Page 1 | ISSUE 29







Looking back at UK Security Expo, including the impact of terrorism on urban design DRONES


With advances in drone technology aiding both the security services and terrorist, how dangerous can drone development be? SCTX


The Security & Counter Terror Expo returns in May to provide answers to the questions posed by terrorism









Looking back at UK Security Expo, including the impact of terrorism on urban design DRONES


With advances in drone technology aiding both the security services and terrorist, how dangerous can drone development be? SCTX


The Security & Counter Terror Expo returns in May to provide answers to the questions posed by terrorism

TRUMP AND TERRORISM TARGETS At the time of print, Donald Trump has spent 19 days in the White House following his January inauguration ceremony. His campaign to become the Republican nominee, followed by his campaign to become President, was well publicised as racist, breeding hatred and definitively divisive. In 19 days in office, Trump has embarked upon two policies which further divide opinion on his role in calming race tensions and preventing terrorism. Opening his first week of Presidency by signing six executive orders, Trump pursued his controversial campaign directive by launching the process to build a new Mexico border wall and reinforce border security, before signing an executive order denying entry to the US to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days in a bid to tighten security and terrorism concerns. As we print, the travel ban has been blocked by a federal judge, and Trump’s appeal rejected. Defending the ban, Trump has said that there is ’nothing nice about searching for terrorists’, but there also remains an argument that there is nothing nice about being anti-immigrant. By pure definition of their cause, immigrants are trying to escape terror, not introduce it. Distinguishing the difference between threat and threatened is integral in the fight against terrorism.

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CTB 29 contains some interesting information regarding the largest counter terrorism event of the year: the Security & Counter Terror Expo. As premier media partner to the event, we have run an extended preview of the show in this, the first of two preview issues. Enjoy reading on page 23. I hope that you enjoy the newly-designed issue. Michael Lyons, editor

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226 High Rd, Loughton, Essex IG10 1ET. Tel: 020 8532 0055 Fax: 020 8532 0066 Web: EDITOR Michael Lyons ASSISTANT EDITOR Rachel Brooks PRODUCTION EDITOR Richard Gooding PRODUCTION DESIGN Jo Golding PRODUCTION CONTROL Ella Sawtell WEB PRODUCTION Victoria Casey ADVERTISEMENT SALES Rachael McGahern, Harry Harris BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Martin Freedman ADMINISTRATION Vickie Hopkins, Charlotte Cassar REPRODUCTION & PRINT Argent Media

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© 2017 Public Sector Information Limited. No part of this publication can be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any other means (electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher. Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the editorial content the publisher cannot be held responsible for errors or omissions. The views expressed are not necessarily those of the publisher. ISSN 2399-4533



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CONTENTS CTB 29 15 CYBER SECURITY Cyber security is increasing in importance within the UK. As the threat of terrorism evolves and becomes far more than just a physical danger, the role of the National Cyber Security Centre becomes pivotal in the UK’s defence strategy as Counter Terror Business explores

19 DRONES The development in drone technology has soared over the last few years. With the potential for criminals and terrorists to exploit the technology advances, Counter Terror Business analyses the potential use and misuse of unmanned aerial vehicles

23 SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO PREVIEW (SCTX) Security & Counter Terror Expo returns to London on 3-4 May, bringing security professionals from across the world to the UK to source the latest technology and learn from leading experts in terrorism prevention

37 SCTX: BORDER CONTROL The UK’s decision to leave the European Union in June 2016 will have a major impact on the way the country deals with and handles migration. Counter Terror Business looks at how border security will help ease the migration flow to the UK and keep terrorism at bay

63 COUNTER TERROR TRAINING Training the public on how to respond to a terrorist attack can make the difference between mass fatalities and small casualties. Counter Terror Business analyses current counter terror training in the UK, and how it can be provided to a wider audience

67 B-APCO 2017 PREVIEW Following the success of B-APCO 2016, British APCO returns to the International Centre, Telford, on 21-22 March with more interactive features than ever before. Counter Terror Business previews the 2017 show

75 UK SECURITY EXPO Counter Terror Business looks back at the leading security event in the UK, while Jon Coaffee, professor in the Resilient Cities Lab at the University of Warwick, addresses the impact of terrorism on the design of urban areas and the use of social media in counter terrorism operations

91 CBRNe SUMMIT EUROPE 2017 Over the last few years the risk of a CBRNe attack has increased dramatically. The fourth annual CBRNe Summit Europe conference and exhibition will be taking place in Madrid, Spain, on the 24-27 April 2017. Counter Terror Business previews the summit

99 ISDEF PREVIEW The 8th edition of ISDEF, Israel’s largest international Defence and Homeland Security Expo, will take place on 6-8 June 2017. ISDEF has gained international recognition and is renowned as the ideal platform for HLS, defence and business. Counter Terror Business explains why

Counter Terror Business magazine // ISSUE 29 | COUNTER TERROR BUSINESS MAGAZINE


Recognize AND Analyze Is he a known suspect?

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Trump sees ‘Muslim travel ban’ blocked Donald Trump has enjoyed a controversial first few weeks as President of the United States of America, following his inauguration on 20 January. On 27 January Trump signed an executive order denying entry to the US to citizens of Iraq, Iran, Libya, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, and Yemen for 90 days in a bid to tighten security and terrorism concerns. The travel ban has sparked numerous protests and legal challenges, with a federal judge in Seattle suspending the move, allowing banned visitors to travel to the US pending an appeal by the administration. Defending the ban, Trump has said that there is ’nothing nice about searching for terrorists’ and maintained that the travel ban is not against Muslims in particular, and that the ban is in the best interests of US security. In a further twist, the US Justice Department has defended the President’s travel ban and urged the appeals court to reinstate it in the interests of

M&C Saatchi hired to fight far-right threat

national security, arguing that it was a ‘lawful exercise of the President’s authority’ and not a ban on Muslims. Additionally, the Trump administration has attempted to back up the President’s claim that the media is deliberately ignoring terror attacks by releasing a list of 78 terrorist attacks that have been incorrectly reported upon – including the Paris Bataclan attacks, the Nice truck killings and the San Bernardino shootings, all of which received mass media attention.

The UK government has hired advertising giant M&C Saatchi to tackle racist myths perpetuated online by the far right. Reported on in The Times, through the contract, M&C Saatchi will help the Home Office challenge propaganda from the far right by using social media. As part of the agreement, the company will produce up to 10 campaigns a year to tackle extremism. Following a series of freedom of information requests, the newspaper has revealed evidence of the government’s crackdown on rightwing extremism, challenging ‘people who read Breitbart and stuff like that, the conspiratorial media’ – in reference to Breitbart, the US news outlet. Shadow Home Secretary Diane Abbot has warned that figures show that the government’s Prevent strategy had failed to change the attitudes of those on the far right


French soldier shoots knife attacker outside Louvre French police have said that a man who tried to attack a security patrol with a machete outside of the Louvre in Paris was shot by French police. The man, who tried to gain entry to the Louvre’s shopping centre on 3 February, was shot five times in the abdomen and seriously injured after reportedly shouting ‘Allah Akbar’, police say. French Prime Minister Bernard

Cazeneuve has said that the event was ‘terrorist in nature’. A second person has been arrested after two rucksacks belonging to the suspected attacker were inspected. No explosives were found. 250 visitors were in the Louvre at the time, the most visited museum in the world, and were evacuated gradually after security checks. France remains on a high state of alert since the Paris attacks of 2015.

Image: Benh Lieu Song – own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,


Anti-hate speech experts said Prime Minister Theresa May was continuing her efforts as Home Secretary by addressing the growing number of far-right referrals in England and Wales, which has increased by 74 per cent since 2014. Diane Abbott, the Shadow Home Secretary, has warned that the figures show that the government’s controversial counter radicalisation strategy, Prevent, had failed to change the attitudes of those on the far right. Additionally, an internal message seen by The Times revealed that a ‘strategic assessment of the European far right and the UK’ had been prepared and set up by the Extremism Analysis Unit, a Whitehall body created in May’s time as Home Secretary.





