Defence Business 17.2

Page 1 | ISSUE 17.2






Looking at armoured vehicle design through a designer’s eyes

DSEI 2017


DSEI returns on 12 September. Defence Business details the innovation taking place in the featured zones


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Tyron R7 - Bolt together wheel with two-piece rubber runflat

Tyron R4 - Double beadlock wheel and runflat system for 4 x 4 and armoured vehicles.


The lightest rubber runflat in the world

W 17 NfEor 20

TYRON develops the super lightweight








Looking at armoured vehicle design through a designer’s eyes

DSEI 2017


DSEI returns on 12 September. Defence Business details the innovation taking place in the featured zones

NUCLEAR ESCALATION IN NORTH KOREA. WHAT NOW? The United Nations Security Council has strongly condemned the latest ballistic missile launch by North Korea, which saw a missile test over Japan’s northern Hokkaido island. In what is the 14th reported missile test by North Korea this year, collaborated condemnation, as much as it was welcomed by Prime Minister Theresa May, and financial sanctions, as implemented by the UN, don’t appear to be having the desired effect. Kim Jong-un has threatened that the Pyongyang-launched missile over Japan was only ‘the first step’ of military operations in the Pacific, describing it as a ‘meaningful prelude to containing’ the US Pacific territory of Guam. In response to the North Korean leader, US President Donald Trump has gone from stating that ‘all options are on the table’ to return the rhetoric and claim ‘talking is not the answer’. It is likely that further sanctions will follow, although, as China has frequently stressed, to destabilise the North Korean regime could be unpredictably dangerous and cause an international crisis. However, as Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull recently said: “With unique leverage comes unique responsibility.” In the time it takes China to consider whether to exert further pressure, the world waits to see whether military options advance, and how the UK will react to them. Power-playing rhetoric is one thing, but volatile and impulsive action could be disastrous if the defence sector does not consider all outcomes. Michael Lyons, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons EDITORIAL ASSISTANT Marianna Christou PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION DESIGN Jo Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Ella Sawtell WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins, Charlotte Casey REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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CONTENTS DB 17.2 7 DB NEWS HMS Queen Elizabeth makes debut in Portsmouth; Trump U-turn on Afghan troops withdrawal; Trident nuclear plans ‘overambitious’; Royal Navy meeting expectations; Baldwin opens £3 million Cyber Security Centre; and North Korea sends missile over Japan

10 ARMOURED VEHICLES ‘Design is not just what something looks and feels like. Design is how it works’. Using Steve Jobs analysis of design as inspiration,Nir Kahn, director of Design for Plasan, looks at the importance of design at all stages of the manufacturing process for the armoured vehicle market

16 DEFENCE EXPORTS Ron Matthews and Aidan Turner, part of the Centre for Defence Management and Leadership at Cranfield University, outline their views on the current defence landscape and the future of UK overseas arms sales

20 DEFENCE REFORM The journey of defence reform has involved fundamental changes to both structure and operation. Cranfield University’s Bill Egginton describes how the Ministry of Defence lives within its means in delivering the defence contribution to national security

24 DEFENCE POLICE Eamon Keating, national chairman of the Defence Police Federation, describes how planned budget cuts for the Ministry of Defence Police could leave sensitive sites vulnerable to attack, with less officers available to ensure security is kept

29 UAV TECHNOLOGY Back in March 2017, it was widely reported that anti-drone unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were to be taken for counter terrorist test flights on a UK military base, because of the rising threat posed by the technology

32 COMBAT HELICOPTER The fourth edition of Combat Helicopter will inform the tri‑services community with a clear understanding of future capabilities for next generation, multi‑role rotary platforms. DB examines the future NATO rotorcraft capabilities, to be discussed at Combat Helicopter 2017

35 DSEI 2017 PREVIEW Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI), the world’s leading defence and security event, will be celebrating its tenth edition when it returns on 12-15 September 2017, at London’s ExCeL. Defence Business previews what is in store

44 COMBAT ENGINEER & NAVAL DAMAGE CONTROL Combat Engineer 2017 will discuss military engineering capabilities amid the current threat landscape. Plus a look at Naval Damage Control which will discuss active and passive fire protection from design stage to on‑board response

Defence Business magazine // ISSUE 17.2 | DEFENCE BUSINESS MAGAZINE



HMS Queen Elizabeth makes debut in Portsmouth HMS Queen Elizabeth, the largest warship ever built for the Royal Navy, sailed into her home port of Portsmouth for the first time on 16 August. Greeted with a flypast from the Fleet Air Arm, including Wildcat and Merlin helicopters and Hawk jets, the 65,000-tonne carrier will berth at the newly-named and upgraded Princess Royal Jetty at Her Majesty’s Naval Base Portsmouth. As part of a £100 million raft of infrastructure upgrades, the berth has been strengthened to support the carriers ahead of the arrival of the ship.

Speaking at HMS Queen Elizabeth’s arrival, Defence Secretary Michael Fallon said: “We welcome our mighty new warship, HMS Queen Elizabeth to her home for the very first time. She is Britain’s statement to the world: a demonstration of British military power and our commitment to a bigger global role. “The thousands of people across the UK who have played a part in building her and her sister ship, HMS Prince of Wales, should be immensely proud as our future flagship enters Portsmouth. She has made good progress in sea

trials and will now embark on the next phase of preparations that will see the return of Britain‘s carrier strike ability. “When she enters service she will help keep Britain safe at a time of increased threats, able to fill multiple roles from providing air power anywhere at any time to fight future campaigns, supporting allies or delivering humanitarian aid.”




Trump U-turn on Afghan troops withdrawal Trident nuclear plans ‘overambitious’

US President Donald Trump has announced that American troops will stay and ‘fight to win’ in Afghanistan, in order to avoid the mistakes made in Iraq being repeated, and leaving a vacuum for terrorists to fill. Trump said he wanted to shift from a time-based approach in Afghanistan to one based on conditions on the ground. He said his new approach would be more pragmatic than idealistic, and would switch from nation building to ‘killing terrorists’. The President also put pressure on neighbouring Pakistan, warning that the US would no longer tolerate it offering ‘safe havens’ to extremists. Trump said: “America will work with

the Afghan government, so long as we see commitment and progress. Someday, after an effective military effort, perhaps it will be possible to have a political settlement that includes elements of the Taliban in Afghanistan.” Defence Secretary Michael Fallon has welcomed the President’s decision to increase military presence in Afghanistan but hasn’t revealed whether the UK will follow suit.



Royal Navy meeting expectations BAE Systems has published an August report about the Royal Navy which shows that it is so far meeting its expectations for this year. The report found that, in terms of finance, the Royal Navy is meeting expectations as: sales increased up to £9.6 billion; underlying EBITA increased by 11 per cent to £945 million; underlying earnings per share increased by 14 per cent; operating business cash flow of £277 million; and a net debt of £1.7 billion. Operational and statistic highlights include: the full £3.7 billion production contract for the initial batch of three Type 26 frigates was signed in June, with order intake of £2.8 billion in the period; received the full £1.4 billion

contract for the sixth Astute Class submarine, and in April the fourth Astute boat was launched; secured a £417 million contract to provide 145 M777 ultra‑lightweight howitzers to India; and the first two Typhoon aircraft for Oman arrived in the Sultanate of Oman in June. Charles Woodburn, chief executive, said: “Performance in the first half was consistent with our expectations for the year. We have a sound platform for medium-term growth underpinned by a clear and consistent strategy.”


The UK government’s plan to replace the Trident nuclear weapons system is ‘overambitious’, the Infrastructure and Projects Authority (IPA) has warned. The IPA’s new report to the Cabinet Office and the Treasury in London has said the Ministry of Defence’s £43 billion plans to replace the Trident nuclear weapons system and construct a new fleet of nuclear-powered submarines for the Clyde is ‘unachievable’. It puts this down to the projects being poorly managed, over-budgeted and full of technical problems. The report covers 143 projects run by 17 UK government departments. The Ministry of Defence has launched a major reorganisation and set up a new Submarine Delivery Agency in order to try and combat the issues. It also renamed the programme ‘Dreadnought’ and tried to delay project delivery. Four projects in the report received the worst rating, ‘red’, which the report says means: “Successful delivery of the project appears to be unachievable. There are major issues with project definition, schedule, budget, quality and/or benefits delivery, which at this stage do not appear to be manageable or resolvable. The project may need re-scoping and/ or its overall viability reassessed.” The four projects include Urenco Future Options, A303 Amesbury to Berwick Down, M20 Lorry Area and Core Production Capability.





Baldwin opens £3 million Cyber Security Centre Defence Minister Harriet Baldwin has opened a Cyber Security Centre worth £3 million in Gloucester. The new centre is designed to tackle cyber threats made to the UK and will enable Lockheed Martin to work closely with its UK partners to share knowledge, research and deliver cutting edge capabilities. It will create 90 high tech jobs in the city. The government is investing £1.9 billion in cyber security as part of its five-year National Cyber Security Strategy to ensure the UK is resilient to cyber threats and prosperous in the digital world.

is a great example of how partnerships with industry are at the heart of that strategy. Together we are developing solutions to national security risks. “We are already leading in NATO with support to offensive and defensive operations in the fight against Daesh and complex cyber threats, and I’m also delighted that this centre will further boost the UK’s cyber capabilities.”




£40 million investment to improve the defence of the Typhoon

£48 million contract for workboat fleet

The Defence Secretary has announced an investment of £40 million in a high-tech Typhoon Defence System. The contract, which was announced at the Airpower Conference in London, has been awarded to UK-based company Leonardo and will upgrade the Defensive Aids Sub System (DASS). It will sustain 65 high-value jobs at Leonardo’s site in Luton, as well as 41 jobs at BAE Systems in Warton, Lancashire. The contract will ruin over a two year period. It comes as Royal Air Force pilots test advanced weapons and software upgrades for the Typhoon. The DASS will improve the way the aircraft protects itself from a range of threats, including enemy aircraft and missiles launched from the ground, enabling it to continue carrying out successful missions like protecting Britain’s skies as part of Quick Reaction


A key part of that strategy is partnerships with industry, with £10 million being invested in a new Cyber Innovation Fund to give start-ups the boost and partners they need, while £6.5 million is going on a scheme designed to build a community of industry, government and academics to support cutting-edge research and build UK security in cyber space. Baldwin, Minister for Defence Procurement, said: “With our £1.9 billion National Cyber Security Strategy, Britain is a world leader in the field and the opening of today’s cutting-edge centre


Alert and defeating Daesh in Iraq and Syria as part of Op Shader. The Typhoon is expected to operate in a range of hostile environments with the DASS providing a set of self defence sensors and countermeasures which detect and evaluate potential threats and automatically deploy the most effect countermeasure. The DASS includes Electronic Support Measures, missile warning, on‑board electronic countermeasures and towed radar decoys. The Typhoon force is currently operationally based at RAF Coningsby in Lincolnshire, RAF Lossiemouth in Scotland and the Falkland Islands.


Defence Minister Harriet Baldwin has announced a £48 million contract for next-generation workboats which will support both British ships and British jobs. The fleet of up to 38 workboats will assist Royal Navy ships from UK bases and on operations all over the world. Tasks to be carried out by the boats include transferring personnel to and from both of the UK’s carriers for HMS Queen Elizabeth’s arrival in Portsmouth. The workboats will be able to carry up to 36 passengers at one time, and will be stowed inside the carriers, winched to and from the water using on-board lifting equipment. This will allow them to support the ships either in port or on operations. The boats will also perform other tasks including officer and diver training, Antarctic exploration and explosive ordnance disposal. They are highly adaptable to operational demands thanks to their cutting-edge modular design elements. Building and supporting the boats will create 60 British jobs, including 15 at Atlas Elektronik UK where the boats will be built. A further 45 will be sustained across the supply chain. The contract will enable the design and construction of up to 38 boats as well as in-service support for the fleet for a further two years after the final boat is accepted. The first boat is expected to enter service next year.



