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). The memorandum aims at implementing and deploying harmonised technology for the wireless communication between cars, or between cars and traffic infrastructure, in Europe. NXP and Cohda are the first automotive electronics suppliers to sign the MoU, following twelve major car manufacturers in October 2012. The Consortium’s aim is to create common standards for vehicle‑to‑vehicle and vehicle‑to‑infrastructure communication ready for series production in 2015. L FURTHER INFORMATION Car to Car Communication Consortium www.car-to-car.org Drive C2X www, www.drive-c2x.eu SimTD Project www.simtd.de





A greener way to light the way LEDs have been present in the commercial vehicle lighting sector for almost two decades, recently becoming a major player. But are LEDs more ecologically sound than their incandescent counterparts? With the strains on finances, caused by the worldwide recession, the commercial vehicle industry has spent the past five years looking towards technological advances to improve cost savings, lower down-time hours and improve energy efficiency. Truck-Lite, just like all manufacturers of components, has been finding ways to improve the usability and productivity of their products; ensuring the customer and end-user can manage their fleets effectively. The market for the past decade has been ever-evolving, trending through from standard incandescent lighting, to xenon and halogen lamps. However, the last five

This compares to incandescent bulbs, which last for 1,200 to 2,000 hours. The LEDs have a much lower current draw at 0.5 amps, which is 80 per cent less than an incandescent bulb drawing at 2.1 amps. Not only does this help improve the maintenance of the engine’s battery, but the vehicle’s fuel efficiency is improved; saving on finances as well as lowering the vehicles carbon footprint. Research conducted by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute shows an engine becomes 12 per cent more efficient using LEDs, with greenhouse gasses being lowered by 450kgs. The rear lamp electrical consumption is also reduced by 87

The market for the past decade has been ever-evolving, from standard incandescent lighting to xenon and halogen lamps. However, the last five years have seen a shift towards LED lighting, from the front of the truck to the back of the trailer years have seen an incredible shift, both for manufacturers and fleets, towards LED lighting from the front of the truck to the back of the trailer. A recent poll by Truck-Lite Europe questioned a range of industry professionals about their attitudes towards LED technology: the interviewees ranged from purchasers to drivers, engineers to salesmen, fleet-managers to workshop operators. Of all those questions, 67 per cent of people relayed that they believed LED lighting on a commercial vehicle made it more appealing. Of that percentile, 80 per cent of those working within the fleet, fleet management and haulage sector of the industry were in agreement.

per cent. One problem caused by the lamps lower current draw, can be the affect this can hold on TMU systems, which are reliant on detecting a variance in current. However, with certain designs of vehicle lamps, for example the Truck-Lite 756, the problem is eradicated by the inclusion of an integrated TMU cell into the lamp itself; allowing the lamp and the cab to work as effectively as other lighting systems. Green credentials In terms of green credentials, not only does this help improve the maintenance of the engine’s battery, but the vehicle’s fuel efficiency is improved; saving on finances as

well as lowering the vehicles carbon footprint. Deterioration of the component is greatly diminished with LED technology; the light itself depreciates at just two per cent within the first 1,000 hours. They are not affected by shaking or vibration, in the way that bulbs are, meaning that they are much more stable and unlikely to crack or burst, and there is no filament to burn out. As well as improving the financial productivity of the vehicle itself, LEDs have the potential to reduce accidents. Firstly, by reaching maximum brightness in a matter of nanoseconds, compared to the 0.2 seconds it takes for the incandescent bulbs, LEDs allow the driver behind to react to a brake light quicker and has been proven to decrease stopping distances by up to 11 per cent (seven meters). Reducing driver fatigue Truck-Lite has recently launched LED headlamps: the first ECE-approved full-LED headlamps to come to the market. The colour of the light falls on to the Uniform Chromaticity Scale in between the colours of daylight. This reduces driver fatigue as well as increasing target-detection by 50 per cent; again reducing the risk of accident and in the long-term reducing costs of servicing and replacement. Aaron Rylance, managing director of Truck-Lite Europe, commented on the market, saying: “We’ve seen a definite increase in interest for LEDs. Not only from OE customers but our aftermarket distribution customers, too, and fleet-managers or individuals looking for retro-fitting options. Looking at the research into the cost-saving elements as well as the positive perception, it’s easy to see why.” With these factors considered a full-LED kit fitted to a truck or trailer can make a vehicle consistently more efficient; allowing the vehicle and the driver to see and, of course, be seen. L FURTHER INFORMATION To find out more on lighting possibilities and LEDs, call 01279 406406 or visit www.truck-lite.eu.com.