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MPs question UK’s cyber attack defences The Commons Public Accounts Committee (PAC) has warned that the government’s ability to protect the UK from cyber attacks is undermined by the ‘chaotic’ handling of personal data breaches. Well documented data security breaches at Tesco, Northern Lincolnshire and Goole NHS Trust, Sage, and TalkTalk have recently thrown the challenge of protecting information into the spotlight. The PAC says that the Cabinet Office’s role in protecting information remains ‘unclear within central government’, while there is little oversight of the costs and performance of government information assurance projects and ‘no coordination across the wider public sector’. Additionally, the PAC’s report, Protecting information across government, highlighted that the government ‘faces a real struggle to find enough public sector employees with the skills to match the pace of change’. Cyber attacks are ranked among the

top four risks to UK national security, with the government reiterating that it had acted with ‘pace and ambition’ on the issue, pointing to the ‘ambitious National Cyber Security Strategy’, the recent £1.9 billion of investment and the work of the UK’s National Cyber Security Centre as evidence of how ‘the UK deals with cyber security’. Meg Hillier, chair of the PAC, said: “The government has a vital role to play in cyber security across society but it needs to raise its game. Its approach to handling personal data breaches

has been chaotic and does not inspire confidence in its ability to take swift, coordinated and effective action in the face of higher-threat attacks. “The threat of cyber crime is ever‑growing yet evidence shows Britain ranks below Brazil, South Africa and China in keeping phones and laptops secure. In this context it should concern us all that the government is struggling to ensure its security profession has the skills it needs. “Leadership from the centre is inadequate and, while the National Cyber Security Centre has the potential to address this, practical aspects of its role must be clarified quickly. The government must communicate clearly to industry, institutions and the public what it is doing to maintain cyber security on their behalf and exactly how and where they can find support.”




More than 800 guns seized in counter terror operation

Cuts will lead to fewer officers in London

Police have seized more than 800 potentially lethal weapons during a month-long operation designed to prevent terrorists and criminals gaining access to illegal firearms. As part of an intensive initiative led by the National Crime Agency (NCA) and National Counter Terrorism Policing (NCTP), officers across the UK seized 833 firearms – nearly half of which are viable with hundreds still being assessed. Handguns and shotguns were the predominant firearms seized, although a fully-loaded AK74 assault rifle and a Skorpion submachine gun were confiscated. The operation, which began in October 2016, also recovered 4,385 rounds of ammunition and over 100 additional potential weapons such as knives. Other confiscations also presented 80kgs of illegal drugs and more than £500,000. Chris McKeogh, deputy director at the NCA, said: “The surge of activity across the whole of the UK has yielded significant results – from the seizure of illegally held firearms and ammunition, to the number of reports we received from members of the public via Crimestoppers. “Gaining the confidence of the public to come forward with information

about illegal firearms is key to any campaign and I would like to thank all those who had the courage to speak up. As a direct result of your call or report, we are able to protect the public and reduce the risk posed by those with access to illegal firearms” Nick Wilcox, detective superintendent of NCTP, added: “Counter terrorism officers continue to plan and prepare in light of world events such as the attacks in Paris – but we want to remain on the front-foot and stop terrorists obtaining guns in the first place. “Low firearms availability is a major advantage in the UK. In many other western countries someone like Muhiddin Mire, the man who attacked innocent passers-by in Leytonstone tube station last year with a knife, could probably have got hold of a firearm and one serious injury could have become tens of deaths. Communities defeat terrorism – our collective safety depends on everyone’s efforts and we need your help to prevent a marauding firearms attack.”


Outgoing Commissioner of the Met Police Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe has told LBC radio that the government’s austerity programme means that his successor will have to cope with fewer police officers. Saying that there are no further places to cut and it is inevitable that cuts in numbers will follow, Hogan-Howe strongly warned that it will affect the quality of policing in the capital. He told LBC’s Nick Ferrari: “There’s only so much you can cut and make efficiencies and then you’ve got to have less police. I’m not sure that’s wise in this city. It’s getting bigger and we’ve got some big events – Notting Hill, we deploy 7,000 officers; New Year’s Eve, it’s 3,500 officers. You need cops. You can’t throw laptops at crowds. You’ve got to deal with the situations you face. So that’s going to be a real challenge.” Discussing counter terrorism directly, Hogan Howe added: “We lead the counter terrorist network for police across the UK. We’ve got officers based in embassies right around the world. These are big things that whoever is going to take this job on is going to have to deal with and understand the complexity of it.”





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Amnesty raises criticism over UK counter terror laws Human rights group Amnesty International has warned that the UK’s counter terrorism strategy is the most ‘Orwellian’ in Europe. According to its comparative survey of security laws, Dangerously disproportionate: The ever-expanding national security state in Europe, the group alleges that Britain’s national security powers are ‘among the most draconian in Europe’. Kate Allen, the director of Amnesty International UK, said: “The Big Brother surveillance state that George Orwell warned of back in 1949 is alive and dangerously well in Europe today. Governments, including the UK, are not far off creating societies in which freedom is the exception and fear the rule, which should be of deep concern to us all. “After a series of horrific terrorist attacks across Europe, EU governments have rushed through a raft of repressive laws. There is an obvious and urgent need to protect people from this kind of violence – protecting the rights to life, and to live, move and think freely are essential tasks of government, but they are not ones to be achieved by any means and at the cost of such rights themselves. “These laws trample on hard-won freedoms that we have long taken for

granted. The UK could have been a beacon of progress here, but instead it is leading a race to the bottom. Governments should be providing security for people to enjoy their rights, rather than restricting people’s rights in the name of security.” However, a Home Office spokesperson countered: “The current terror threat to the UK is severe, meaning an attack is highly likely. It is therefore vital that our counter terrorism laws are effective, but also fair and proportionate. The Investigatory Powers Act protects both our privacy and our security and was the result of three independent reports, all of which concluded a new law was needed. The act was passed with cross‑party support and is the will of Parliament. “The independent reviewer of terrorism legislation, David Anderson QC, found that the ability to collect data in bulk is a crucial tool used by the security and intelligence agencies to generate intelligence about threats that cannot be acquired by more targeted means. We will vigorously defend these vital powers that help to keep our families, communities and country safe.”



Counter Terrorism Bill could be shelved, reports suggest Prime Minister Theresa May’s proposed legislation for countering extremism and terrorism is close to being shelved after failing to provide a clear definition of extremism and British values. After being rebranded the Counter Extremism and Safeguarding Bill in the Queen’s speech in May 2016, the bill has been in effect grounded by government lawyers after failing to provide a legally acceptable definition of extremism, sources say. May, who tabled the bill when Home Secretary, had hoped to broaden extremism’s definition, but has since seen large opposition from critics who argue that the plans were ‘unworkable, fundamentally dangerous and doomed to failure’, going further to say it would discriminate against Muslim communities and groups that espouse conservative religious views.

ELECTRONIC CBRN FIRST RESPONSE 16 February 2017 Coventry, UK With an expected audience of 300 CBRN personnel involved in contingency planning, operations, research, equipment and more, CBRN International is an event you cannot miss. CBRN International will act as a platform to unite global SMEs from multiple disciplines. Bringing together personnel from governments, emergency services and military to share best practice on combating hybrid CBRN threats.

UNDERWATER DEFENCE & SECURITY 6 March 2017 Portsmouth Marriott Hotel, UK Underwater Defence & Security will provide the underwater community with a unique opportunity to understand rapidly evolving threats as well as future technologies and capabilities. Acting as a platform for the international underwater community, the event will analyse developments in emerging and traditional markets, future requirements and capabilities.


A report by the Joint Committee on Human Rights warned the government last July that creating a definition of extremism might prove legally insurmountable. A source close to the process said: “The bill is sinking without trace. They cannot get a working definition of extremism – lawyers are effectively saying it’s incompatible with issues like free speech.”



4 April 2017 Warsaw, Poland Combat Logistics 2017 will continue to explore the implications of commercialised military supply chains. Furthermore, delegates will be able to identify modern logistics information systems that will significantly improve management during support operations. The 2017 meeting will incorporate methods of delivery especially over the last tactical mile. With several contingency missions requiring rapid resupply to deployed forces, delegates will explore how air, land and sea can be exploited to enhance force readiness when deployed.