North Korea sends missile over Japan North Korea launched a missile over Japan’s northern Hokkaido island on Tuesday 29 August, in what the country has labelled ‘the first step’ of military operations in the pacific. The missile traveled 2,700km over Hokkaido before crashing about 1,180km off Japan’s eastern coast. The UN Security Council, which

immediately and unanimously condemned North Korea for its actions, urged North Korea to cease all missile testing. Prime Minister Theresa May, who arrived in Japan for an official visit the day after the missile launch, said on China had a key role in the international response to Pyongyang’s ‘reckless provocation’.

China, alongside Russia, have claimed that US military activity in the region was partly to blame for the increase in tensions, and urged negotiations.




Milestone reached for F-35 Lightning II fighter jets

UK troops awarded UN medals for South Sudan service

British engineers working on combat jets for the UK’s new aircraft carriers have reached a key production milestone of 10 per cent. The 318th rear section for an F-35 Lightning II combat jet has come off the BAE Systems production line in Lancashire, meaning that 10 per cent of the global requirement has now been produced. It is the back part of the state‑of‑the‑art aircraft’s main body, and with more than 3,000 aircraft currently on order, it is predicted that 25,000 jobs will be sustained across the UK by over 500 companies in the supply chain when at peak production. The rear section has now transferred from BAE Systems’ advanced manufacturing site to Lockheed Martin’s

Final Assembly and Check Out line in Texas to be connected with other major assemblies to become one of three aircraft variants.The 318th aft fuselage in particular will form part of a UK ‘B’ model variant of the jet. This variant has the short take-off and vertical landing capability which makes it ideal for Britain’s new Queen Elizabeth Class (QEC) aircraft carriers. With HMS Queen Elizabeth now docked in her new home in Portsmouth, the F-35B jets are on track to make their first flight trials from her deck next year.



DIO awards overseas consultancy framework contract The Defence Infrastructure Organisation (DIO) has selected six companies as suppliers for the principal support provider (PSP) framework.On behalf of the Ministry of Defence, along with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, the DIO has worked to develop an overseas PSP framework. Six companies have been selected as suppliers for the framework to deliver multi-disciplinary design and project management services, advisory services, construction technical services, specialist surveys and clerk of the works duties. The six companies that have been awarded a place on the framework are AECOM, Atkins, Mott MacDonald, Ramble, Ridge & Partners LLP, and WYG. The successful suppliers will deliver services overseas for the next four years and will work on key international projects around the globe. The framework has a predicted spend value of £60 million

and demonstrates a commitment across government departments to work together on overseas procurement. It helps to deliver the Cabinet Office initiative to ensure consistency and value for money across overseas government projects, and will use mini-competitions among the six companies as the main way of selecting the most appropriate contractor to deliver a project. This will allow departments to share good practice and deliver value for money by ensuring jeu are all working to the same standards on large overseas projects. DIO worked with the Foreign Office, the Permanent Joint Headquarters and other government stakeholders on the approach.


HM Ambassador Alison Blackburne has awarded UK troops medals in recognition of their peacekeeping work in South Sudan. 85 UK troops from the Engineering and Medical Taskforce in South Sudan have been awarded medals by Blackburne in recognition of their service in the country. During their tour the troops have supported remedial works to a jetty on the River Nile and helicopter landing sites, flood prevention and other infrastructure improvements, as well as the construction of a temporary field hospital in Bentiu, among other things. The hospital they have built will provide medical care for 1,800 UN personnel, and will be staffed by UK military clinicians for the next 12 months. This will allow other military and civilian staff to continue the work of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS). Medical staff will continue to provide high class healthcare whilst the engineering troops now turn to building the permanent hospital, as well as to UN infrastructure tasks including improving supply routes – enabling UNMISS to continue protecting civilians. Blackburne said: “It is not only about what you have achieved, but also the way you have achieved it. You have conducted yourselves with incredible professionalism in a collaborative and humble manner. It is an honour to present you with such well-deserved medals.





ARMOURED VEHICLES Steve Jobs once said: ”People think it’s this veneer – that the designers are handed this box and told, ‘Make it look good!’ That’s not what we think design is. It’s not just what it looks like and feels like. Design is how it works.” In this article, Nir Kahn, director of Design for Plasan, looks at the importance of design for the armoured vehicle market






hen asked what design is, different people have different preconceptions. Many, perhaps most, will talk about styling and aesthetics. They see design as mere decoration and this misunderstanding can lead to designers being all but left out of the process of developing military products. The military, the perception is, has no need for the fluff of design and so the products and vehicles that they use are developed by practical engineers without the distraction of designers and their airy ideas. I preach a different definition of design though. The difference between engineering and design is a simple question of interfaces. Engineering deals with mechanical and environmental interfaces, between components and each other, between the vehicle and the ground, between materials and the climate; while design is concerned with human interfaces, between the vehicle and the users, and those who will interact with it either physically or emotionally. Once you look at armoured vehicle design through this prism, it becomes clear that the process starts and ends with design. There are many day one decisions that significantly affect the efficiency of the vehicle, in terms of weight, cost, manufacturability, maintainability, and its ability to allow the team inside to comfortably fulfil their mission. It starts with the ergonomic package. When a set of requirements lands on my desk, this is the first thing that is addressed. Armoured materials are heavy. Plasan has the broadest range of material solutions, from the most advanced light composites to plain old hardened steel, but the very lightest armour is the square metre that you managed to do without. If we can design the vehicle to answer all of the requirements, to accommodate the crew in compliance with ergonomics standards, to house all of the equipment in accessible positions, and to do so with less surface area of heavy armour, then we simultaneously save weight and cost. We put a lot of design effort into optimising the driving position to reduce the size of the transparent armour without adversely affecting the driver’s vision, establishing the ideal angle to chamfer the roof edges, and many other details,

AN ARMOURED VEHICLE MUST PROTECT AGAINST MULTIPLE THREATS, BUT THIS ISN’T JUST ABOUT HOW THICK THE STEEL IS. A VEHICLE NEEDS BALLISTIC DOOR SEALS, AND WINDOWS MUST BE ATTACHED IN A WAY THAT SEAL AGAINST THE ELEMENTS AS WELL AS BLASTS all in the interest of maximising usable space and minimising weight and cost. This is a fundamental part of the armoured vehicle design process. This can only be achieved successfully with close cooperation between designers, mechanical engineers, ballistic engineers and production engineers. When this is done well, and designers experienced in the nuances of armoured vehicle design are integrated into the entire process from concept to production, the result offers benefits to all: to the manufacturer who builds and supports it, to the buyer who purchases and maintains it, and to the end user who ultimately interacts with the vehicle on a daily basis. PROTECTING AGAINST MULTIPLE THREATS But it is remarkably easy to get the job of developing an armoured vehicle very wrong, and the market is full of bad examples. An armoured vehicle must protect against multiple threats, but this isn’t just about how thick the steel is. Stopping a projectile with a 400x400mm sample plate in a ballistic lab is only the beginning. A vehicle needs ballistic door seals that prevent even the smallest fragments of a broken bullet from entering the passenger cell. Windows must be attached in a way that seal against the elements as well as ballistic and blast threats, but that also allow for easy field replacement. The doors and windows are a critical interface between the users and the vehicle. Taking care to design them so that ingress and egress are easy and comfortable, and to minimise blind spots, despite the thick glass and necessary ballistic overlaps, is a big differentiator between a well‑designed armoured vehicle and one which was

built with less attention paid to these human interfaces. Quick access and good situational awareness are vital to allowing the users to successfully complete their daily missions, yet these issues of design are often erroneously given low priority. The same disregard is often held for improving the comfort of the soldiers inside. I am sometimes asked what the best blast seats are. My response is always that the best place to be sitting in the event of a blast under a vehicle is at home, with your feet up, and a beer in your hand. You are perfectly safe there. When soldiers are sent to the battlefield, they are sent to perform a task, and to do it well. The prime purpose of a blast attenuating seat is to be a secure comfortable place for a soldier to sit for 12 hours a stretch. Their ability to absorb the energy of a large underbody blast (and the slam down that follows) must not detract from their prime purpose which is driven by design and ergonomics. Too many manufacturers of military vehicles forget this. They forget that it’s all about the humans inside. It is easy to pass a blast test by carefully placing a test dummy’s feet on a raised footrest, but in the real world nobody can comfortably sit like that for more than a few minutes. When the blood stops flowing and the leg starts to ache, real people take their feet off these bars and reposition them to places that put them at risk. Our job as military vehicle designers is to save lives, not to pass tests. So in Plasan we design wide floating floors that allow occupants to treat the floor naturally, E


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 placing and moving their feet for

their own comfort, and we ensure that wherever they happen to be, if they are unfortunate enough to encounter a blast, the design will protect them. DESIGNING AESTHETIC INTO THE VEHICLE And yes, design does deal with aesthetics. The appearance of a vehicle, the image that it portrays, can affect the ability of the team inside to do their job. What are you trying to say to the people who you face? If it’s a sworn enemy sitting in their own armoured vehicle then maybe your own strength and invincibility, perhaps even lethality, are key characteristics that you want to project. But if you are operating in an urban environment, surrounded by non-combatant locals who are scared and suspicious, then rolling around in an aggressive fortress could be counter-productive. It can make you look detached from their plight and pain. It can make enemies of people who may have otherwise been open to cooperation. For these sorts of missions and environments, ever more common for modern armies, a vehicle styled to send a progressive message, of a positive force that has come to help lift them out of their state of despair, can actively contribute to the success of the mission. Styling armoured vehicles is a particularly difficult task. It cannot be a veneer, it can’t be added on at the end. The aesthetic needs to be designed into the vehicle. The basics of vehicle design, lining up shutlines so that they flow and have a common language with the surfaces and vehicle as a whole, are very hard to control if the designer isn’t intimately involved in the details. When armoured vehicles

Nir Kahn at work

DESIGN IS A HOLISTIC DISCIPLINE. IT ENCOMPASSES ERGONOMICS, DESIGN FOR COST, WEIGHT AND PRODUCTION, AS WELL AS AESTHETICS; AND WHEN DONE WELL IT SHOULD ADD VALUE TO THE PRODUCT FAR IN EXCESS OF ANY COST THAT IT ADDS are a collection of improvisations, last minute changes and patches, they will end up looking like a stylistic mess, and this ugly uncomfortable appearance is an alarm bell warning to all who see it that none of the design process was conducted in a considered manner. But if the finished vehicle looks right and if there is a coherent aesthetic then this is a sure sign that the same level of care and attention went into the things that you can’t see too. Design is a holistic discipline. It encompasses ergonomics, design for cost, weight and production, as well as aesthetics; and when done well it should add value to the product far in excess of any cost that it adds. In fact,

good design can often save cost. By considering multiple issues early on, combining functionality into single parts, and generally getting things right from the start rather than adding quick fixes to patch up problems later, a well-designed armoured vehicle will be lighter, cheaper, and better all-round than vehicles that didn’t undergo a comprehensive design process. The difference with a well‑designed vehicle, which is observable at first sight, runs more than skin deep. L







Doing logistics well demands a degree of agility, particularly for large government departments focused on accomplishing critical missions