Advantages to LED lights But what makes LED lighting so attractive to purchasers? Research by Truck-Lite has revealed a multitude of advantages to LED lights in comparison with other types of lighting: LEDs have a much longer lifespan, lasting for anywhere between 50,000 and 100,000 hours, meaning that the lights will, in most cases, last for the entire usable time of the vehicle itself.



ROAD SAFETY Written by Simon Elstow, IAM Drive & Survive


Driving safely across Europe When driving across Europe, you need to think about the road regulations not only of your final destination, but of the countries you’ll pass through on the way. Simon Elstow from the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) looks at the rules of the road in France, Germany, Italy and Spain When driving abroad, you need to think about the road regulations of all the countries you will be passing through, as well as those that apply to your final destination. France for example shares borders with eight other countries – Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Monaco, Spain and Andorra. In France, all drivers and motorcyclists (excluding mopeds) need to carry a breathalyser kit, with two disposable breathalysers. The breathalyser must meet the NF standards and carry an NF certification. The French government have postponed the fine for non-compliance but you still have to have one. Remember too, that the drink drive limit in France is lower than in the UK, 50mg compared to 80mg per 100ml of blood. If you’re driving, don’t drink, and beware the morning after effect. On-the-spot fines or ‘deposits’ in France are severe. An official receipt should always be issued. Vehicles parking contrary to regulations may be towed away and impounded.

Holders of EU driving licenses exceeding the speed limit by more than 40 km/h will have their licences confiscated on the spot by the police. You are required to carry a warning triangle, reflective jacket, and convert your headlamps when driving in France. It is recommended that you carry spare light bulbs if you can fit them easily. A child sitting in the front passenger seat must be at least 10 years old (or a baby up to 9 months in a rear-facing child seat). In France, radar speed camera detectors are illegal whether or not you are using them. This legislation includes sat-nav systems which show speed camera information. Driving in Germany In Germany, while some autobahns (motorways) are free of speed restrictions, this is only on parts of the network. Where there are speed limits posted, they are strictly enforced. Regarding alcohol, the drink drive limit is lower in Germany, 50mg of alcohol per 100ml of blood (rather than 80 mg in the


UK) – this could be especially crucial when considering the ‘morning after’ effect. To park in Germany you need to buy a blue parking disc (parkscheibe), available at service stations, and parking vouchers (parkschein). Parking meters are also common. Radar speed camera detectors are illegal in Germany, whether or not you are using them. Penalties include fines of up to €1500. During daylight, you must use dipped headlights or daytime running lights if your vision is impaired by fog, snow or rain. You should carry a warning triangle, set of bulbs and a first aid kit, although these are only compulsory for residents. Driving in Spain In Spain, you are required to carry two warning triangles in your vehicle. In the event of a breakdown, they should be placed in front of and behind the car. If a driver wears glasses, they must keep a spare pair in the car. As with much of Europe, the drink drive limit is lower in Spain than in the UK. Bear this in mind, and if you’re going to drive, make it none for the road. Parking in many towns is controlled by blue zones (zonas azul) where a disc must be displayed, and you are not allowed to park on main roads with continuous white lines along the edge. Children can sit in the front seat but must be at least 12 years old, unless using a child restraint. Radar speed camera detectors are still allowed in Spain, but the authorities are considering banning them, so make sure you are up to date with this legislation before you travel. The Spanish policía issue on-the-spot fines which can be rather hefty. Make sure you