Street furniture is considered an essential element in any landscape in the creation of safer, usable and more attractive spaces. Marshalls explains how it has taken a range of aesthetically designed street furniture products and incorporated protective RhinoGuard technology within, adding a further dimension to the indispensible nature of furniture

Seats and benches encourage social interaction, bins deter unsightly litter, cycle stands reduce traffic and encourage physical activity, planters provide habitats and help to green our public spaces, lighting illuminates our streets, and bollards provide demarcation and protect pedestrians. Digital signage is also vital in a move towards smarter wayfinding, helping commuters navigate to their destination and when using cycling routes. Traditionally, when it comes to protecting a public space, and in-particular a transport hub, little thought is given to how these products could actually enhance the design of the landscape and are often considered more of a necessary evil.


RHINOGUARDTM TECHNOLOGY Marshalls has flipped this on its head and taken a range of aesthetically designed street furniture products and incorporated protective RhinoGuard technology within. Through a selection of product types, materials and finishes, the specification of protective street furniture is made more inclusive for all parties. Protective Street Furniture no longer needs to be limited to a line of bollards or heavy blocks, instead a space can be protected with lighting, seating, cycle parking or even a litter bin. There are a number of factors to consider when specifying street furniture for transport environments including aesthetics and


functionality, material choices and security. To create a visual link between transport environments, for example from the rail station to the rail platform edge, architects can select products from coordinated street furniture ranges to ensure a cohesive design. Coordinated ranges are available in a range of materials to complement established landscapes and the most recent contemporary architectural trends. As street furniture can quickly become damaged and tired-looking, it is essential that careful consideration is given to the material choice, especially in transport environments which see a high volume of commuters. Thanks to modern materials and production


techniques, you no longer have to compromise on visual appeal to achieve superior robustness as there is now a wider choice of material types available to ensure seamless integration into the landscape, including concrete, steel, natural stone, polyurethane, aluminium, cast iron and timber. FURNITURE PROTECTION Damage to these materials is often caused by vandalism, but measures can be put in place to deter and protect in areas where vandals are likely to operate. Once a material has been specified, applied coatings and treatments can give further protection. For example, sacrificial polymer coatings are applied to cast stone to allow for chemical cleaners to be used to remove graffiti, without dulling the surface. Anti-skate deterrents can be fitted to benches and furniture with a linear profile that is ‘grindable’ and steel can be polished and aluminium anodised to provide greater damage resistance. Choose a reputable supplier who has the expertise to assist you in choosing the right material and finish for your application. As well as specifying products which can withstand vandalism, there is also a need to select products which will protect areas such as airport terminals and station buildings from the threat of attack. Transport hubs are attractive targets for terrorist groups, therefore there is a responsibility for both specifiers and end clients to provide public spaces which fulfil the triple protection plan of protecting people, places and infrastructure, whilst also being aesthetically pleasing and functional. Protective street furniture options by Marshalls possess both inner strength and outer beauty and are crash tested in accordance with the BSI PAS68 or IWA14 standard. This helps designers to create safe and functional spaces, without compromising the character of a public space. A RANGE OF OPTIONS There are a number of counter-terrorism street furniture options to help designers create safe and functional public spaces however, some of the more traditional methods of hostile vehicle mitigation, such as large diameter bollards, can often have a negative visual impact on an environment when incorporated into landscape design. For this reason, the concept of counter‑terrorism design has received resistance from those involved in designing the built environment, with architects feeling restricted to designing bland, standardised areas, which create no real sense of character or individual identity. In fact, often these products can detract from otherwise well designed and aesthetically pleasing spaces. The British Standard Public Available Specification (PAS) has been prepared to address the needs of organisations which require assurance that vehicle security barriers will provide the required level of impact

resistance. To accompany BSI PAS68, the PAS69 document provides guidance on the selection, installation, foundations and use of PAS68 tested security products, taking into account site specific conditions. The Bellitalia Giove large planter provides an elegant solution for introducing planting to the public realm. Fitted with innovative RhinoGuard™ technology, the Giove features a large 1,224 litre capacity and is designed to accommodate the root ball of a tree. The planter is cast from a mix of concrete and fine Italian marble aggregates sourced from specific regions of Italy. The use of high quality natural marble ensures long term colour consistency, meaning that the colour of the planter will not fade over time. THE IGNEO SEAT Igneo is a modular seating system that offers unique styling, combined with functionality and exceptional impact performance. The Igneo seat has been successfully crash tested in accordance with PAS68 using a 7.5‑tonne vehicle travelling at 40mph. It can be specified in any length, using any number of modules. It is manufactured from Marshalls’ fibre reinforced precast concrete and further strengthened by RhinoGuard™ technology, which is cast into the individual modules. Lighting can be specified to transform the look and feel of rail systems. Effective lighting design can help to create ambiance on rail platforms, interchanges and station forecourts; high performance reflectors, coupled with effective light sources, will achieve the required high levels of luminosity in these environments. The GEO Lightstack for example houses a PAS68 crash tested inner structure within a sleek stainless steel exterior which effectively disguises the fact that the product can withstand impact from a 7.5‑tonne vehicle

travelling at 40mph. Bollards tend to be the preferred method of securing the perimeter of bus and rail stations as well as airports, as they create a passive barrier, typically maintaining maximum pedestrian permeability. However, some of the more traditional methods of hostile vehicle mitigation, such as large diameter bollards, can often have a negative visual impact on an environment when incorporated into landscape design. But it doesn’t have to be that way. INTEGRATED PROTECTION PAS68 protection has been integrated into full street furniture ranges in order to complement the space in which they sit. Bollards, planters, seating and lighting have been developed to form coordinated ranges to improve transport environments, as well as being designed to fulfil the security needs of locations that require varying levels of perimeter protection, such as airport terminals, without exacerbating a sense of fear amongst passengers. An extended portfolio of coordinated protective street furniture products with varying styles and material choices will allow designers more flexibility over the previous default choice of standard bollards which are no longer the only method of securing the perimeter of buildings. This reinforces the principles of sound urban design and makes transport hubs feel more inclusive for all users, whilst protecting station and terminal buildings from the threat of attack. A wider range of street furniture products give designers greater autonomy and allow them to create cohesive styles which enhance all transport schemes. L FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: 0370 990 7504




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CYBER SECURITY Cyber security, and the money being spent on it, is increasing in importance within the UK. As the threat of terrorism evolves and becomes far more than just a physical danger, the role of the National Cyber Security Centre becomes pivotal in the UK’s defence strategy. Counter Terror Business explores


n announcing the launch of the five year National Cyber Security Strategy in November 2016, Chancellor Philip Hammond said that it was ‘crucial that Britain is a safe place to do digital business’ and that, in order to achieve this, ‘we need a secure cyber space’. Underpinned by £1.9 billion of transformational investment, the strategy is built upon three core pillars: defend, deter and develop, and is supported by National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) – an organisation Hammond labelled as a ‘dedicated, outward-facing authority on cyber’. Cyber crime and digital terrorist threats are not the anomaly that they once were. Indeed, Ciaran Martin, chief executive of the NCSC, has stated that ’stealing information for financial and political purposes is as old as human activity itself’, and that we need to demystify the assumption that cyber terrorists and criminals are ‘people sitting in computers at far away places, that cannot be contested’, highlighting that it is an ‘incredibly damaging attitude’ to take. For that reason, January’s annual Crime Survey for England and Wales included cyber crime offences for the first time, reflecting ‘the threat faced by the public every day’. The survey concluded that there were a total of 40,202 offences flagged as online crime to the year ending September 2016. As this is the first annual

recording there are no previous figures with which to compare. PROTECTING PRIVACY In November last year, a 17-year-old boy admitted hacking offences linked to a data breach at the communications firm TalkTalk, revealing that he had used hacking tool software to identify vulnerabilities on target websites. The cyber attack on the company in October 2015 prompted fears thousands of people may have had their online details stolen, after the data haul netted email addresses, names and phone numbers, as well as 21,000 unique bank account numbers and sort codes. TalkTalk itself, who claim that the hack cost them £42 million, was fined a record £400,000 for security failings which allowed customers’ data to be accessed ‘with ease’, with the situation raising concerns about the safety of customers and members of the public entering personal information onto websites, with many websites not offering the opportunity to do so, with ‘security’ given as the reason. In January 2017, a blog post of the NCSC offered some advice on the debate, suggesting that organisations should stop preventing customers and users from pasting their passwords into

the required bars on their websites, because the positives of pasting passwords outweighed the risks. The blog post, titled ‘Let them paste passwords’, read: “We think customers should be allowed to paste their passwords into forms, and that it improves security. We believe [stopping password pasting] is one of those ‘best practice’ ideas that has a common sense instant appeal that may have made sense once. Considering the bigger picture today, it really doesn’t make sense.”