Leveraging decades of expertise in military logistics, Team Leidos is on target to generate savings of hundreds of millions of pounds for the Ministry of Defence (MOD) in its supply chain. Team Leidos, a partnership led by Leidos, was established to bid for the MOD’s £6.7 billion Logistics, Commodities and Services Transformation (LCST) contract to modernise their logistics programme and to generate savings to the UK taxpayer. The team’s goal is to bring world‑class supply chain management tools and practices to the MOD through visibility across the MOD’s entire supply chain, automation of processes, and introduction of state-of‑the‑art technology to UK military logistics. The new contract is the latest in Leidos’ multi‑billion-dollar portfolio of logistics‑related projects, including as diverse as integrated logistics support for the United States military, maintaining scientific bases in Antarctica, to packaging and kitting for NASA. Once upon a time, logistics mainly involved moving materials from one location to another. Today, it is a multi-billion-pound business that has critical implications for the industries it supports. Multi‑national companies such as Walmart and Dell have made a science of ‘just-in-time’ inventory management, reducing inventory to levels that could not have been imagined even a decade ago. Elements of defence procurement processes, however, have remained rooted in tradition rather than up‑to‑date principles of supply chain management. LEVERAGING BEST PRACTICES Militaries across the globe need to modernise supply chains. In recent years stock in warehouses is often held back in case demand surges due to a rapid deployment or emergency. But this can create ripples down the line for distribution and cost, resulting in shortages and undocumented inventory, making it impossible to locate an item when it’s really needed. John Gaffney, head of Business Development and Strategy for Leidos Europe, said: “The MOD is looking at the optimum balance between ‘just in case’ and ‘just in time’ so that we best meet MOD strategy and operational requirements – at the end of the day we do need buffer stocks to enable

the Front Line Commands to react to very short notice taskings anywhere in the world. The contract had us take on the operation of some of the UK MOD’s logistics, depots and warehouses ‘as is’, and ensure that the demanding performance targets were met. An important milestone was reached in April 2017, with the opening of an 80,000 square-metres Defence Fulfilment Centre to store the majority of Defence inventory for the UK Armed Forces. The next phase is set for completion in early 2019. Gaffney says: “Construction was completed in 11 months using an innovative facility design from KN, and so far, the project is meeting or exceeding its goals. We have been filling in the IT, and are already storing some stock at the facility, that will eventually hold 75 percent of the UK MOD’s NATO Stock Numbers (NSNs).” Part of the job involves moving items that are most frequently requested to the new facility, while rationalising inventories and disposing of old, obsolete or unnecessary items. This involves surveying existing inventories, and building a database that will show how often a particular item is requested, providing visibility throughout the whole supply chain. Gaffney comments: “Having a comprehensive understanding of what you have, where it is, and who has asked for it when, will lead to increased efficiency and lower costs.” NEW PLATFORMS Team Leidos is building a new supply‑chain management IT capability rivalling that seen at the world’s leanest companies. Team Leidos will provide integration of a new Support Chain Integration Platform that interfaces with MOD legacy systems. It will also handle all software updates and maintenance. Drawing on its expertise in data analytics, Leidos will analyse the data in the system to develop insights that drive even greater supply chain efficiencies over time. The project will automate as many processes as possible, so that all data is handled digitally rather than on paper. Training has been crucial in bringing approximately 1,200 MOD staff up to speed on new technology and efficient processes. The goal is not just more efficiency but getting better information to the customer. The programme’s success hinges on

being able to provide one version of the truth that all end users believe. Getting users to trust the system will be key to getting them to change past practices, which in turn can drive new efficiencies. Training is critical, especially when introducing people to new technology, new processes, and a significantly higher level of automation. Team Leidos plans to semi-automate the Defence Fulfilment Centre with a MiniLoad Storage and Retreival System designed to handle stock-picking for the most frequently needed items, so staff will no longer have to retrieve them manually from shelves and bins; this will result in fewer errors and saves considerable time. High demand items will be stored in uniformly sized bins in racks up to 15 metres high. Robots will quickly pick the items to be packed and the system will reduce overall operating costs significantly. However, as Gaffney notes: “One cannot automate everything. While the Miniload will handle the bulk of demands, it occupies a comparatively small amount of the total space. Anticipating the need for advances in technology, the facility has been future‑proofed so we can house new systems.” For now, the MOD project remains ‘focused and on track’ for completion of the transformation stage in 2019, allowing the MOD to do what it does best: focus on crucial security and humanitarian efforts.L

FURTHER INFORMATION Web: LinkedIn: Leidos Facebook: Leidosinc YouTube: Leidosinc FURTHER INFORMATION www. @Leidosinc Twitter:




OVERSEAS ARMS SALES Ron Matthews and Aidan Turner, part of the Centre for Defence Management and Leadership at Cranfield University, outline their views on the current defence landscape and the future of UK overseas arms sales



n 2013, the government undertook to support defence exports through the Defence Growth Partnership. The intention was to make industry more competitive, via investment in skills, enhanced support for small and medium size enterprises and encouragement of inward investment. The rationale behind this government intervention was the positive link drawn between defence export success and UK prosperity. Defence exports are important, but the touted relationship with the prosperity agenda borders on hyperbole, given that the UK’s 2016 defence exports of £6.2 billion represents a minuscule one per cent of total (civil and military) exports of £514 billion (latest 2014 data). Putting aside this stark comparison, there is no doubting the fact that the UK defence industrial base is a repository of high engineering skills that produce frontier technology systems. Its impressive capability includes innovational sub‑systems that have dual use applicability to commercial manufacturing, a motive force for economic growth. The UK defence economy employs an estimated 350,000 employees, and houses eight defence contractors that are listed among the world’s top 100 arms exporters. BAE Systems, for instance, is a major defence multinational company, and is held to be the third biggest



exporter in the global arms market. Moreover, it is a market that is growing. In 2016, it was worth £68 billion, representing the second highest level of sales in the last decade, and growth of 4.5 per cent is expected in 2018. Beyond the short-term, the strength of future overseas arms sales will be partially anchored to the expansion of the UK’s domestic market, not least because Ministry of Defence (MOD) procurement is planned to rise from £16 billion in 2017/18 to £19 billion by 2025/26. On the back of this demand buoyancy, UK defence exports are expected to perform strongly. The Defence and Security Organisation (DSO) offers the following ringing endorsement of the sector, highlighting that ‘the UK is one of the world’s most successful defence exporters, averaging second place in the global rankings on a rolling ten-year basis, making it Europe’s leading defence exporter across 2007-16’. The obvious implication is that UK defence export performance is robust, providing a powerful impetus to domestic prosperity through the fostering of output, income and employment. THE GLOBAL DEFENCE MARKET Yet, the UK’s defence export performance is not what it seems. In 2015, the country’s share of the global defence market was estimated to be

12.8 per cent, around £7.7 billion in value terms. However, a year later the share had fallen dramatically to nine per cent, with the 2016 export value declining to just £5.9 billion. Rightly, DSO cautions against reading too much into annual changes, because arms exports are notoriously changeable in the short-run due to their inherent ‘lumpiness’. Worryingly though, a trend of decline is now apparent, with the value of UK defence exports falling three years in succession, from 2013 to 2016. Of further concern is the clustering of the country’s arms sales around just two regions. Across 2015 and 2016, the Middle East accounted for approximately 50 per cent of total UK defence exports, which, when combined with North America, represents a vulnerable 73 per cent of total UK arms exports. Europe accounted for 14 per cent of exports, and Asia-Pacific, the world’s fastest growing region, just 13 per cent. Africa and Latin America accounted for a minuscule 0.5 per cent each. UK defence exporters face intense competition across all the world’s regions, but as a high income, high technology arms exporter, the UK will invariably be pitted against similar high‑end American, Russian and European competitors in discerning markets. There is, however, a new threat on the horizon. From nowhere, China has become a prolific E


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EXPORTS  arms exporter. Its overseas sales expanded 6.5 times between 2000 and 2015, achieving the remarkable feat of becoming the world’s third biggest arms exporter with a 5.9 per cent global share over the five-year period 2011-15. Over the same time period, American and Russian exports dominated the international arms market, with shares of 33 per cent and 25 per cent, respectively. The UK was ranked sixth, with a global share of 4.5 per cent. Although 43 of China’s customers are clustered in low‑income traditional markets belonging to Asia, Africa and South America, Beijing’s global customer base now includes 14 states that are upper middle/high income countries. China’s encroachment into these higher income states represents an ominous threat. In a time of widespread global austerity, China’s relatively low cost, acceptable quality and increasingly high tech systems, including drones, missiles, satellites, and even submarines, should be ringing alarm bells in the boardrooms of the UK’s major defence exporting companies.

including the F-35 combat aircraft, from the US. This demonstration of loyalty to Washington is probably a counter‑balance to Tokyo’s strategic dependence on the 1960 US-Japan Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security. By contrast, Saudi and Asian states demonstrate great variability in arms sourcing decisions, preferring to rotate and placate competing overseas suppliers on the basis of geo-strategic equity. A further significant arms trade constraint is the degree of US Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) technology integrated into Western weapon systems. Use of US technology will need to be compliant with American ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations), and any contravention will lead to the imposition of huge penalties, potentially running to hundreds of millions of pounds. The practical effect of ITAR is that Washington can veto export of military platforms containing US proprietary technology unless clearance is obtained. If such approval is not granted, or not sought, then the US will not hesitate

THE GLOBAL ARMS MARKET IS A ‘BUYERS’ MARKET, MEANING THAT OFFSET IS OBLIGATORY, NOT DISCRETIONARY. UK EXPORTERS WILL FAIL TO WIN ORDERS IF OFFSET IS NOT OFFERED, OR OFFERED, BUT UNATTRACTIVELY STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND COMPLIANCE The recent less than sanguine UK arms export performance confirms the obvious – that the international arms market is fiercely competitive. It reflects the imperative of continuously investing in product and process technologies to refresh export capabilities and evolve dynamic comparative advantages. Yet, costly investment into research and development is not easy when margins are under pressure and long‑term market conditions are uncertain. Beyond these economic pressures, common to all exporters, there are other factors that differentiate defence from more open civil markets. Firstly, arms sales are characterised by strategic alliances and client-state partnerships. The US is the world’s dominant exporter, and enjoys long‑standing customer networks based around defence treaties and alliances. Breaking into these markets is therefore very difficult. For instance, Japan, after decades of self-exclusion from the arms market, is now actively seeking to export through the nurturing of strategic partnerships across the world. Yet, notwithstanding Tokyo’s new internationalism, Japan remains steadfast in its commitment to procure the majority of its advanced weaponry,

in embargoing affected third country exports. This happened as recently as 2015, when South Korea attempted to export T-50 trainers to Uzbekistan. DEFENCE OFFSET A further imperfection of the arms market is the insatiable appetite by arms importers for defence offset. Normally, this relates to direct offset, whereby a recipient state seeks technology transfer to accelerate local defence industrialisation. However, some buying states may prefer indirect offset, requiring vendor investment to be channeled into commercial endeavour to support broader economic and industrial development objectives. Offset is often viewed as a ‘win‑win’ arrangement, and thus has become de rigueur for defence exporters. Whilst weapons capability is the principal qualifier for closing a sale, the attractiveness of the offset package is increasingly a critical discriminator in the mix. UK defence companies are well aware of the importance of offset. Nevertheless, they are reluctant to release technology to secure a sale, viewing the process as akin to voluntarily offering-up, often to potential future competitors, their company’s technological heritage, accumulated through generations of

engineering creativity and innovation. Yet, the global arms market is a ‘buyers’ market, meaning that offset is obligatory, not discretionary. UK exporters will fail to win orders if offset is not offered, or offered, but unattractively. Arguably, the attitudinal approach of business development executives needs to be reset so that a new vision is instilled which recognises the mutual benefit arising from convergence of vendor and recipient offset goals. This will only happen if exporter‑importer long-term objectives are calibrated to ensure that technologies transferred match recipient country development levels, rather than the latter’s industrial and technological aspirations. If such a ‘convergence’ strategy is followed, then the chances are that UK exporters will become ‘locked’ into key overseas markets. In summary, the challenges facing UK defence exporters will not diminish in the years ahead, but what is clear is that the global arms bazaar in no way reflects Adam Smith’s perfectly open and liberal market structures. Defence is an imperfect market, and, as such, the success of UK defence exports along with their contribution to the prosperity agenda is closely associated with the degree of government support. In France, corporate offset decisions go all the way to cabinet; they are that important. Yet, rarely does this happen in the UK. Equally, the UK has nothing comparable to the support Washington gives to US arms exporters through its Foreign Military Sales (FMS) initiative. In less direct ways, the UK government can support arms exporters through interventions in related defence export activities, such as minimising delivery risk, defining key roles for defence contractors in international arms collaboration programmes, maximising value for money (for UK taxpayers) via enhanced training and through-life government-to-government contracts. However, perhaps the most important consideration is the acceptance by Whitehall that defence exports represent the culmination of years, and sometimes decades, of corporate marketing effort. It is therefore imperative that economic diplomacy, necessarily embracing arms sales, is viewed as a strategic policy tool to win the hearts and minds of friendly foreign states. L