Don’t be a menace in Venice When driving in Italy, always carry your driving licence, vehicle registration document (V5) and insurance certificate. If you don’t have a photo licence, make sure you have your passport at hand to validate the licence. The drink-drive limit is less than in the UK; you cannot have more than 50mg per 100ml blood (compared to 80mg in the UK) – this is the case in most European countries. Daytime running lights are mandatory, and as a visitor you must use dipped headlights in poor daytime visibility and in all tunnels, no matter what time of day. You are required to carry a warning triangle and reflective jacket with you at all times. All grades of unleaded petrol (benzina), diesel (gasolio) and LPG are available as well as lead substitute additive. Leaded petrol no longer exists. Traffic is restricted in many historical centres and major towns. These are known as ‘Zone a Traffico Limitato’, or ZTLs. They are only permitted for residents’ use. Entering such areas will result in a fine by post. In Italy it is illegal to carry radar speed camera detection equipment, although this does not include the Point Of Interest radar detection built into most sat-navs. With all these countries, if you are driving through France to get to them, don’t

forget that all drivers and motorcyclists need to carry a breathalyser kit, with two disposable breathalysers. And each time you set off to remember which side of the road you are to drive on. Long trips When on a long journey, share the driving if possible. It makes more sense to spread the load of the different aspects of a journey. Include regular rest stops, preferably at least once every two hours. Make sure you eat sensibly, and drink enough fluid, especially if the summer turns out warm – dehydration destroys concentration quickly. And get out of the car and walk around when you make the stop – it makes a real difference. Plan your fuel stops in advance, especially if traffic is likely to be heavy. There’s nothing worse than sitting in a traffic queue with the fuel warning light glowing in a country you are not familiar with. Make sure you get enough sleep the night before a long journey. If you feel tired, stop somewhere safe – this does not include the hard shoulder of the motorway. If you feel really tired, have a coffee and a 20-minute nap to give the caffeine time to take effect. If there’s a long way to go, stop for a proper sleep.

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Winter driving Whichever country you are in, make sure you are prepared for any adverse weather conditions. In snow and ice, keep to


get an official receipt if you find yourself on the wrong side of the law, so you have a reference in case you wish to appeal.

the main roads as they’re more likely to be salted. Also bear in mind that after the frost has gone, ice can remain in areas which are shaded by trees and buildings – and it forms there first, so be careful in the evening as the temperature drops. It may seem obvious to say – but every year people do forget, so ensure you have de-icer and a scraper. And don’t be one of those people, still out there, who only scrape a small area and drive looking through a slit – clear the whole screen to be able to see properly. If the road is slippery when you start off, do it in second gear, releasing the clutch and accelerating gently, avoiding high revs – this will help prevent wheel spin. As you drive, stay in higher gears to help avoid wheelspin. In an automatic be gentle with your feet, and use whatever gearbox features that the car handbook says will help in slippery conditions. It seems obvious, but cars go in ditches every winter because drivers haven’t taken icy roads seriously enough. If it’s cold outside treat wet looking patches with great care – they could be ice, not water. Stopping distances are increased by up to 10 times in icy conditions, so leave plenty of distance between your car and the car in front – plan so that you’re not relying on your brakes to stop – on ice they may not do that for you. If it is really slippery slow down early and use the gears to do it. If your car loses grip and starts to slide sideways, take your foot off the accelerator, and point the front wheels where you want to go. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.iam.org.uk www.iamdriveandsurvive.co.uk



FREIGHT & LOGISTICS Written by Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport (CILT) International