JANUARY’S ANNUAL CRIME SURVEY FOR ENGLAND AND WALES INCLUDED CYBER CRIME OFFENCES FOR THE FIRST TIME, REFLECTING ‘THE THREAT FACED BY THE PUBLIC EVERY DAY’ The NCSC argue that password pasting improves security because it helps to reduce password overload. Additionally, it urges that password managers can be a beneficial tool because it makes it much easier to have different passwords for each website site used, without the frustration E



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CYBER SECURITY  of typing errors or forgetting passwords. Prevention of using password managers means that customers are far more likely to re-use the same passwords on different websites, choose very simple (and so easy to guess) passwords or write passwords down in places that are easy to find – each hindering personal security. CYBER SECURITY GUIDANCE Updated in August 2016, NCSC’s 10 Steps: Executive Summary sets out what a common cyber attack looks like and how attackers typically undertake them, and offers an effective means to help protect organisations from attacks. Here, we look at the 10 steps in detail. NCSC encourages organisations to embed a clearly communicated and appropriate risk management regime, that ensures that all employees (including governance), contractors and suppliers are aware of the approach, how decisions are made, and any applicable risk boundaries. Additionally, having an approach to identify baseline technology builds and processes for ensuring configuration management can greatly improve the security of systems. Therefore, companies should develop a strategy to remove or disable unnecessary functionality from systems, and to quickly fix known vulnerabilities, usually via patching. The connections from your networks to the Internet, and other partner networks, expose your systems and technologies

to attack. By creating and implementing some simple policies and appropriate architectural and technical responses, you can reduce the chances of these attacks succeeding or causing harm to your organisation. Rather than focusing purely on physical connections, companies should consider where their data is stored and processed, and where an attacker would have the opportunity to interfere with it. Concerning the managing of user privileges, companies should provide users with a reasonable, but minimal, level of system privileges and rights needed for their role. The granting of highly elevated system privileges should be carefully controlled and managed. Likewise, users have a critical role to play in their organisation’s security and so it’s important that security rules and the technology provided enable users to do their job as well as help keep the organisation secure. All organisations will experience security incidents at some point. Investment in establishing effective incident management policies and processes will help to improve resilience, support business continuity, improve customer and stakeholder confidence and potentially reduce any impact. Malicious software, or malware is an umbrella term to cover any code or content that could have a malicious, undesirable impact on systems. Any exchange of information carries with it a degree of risk that malware might

be exchanged, which could seriously impact your systems and services. The risk may be reduced by developing and implementing appropriate anti-malware policies as part of an overall ‘defence in depth’ approach. System monitoring provides a capability that aims to detect actual or attempted attacks on systems and business services. Good monitoring is essential in order to effectively respond to attacks. In addition, monitoring allows you to ensure that systems are being used appropriately in accordance with organisational policies. Monitoring is often a key capability needed to comply with legal or regulatory requirements. Removable media provide a common route for the introduction of malware and the accidental or deliberate export of sensitive data, and therefore companies should be clear about the business need to use removable media and apply appropriate security controls to its use. Regarding mobile working, companies should establish risk based policies and procedures that support mobile working or remote access to systems that are applicable to users, as well as service providers – training users on the secure use of their mobile devices in the environments they are likely to be working in. L





The development in drone technology has soared over the last few years. With the potential for criminals and terrorists to exploit the technology advances, Counter Terror Business analyses the potential use and misuse of unmanned aerial vehicles


n December 2016, American electronic commerce company Amazon released a video explaining the development of drone technology to ‘safely deliver packages to customers in 30 minutes or less’. Amazon Prime Air, as it is named, has been trialled in Cambridge and has the potential to transform and enhance the services that the company offer, providing quicker delivery of goods and increasing the safety and efficiency of the transportation system. With a capability to deliver packages weighing up to five pounds in 30 minutes, Amazon argue that the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will be ’as normal as seeing mail trucks on the road’. More importantly for this discussion, the delivery giant states that safety is the top priority, with all vehicles including ‘sense and avoid’ technology. Countering Drones, a conference organised by Defence IQ, released an infographic in the build up to its December 2016 event, stating that ‘amongst the optimism [for drone technology] is a creeping concern about the

security and safety threat that this technology presents to critical national infrastructure, homeland security and a range of commercial sectors’. While companies such as Amazon can enhance their offering and capitalise on their efficiency by developing the UAV commercial market, it is important that such innovations are effectively measured against the risk posed by drones. EYES IN THE SKIES OR CLOUDED VISION? The use of drones within the defence and security sectors, as well as in military use, has developed at the same pace as the commercial innovations explored at companies such as Amazon. Created for use in situations where manned flight is considered too unsafe or high risk, UAVs offer military units the ability to have constant surveillance on the activities and movements of both their own troops and those opposing them. A 24/7 ‘eye in the sky’ allows surveillance staff to receive real-time imagery and intelligence of activities on the ground, without putting lives at risk, at least not immediately at risk. E



What is This Drone Doing – Hobbyist Photography or Criminal or Terrorist Reconnaissance and Intelligence Gathering?

The University of Birmingham has a new project on the Nefarious and Criminal uses of Drones.

presents a means of surveillance, reconnaissance and attack that was previously reserved for large piloted aircraft.

As part of the work of the project, we are seeking the views of the Counter-Terrorism, Policing and Policy Communities on the questions of vulnerabilities and risks posed by illegal drone use.

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Drones possess many qualities which, when combined, make them potentially ideal means for terrorist attack in the twenty-first century. They can be operated anonymously and remotely; they present little or no risk to their operators of detection or prosecution; they can be acquired cheaply and easily; their operation can be mastered simply and safely; and they can be used to devastating effect. The aerial dimension they inhabit

We value your opinions and expertise. For more information about the project, please visit our website at:

DRONES  UAVs, as their name suggests, are unmanned, but are piloted, with a trained crew at base steering the craft, analysing the images which the cameras send back and acting upon the information that they receive. They are easy to operate and provide distance and anonymity to their operators, with battery improvements and higher technology cameras providing uninterrupted access to the air. However, the use of drones for surveillance purposes has been exceeded by use for air strikes. Although much remains unknown, it has been reported that there were ten times more air strikes (563) in the covert war on terror during President Barack Obama’s presidency than under the Presidency of George W Bush (57), mainly on suspected militants in Pakistan's tribal areas. Whilst the Obama administration continues to say that drone strikes are ‘exceptionally surgical and precise’, the figures suggest otherwise. According to reports logged by the Bureau, between 384 and 807 civilians were killed in Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen as a result of the drone strikes. The argument for use is that it prevents the need to send in military personnel for costly ground wars, but human rights groups have a lot of support in contesting the continued use of drones in military activity. DRONES FOR TERRORISM Additionally, it was reported in January that Islamic State are using drones to drop explosives on civilians and troops advancing in districts of Mosul, with

markets in the eastern part of the city, where civilians gather in large numbers to stock up on food, targeted. More than one million civilians remain inside Mosul, despite ongoing campaigns to drive Islamic State from the city. Causing further concern, a research paper has suggested that Islamic State are planning to ‘marry together two technologies, drones as a dispersal device and chemical, biological or radiological material as the dispersant’. Professor David Hastings Dunn, of the University of Birmingham, has penned his concerns on the possible ‘technology transfer’ of techniques and tactics used in Islamic State planning. He argues that drone attacks could be ‘psychologically unnerving and terror inducing’ and that security and military officers should be well aware and prepared for the possible ‘weaponising [of] a drone to carry a chemical agent’. On a separate note, but in defence to the threat of drones, Hastings Dunn refers to the Paris attacks, particularly concerning the suicide bombers who unsuccessfully sought access to the Stade de France. Perimeter security prevented the terrorists from getting inside the stadium, but had they attached their bombs to drones, the damage could have been far more devastating. Briefly returning back to the Countering Drones conference from December 2016, over 75 per cent of attendees believe that there is a strong likelihood of a major drone-related security incident in the near future, with over 35 per cent believing that it is inevitable.