NATIONAL SECURITY Dr Bill Egginton writes the first of three papers for Defence Business that traces the journey of defence reform in the UK. This journey has involved fundamental changes to how the MOD is structured and operates, drawing on project, programme and most recently, portfolio management principles in order to live within its means in delivering the defence contribution to national security. This first article displays the historical perspective of defence reform

DEFENCE REFORM PART 1: FROM WHENCE IT CAME T he Defence Industrial Policy was launched in October 2002. Although it led to an improved dialogue between industry and government, practical implementation of its core principles remained ‘patchy’ years later. Moreover, research at that time exposed a wide range of key factors affecting defence project performance on the sides of both industry and government (MOD). The Defence Industrial Strategy (DIS), published in December 2005, built on the Defence Industrial Policy. It recognised the need for greater transparency of future UK defence requirements and, for the first time, set out those industrial capabilities the UK needed to ensure continuity of operations with appropriate levels of sovereignty and freedom of action. At the same time, it highlighted again the need to address some of the causal factors of poor performance particularly around governance and how MOD engaged with the industrial base in making decisions. Arguably for the first time, the DIS provided a strategic, sector-specific view of the defence



capability requirements going forward, including new projects as well as the support and upgrade of equipment already in service. In doing so, the DIS identified the industrial capabilities that needed to be retained in the UK for defence reasons. However, and in order to realise that strategy, the DIS also pointed to the need to ‘create a strong programme management environment around our projects’ that was able to ‘oversee the integration of projects and other Lines of Development into military capability’. In order to do so, the MOD would ‘invest in developing programme management capabilities and competence within acquisition’. In many respects, it was Lord Drayson’s DIS that both raised awareness of the need for a more strategic approach to investment as well as the capabilities and competencies required to deliver those investments as projects and programmes. The DIS also made reference to the need to ‘manage the overarching portfolio of projects within a capability area, including research and technology, capability E



DEFENCE REFORM  upgrade and in-service capability in a coherent manner’. However, and as we shall see, the implementation of a genuine (and pan UK government) ‘portfolio approach’ was not to commence until some six years later. THE ‘PORTFOLIO APPROACH’ In the US, however, the ‘portfolio approach’ was already happening. In March 2007, the US Government Accountability Office report (GAO‑07‑338) recommended that the Secretary of Defense implement an enterprise-wide portfolio management approach to making weapon system investments that integrated the assessment and determination of warfighting needs with available resources and that

cut across the US armed services by functional or capability area. In September 2008, the House of Representative’s Committee on Armed Services asked the GAO to testify on measures needed to further reform the acquisition of major weapon systems and related legislative proposals. The GAO reported in April 2009 (GAO‑09‑663T), detailing cost growth and schedule delays in the US Department of Defense (DOD) portfolio of weapon systems and stating that whilst there can be ‘legitimate debate over which set of measures are the best explanation of the problem, there can be no debate over the fact that the problem is significant and calls for action’. Curiously, back in the UK, and just a few months earlier in March 2008, the




House of Commons Defence Committee published Defence Equipment (2008) in which it stated: “Mr Gould acknowledged that the uncertainty over the equipment programme was bound to delay investment by industry. Sir Kevin O’Donohue said that he thought industry would like to see an affordable programme and fewer projects properly funded, if that’s what it takes, rather than a lot of projects not properly funded.” It was clear that a theme was building on both sides of the Atlantic, namely that defence was trying to do too much with the resources available. There was a growing realisation of the need to be able to identify, understand, evaluate and then make evidence based, priority-led decisions aimed at supporting security strategy but doing so within the available departmental budgets. THE BUSINESS OF DEFENCE In December 2008, the then Defence Secretary, John Hutton, asked Bernard Gray to undertake a review of defence acquisition. The resulting report was published in October 2009, and received by Hutton’s successor, Secretary of State for Defence, Bob Ainsworth. The report identified a number of areas where the

DEFENCE REFORM business of defence could be improved including reference to more effective prioritisation, improved governance and decision making and further up skilling of civil servants and serving military in project and programme management. The MOD response, published just a matter of weeks later, did not agree with everything in the report, but did accept most of its recommendations and in particular its two central thrusts: (a) the need to adjust the so-called ‘over‑heated equipment programme’ to bring into balance with available resources; and (b) the need to make significant improvements in the management of defence through closing the business skills gap and strengthening the interfaces between defence customer and supplier organisations. Following their coming to power five months later in March 2010, the coalition government immediately commissioned a Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) and a Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR). In August, Dr Liam Fox, the newly appointed Defence Secretary, publicly launched Defence Reform. This was to be a ‘root and branch’ review of the way defence worked, albeit on a different

IN JANUARY 2011 PRIME MINISTER DAVID CAMERON ISSUED A LETTER THAT ANNOUNCED THE CREATION OF A NEW FUNCTION – THE MAJOR PROJECTS AUTHORITY time frame to that of the SDSR itself. The aim was to develop a new model for departmental management which was simpler and more cost-effective, with clear allocation of responsibility, authority and accountability. A Steering Group was set up, chaired by Lord Levene, with a mandate to fundamentally examine how the MOD was structured and managed and to make recommendations to improve its overall performance. The SDSR was published in October 2010 and made clear the need for significant change to address the ‘over-heated defence programme’ and to prevent such a financial crisis ever happening again by addressing the underlying problems. The ‘Levene report’ was to follow eight months later, in June 2011, and as this paper will go on to discuss, its recommendations were to have a profound impact on MOD. Still in 2010, the new administration had also inherited something resembling a ‘portfolio’ approach to investment in public sector projects and programmes. The so-called Major Project Portfolio (MPP) comprised about 40 of the largest public investments in change across all government departments – including the Olympics (Culture, Media and Sport), Crossrail (Transport), Pandemic Flu (Health) and Strategic Deterrent (Defence). These changes essentially comprised high value, pandepartmental, national interest and/or manifesto-related initiatives and were required to report on a quarterly basis to Treasury, and by exception, to No 10. DEFENCE DECISION MAKING In January 2011, and no doubt in response to the SDSR, CSR and ongoing austerity measures, David Cameron issued a letter that announced the creation of a new function, the Major Projects Authority (MPA), within the Cabinet Office under the auspices of Francis Maude. The letter provided the MPA with a mandate to build on the presence and principles of the MPP with the objective of improving government’s record of delivering projects and so ensuring (and assuring) tax-payer value for money. The MPP was re-badged the Government Major Project Portfolio (GMPP) and as a ‘first cut’ comprised around 200 publicly funded projects and programmes from across all government departments. The letter, signed by Cameron and dated 25 January 2011, effectively legitimised the use of the word ‘portfolio’ within government and essentially began the process of embedding a project, programme and portfolio management

(P3M) approach to investment in change across UK government. As mentioned earlier, in June 2011, the Levene Report was published. Amongst its recommendations was the need to strengthen top level decision-making, establish a smaller, stronger and more strategic Head Office, provide clearer responsibilities and establish genuine individual accountability with empowered service chiefs that had greater freedom to flex but within a regime of stronger financial and performance management. These recommendations essentially provided the agenda for what followed: defence transformation and the introduction of a new defence operating model. At the end of July, the 2nd Permanent Under Secretary (PUS), Jon Day, and the vice chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS), General Sir Nick Houghton, issued a letter that set out the way forward. To complete the perfect storm that was 2011, and in addition to the letter from Cameron, the Report of Levene and the directive from 2nd PUS and VCDS, there are two further developments worthy of note. Firstly, the publication of UK government guidance titled Management of Portfolios (MoP). The US equivalent had been published in 2008, evidence again of the US lead in this area. With a Forward by David Pitchford, then executive director of the Major Projects Directorate in the Cabinet Office, MoP described portfolio management as ‘a discipline whose time has come’. To paraphrase the guidance, if project and programme management was about doing things right, then portfolio management was all about doing the right things. Finally, the issuing of a ‘P3M mandate’ by 2nd PUS and DG Finance Jon Thompson. Issued as letter on 3 November 2011, and signed by both, the mandate reflected MOD ambition ‘to ensure that the department both develops and promotes its ability to carry out effective P3M’. The new operating model (essentially an output of Levene) was issued for consultation in September, its implementation started in April 2012 and substantially completed one year later – a topic we will return to in the next issue. L

Dr Bill Egginton is senior lecturer in Defence Management & Leadership at Cranfield University.





VULNERABLE SITES Eamon Keating, national chairman of the Defence Police Federation, describes how planned budget cuts for the MOD Police could leave sensitive sites vulnerable to attack, with less officers available to ensure security is kept

THE DANGERS OF PUTTING BOTTOM LINE AHEAD OF SECURITY W hen HMS Queen Elizabeth, the UK’s new aircraft carrier, left Rosyth on its maiden voyage at the end of June, we heard about its dimensions. We heard about how it left its dock with mere inches to spare on either side of the keel. We heard about how it would project British military might – albeit prompting discussion as to whether such an asset was of greatest priority at a time when numbers in the army are falling. And we also heard about the cost of the project. Together, HMS Queen Elizabeth and her sister, HMS Prince of Wales, cost more than £6 billion to build – more if you add the cost of the aircraft that should be based on them. And the UK will be embarking on renewing the nation’s nuclear deterrent in the coming years. That will cost tens of billions on top of what is spent to maintain Trident at the moment. The bottom line is that the UK is spending huge amounts of money on what would be termed ‘big ticket’ items for the Ministry of Defence (MOD), designed to safeguard national security and project force if appropriate. This isn’t an argument that such spending is right or wrong – although commentators are entirely accurate to



question the decreasing size of our armed forces. But it is a simple statement of fact that the country has, is, and will continue to make massive investments in critical defensive assets. So, surely it makes sense to properly guard and protect those assets? That’s what would happen in virtually any other walk of life. If you buy, for example, a new TV for your home, you would protect that asset by making sure it’s insured. If you are in the fortunate position of having a sum of money at your disposal – perhaps from diligent savings – you would want to protect that asset. Worryingly, this logic isn’t being applied by the MOD, which in recent months has demanded a further saving of £12.5 million from this year’s budget of the civilian MOD Police (MDP) entrusted with guarding the establishments that will be home to the new aircraft carriers, and who are responsible for protecting the current Trident system and, you would imagine, its successor.

CUTTING ASSET SECURITY The MDP is a unique proposition amongst the security options the MOD has at its disposal. It is unique to other police services because every E


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DEFENCE POLICE  officer has to be firearms trained. And it is unique to other MOD workforces because its officers hold civilian constabulary authority. What that means in practice is MDP officers can operate both within and outside the perimeter of a MOD site, meaning the defensive line for an establishment is not the wire on the perimeter of an establishment, but the area and community outside. It also means that if officers have to manage incidents involving civilians, such as an anti-nuclear demonstration for example, they do so in line with police complaints procedures and specialist training to deal with civilians. You may be thinking that £12.5 million off the MDP budget is no big deal. After all, the Metropolitan Police is expected to make savings of £400 million over the coming years. But now consider the MDP’s budget is around £160 million a year. And that to make savings almost every year over the past decade, the MDP has stripped out its back-office functions, sold its assets and reduced its number of officers by more than half. It’s a big deal – particularly when the workforce is now the only asset from which the MDP can make savings. The MDP should have just over 2,600 officers – a workforce less than half of what it was a decade ago thanks to persistent cuts to its budget. It’s currently around 300 officers short of what it should have – the product of recruitment not keeping pace with workforce reductions. And in the absence of any other assets on which to make savings, the MDP senior leadership is ‘re-setting’ the size of the workforce to make 2,300 the ‘new normal.’ In other words, at a time when we’re spending tens of billions on massive MOD projects with critical importance to national security, we’re cutting the security of those assets in order to make figures add up on a spreadsheet. Of course, the MoD should insist on value for money, but these demands go well beyond that. The MDP has cut everything it has, but is still being asked for more. That cannot lead to effective security.