Cutting carbon across the EU

The European Commission has set itself and EU Member States, very ambitious targets for carbon reduction, and the transport sector has a major role to play. The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport International examines the current scene In 2011 the European Union Transport White Paper announced its plan to break the transport system’s dependency on fossil fuels without sacrificing efficiency or compromising mobility. The target of delivering a 60 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 was unprecedented and ambitious requiring far sighted policies and a wide range of initiatives at all levels. The EU said that because of the complexity of the transport system a wide range of policies and research initiatives would be needed to tackle a real reduction in carbon emissions. However, there could be no doubt of the European determination to achieve a sustainable low carbon transport environment across Europe. The European picture The European transport sector is a major contributor of carbon emissions due to its dependency on fossil fuels in all modes. The sector contributes 23 per cent of all CO2 emissions in the 28 EU Member States and despite significant efforts has not yet achieved its decarbonising targets. If the current trend continues then transport is expected to contribute some 50 per cent of all CO2 emissions in the EU by 2050, or even within the next two decades. The European Commission is therefore committed to policy priorities which will reverse this trend. In 2010 the EC Directorate-General for Climate Action declared a three part ‘20-20‑20’ proactive target programme for progress by the year 2020. It would seek a 20 per cent


reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, based on 1990 levels, and a 30 per cent if other developed countries made comparable commitments. It would seek a 20 per cent increase in renewable energy – wind, solar and biomass. And it would seek a 20 per cent reduction in energy consumption of projected 2020 levels by improving energy efficiency. Within these targets was the need to make transport infrastructure and services throughout Europe more efficient resulting in a reduction in carbon output. Such actions include better infrastructure planning and facilitating a shift from road transport to modes less heavily dependent on fossil‑fuelled vehicles – rail and waterways. And efficiency in all transport modes can be increased by the wide-scale adoption of advanced information technologies, including Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).

More t efficiensport ran use of t cture and u infrastr s – such as service ating large d consoli t volumes freigh ces C0 – redu sions Infrastructure and IT emis More efficient use of transport

New technologies and engines The EU will also encourage improved energy efficiency with technological advances to raise vehicle energy efficiency in terms of the ratio of distance travelled per unit of fuel consumed. European policy and research are directed to supporting fuel efficiency regulations, to developing


new technologies and engines, and to promoting the market for clean and energy efficient road transport vehicles. However, the tightening of Euro engine standards, designed to improve air quality in cities, and in particular, nitrogen oxide levels, can make engines less fuel efficient and produce more carbon. It is clear that the latest of these, Euro VI, to which all new HGVs will be required to meet from next year, will produce virtually no carbon savings. Measures to encourage take-up of low carbon vehicles, particularly in urban areas, would mean a fall in carbon emissions as well as local air quality improvements Alternative fuels and propulsion systems are based on extensive research to enable a shift from fossil fuel dependence to decarbonised transport. While research has led to a range of promising fuels and technologies to meet emission reduction targets, market uptake will require further investment and policy interventions to bring emission reduction closer to the 2050 targets. 2

infrastructure and services, for example by consolidating large freight volumes, clearly has a significant impact on reducing CO2 emissions. In the last decade European transport infrastructure has ensured a high degree of mobility with continuous improvements in speed, comfort, safety and convenience. However, growing traffic

Freightwise A major contribution to CO2 emission reduction can be made by shifting passengers and freight away from road and on to rail and waterways. For freight transport the Marco Polo Programme pursues this objective by co‑funding projects that contribute to modal shift providing funds for start-up of new services. The project FREIGHTWISE is such a scheme. Deployment of large scale intelligent and interoperable technologies is critical in optimising the use of infrastructure capacity and using information and communication technologies contributes to greater efficiency and a reduction of CO2 emissions. FREIGHTWISE is one of several EU funded projects aimed at stimulating and developing the promotion of inter-modal transport. It is an IT based management tool to simplify and standardise information exchange between shippers, forwarders and operators in an intermodal transport chain. The project has demonstrated that better information exchange decreases costs and delays, making intermodal transport more competitive and economically attractive. The project has resulted in a real contribution to reduced carbon emission targets. Energy efficiency and drivers Perhaps the most substantial opportunity for savings in fuel consumption and carbon emissions rests with the key person responsible for the daily operation of the vehicle – the driver. It has recently been claimed that the difference between poor driving techniques and the best can result in savings of up to 25 per cent in fuel consumption. And when considering an HGV operating consumption of around eight miles per gallon, with some vehicles doing perhaps over 80,000 miles per year, the potential for very substantial carbon and cost savings are self evident. In recent years the EU requirement for all lorry and bus drivers to receive a minimum of 35 hours ‘periodic’ training, over a five year timescale, has resulted in a statutory obligation for operators to provide enhanced training. Although the Driver CPC (Certificate of Professional Competence) does not set compulsory subjects for this training process, the selection of a fuel efficient driving mode would seem to be a no-brainer. And, indeed, there can be very few operators who have not included this subject within their programme. But the improvement of drivers in fuel efficient techniques is only part of the prospective carbon and cost savings that can be made in actions relating to drivers. Telematics systems are now available which allow deep analysis of