A TOOL FOR BOTH SIDES IN THE RACE? In Counter Terror Business issue 24, Gary Clayton, of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems Association, explored whether the security services had the same opportunity to use the advances in unmanned technology and analysis of the data collected as the terrorist. He argued, using several examples, that it is not the technology that is the problem, but the user and intention applied to it that has the potential to create havoc. UAVs have the potential to give the security services a better integrated picture of the playing field through enhancing situational awareness. However they also give the terrorist the ability to act at arm’s length – ’it is not the technology – it is the user that makes the difference’. Moreover, regulation, a hot topic in commercial UAV use in the UK, will never maintain pace with the changing face of technology. The drone market will keep changing, with new models, new capabilities and new uncertainties added every week. Present legislation restricts flight in the urban environment whereas flight in the country environment is far less restricted. Secondly, those planning to use UAVs for terrorist or criminal activity, such as drug smuggling, are unlikely, or perhaps never likely, to feel restricted by regulation. Therefore, countering drones will gain prominence as the preferred method of tackling the terrorist drone threat. The risk of shooting a drone out of the sky is incredibly high, especially if there is a chance that the drone is carrying explosives. Among the companies investing in this industry are the MITRE Corporation, who have launched Counter-Unmanned Aircraft System (C-UAS), a competition for drone defence, seeking inexpensive ‘non-kinetic’ solutions to countering drone threats. Elsewhere, OpenWorks Engineering has created the SkyWall 100 that fires a projectile with a net that envelopes the drone and parachutes it to the ground safely, whilst Radio Hill Technologies' has developed technologies that jam the radio communication between the drone and its operator. The message behind this is that the threat of drones is well known among industry and government, but the potential retains an overwhelming appeal. Like the majority of military technologies, opposing military forces will both seek to gain the upper hand in drone warfare. UAVs for surveillance, whilst useful, are no longer the threat. As Professor David Hastings Dunn points out, the potential within drone use, as concerning as it may be, is fast becoming a reality. It will not be long before the next phase of drone development is established. Let’s hope it is not as the expense of mass fatalities. L



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SECURITY CYBER & COUNTER SECURITY TERROR EXPO Security & Counter Terror Expo returns to London on 3-4 May, bringing security professionals from across the world to the UK to source the latest technology and learn from leading experts in terrorism prevention. As premier media and content partner, Counter Terror Business previews the show and details what to expect from the much anticipated paid for World Counter Terror Congress


ollowing the December lorry attack at a Berlin Christmas market in the German capital, the threat to national security remains in the spotlight. Factor in even more recent events such as the New Year’s party attack in Istanbul, and it is clear that those tasked with protecting nations, assets and people face a multitude of different threats as we enter 2017. E






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 Security & Counter Terror Expo (SCTX), the UK’s leading national security event for private and public sector security professionals, will return in May this year with a comprehensive programme designed to keep attendees one step ahead of those intent on carrying out attacks. Alongside its exhibition, experts from across the globe, including representatives from NATO, Europol and Metropolitan Police, will explore the latest strategies to prevent, protect and prepare for future attacks. Taking place at Olympia, London from 3-4 May 2017, SCTX remains the only event that unites security professionals from all four corners of the world. Working in partnership with the Department for International Trade (formerly UKTI), the event is expected to welcome a record number of delegations, building upon the 10,000-plus visitors who attended in 2016 from more than 100 countries – including France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Italy, Brazil, South Korea, Mexico, UAE, Canada and the US. The two-day event, aligned with the Home Office’s seven security capabilities, will showcase the latest innovations from more than 350 global specialists. Visitors to SCTX 2017 will find a plethora of new technologies, equipment and services designed to assist critical national infrastructure protection, border control,

THE TWO-DAY SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO EVENT IS ALIGNED WITH THE HOME OFFICE’S SEVEN SECURITY CAPABILITIES, AND WILL SHOWCASE THE LATEST INNOVATIONS FROM MORE THAN 350 GLOBAL SPECIALISTS cyber security, major events, offender management, policing and counter terrorism, and the emergency services. WORLD COUNTER TERROR CONGRESS The centre piece of the event is the paid-for World Counter Terror Congress, which will feature some of the security industry’s most prominent figures. Mark Rowley, assistant commissioner of specialist operations at the Metropolitan Police; Dr Jamie Shea, deputy ASG for Emerging Security Challenges at NATO; and Sir Malcolm Rifkind QC, former chair of the UK’s Intelligence and Security Committee, are just a few of the names confirmed to speak. Over 300 internationally recognised experts will gather to debate the threats we face, define operational strategies and help shape the future policy, presenting an excellent opportunity to government, the emergency

services, academics, technology providers and vendors to unveil new developments in counter terror. The world Counter Terror Congress is an essential visit for any senior security professional tasked with understanding the latest serious security threats. Attendees come from the following sectors: government; policing and law enforcement; intelligence and security agencies; border agencies; military; emergency services; critical national infrastructure; and corporate and business. The World Counter Terror Congress will examine national and international responses to the evolving threat of national and international terror. The first session, which will be introduced by Professor Richard English of Queen’s University, Belfast, will look at responding to the evolving terror threat and ensuring security in a period of geopolitical uncertainty. Sir Malcolm E






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THE SECOND DAY OF SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO WILL MARK THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD STREAM IN THE WORLD COUNTER TERROR CONGRESS, WHICH ANALYSES TERRORISM, TECHNOLOGY AND AUTOMATION  Rifkind will provide an assessment of the Trump Administration’s approach to security, counter terrorism and international cooperation in his keynote ‘The first 100 days’. With a more UK focused angle, the following keynote, hosted by the Metropolitan Police’s Mark Rowley, will analyse ‘Terrorism, extremism and the international and home-grown threats to the UK’. Furthermore, ‘In our approach to countering international and homegrown terrorism, have we got the right balance between security and privacy?’, Lord Carlile of Berriew will question whether the UK is successfully managing the competing demands of privacy and security, post-Investigatory Powers Bill. Europol’s director Rob Wainwright will look at ‘European cooperation on

security and counter terror strategy in an uncertain geopolitical climate’, before Hans Das, head of Terrorism and Radicalisation Unit at the European Commission, looks at ‘European cooperation on civil preparedness and disaster response to face the current terror threat’. The first session will close with Professor English interviewing Jamie Shea about NATO’s role moving forward in providing security to its members and its response to political developments in Europe, the USA and Russia. COUNTER RADICALISATION AND TECHNOLOGY The second stream of the conference will be centred around the progress of the UK’s Prevent and Channel strategies in countering radicalisation. Sarah Khan of

Inspire will begin by looking at ‘The latest developments in countering radicalisation – what works, what doesn’t, and why’. Following this, Tahir Abbes, from the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), looks at ‘How can we ensure differing approaches to preventing and countering radicalisation include effectively critical community engagement?’. Tom Keating, director for the Centre of Financial Crime and Security Studies at RUSI, will delve into ‘Responding to the evolution of the terrorist finance threat’, by analysing the journey from lone actors to porto-states. The standout session from the counter radicalisation talks is Thomas Wuchte, head on AntiTerrorism Issues for the Organization for Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), who will analyse ‘European progress in responding to the corrosive appeal of violent extremism’. The second day of SCTX will mark the beginning of the third stream in the World Counter Terror Congress, which analyses terrorism, technology and automation. Sasah Javlicek, chief executive officer at the Institute for Strategic Dialogue (ISD), will chair the session and provide the opening remarks, before the first keynote address seeks to evaluate the National Cyber Security Strategy, by investigating ‘Our progress in defence, deterrence and development to protect the nation’s critical digital infrastructure’. E