AT A TIME WHEN WE’RE SPENDING TENS OF BILLIONS ON MASSIVE MOD PROJECTS WITH CRITICAL IMPORTANCE TO NATIONAL SECURITY, WE’RE CUTTING THE SECURITY OF THOSE ASSETS IN ORDER TO MAKE FIGURES ADD UP ON A SPREADSHEET The MDP has always demonstrated exceptional value for money and have met every savings target set, but this one is absolutely a step too far. The implications of this decision are two-fold. Firstly, and most importantly, effectively cutting the number of MDP officers is terrible for public safety and national security. The most expensive and sensitive weapons in our national arsenal will have less people to guard them unless MDP resources are focused on the likes of Trident and the naval bases housing the new aircraft carriers. But that means withdrawing security from other sites, such as munitions depots, making them less safe from terrorist or criminal activity. OFFICER RECOGNITION It impacts on public safety and the role of the armed forces. The MDP deploys officers to support the Home Office in the event of national emergency. This significantly bolsters armed policing numbers and provides valuable armed policing capacity. That cannot be delivered with fewer officers. The reduction in officers could also require greater use of the armed forces for guarding duties. But what this means is that service personnel detailed to guarding cannot then be deployed overseas. And it puts them in jeopardy. MDP officers are subject to police complaints processes. If they do something wrong when interacting with the public, there’s a review and investigation process in place. That’s not the case for armed forces personnel if they have to work in civilian environments on UK soil. If we ask a soldier, trained for combat, to deal

with a civilian anti-nuclear protest, and they have to use any form of force, the process is they have to be investigated under the criminal law processes. And that must surely be unacceptable. The second implication of this force ‘re-set’ is the message it sends, which is a terrible one. By requiring an effective reduction in police numbers, the MOD is saying that cost is more important than security. That’s a dangerous position to be in, not least when we’re talking about the amount of public money spent on the likes of the new aircraft carriers. It sets an extremely dangerous precedent – one in which the bottom line has priority. What they are saying is the protection of the nuclear deterrent and support to national emergencies has less priority than making financial savings that are minute within the total MOD budget. And by acquiescing to the MOD’s budgetary demands, the MDP senior leadership is setting itself up for further requests for savings in future financial years. This will only lead to a managed decline in the effectiveness of the MDP, which is again to the detriment of public safety and national security. So, what should happen? Quite simply, there must be recognition of the importance of the MDP’s role in security and an acceptance that cost cannot be priority. We’re spending tens of billions a year on defence. It’s madness to then quibble over the comparatively minuscule cost of guarding those assets and personnel. L





THE BENEFITS OF ANTIAIRCRAFT TECHNOLOGY Defence Business publishes a public reportage about counter UAV technologies with the expertise of Fabian Ochsner, vice president at Rheinmetall Air Defence AG

DB: THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FFA) REPORTS THAT CASES OF NEAR-MISSES BETWEEN DRONES AND PLANES HAVE SURGED SINCE 2014. WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF DRONE STRIKES ON AIRPLANES? Fabian Ochsner (FO): This question is one of the main concerns that are currently investigated amongst manufacturers of airliners and safety experts. From the scarce information available on this topic, two areas of modern airliners seem to be the focus if it comes to collisions with drones. First is a drone strike to a jet engine which will be different from a bird strike because drones consist not only of soft parts like bones and flesh but have hard parts like the electro motors. It is assumed that a strike of even a small drone like a DJI Phantom could potentially have devastating effects to the turbine by ripping the turbine blades. This would obviously have a dramatic effect during take-off where power of all engines is required for a safe start. The second spot of concern are the cockpit windows. Here again, the physical difference between birds and drones bear the potential of a cracked or blown out window which could have very adverse effects. Recent studies and simulations have clearly shown that a direct hit of a drone can cause severe damage to an airliner cockpit and devastating damage to helicopter cockpit windows. DB: WHEN DRONES ARE INVOLVED IN AN INCIDENT IT IS IMPORTANT TO ASK WHETHER IT IS A RECREATIONAL USER OUT OF CONTROL OR A TERRORIST WITH INTENT. HOW CAN NATIONAL SECURITY FORCES, AS WELL AS THOSE AT THE UK’S AIRPORTS, MONITOR THIS GROWING THREAT? FO: We witness a growing awareness of airport operators and airlines to the problem. However, as threats from drones are discussed more frequently it becomes visible that there is a major misunderstanding if it comes to the definition of this threat. Due to the fact today’s drone defence systems are attempting to use the drones signature and dependency on electromagnetic signals like GPS or RF to locate and mitigate such threats. This has led to the assumption that such systems could be the simple answer to the disturbing problem. The bad news is that this is only the easy



side of the issue. As you stipulate in your question, there are different motivations to fly a drone into an airport environment. What we witness today are some downright senseless individuals who like to film landing or starting airliners using drones and post the clips on YouTube. It can be assumed that such nonsense can be mitigated by using technology that interacts with the drones command and guidance systems. If, however, a malicious intent is the background of an action we face a major difference. Due to the options that terrorists have it can be assumed that drones can be purpose built and thus not be susceptible to the currently proposed drone defence solutions based on detection and mitigation in the electromagnetic field. The consequence thereof is pretty disturbing for airport operators and airlines because technologies that can be deployed to mitigate purpose built drones are not readily available and demand major investments. Furthermore, it must be assumed that the cost associated with deploying such systems will be significant. Solutions are generally available the military field of air defence where coping with ‘non-cooperative’ targets is standard. Airports will be able to monitor ‘unfriendly drones in their zones of interest by placing a variety of sensors and appropriate effectors into their overall security concepts.


FO: As we have seen by drone sighting related interruptions of flight operations by airports, the consequences are not only a nuisance for passengers but generate massive cost. Today, an airport in a competitive environment could be commercially threatened by repeated drone related closures. Countering this actively demands significant investments into the security set up of the airport. DB: AS DRONE TECHNOLOGY ADVANCES, IT BECOMES MORE DIFFICULT FOR REGULATION TO KEEP PACE. HOW IS RHEINMETALL DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUCCESSFULLY DETECT AND ELIMINATE DRONE THREATS? FO: Rheinmetall uses its vast technology base to conceive a notional toolbox of capability and products in the three fields of an overall drone defence solution. Based on the military requirements background, systems to ‘Detect’ and to ‘Act’ meaning to mitigate the drone actively as well as the necessary decision tools to ‘Decide’ if and how to place an intervention are ready to be finalised for use in new surroundings like airports. Modern technologies are matched up with existing products and capabilities to be able to provide solutions which can provide a safe environment if it comes to the threat by purpose‑built drones. L


Photo by Jaromir Kavan on Unsplash

UAV TECHNOLOGY Back in March 2017, it was widely reported that anti-drone unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were to be taken for counter terrorist test flights on a UK military base, because of the rising threat posed by the technology



he UAV sector is estimated to be worth approximately $127 billion, a fact that previous issues of our sister publication Counter Terror Business magazine has labelled as the ‘booming drone revolution’. But amid the financial optimism, which is predicted to grow further this year, is a growing concern that the security threat that UAVs pose to critical national infrastructure, homeland security and a range of commercial sectors is more dangerous than the government and security services are prepared for. According to the Institution of Engineering and Technology, defence chiefs are considering using swarms of collaborative net-casting UAVs to create a radio frequency forcefield wall around government sensitive areas, similar to the SkyWall 100 – an anti‑drone bazooka created by OpenWorks that launches a net at flying objects and parachutes them to the ground. A GAME CHANGER Although now over a year old, a report by the Oxford Research Group’s

Remote Control project warned that commercial UAVs could soon be used as ‘simple, affordable and effective airborne improvised explosive devices’. The Hostile Use of Drones by Non‑State Actors Against British Targets, which was published in January 2016, says that developments in unmanned ground and marine vehicles are ‘opening up new avenues for hostile groups to exploit’ and continued to highlight the role of regulatory countermeasures, passive countermeasures and active countermeasures that should be deployed against drone threats. This can take the form of: stricter regulations and licensing, including a manufacturer requirement to install GPS coordination firmware that emphasises no-fly zones around sensitive fixed locations; security alert measures, that limit the ability of hostile groups to guide a drone onto a mobile target; the purchasing availability of early warning systems for police and counter terrorism forces; and directional radio frequency jammers, lasers and malware that can be deployed against drones

that still represent a threat despite passive systems being employed. The report identifies a range of terrorist, insurgent, criminal, corporate and activist threat groups using drones for attacks and intelligence gathering and outlines specific recommendations on the strategies available to mitigate the threat of the hostile use of drones by non-state actors in the short to medium term. For example, a 26-year‑old American man was arrested by undercover FBI agents in September 2011 for planning to fly explosives-laden model aeroplanes into the Pentagon and US Capitol and rig mobile phones to detonate improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Remaining with the US, an off-duty employee of the US National Geospatial‑Intelligence Agency lost control of a UAV and accidentally crashed it onto the White House lawn. Although an accidental incident, the ease in which it happened was of deep concern to the President’s security officials. Closer to home, an unidentified drone came within six metres of an Airbus A320 as it landed at London’s E




The FLIR Black Hornet™ is the smallest operational unmanned system in the world and it has been used extensively in combat operations by NATO forces over the past few years. The system is described by its users as a “Game Changer” and a “Life Saver”,and has created a new standard and class for the smallest UAS. Learn More at


A RESEARCH PAPER HAS SUGGESTED THAT ISLAMIC STATE ARE PLANNING TO ‘MARRY TOGETHER TWO TECHNOLOGIES, DRONES AS A DISPERSAL DEVICE AND CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL OR RADIOLOGICAL MATERIAL AS THE DISPERSANT’  Heathrow Airport in July 2014, sparking the publication of the ‘dronecode’ – a set of new safety guidelines by the Civil Aviation Authority. A further 20 suspicious drone-related incidents were recorded in and around London between 2013 and 2015, according to freedom of information requests sent to the Metropolitan Police. In a direct terrorist use, Islamic State were reported as using DJI Phantom UAV platforms in Fallujah, Iraq, from early 2014 – predominantly for propaganda purposes, but increasingly for surveillance and target acquisition capabilities. SOARING SURVEILLANCE The use of drones within the defence and security sectors, as well as in military use, has developed at the same pace as the commercial innovations explored at companies such as Amazon. Created for use in situations where manned flight is considered too unsafe or high risk, UAVs offer military units the ability to have constant surveillance on the activities and movements of both their own troops and those opposing them. A 24/7 ‘eye in the sky’ allows surveillance staff to receive real-time imagery and intelligence of activities on the ground, without putting lives at risk, at least not immediately at risk. However, global governments and security organisations are increasingly concerned by the decentralisation and democratisation of intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities made possible by the widespread availability of drones. UAVs, as their name suggests, are unmanned, but are piloted, with a trained crew at base steering the craft, analysing the images which the cameras send back and acting upon the information that they receive. They are easy to operate and provide distance and anonymity to their operators, with battery improvements and higher technology cameras providing uninterrupted access to the air. However, the use of drones for surveillance purposes has been exceeded by use for air strikes. Although much remains unknown, it has been reported that there were ten times more air strikes (563) in the covert war on terror during President Barack Obama’s presidency than under the Presidency of George W. Bush (57), mainly on suspected militants in Pakistan’s tribal areas. Whilst the Obama administration continues to say that drone strikes are