driving techniques including acceleration and braking, gear changing, speeds and route planning, all of which provide both the driver and his manager with a far clearer understanding of how to achieve maximum efficiency and reduce waste. These practices do tend to be first adopted by the largest operators with the biggest fleets, but a recent survey in the UK found that 73 per cent of respondents regularly monitor the fuel performance of their drivers, and 66 per cent had ‘eco‑driver’ type training schemes in place. Alternative fuels and propulsion Pilot projects are now in place designed to replace fossil-fuel systems with low or non-carbon alternatives resulting in appropriate reductions in carbon emissions. For road transport, contributing about one-fifth of all CO2 emissions in the EU, the primary target is for alternative fuels. Biofuels are already on the market, either as admix or self-contained fuel, and progress is being made with other fuels like used cooking oils, and electricity. Targets have also been set for the development of hydrogen and fuel cell technology. Different fuels and power sources are appropriate for different types of work relating


volumes lead to greater congestion increasing carbon emissions and noise, as well as to more accidents and higher operating costs for operators and customers. Planning for more efficient use of transport infrastructure and services is therefore an EU policy priority and improved infrastructure can reduce journey distances and prevent unnecessary journeys in both passenger and freight transport.

total distance travelled by 175 million km in Europe alone from 2013 to 2015 (compared to 2010 levels). These hubs are part-funded by the EU’s programme for logistics operators who are committed to the sustainable transport of goods across Europe. Unilever will have 12 hubs in Europe by 2014. This will equate to a total reduction of annual CO2 emissions of around 16,000 tonnes of CO2 over 2010-2014. CEVA Logistics CEVA Logistics was approached by an industrial products manufacturer and asked to help streamline its aftermarket spare parts operation, which was spread out across nine warehouses in Europe and five spare parts centres across the rest of the world. The company faced a number of challenges including a high volume of critical deliveries and pressure from customers requiring competitive costs and increased flexibility. In addition, organisations worldwide face considerable penalties should they fail to meet government environmental targets to reduce CO2 emissions. The manufacturer believed that by creating a European hub from which parts could be delivered globally it would be able to build a more reliable and agile supply chain which in turn would make it possible to achieve

The European transport sector is a major contributor of carbon emissions due to its dependency on fossil fuels. The sector contributes 23 per cent of all CO2 emissions in the 28 EU Member States and despite significant efforts has not yet achieved its decarbonising targets to long distance trunking on the one hand to short journeys and urban deliveries on the other. Short journeys are estimated to account for some 40 per cent of all CO2 emissions from road transport so substantial wins are available with the potential for CO2-free vehicles. Case histories Unilever Global produces millions of products each day that need to be moved from factories to the point of sale in more than 190 countries. The company is working to minimise emissions from transport and distribution and believes that reducing its overall environmental impact also helps achieve more cost-effective and efficient distribution of their products. In 2008, the company launched its own internal transport management organisation, UltraLogistik, which manages transport movements across Europe. UltraLogistik finds the most efficient ways to move raw materials and packaging to factories and then transports finished goods to around 300 warehouses in Europe. From this original initiative came the idea to establish global and regional control hubs. These enable the company to co-ordinate transport activities efficiently and ensure that trucks are as full as possible. In total, the hub system, promises to reduce