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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  Other recognisable sessions in this stream will seek to answer ‘How government and business can work together to tackle online extremism’ and ‘Overcoming the challenges we face in sorting online intelligence from chatter’, which will be headed by Australian intelligence officer and former GCHQ employee David Wells. The afternoon sessions begin with Zahed Amanullah, senior programme manager at ISD, looking in detail at ‘Terrorists and the internet – an update on Google’s progress in countering extremist messages online’. Session three then closes with Dr Jeroen van Rest providing an update on advances in artificial intelligence, facial recognition, movement analysis and biometrics and other surveillance technologies and how their integration is changing the landscape of national and international security. Speaking on behalf of the European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection, van Rest’s ‘Advances in automated surveillance’ will be one not to be missed. PROTECTING CRITICAL NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE What can we learn from real-life experiences in combatting and preventing attacks on critical national infrastructure and major events? This session, chaired by former Metropolitan Police Detective Chief Superintendent Brian Dillion, will focus on case studies and analysis of specific attacks, major events and specific national infrastructure in order to consolidate the lessons learned in how to prevent, or cope with, terror attacks. Lord Toby Harris, member of the Joint Committee on the National Security Strategy, will provide his keynote address on ‘The Lord Harris Review six months on – an update on London’s preparedness for a major terror attack’. The Lord Harris review, which makes 127 recommendations for the Mayor, the government and other agencies to consider, commended London’s emergency services for their improved major incident readiness, with responses now substantially faster and more effective than five years ago. In the report, he says that the quality and effectiveness of the work done by the intelligence agencies and the counter terrorist police here is amongst the best in the world. Scott Wilson, national co-ordinator of the Protect & Prepare programme at the National Counter Terrorism Policing HQ, will look at how the UK is sharing its counter terror expertise internationally in his topic ‘International expansion of Protect and Prepare’, including how to protect UK citizens and advise and train security forces abroad. Other sessions will include an analysis of the potential for drones and counter‑drones in threatening E




THE ‘OVERCOMING THE CHALLENGES WE FACE IN SORTING ONLINE INTELLIGENCE FROM CHATTER’ SESSION WILL BE HEADED BY AUSTRALIAN INTELLIGENCE OFFICER AND FORMER GCHQ EMPLOYEE DAVID WELLS  (and protecting) critical infrastructure, ‘The CT challenges in protecting iconic Christian venues’, hosted by Garry Evanson, chairman of The Security Institute; and former head of safety and security at Euro 2016, Ziad Khoury, on ‘Euro 2016, Paris: Directing France’s biggest-ever security effort’. SCTX CONFERENCE STREAMS Protecting national infrastructure and businesses is critical for the effective running of nations. If you are tasked with protecting businesses and the assets essential for the maintenance of everyday life then the Critical National Infrastructure & Business Resilience is essential for you to attend. The definition of critical national infrastructure sectors may vary from country to country but, as an example, the UK defines nine of these which provide essential services: communications; emergency services; energy (including pipelines and offshore); finance; food; government; health; transport (including roads, airports, ports and railways); and water. Seminars include: ‘The threat assessment challenge for critical business and infrastructure protection in the UK’; ‘Reducing risk and ensuring resilience and continuity in a critical national organisation – media sector case study’;

‘Mitigating insider risk – identifying which insiders pose the greatest threat to CNI and what can be done about them’; and ‘Business resilience case study: physical security measures to protect crowded places/major events’. In the Cyber Threat Intelligence conference stream, the UK’s fastest growing cyber security event, topics covered will include: security management; surveillance and reconnaissance; analytics and big data; forensics; identity and authentication; and investigation of offences. Communications, banking, personal information and documents are all saved electronically and transmitted online. As a result cyber infrastructure needs to be secure. The number and sophistication of threats to our cyber infrastructure are increasing daily. Numerous reports cite the increasing number of security breaches and newspapers regularly run stories of lost data files, hacked bank accounts and stolen identities. As a result the UK market for cyber security is estimated to be worth over £3.4 billion by 2017. Talal Rajab, programme manager for techUK’s Cyber, National Security and Criminal Justice programmes, will present the opening remarks in the Cyber Threat Intelligence Theatre. Other keynote

addresses will cover an analysis of the top cyber threats and emerging threat trends from an independent review referencing over 400 threat sources and ‘Building a comprehensive map of cyber crime and cyber terrorism in the UK’. Other sessions before lunch will cover ‘Closing the cyber skills gap – how can we develop a pathway for the next generation of cyber experts?’ and a 2017 update on ‘Russia and cyber crime: what you need to know to protect your data from this continuing threat’. The afternoon discussions will focus around the government and industry working together on cyber security, with addresses on ‘The National Cyber Security Centre – our objectives and how we will work with industry’ and ‘Advances in the UK cyber security insurance market – what does business need to know?’. In early November 2016, an NHS Trust had to turn patients away and send those in hospital to other facilities for critical care due to a cyber attack which effectively crippled them. For the past decade a slow change has gripped the healthcare industry almost unnoticed, most medical devices became connected, unlike your ‘smart’ light bulb at home, these devices became connected for a very good reason, they ensure that patients will receive better care faster. Unfortunately, none of these devices were properly secured, an endemic issue with most connected devices today. INTERNET OF THINGS The second day of the cyber security sessions will take on an Internet of Things angle, with sessions on ‘Protecting against the risks of devices being harnessed for DDS attacks and the, implications for privacy, personal data and personal safety’ and ‘Security for Industrial Control Systems – current threats and recent breaches’. Alongside the Critical National Infrastructure & Business Resilience and Cyber Threat Intelligence conference streams, the hugely popular Advanced Technologies Live demonstration area will return, while the Policing & Specialist Operations Zone will provide law enforcement professionals with a one-stop-shop of new solutions. This zone will provide an ideal opportunity to review and benchmark operations and explore developments in tactics, and will also see significant involvement from UK Police forces and SO units – with many taking the opportunity to make educated procurement and investment decisions. The Zone will also attract the world’s police forces as they look to align their tactics with the UK’s and also source new thinking and services. NEW FOR 2017 New to the 2017 event will be the Counter IED Zone. Supported by the internationally renowned Defence & Security Equipment International (DSEI) event, this new area is expected to bring together hundreds of military and E




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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  homeland security professionals from around the world. Attendees will be presented with the latest developments in national security and the capabilities needed to protect against them. The zone will showcase best practice in reducing the threat of improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Combing live demonstrations of new technology with the latest strategies, it is a critical learning platform for EOD, CIED, CBRNe, defence, law enforcement, counter terrorism and security professionals. Key topics will include: explosive ordnance disposal (EOD); protecting crowded places; law enforcement and military interoperability; mitigating threats to business; and training personnel to respond effectively. With security becoming a pivotal part of new design projects, architects, project managers, developers, system integrators and installers will benefit from SCTX’s new Security | Design | Build Workshop. Highlighting best practice from a number of leading businesses and new innovations, the sessions will explore how security can become more integrated at the design stage of major projects. Standout sessions include: ‘Getting security onto your board’s agenda’; ‘Focusing on security during the design process – a security engineering perspective’; and ‘Security Culture / Protecting against the insider threat’. Commenting on the event’s conference sessions, Richard Walton, former

head of Counter Terrorism Command (SO15) at New Scotland Yard, said: “In the face of increasing threats and terrorism it is vital that security professionals have the most up-to-date intelligence and mitigation strategies. The conference programme at SCTX combines high‑level expert knowledge with practical advice, this is crucial, as it allows attendees to implement what they have heard in their own operations. The SCTX educational programme is essential for security professionals looking to grow their knowledge and learn from renowned experts.” CO-LOCATED WITH TWO OTHER LEADING EVENTS Security & Counter Terror Expo is part of a co-located portfolio of events covering security, emergency response and forensic science. Ambition, the most attended conference in 2016, is the event in the UK calendar for anyone involved in the world-wide emergency preparedness, resilience and response community. The exhibition showcases products and services being used and developed by emergency responders in the critical moments following a terrorist attack. Leading representatives from the NHS, ambulance and fire services, hospitals and the police will present updates and case studies on how best to handle extremely challenging and mass casualty events.