‘exceptionally surgical and precise’, the figures suggest otherwise. According to reports logged by the Bureau, between 384 and 807 civilians were killed in Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen as a result of the drone strikes. The argument for use is that it prevents the need to send in military personnel for costly ground wars, but human rights groups have a lot of support in contesting the continued use of drones in military activity. DRONES AS A DISPERSAL DEVICE Additionally, it was reported in January that Islamic State are using drones to drop explosives on civilians and troops advancing in districts of Mosul, with markets in the eastern part of the city, where civilians gather in large numbers to stock up on food, targeted. More than one million civilians remain inside Mosul, despite ongoing campaigns to drive Islamic State from the city. Causing further concern, a research paper has suggested that Islamic State are planning to ‘marry together two technologies, drones as a dispersal device and chemical, biological or radiological material as the dispersant’. Professor David Hastings Dunn, of the University of Birmingham, has penned his concerns on the possible ‘technology transfer’ of techniques and tactics used in Islamic State planning. He argues that drone attacks could be ‘psychologically unnerving and terror inducing’ and that security and military officers should be well aware and prepared for the possible ‘weaponising [of] a drone to carry a chemical agent’. On a separate note, but in defence to the threat of drones, Hastings Dunn refers to the Paris attacks, particularly concerning the suicide bombers who unsuccessfully sought access to the Stade de France. Perimeter security prevented the terrorists from getting inside the stadium, but had they attached their bombs to drones, the damage could have been far more devastating. The 2016 Countering Drones conference revealed that over 75 per cent of attendees believe that there is a strong likelihood of a major drone-related security incident in the near future, with over 35 per cent believing that it is inevitable. INTENTION KEY TO SAFETY In Counter Terror Business 24, Gary Clayton, of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Association, explored whether the security services had the same opportunity to use the advances

in unmanned technology and analysis of the data collected as the terrorist. He argued, using several examples, that it is not the technology that is the problem, but the user and intention applied to it that has the potential to create havoc. UAVs have the potential to give the security services a better integrated picture of the playing field through enhancing situational awareness. However they also give the terrorist the ability to act at arm’s length – ’it is not the technology – it is the user that makes the difference’. Moreover, regulation, a hot topic in commercial UAV use in the UK, will never maintain pace with the changing face of technology. The drone market will keep changing, with new models, new capabilities and new uncertainties added every week. Present legislation restricts flight in the urban environment whereas flight in the country environment is far less restricted. Secondly, those planning to use UAVs for terrorist or criminal activity, such as drug smuggling, are unlikely, or perhaps never likely, to feel restricted by regulation. THE TERRORIST DRONE THREAT Therefore, countering drones will gain prominence as the preferred method of tackling the terrorist drone threat. The risk of shooting a drone out of the sky is incredibly high, especially if there is a chance that the drone is carrying explosives. Among the companies investing in this industry are the MITRE Corporation, who have launched Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (C‑UAS), a competition for drone defence, seeking inexpensive ‘non‑kinetic’ solutions to countering drone threats. Elsewhere, as mentioned previously in this article, OpenWorks Engineering has created the SkyWall 100 that fires a projectile with a net that envelopes the drone and parachutes it to the ground safely, whilst Radio Hill Technologies has developed technologies that jam the radio communication between the drone and its operator. The message behind this is that the threat of drones is well known among industry and government, but the potential retains an overwhelming appeal. Like the majority of military technologies, opposing military forces will both seek to gain the upper hand in drone warfare. UAVs for surveillance, whilst useful, are no longer the threat. As Professor David Hastings Dunn points out, the potential within drone use, as concerning as it may be, is fast becoming a reality. It will not be long before the next phase of drone development is established. Let’s hope it is not at the expense of mass fatalities. L








AIR CAPABILITIES The fourth edition of Combat Helicopter will inform the tri-services community with a clear understanding of future capabilities for next generation, multi-role rotary platforms. We examine the future NATO rotorcraft capabilities, to be discussed at Combat Helicopter 2017



s systems become more complex, consideration at the design stage becomes increasingly important. This requires an early identification of clear requirements, with options set out that enable forces to choose the optimal solution for their mission requirements. NATO are currently undertaking a collaborative approach to their future rotorcraft capability platform requirements in conjunction with the US Future Vertical Lift Initiative. The aim is, by the mid-2020s when partner nations decide on their future platform requirements, for there to be sufficient knowledge sharing and capability awareness to develop optimal configuration across all platforms and missions. A recently approved NATO Industry Advisory Group in supporting next generation rotorcraft roadmap will examine configuration changes which provide a step change in range, speed, endurance and payload combined. The US Future Vertical Lift Initiative meanwhile is well underway with the first prototypes already built for their future helicopter, Joint Multi Role Technical Demonstrator, which is a precursor before the US Army decides how to proceed with a Future Vertical Lift (FVL) (Medium) rotorcraft. The resulting helicopter programme will replace the Sikorsky UH-60 BLACK HAWK and Boeing AH-64 APACHE fleets from around the mid-2030s. The two participants in the programme are Bell Helicopter with its V-280 VALOR third-generation tiltrotor and the Boeing/Sikorsky partnership with its SB>1 DEFIANT, based on Sikorsky’s X2 technology, coaxial main rotor design and rear pusher propeller. NATO’S NIAG PROGRAMME NATO’s NIAG programme has concluded it is already apparent a

single main rotor is not the future. However, the future could be co-axial, or compounded with pusher props or fans or propellers or advanced tilt rotors, whichever will deliver optimal configuration for future missions. The programme intends to develop a versatile medium lift air vehicle in the FVL Family of Systems, capable of conducting assault, urban security, attack, maritime interdiction, medical evacuation, humanitarian assistance/disaster relief, tactical resupply, direct action, non‑combatant evacuation operation and combat search and rescue operations in support of army and joint forces. The range of missions is wide since, although the programme is army-led, it is intended that platforms be offered for use by other services, to include the US Navy, USMC, USSOCOM, and even the Coast Guard (USCG). Dan Bailey, NATO programme director and chairman of the NATO Future Rotorcraft Capability Team, will be discussing the role of the Joint Multi Role Technology Demonstration in establishing Future Vertical Lift and the effects on NATO next generation rotorcraft capability planning. Decisions are still to be made on flight controls, aeromechanics, experimental aerodynamics and drive systems. This promises to be an inspiring session for industry and NATO partners to plan a roadmap delivering optimal solutions for future mission requirements. LARGEST AND HEAVIEST HELICOPTER IN THE US MILITARY The workhorse of the aviation community is making a significant comeback. Many nations are planning, conducting and finalising medium and heavy lift helicopter acquisition programs. Nations understand they are an asset to any force, capable of lifting troops and supplies into austere environments in all conditions. Whilst completely

new engines are rare, there is still the desire for increased power‑to‑weight ratios, reducing maintenance and improving fuel efficiency. Boeing’s Chinook still dominates the heavy lift market but many competitors are starting to make their presence felt and countries are looking at alternative platforms. Prices are high but the choices are good – Sikorsky’s King Stallion can carry over 80 tonnes, or Bell Boeing’s V-22 can carry loads at over 300mph. At a cost of $25billion, CH-53K King Stallion doesn’t come cheap. Developed for the US Marine Corps, the programme will deliver the largest and heaviest helicopter in the U.S. military. Combat Helicopter 2017 will provide an opportunity to hear from Colonel Hank Vanderborght, CH-53 program manager for the Naval Air Systems Command, who will present to military leaders the King Stallion’s range, weight, cargo systems, sensor and additional growth capabilities, along with an overview of the support concept and opportunities for collaboration with partner nations. For nations not ready to make that leap there are a number of technical upgrades being offered for legacy CH models, or medium lift helicopters are being given extra lift capacity via more powerful engines or more advanced blades. Countries are even considering whether UAVs are ready to make the grade. Whatever the decision, countries still need to move soldiers and supplies quickly and safely irrespective of the environment’s infrastructure – for that reason the heavy lift helicopter discussion continues. L

Combat Helicopter will take place on 17-19 October in Krakow, Poland.





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ACCESS THE GLOBAL MARKET AT THE NEXT EDITION OF THE WORLD LEADING DEFENCE & SECURITY EVENT To enquire and reserve your exhibition space contact: T: +44 (0)20 7384 7770 E: Register to attend:





Defence and Security Equipment International (DSEI), the world leading defence and security event, will be celebrating its tenth edition when it returns on 12-15 September 2017 at London’s ExCeL. As media partner to the show, Defence Business previews what is in store


he biennial DSEI event will play host to 1,600 exhibitors from around the world, with more than 34,000 global visitors expected, including military and government officials, academia and members of industry. With just weeks until the event opens, DSEI 2017 is already the most comprehensive edition to date, offering new features, expert speakers and the broadest range of defence, aerospace and security innovation and services. The DSEI Strategic Conference programme has been enhanced to meet the growing

demand to hear from the experts that the event attracts. Taking place on Monday 11 September, at the ICC, ExCeL London, the conference will focus on five main topics: Land Capability, Air Capability, Maritime Capability, The Future of Military Rotorcraft, and Trauma Innovation & Military Medicine. DSEI’s superior content offering will continue for the duration of the event, with a series of seminars taking place throughout the week in dedicated theatres. Key speakers include Major General Kathryn Toohey, head of Land Capability from the Australian E



DSEI 2017

 Army and Michael Garrety, Counsellor Defence Materiel – London, Capability Acquisition and Sustainment Group – Australian Government, Department of Defence. Officials from the Royal Australian Navy will also be present. This year’s event will provide a unique opportunity for industry professionals, high-ranking military, and senior government officials from across the globe to discuss the most pressing questions, requirements and issues facing the defence community. Focusing on policy, strategy, innovation and the implications of future equipment programmes, visitors to DSEI will hear the latest opinions and insight, and interact with the capabilities and state-of-the-art solutions that they can procure at DSEI.

THE DSEI ORGANISERS ANTICIPATE THAT A RECORD 250 INTERNATIONAL DELEGATIONS WILL ATTEND THE 2017 EVENT DSEI’s pre-eminent VIP engagement programme will provide multiple opportunities to open a dialogue between the event’s exhibitors and the most senior military, government and procurement personnel that are hosted as official delegations. The organisers currently anticipate a record 250 international delegations will attend.