fuel savings and lower carbon emissions. Using Barloworld SCS’s CAST software, CEVA Logistics were able to calculate a 3-5 year strategic plan which was used as a basis for the operation. A number of potential scenarios were evaluated. It was confirmed that the objectives could be attained by establishing the central distribution facility in The Netherlands. Adding CEVA Logistics as the Lead Logistics Provider enabled management of all transportation flows and implementation of savings initiatives such as transferring movement of freight from air to road and consolidating small shipments. For demonstrating aCO2 friendly supply chain redesign for this customer, CEVA Logistics was awarded the Lean and Green Award by Connekt, a Dutch forum that promotes smart and sustainable ‘mobility’ thinking among logistic service providers and international partners. There can be no doubting the extent of the commitment of the European Union towards achieving a fundamental reduction in carbon emissions in both the immediate and medium term future, working towards its ultimate target of major cuts by 2050. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.ciltinternational.org





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All aboard the plug-in bus

Emission-free, pure electric buses could become a common sight in Europe, following widespread trials of the BYD ebus, with Copenhagen becoming the latest European city to pilot the buses and Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport committing to an order of 35 Already trialled in Paris, Bremen, Bonn, Madrid, Barcelona, Salzburg, Warsaw, Amsterdam, Brussels and Budapest, the Danish capital Copenhagen has become the latest major European city to begin trials of the all-electric, zero-emission ebus from Chinese manufacturer BYD. Taking the plunge and investing in the electric buses, the Dutch island of Schiermonnikoog has converted its entire bus fleet to pure electric BYD ebuses and a fleet of 35 units has been ordered for Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport to provide airside services. Electric transport The BYD ebus is the first pure-electric bus powered by Iron-Phosphate battery in the world. It was built as an electric bus, and not a converted bus from a conventional power unit. It features appropriate weight distribution, thanks to the smart utilisation of the battery weight, which ensures a great level of driveability. The ebus also has an energy recovery system, which allows the batteries to be recharged during braking.

The BYD ebus can drive for 250km even in heavy city traffic after one full charge. The on-board AC charging technology developed by BYD is unique to the electric bus, requiring only 5 hours to fully recharge. The energy consumption of the BYD ebus is around 130kWh/100km in urban conditions. It saves up to 80 per cent of fuel cost compared to a diesel bus. This has been proven in extensive operational experience in China where in the southern city of Shenzhen 200 ebuses have been in service since Jan 2011, covering in total 20 million kilometres of passenger-carrying service by the end of September 2013. The heart of the BYD ebus is its safe and reliable Fe battery (lithium iron phosphate) technology. As the world’s largest maker of rechargeable batteries, BYD is an expert in the design and build of advanced batteries and the Fe gives outstanding power, range and service life from packs which are environmentally‑friendly both to make and dispose of. The BYD ebus is 12m metres long – the same size as normal buses operating on city streets. In the first quarter of 2013 the BYD ebus obtained full European certification, which allowed the company to start promoting and selling ebuses in the European market. The BYD ebus delivers a host of benefits not only for the environment but also for the

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Schipol Airport in The Netherlands has a fleet of 35 BYD ebuses on order

public transport and the bus operator. It does not emit any harmful fumes into the environment. What is more, it is very quiet and ensures a comfortable journey without the vibrations, jerks or noise associated with the conventional buses with combustion engines.