In 2016 subjects covered included: innovation, change and reform in the police service; the evolution of EPRR expertise in the ambulance service; ensuring resilience capabilities for businesses and communities across the UK; innovation, change and blue-light working in the fire service; national resilience and fire capabilities; communication challenges after a terrorist attack; international resilience: the UK’s aspirations in light of the Strategic Defence & Security Review; blue light drones; and the challenge for effective interoperability training and the role of innovation. Forensics Europe Expo is the only international event dedicated to forensic technology and covers all aspects of forensic science from laboratory equipment and forensic analysis techniques to scene of crime equipment and digital forensic technology. These pursuit techniques are often vital to solving terrorist crimes and visitors to SCTX can further explore the technology being used in the investigation process following a serious attack. L

For Counter Terror Business’s preview of Forensics Europe Expo, please turn to page 57.







Ginsbury Displays examines the many ways in which display hardware designed for military purposes must distinguish itself from the hardware meant for standard commercial use

RESILIENCE Firstly, given the uncompromising settings into which these displays will be situated, resilience to shock, vibration, extreme temperatures and high humidity levels are regarded as obligatory requirements. There are many other factors that need to be taken into account though. When displays are meant for outdoor operation, the effect of ambient light needs to be given attention. It is essential that military personnel can refer to detailed information rapidly without risk of human error. If lighting conditions impinge on their ability to do this, then the consequences could be serious. High brightness displays are now becoming commonplace in military systems, with sizeable increases in backlight outputs being witnessed. Furthermore, optical bonding can be employed to reduce internal reflections and lower light losses. This also has the additional advantage of raising the overall robustness of the display assembly. RESPONSIVE Responsiveness is another consideration. If decisions need to be made quickly, then potential delays due to display performance could be problematic. There are two different dynamics influencing this – firstly the ICs comprised in the video processing element, then the latency of the display itself. Much as it already has within consumer, medical and industrial sectors, the value of touch operation is now being realised in the defence sector too. While in the field, touch screens frequently need to be operated by military personnel who are wearing gloves. This makes choosing the correct touch screen technology for the application a critical part of the specification process. In other cases location in strong EMC environments will mandate use of

infrared touch screen technology. It should also be mentioned that the massive EMC pulses which result if an explosion occurs can impact heavily on a display’s overall operation, so selecting components that are suitably protected is imperative. POWER CONSUMPTION For mobile military units or drones/UAVs, power consumption is of course a concern. Advanced backlight technology has allowed dramatic reductions to the power drawn by displays. A few years ago, for example, a large high brightness display module might have had a 50W rating – now equivalent modules require less than 15W. Having a wide viewing angle is likely to prove beneficial too – giving personnel operating equipment in extremely confined spaces (such as tanks) greater freedom to access data being rendered on the display. LONG TERM RELIABILITY Long term reliability of the display needs to be assured, as potential risk of operational failure in the theatre of conflict must be mitigated. In many circumstances, mean time between failure (MTBF) figures above 50,000 hours are anticipated. Often simply stating such figures on a datasheet will not suffice. Increasingly suppliers need to provide meticulous calculations demonstrating that this degree of longevity is valid. There are still many CRT based monitors in operation within military instrumentation, so often what is required is a contemporary display solution that has improved performance/features, but can effectively act as drop-in replacement. In such cases engineers will need to develop a solution that fits into the same housing and connects with existing interface technology (that may have been in place for 30 years). Determining what video interface is needed and successfully accommodating it is a vital skill when retrofitting. Given the long period that military systems remain in service, securing an ongoing source is of paramount importance. To safeguard against the emergence of obsolescence issues, it is advisable to partner with a display solutions provider who has a

Written by Steve Varley, Ginsbury Displays

With greater levels of sophistication and elevated functionality now being required in many different defence related applications, the specified display technology must offer a broadening array of different attributes. This makes the process of sourcing and subsequently implementing such items a major (though, as we will see, not insurmountable) challenge.

comprehensive understanding of supply chain management, as well as long-standing relationships with the key suppliers. PACE The pace with which projects go from the concept phase through to implementation is accelerating and display providers must have the capability to support this. 8-12‑month development periods would have been normal in the past, but now there are far more occasions where everything needs to be turned around within three to four months. Faced with the prospect of tightening deadlines and the threat posed by obsolescence, plus the harsh environments involved, difficulties connecting with legacy equipment and the overriding need for long term reliability, engaging with a highly experienced display solutions provider will be pivotal to any project’s success. Ginsbury has built up an unmatched reputation throughout the military sector for supplying superior technology with industry-leading ruggedness, as well as delivering in-depth engineering support to accompany this. Through its adept staff and substantial resources it is well positioned to deal with the rising expectations being placed upon military displays – thereby ensuring that even the most demanding projects are completed on schedule with all key objectives met. L FURTHER INFORMATION



SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO Whether Brexiteer or remainer, the UK’s decision to leave the European Union in June 2016 will have a major impact on the way the country deals with and handles migration. In its first report for the Security & Counter Terror Expo, Counter Terror Business looks at how border security will help ease the migration flow to the UK and keep terrorism at bay


he topic of border security has been a prominent theme in the discussions of government over the last few years. Magnified by both European migration concerns and the close proximity of terrorist attacks across the English Channel, the public opinion on the nation’s safety has ensured that Prime Minister Theresa May, in her first year as premier, will need to settle the problem with more speed and certainty than her predecessor. Moreover, the weight that border security carried in the European Union referendum campaign once again served to show discontent and discomfort with the perceived vulnerability of our shores. Border security is crucial to the level of national security that the UK enjoys. Protecting our borders from the illegal movement of weapons, contraband and people is essential to UK safety. As an island nation, the UK is somewhat separated from the threat that countries such as France, Germany and Belgium face. For example, the November


2015 terrorist attacks in Paris and Saint‑Denis, which left a death toll of 130 civilians, highlights the difficulty that mainland European countries face in monitoring terrorist

activity. With Islamic State claiming responsibility for the attacks, in retaliation to French airstrikes in Syria and Iraq, the investigation following the acts showed that the terrorists planned the attack in Syria, but organised the details in Belgium. It is believed that a number of those responsible had entered Europe among a growing flow of migrants and refugees. But there is another issue to contend with, which is that of homegrown terrorism.

FROM HOMEGROWN TO SYRIA Many of the Islamic State terrorists involved in the Paris and Brussels attacks were what are considered homegrown terrorists. As of January 2015, an estimated E




























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 440 Belgians had left the country for Syria and Iraq, creating the impression of the nation as a hub of terrorist activity and jihadist recruitment. Molenbeek, a municipality surrounding Brussels, was described by one Belgian authority as ‘a breeding ground for violence’. Salah Abdeslam was one of the terrorists accused of involvement in the attacks in Paris on 13 November 2015, and was the centre of Europe’s largest manhunt following the attacks. The profile of Abdeslam emphasises the risk that border control authorities in Europe face. Prior to the Paris attacks, Abdeslam is understood to have freely travelled to six counties in an effort to transport individuals, who would later be involved in the attacks, into Europe. Within our own borders, British authorities suggest that approximately 850 people from the UK have travelled to support or fight for jihadist organisations in Syria and Iraq, with about half having since returned to the UK. Most people can remember when Bethnal Green Academy found itself in the spotlight in early 2015, when three of its students, Shamima Begum, Amira Abase and Kadiza Sultana, flew from London to Turkey, before travelling to Syria to join Islamic State. The girls were aged 15 and 16 at the time, and put a firm spotlight on how easily they managed to leave the UK unquestioned and unresisted, despite

WITHIN OUR OWN BORDERS, BRITISH AUTHORITIES SUGGEST THAT APPROXIMATELY 850 PEOPLE FROM THE UK HAVE TRAVELLED TO SUPPORT OR FIGHT FOR JIHADIST ORGANISATIONS IN SYRIA AND IRAQ, WITH ABOUT HALF HAVING SINCE RETURNED TO THE UK evidence showing that UK authorities were aware that Shamima was in contact with Aqsa Mahmood, who left Glasgow for Syria in 2013 to marry an Islamic State fighter, before travelling. The perception of border security as an essential force to prevent terrorists entering the country is unfairly weighted, as preventing those susceptible to radicalisation from leaving is equally important. The Prevent stream of the UK counter terrorism strategy CONTEST aims to stop people becoming attracted to terrorism domestically and suffocate communications and support from overseas. Individuals suspected of posing a terrorism-related threat may be prevented from travelling from the UK under powers in the Counter Terrorism and Security Act of 2015. This is maintained by carrying ‘no fly’ schemes to cover individuals who pose a terrorist or terrorism-related threat and are seeking to leave the UK. But what about those seeking to come to the UK?