UNPRECEDENTED MILITARY AND MOD BACKING DSEI is held with the full support of the UK government, with Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier, Chief of the Air Staff, delivering a keynote address at DSEI on Wednesday 13 September in the West Theatre, located on the exhibition floor. Commenting in advance of the event, Air Chief Marshal Hillier said: “I very much look forward to continuing my personal support to DSEI. It provides an excellent opportunity to explore the development of airpower capability, through engagement with the widest range of industry and international partners.” Reflecting the backing DSEI receives from across the Armed Forces, the Chief of the Air Staff will be joined by: General Sir Nick Carter, Chief of the General Staff; General Sir Chris Deverell, Commander, Joint Forces Command; Admiral Sir Philip Jones, First Sea Lord and Chief of Naval Staff; Michael Fallon, UK Secretary of State for Defence; Liam Fox, UK Secretary of State for International Trade; Ben Wallace, UK Minister of State for Security; Harriet Baldwin, UK Minister for Defence Procurement; and Jorge Domecq, chief executive of the European Defence Agency. THEMED ZONES The popular Air Zone, fully supported by the Royal Air Force and Joint Helicopter Command, will feature fixed, rotary wing and unmanned platforms and will include a capability area dedicated to the aerospace supply chain. The zone

will host a comprehensive seminar programme focused on procurement, training, export maximisation and promoting opportunities for SMEs. Companies already confirmed to feature in the zone include: Challenger Solutions; The Pandect Group; SABRE Global Services; Ross Aviation; BAE Systems; Leonardo; Lockheed Martin; MBDA; Northrop Grumman; Thales; Cobham; and QinetiQ. DSEI’s Land Zone, which has thrived throughout all editions of the event, has grown by 52 per cent since 2015. The zone is expected to host an array of notable military vehicles as well as a brand-new feature: the Dismounted Soldier Showcase. This will broaden DSEI’s offering to a wide range of companies displaying current and future land capabilities. The zone is sponsored by NIMR and has the full support of the British Army and the Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Nick Carter, who will be giving a keynote speech in the East Theatre at DSEI. One of DSEI’s greatest strengths is its Naval Zone. A popular draw for the maritime sector with its unique dockside positioning, it provides DSEI visitors with unrivalled networking opportunities and insights from key decision makers in the Maritime Capability conference and dedicated seminars, and the ability to see first-hand the industry’s latest vessels in action with interactive presentations, waterborne demonstrations and impressive visits by international warships. The dedicated Security Zone will E



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Delivering real-time broadcast quality video

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DSEI 2017  showcase security equipment and systems to counter priority threats, such as cyber-attacks and terrorism, as well as an enlarged special forces and tactical equipment area. The zone centralises the security sector’s expertise with a bespoke community to increase networking opportunities for both exhibitors and visitors. The inaugural Joint Zone, supported by Joint Forces Command, will feature a broad range of global businesses that provide capabilities across the Single Services, Special Forces and humanitarian organisations. Exhibitors within the zone specialise in everything from C4ISTAR, logistics, medical, robotics and satcoms. Companies confirmed to feature in the zone include: Danish firm Weibel; Oshkosh Defense; Teledyne; Gamma Healthcare; Theon Sensors; Gamma Healthcare; Milforce Equipment; and 4C Strategies. The Joint Zone will also be home to the inaugural Innovation Hub, providing a shop window for companies, from a wide range of industries to demonstrate their emerging technologies, demonstrating how innovations, not originally envisioned for defence or security, are now ripe for development to meet future challenges in these sectors. INTERNATIONAL PAVILIONS In an age of increasingly complex

challenges and global uncertainty, military allies are now collaborating to protect mutual strategic interests and maintain robust defence and security capabilities. Where traditionally defence ministries would seek to support their requirements internally, they now look much further afield to encourage knowledge and skills transfer, and help grow their industry, economy and resources. The DSEI exhibition is a key enabler for strategic cooperation among legitimate players on the global stage. Senior military representatives from countries such as Italy, Germany, Australia and Canada will join all four UK Service Chiefs in the seminar programme, providing an opportunity for visitors to learn directly from the world’s leading powers. DSEI also expects to welcome some 2,500 international delegations from traditional and emerging defence and security markets. This includes VIP representation from the Middle and Far East, where new opportunities are developing in maturing defence forces. The DSEI exhibition floor will play host to over 40 international pavilions, each of which will provide a regional hub of defence and security ingenuity. Ranging from Australia to the United States, and Norway to the People’s Republic of Korea, the DSEI pavilions are multiplying and expanding to reflect


the growing global marketplace. Several pavilions will feature for the first time, including: Bulgaria, Hungary, Malta, Slovakia, and Slovenia, while the UAE will return in force. Many other countries have increased their pavilions to accommodate more local industry and expertise. Poland has more than quadrupled its presence, with Austria and Italy nearly doubling in size, while the Czech Republic has grown by more than 50 per cent since DSEI 2015. The Turkish pavilion at DSEI has seen significant growth and is the largest Turkish pavilion to‑date. This growth is in line with the continued development of the Turkish defence industry, whose annual turnover topped $6 billion in 2016 with total annual exports of over $1.68 billion. The Turkish Undersecretariat for Defence Industries (SSM) reports that in 2016 over 500 companies added nearly 3000 military products to the Turkish defence industry portfolio. The Finnish government has announced that it will boost its military strength by 20 per cent through increased troop numbers against a background of increasing regional tensions. Finland will also increase its annual military spending by $55 million (£47 million) over the next three years and by $150 million from 2021 onwards. The Finnish presence continues to increase at DSEI with a dedicated pavilion and 10 exhibiting companies, including Bittium Wireless, a secure communications provider who signed a €30 million (US$35.1 million) Framework Agreement with the Finnish Defence Forces earlier this month. The German pavilion will host over 30 companies – an indication of the renewed importance of defence spending and exports within the country. In concert with other NATO partners E





MILITARY STANDARD TRANSPORT CASE SOLUTIONS: SUPROBOX TRANSPORT CASES With 20 years experience in technical packaging solutions, Suprobox is expanding its worldwide customer base via its growing distributor network. Having made its international debut two years ago during the DSEI 15 exhibition, the brand is now fast becoming a veteran of international defence exhibitions in Europe and the Middle East. See Suprobox at DSEI 17 on stand S8-181

Easily distinguished by their unique cubic stacking design, Suprobox cases enable both same-sized and different-sized cases to be placed and locked on each other in straight or diagonal arrangements, while also preventing any displacement once the cases are in place. MADE FIT FOR PURPOSE Suprobox transport cases are produced from polymer materials and are robust, making them suitable for use under the toughest conditions. With their waterproof silicone seals, stainless steel locks and handles, the cases are not only resistant against moisture, salt, sand and dust, but also demonstrate excellent performance wherever they are used in the world, from the high altitudes to the harshest climatic conditions. Manufactured in compliance with the environmental



tests defined in MIL-STD-810G, Suprobox transport cases present a long-lasting solution for all customers who need a durable, waterproof and dustproof case. Suprobox cases feature stainless steel and heavy-duty catches as standard. The standard hardware is both larger and more robust than other products available on the market. Nevertheless, accessories can always be specified according to customer’s unique requirements. Suprobox cases carry a special silicone seal which makes them waterproof and resilient to humidity, salt, sand and dust. Cases are corrosion and mould resistant, offering protection against contamination from solvents and chemical agents. The ergonomically-designed handles mounted on the case can be easily gripped, even

without gloves. As a measure against possible impact, the transport handles are positioned and designed flush with the case surface. There are also models that can be transported by pallet trucks and forklifts. In addition to all these features, Suprobox cases also offer, as an option, additional features such as a pressure valve, humidity indicator, and edge castors, for easy transport. Depending on the type of material being transported or safeguarded, different types of foams with different technical features can be used to construct internal support in Suprobox cases; models with shock absorbers and metal frames can also be designed. Suprobox cases are manufactured in facilities equipped with all the necessary software and hardware, including CAD/ CAM-controlled cutting machinery and water jets that can easily create complex inner foam designs. Cases are manufactured in two main colours black and olive drab; while gray, blue, orange, red and desert tan are also offered as optional. Project based specific colour options are also available. GREAT SOLUTION Suprobox cases offer users a complete and well-rounded solution, thanks to the company’s expert designers and engineers, as well as its competent production team. With over 60 different sizes to choose from Suprobox is investing in the design and tooling of approximately 20 new models each year; presenting a fresh and modern alternative for potential customers. L


DSEI 2017  who are increasing their defence budgets, the German defence budget will rise by eight per cent this year, to €37 billion. The German defence industry will be promoting opportunities for increased collaboration. This follows on the heels of last month’s announcement that they will be committing to joint manned and unmanned air platforms with France. France continues to have a strong presence at DSEI with over 24 companies in its national pavilion and ten individual companies have taken stands at this flagship event. The UK pavilion, hosted by ADS, is the largest pavilion at the event. In addition, the Department for International Trade’s Defence and Security Organisation (DIT DSO) Showcase will present current expeditionary and security capabilities with participation from 36 companies. It is divided into the following themed areas: Infantry Zone – Soldier equipment, weapons and fighting vehicles; Artillery Zone – Find, Fix, Strike assets; Communications & ISTAR Zone – Comms platforms, ECM systems and software; and Engineering and Security Zone – C-IED, EOD, CBRN and security/force protection. Stephen Phipson, head of the DIT DSO, said: “DSEI is one of the best global defence and security networking events and an important opportunity for UK companies to identify joint venture partnerships and industry collaboration. It is also an excellent opportunity for UK companies to profile innovative equipment in both sectors to delegations from across the world.”

THE INTRODUCTION OF THE INNOVATION HUB REFLECTS THE RISING NUMBER OF PIONEERS FROM SECTORS BEYOND DSEI’S TRADITIONAL EXHIBITOR‑BASE THAT HAVE RELEVANT AND HIGHLY SKILLED PEOPLE, SOLUTIONS AND APPLICATIONS WHICH ARE TRANSFERABLE TO DEFENCE AND SECURITY INNOVATION HUB FOR DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES The introduction of this new feature reflects the rising number of pioneers from sectors beyond DSEI’s traditional exhibitor-base that have relevant and highly skilled people, solutions and applications which are transferable to defence and security. The Innovation Hub is supported by jHub, the new Joint Forces Command initiative, to identify and exploit technologies and solutions across a range of applications. Air Vice Marshal Bruce Hedley explains: “Joint Forces Command delivers the most diverse range of services in UK defence; from logistics, medical services, education, communications, cyber-security, intelligence, analytics, to unmanned systems, we also provide traditional military Special Forces roles as well. This presents suppliers with an exciting opportunity. In order to access leading innovations, and adapt and adopt existing solutions to meet our challenges, we have set up the jHub innovation centre in London’s Tech City. “This is a departure from how we normally engage with suppliers, but through the jHub we want to establish

an agile way to work with new suppliers, understanding the solutions you have and helping you understand our needs. DSEI showcases some of the world’s best thinking on defence and security, and the jHub team looks forward to meeting delegates who have a story to tell or simply want to learn more about us.” The launch of the MOD’s Defence Innovation Initiative last year included the introduction of an £800 million Defence Innovation Fund to enable the delivery of clever new technology. The Defence and Security Accelerator was also established as part of this initiative to provide a bridge between government, industry and academia and discover and develop innovative solutions to the most pressing requirements. The Innovation Hub will provide an opportunity for companies and SMEs to demonstrate their emerging technologies. Defence & Security Accelerator, Innovate UK, the Knowledge Transfer Network and techUK will be present to provide guidance on how innovative ideas, not originally envisioned for defence or security, can be applied to meet future challenges in these sectors. In addition, Accelerator will host a demonstration area in DSEI’s Innovation Hub to showcase state-of-the-art equipment in three categories: Big Data, Immersive Training and Sensors; which were developed by winners of the Defence Growth Partnership Innovation Challenge, launched at DSEI 2015. Dr Andy Powell, from the Knowledge Transfer Network, said: “The MOD’s Defence Innovation Initiative acknowledges that there are many ideas in commercial sectors that can bring significant advantage to defence.” Duncan Reid, DSEI event director, explained: “We are continually looking for new ways to develop DSEI to best reflect the needs of the event’s global audience. The Innovation Hub will complement the offering from DSEI’s established exhibitor-base while helping other suppliers to break into the defence sector. Acting as a ‘marketplace’ for business, the Innovation Hub will assist those from the Front-Line Commands who are seeking to deliver military capability with solutions from companies whose expertise lies beyond defence.” L




Infranor Mavilor SA have the engineering capability and specialist technology to make you a bespoke motor that matches your requirements, using a wide range of 12 different motors families. Offering Radiation hardened options, Military Spec Options, Vacuum, Environment Options, Wash-Down Series Available, Explosion Proof Series, Wind Generation Options, Linear Motors, Generators and much more!