The Polish capital of Warsaw is just one European city which has trialled BYD ebuses

THE DANISH CAPITAL Copenhagen has become the latest European city to commence trials of the ebuses. Two ebuses will take part in a two-year trial service with each of the two major bus operators in the city – Movia and Arriva. CEO of Movia, Dr Nohr Pedersen said: “Movia has up to 1,400 buses used by more than 200 million passengers. Diesel buses have undergone rapid development in recent years but the potential of fully electric buses is huge since there is no pollution and they are very quiet. We are really very pleased with the support we have received for this trial and now we need to find out the E Volume 1.1 | GREENFLEET EUROPE MAGAZINE


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 economy of these buses over a long time, taking into consideration purchase costs, maintenance and operating experience.” Energy supplier Dong Energy has agreed a special tariff for the trial, which encourages the operators to charge their buses outside periods when the electricity grid is most strained. The two buses will be tested on a variety of routes and under different traffic conditions. The ebuses on trial are specially adapted to meet the challenging winter climatic conditions sometimes encountered in Copenhagen, with the fitment of extra insulation, double glazing windows and an independently powered auxiliary heating system. Isbrand Ho, BYD Europe’s managing director, said: “We are delighted to begin these important and long term trials in Copenhagen. We believe they will be the first involving full size, pure electric buses in a Nordic environment. They are the latest step in a Europe-wide programme which is demonstrating the emission free advantages of our ebus.” Airside vehicles Amsterdam’s Schiphol Airport

has taken the decision to replace their ageing airside fleet with 35 BYD ebuses. They will be used to transfer passengers between the terminals and aircraft from July 2014. The SUBSS Project (SUstainable Bus System Schiphol) aims to provide a new generation of emission free airside transfer vehicles which will enhance the airport’s image with passengers and airlines, reduce bus maintenance and management costs and improve air quality by reducing the emission of CO2 and NOx. Jos Nijhuis, CEO and president of Schiphol Group, said: “Amsterdam Airport Schiphol will be the first airport in the world making bus transport at airside electric. After a European open tender, the contract was awarded to the best bid in terms of quality, energy performance and price. The switch to electric buses will help us in creating a healthier and more pleasant environment for travellers and employees alike. The buses will be put into operation in 2014, making transportation at the airport more environmentally‑friendly and more sustainable.” To maintain the buses and associated

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chargers, BYD has signed a 10-year contract with KLM Equipment Services (KES). KES will ensure that the buses at Schiphol are maintained in excellent condition ready to transport passengers between the terminal buildings and waiting aircraft. Bus assembly facility Following the positive feedback from the European-wide trials, BYD is planning a bus assembly facility in Europe. Isbrand Ho said: “We need to have around 100 sales in Europe to justify a plant and we believe that day is really near now.” Speaking on the opening day of Busworld in Kortrijk, Belgium, on 18 October, Ho added: “From Tel Aviv to Helsinki we have completed or have planned trials of our ebus in real passenger carrying service. The results of these trials have been universally positive with operators proving that our range claims of 250km in urban conditions are conservative and realising tremendous energy savings – benefitting both the environment and their operating cost budgets.” Ho said that no decision had been made on the location of the assembly facility and that a number of countries were being considered where access to market and local skills would be attractive. From China to Europe BYD Company is one of China’s largest companies, and one of the very few who have successfully expanded globally. The company is the world’s largest manufacturer of rechargeable batteries, and its mission – to create safer and more environmentally friendly battery technologies – has lead to the development of the Iron Phosphate (Fe) Battery. This non‑combustible, completely recyclable and long‑lasting technology has become the core of their clean energy platform that has expanded into automobiles, buses, trucks, utility vehicles and energy storage facilities. L FURTHER INFORMATION www.byd.com




Are you reducing the risk to your most valuable asset? Your employees The mobile app that prevents driver distraction u Reduce accidents related to the use of mobile phones whilst driving u Improve legislative compliance relating to Road Related Road Safety (INDG 382) u Improve employee safety whilst driving at work u Duty of Care compliance for employees who drive on business (INDG 382) and for Lone Workers (INDG 73)

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Alphabet 4 BMW 24, 25 Citroen IFC Havas Media 6 Mercedes 14, 15 Opel OBC Peugeot Europe 20 Toyota Europe 18 Transport Business 22 Truck-Lite Europe 28, 29






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GreenFleet Europe 1.1  

Driving fleet sustainability across the continent

GreenFleet Europe 1.1  

Driving fleet sustainability across the continent

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