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They provide functions to cover a wide range of single and multi axes systems. Making the XtraPulsPac and XtraPulsCD1 servo drives can be seamlessly adapted to your application. +44 (0)208 144 2152



XTRAPULSPAC: THE SMALL DEVICE FOR THE TOUGHEST OF REQUIREMENTS The most recent addition to INFRANOR’s product range is XtrapulsPac, a compact and flexible low-power AC servo-controller with outstanding capabilities. It provides functions and interfaces to cover a wide range of single-axis and multi-axes applications XtrapulsPac can be configured as a stand-alone controller in various operation modes. It can also be integrated into an automation system with PLC, CNC or motion-controller via the fieldbus and uses well-known standard functions available in libraries. This flexibility makes it suitable for use in a wide field of machines and applications, and is available in a small device at an affordable price, which meets the most demanding of requirements. Control loop: digital drive for AC synchronous motors – current loop 62.5 μs – speed and position loop 500 μs – closed loop control of position, speed or torque – maximum speed up to 25,000 rpm. Feedbacks: resolver – incremental encoder – hall sensor – SinCos encoder – single and multi-turn HIPERFACE® encoder. Communication interfaces: RS232 up to 115.2 kbit/s baud rate – CANopen or EtherCAT® fieldbus – DIP switches for node address. Safety features: safe torque off SIL 2. I/O interfaces: user-configurable digital I/Os – all-digital inputs opto-isolated – analog inputs ±10 V/12-bit resolution – analog output 0-5 V/8-bit resolution – ‘amplifier OK’ output – motor brake control – two-channel STO function. MODES OF OPERATION DS402 standard mode: interpolated position mode – profile position mode – profile velocity mode – profile torque mode – homing mode. DS402 extended modes: analog speed mode – stepper emulation mode – sequence mode – master/slave mode stand-alone operation – analog speed drive – positioner – stepper emulation – electronic gearing. Stand-alone operation: analog speed drive – positioner – stepper emulation – electronic gearing. Configuration tools: motor and drive configuration – application configuration – interface configuration – auto-tuning, auto-phasing – sequencer programming. Project tools: project creation – project management – file-handling services – motor libraries – multilingual software.

Diagnostic tools: device control – device monitoring – object dialog window – multi-axis oscilloscope. freely configurable drive The drive configuration includes servoloop parameters, motor and sensor parameters, communication parameters and I/O configuration parameters. The configuration parameters can be stored into the drive’s non-volatile memory. The XtrapulsPac drive can be controlled: via the fieldbus (CANopen or EtherCAT); via the analog input (analog speed drive); via the PULSE and DIR inputs (stepper emulation); or via the digital I/Os (stand-alone positioner) according to the selected operation mode. To allow Infranor an even more flexible approach to servo-controller, servo-amplifier solutions, the company also has the XtraPulsCD1 servo-drive. XtrapulsCD1-a alldigital servo-modules are PWM servo-drives that provide speed control for AC sinusoidal motors (brushless) equipped with a position sensor. The XtrapulsCD1-a system is available as a stand-alone single-axis block, including all supplies as well as the mains filters, and is 230 VAC or 400/480 VAC mains operated. The XtrapulsCD1-a’s drive can be configured for the feedback of various position sensor types. The appropriate position sensor configuration is selectable by software and saved in the drive. With a resolver sensor

feedback, the motor’s absolute position value over one revolution is available and the servomotor can immediately be enabled after the drive power up. With a ‘SinCos tracks’ sensor that provides two analog Sin and Cos signals electrically compliant with the SinCos encoder signals and of a period equal to the motor pole pitch, the servomotor can be immediately enabled after the powering of the drive. Having an absolute single-turn SinCos encoder feedback (Heidenhain ERN 1085 or compliant), the servomotor can also be immediately enabled after the drive power-up. With an incremental encoder only, a motor phasing procedure must be executed at each drive power-up before the motor enabling. As it has an incremental encoder + Hall Effect Sensors (HES) feedback, the motor-phasing procedure is no more necessary and the servomotor can immediately be enabled after the drive power-up. With an absolute single-turn, multi-turn or linear encoder using the EnDat® or HIPERFACE communication protocols and fitted with incremental SinCos outputs, the servomotor can also be immediately enabled after the powering of the drive. The motor speed or torque input command is an analog voltage (± 10 V). The rotor position monitor is available as two channels A and B in quadrature, and one marker pulse per revolution. The resolution is programmable. All the values between 64 pulses per revolution (ppr) and 16,384 pulses per revolution can be programmed according to the motor speed limitation. All command parameters are programmable by means of a serial RS-232 link (or RS-422 optional) and saved in an EEPROM. The auto-phasing and auto-tuning functions allow the easy and quick commissioning of the drive. CAN and Profibus options of the XtraPulsCD1 are also available in both 230 VAC and 400/480 VAC mains supplies.L





ENGINEERING Combat Engineer 2017, which will take place in Nuremberg in November, will provide the platform for military and industry to develop military engineering capabilities which meet the current threat landscape



he current counter-insurgency and terrorism threat, coupled with a traditional enemy in Europe, has created a dual focus for NATO member and partner nations when considering military engineering capabilities. Since the highly successful 2016 meeting we have been actively engaging with our military engineering community to discuss how Combat Engineer 2017 can meet the needs and requirements of the community. EUROPE – BRIDGING THE GAP From the scale of investment in European defence from NATO partners and the European Union we have already seen the continued development of military engineer capabilities via the Enhanced Forward Presence mission. Several military engineers we spoke to have indicated a key strategic requirement is to develop non-lethal capabilities which will deny the enemy’s freedom of movement. This has included developing new area denial and anti-access systems, building self-sustaining tactical bases or researching innovative gap crossing systems. We have already seen this come to life with the current infrastructure projects that are currently underway in Eastern Europe in support of the Enhanced Forward Presence mission. However, the drive for interoperability and standardisation across NATO



partners within engineering procurement remains prevalent. Feedback delivered during the previous Combat Engineer meeting regarding the Anakonda 2016 exercise has allowed NATO MILENG COE to advance their bridging doctrine. This will allow nations, as well as industry, to understand the interoperable requirements within communication bridging. IMPROVISED EXPLOSIVE DEVICES – A FAMILIAR FOE The increased presence of ISIS in the Middle East, coupled with a heightened terrorist threat across mainland Europe, has created an urgent requirement for nations to actively increase their non-fatal counter mobility and counter IED assets. The sophisticated technology available to insurgency groups and home-grown terrorists has created weapons which have become more difficult to detect. Military engineers need to stay one-step ahead by using technology, such as chemical detection, UAVs and UGVs, to locate devices quickly and effectively. However, once the device is located the challenge is to secure the area, neutralise the device and secure evidence to apprehend the perpetrators. Military engineers are only too aware of the changing tactics used by the enemy, with devices and payloads varying according to the materials available.

Engineers still require traditional assets such as robots but are also increasingly using electronic counter-measures alongside to deny the enemy an ability to detonate from afar. Military, governments and first-response agencies will have an active interest within this section of the meeting. THE MEETING Combat Engineer 2017 has evolved accordingly with a pre-conference Focus Day split to cover two separate themes: Advances in Countering Improvised Explosive Devices and Energising Future Missions, to meet the demands of NATO members, (as well as government and first response agencies where applicable), in this fast-changing environment. The main two-day conference will feature defensive warfighting, mobility and counter mobility, infrastructure building, plant vehicles and protective mobility. Military engineers have already begun to confirm their attendance, with a senior speaker line-up already confirmed. L

Combat Engineer will take place on 7 November in Nuremberg, Germany.



ROYAL NAVY Naval Damage Control 2017 will discuss active and passive fire protection from design stage to on board response. Show organisers TDN UK discuss ship safety and the threat of fire



he early design stage of a ship’s life is crucial to negate the likelihood of, and effects from, an on-board fire. Innovative materials, aggressive firefighting tactics and compartmentalising a ships design drastically reduce the chance of a fire spreading and damaging critical infrastructure. The 5th Annual Naval Damage Control meeting will discuss active and passive fire protection from design stage to on-board response in a dedicated Focus Day taking place on 3 October 2017. Navies we’ve spoken to are actively considering how to integrate effective passive fire protection into the design of future vessels. The integration of automated systems has reduced crew sizes, which means in the event of an on-board fire it’s critical the ship’s design can slow the spread of fire to allow on-board crews time to reach the fire and prevent further damage. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION Passive fire protection will involve the use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors, as well as compartmentalising

the ship and installing bulkheads and fire-retardant doors which stop fires spreading to different areas of the ship. Critically, these solutions can be monitored and controlled by integrated platform management systems. Rear Admiral Cristiano Aliperta, former Italian Permanent Representative to the IMO, was a key investigator into the Norman Atlantic fire which caused 13 official deaths in December 2014. A fire broke out on the car deck and the heat from the fire permeated the entire ship, even starting to melt people’s shoes on the reception deck. An international response to the disaster was led by the Italian Coast Guard. Aliperta will attend Naval Damage Control 2017 to share with delegates the lessons learnt from this disaster, such as the incident response, and the difficulty the ship had in slowing down the fire due to the ship’s structure and cargo. Delegates will also have an opportunity to hear future recommendations, and innovations in passive fire protection systems, which can be applied in future ship designs. Attendees will also learn about the

use of innovative materials and composites from the Italian Navy Training Centre – Taranto, Italian Navy, fire response equipment and strategies from the Netherlands Navy and Lieutenant Commander Matt Steele, Royal Navy demonstrating how the RN’s training increases survivability and crew effectiveness through managed live scenarios. Commanders from nations including; Denmark, Norway, Turkey, Romania, Ireland, Italy, Belgium, New Zealand and Germany have already confirmed their attendance at the fifth Naval Damage Control. With sessions also covering future priorities, training, humanitarian missions, on-board storage, evacuation strategies and much more, download the agenda and register for your free end user pass today. L

Naval Damage Control will take place on 3 October in Portsmouth.


HMS Vengeance



EVENTS DIARY COUNTERING DRONES 19-20 September 2017 Geneva, Switzerland www.counteringdrones.iqpc.

Organised with the official support of the Department for Security and Economy, Government of Geneva, the largest Countering Drones event returns to London. They are an ever increasing threat to society and whether used to cause nuisance or drop bombs they are a real threat to today’s society. Attending Countering Drones are: L Airports, sea ports, borders and railways L Civil Aviation Authorities and Air Traffic Managements L Counter terror agencies, law enforcement and emergency services L Government buildings, military bases and sensitive installations L Public buildings, embassies and consulates L International organisations including the UN, NATO and WTO L Sporting arenas and major venues event venues.


26-27 September 2017 Krakow, Poland Defence Communications 2017 offers a platform for senior military operators, expert researchers and capability directors from leading defence agencies to meet with a host of solution providers from leading companies to assist in shaping the future of defence communications.


3-5 October 2017 Portsmouth, UK europe/ This year’s Naval Damage Control will focus on how the growing automation of ships is affecting damage control what this means for crew training, response and procedures when an incident occurs. The meeting will also examine what the increased use of automated systems means from a procurement position for industry, government agencies and navies.


17-18 October 2017 Livorno, Italy Naval Domain Intelligence aims

to exploit the opportunities of Naval UxV, surface and air sensors to enable a complete Recognised Maritime Picture that can be distributed quickly and securely between allies. This two-day meeting will explore how Naval communication systems and networks can manoeuvre within A2/AD environments and counter vulnerabilities to EW and cyber attacks.

COMBAT HELICOPTER 17-19 October 2017 Krakow, Poland

Combat Helicopter, Europe’s largest dedicated military helicopter event, provides the tri-services community with the unique opportunity to gain a clear understanding of future requirements and capabilities for next generation, multi-role rotary platforms.


7-9 November 2017 Nuremberg, Germany The scale of investment in European defence from NATO partners and the European Union sees continued development of military engineer capabilities. Combat Engineer 2017 will explore these key topics and remains the leading event that discusses and showcases innovative military engineering capabilities and industry solutions.


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Looking back at UK Security Expo, including the impact of terrorism on urban design DRONES


With advances in drone technology aiding both the security services and terrorist, how dangerous can drone development be? SCTX


The Security & Counter Terror Expo returns in May to provide answers to the questions posed by terrorism

In-depth editorials from government agencies and worldwide experts in counter terrorism will cover:  Effective counter-terrorism strategies an the latest information from Government agencies  Emerging threats: CBRN, terrorism and organised crime, cyber-terrorism  Best practices for effective inter-agency collaboration  Policy and frameworks for emergency planning and crisis management  Defence and emergency services procurement updates  Specialist Training, Recruitment and HR management  Security products for the armed forces, emergency services and private sector security operations

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