MASS MIGRATION The European migrant crisis hit its peak in 2015, when five boats carrying almost 2,000 individuals to the continent sank in the Mediterranean Sea, killing over 1,200 people. Aside from that April event, figures show that the migrants primarily arrived from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq. The extent of migration led to increased funding for Mediterranean border control, the creation of Operation Sophia, a military operation with the aim of neutralising established refugee smuggling routes in the Mediterranean, and even the reintroduction of border controls within the Schengen Area. According to a survey commissioned by the Pew Research Center, the majority of Europeans believe the influx of refugees across the continent had led, and will lead, to an increase in the likelihood of terrorism. Those surveyed in Hungary (76 per cent) and Poland (71 per cent) were the top nations that expressed concerns that refugees will increase the E




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AS SEEN IN PARIS, THIS FORM OF ATTACK CAN BE CARRIED OUT BY A SMALL NUMBER OF ATTACKERS, PERHAPS WORKING INDIVIDUALLY, WHICH MEANS THAT MULTIPLE, SIMULTANEOUS ATTACKS ARE A POSSIBILITY – STRETCHING RESPONSE TEAMS AND EMERGENCY SERVICES AND INCREASING THE LIKELIHOOD OF CASUALTIES  likelihood of terrorism in their country. Hungary, in fact, claim that seven of the attackers from the 2015 Paris attacks slipped through Hungarian borders while posing as migrants, despite having their names registered in counter terrorism databases across Europe. Abdeslam is believed to have made four trips to Hungary in August and October 2015 in which he picked up other terrorists linked to both the Brussels and Paris attacks. Mujtaba Rahman of the Eurasia Group, a political risk and consulting company, said of the issue: “There is a

growing perception among European public opinion that EU. leaders are not in control of the Continent’s terrorist threat. Combined, these attacks [in Brussels] will increase xenophobic and anti-immigration sentiment across the EU., which has already been rising in light of the EU.’s ongoing refugee crisis.” This opinion was evident in the popularity drop of Angela Merkel who opened the country’s borders to more than one million migrants last year. It has been further inflated by the rhetoric used by US President elect Donald Trump, who frequently associated terrorism with immigrants, particularly Muslims, and threatened to build a wall between the United States and Mexico. WEAPON CARRYING In October 2016, Lord Toby Harris of Haringey launched his independent report into the steps that should be taken to improve London’s resources and readiness to respond to a major terrorist incident. Following the scale of large terrorist attacks in Paris, Brussels and during the Bastille Day celebrations in Nice, Lord Harris’ review made 127 recommendations for the Mayor of London, the government and other agencies to consider. Among the recommendations were a number of border control suggestions, including for security measures on the river Thames to be strengthened and for

the Metropolitan Police to further explore the use of temporary barriers to protect against a Nice style attack in London. Lord Toby Harris said: “A serious terrorist attack remains highly possible and we cannot be complacent. London needs to become a city where security and resilience is designed in and is part of the city’s fabric, and where everyone who lives and works here sees security and resilience as their responsibility just as much as it is for the emergency services and civic authorities.” Lord Harris’ report suggested that the most significant terrorist threat affecting the UK was a marauding terrorist firearms attack (MTFA), such as that seen in Mumbai in 2008, Nairobi in 2013, Paris in 2015 and Orlando in 2016. This form of attack would likely involve shootings, fires, explosives and possible hostage takings. As seen in Paris, this form of attack can be carried out by a small number of attackers, perhaps working individually, which means that multiple, simultaneous attacks are a possibility – stretching response teams and emergency services and increasing the likelihood of casualties. All of this begs the question – how are terrorists equipping themselves with the firearms necessary for such an attack? The National Crime Agency (NCA) warned this month that half of the terror plots prevented in the UK over the last two years involved extremists attempting to purchase E

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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  guns from criminal gangs. Of the estimated 6,000 organised criminal groups in the UK, 750 have access to guns, or are trying to access them. Lynne Owens, chief of the NCA, warned: “Criminal networks, who think nothing about who they sell firearms to, present a significant route by which extremist groups will try to access the sort of weapons used in recent attacks in Europe.” Mark Rowley, assistant commissioner for Specialist Operations in the Metropolitan Police Service, added that the Met is also concerned by an apparent upsurge in guns on the streets in London and some other big urban areas, with law enforcement officers seizing at least 884 firearms last year, including Czech-made Skorpion submachine pistols, Uzis, and Mac-10 weapons.

LORD HARRIS SUGGESTS THAT WEAKNESSES IN BRITAIN’S BORDER SECURITY COULD POSSIBLY BE ALLOWING TERRORISTS TO GET THE GUNS THEY NEED TO ATTACK LONDON Lord Harris suggests that weaknesses in Britain’s border security could possibly be allowing terrorists to get the guns they need to attack London. The report highlights that, given the current specific threat relating to MTFA or similar terrorist attacks, ‘much more should be done to strengthen the ability to prevent the importation of firearms’. It recommends that the Mayor of London should seek ‘assurances that the routine screening and searching of cars and freight entering the country is being significantly enhanced’. It continued that ‘the aerial surveillance capacity available to the Border Force, the NCA and the police enabling them to monitor and control the border needs to be enhanced given that existing capacity is already fully utilised’. THE BREXIT IMPACT Having seen the UK public vote in favour of exiting the European Union, by 52 per cent to 48, Prime Minister Theresa May knows that a lot of pressure rests on returning full border controls. The media build up to the referendum was overwhelmed with stories detailing the flood of refugees entering Europe from Syria, Africa and elsewhere in the Middle East. It has been reported that since 2012, the UK has received an average of 300,000 immigrants annually, with half of the immigrants in 2015 arriving from non-EU nations. E





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WITH 7.5 PER CENT OF HIGH RISK FLIGHTS NOT BEING SCANNED APPROPRIATELY, THIS HAS CONSEQUENTLY ALLOWED KNOWN TERRORISTS TO LEAVE THE COUNTRY WITHOUT BEING DETAINED PROPERLY  A large portion of the Leave campaign rhetoric focused upon regaining control of the immigration flow. But the post‑Brexit landscape makes for complicated border control. Northern Ireland would essentially form the UK’s only land border since the republic of Ireland is an EU member. Historically contentious, the Irish border extends over 300 highly porous miles. The common travel area (CTA), agreed between the three administrations of London, Belfast and Dublin, has existed since the 1920s. With may critics viewing this as a potential backdoor for immigration, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland James Brokenshire has claimed that entry points to the Irish Republic will become a new front line for combating illegal immigration once the UK withdraws from the EU. Then there is the complicated possibility of establishing border controls on the England-Scotland border. Despite voting in their 2015 referendum to remain part of the UK, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has published a draft bill[5] giving Scotland the ability to reconsider the question of independence before the UK leaves the EU. If the value of remaining part of the EU outweighs the value of remaining part of the UK, not only would more land border controls need to be established between England and Scotland, but maritime border protections would have to change at ports of entry to process EU-origin vessels in addition to other foreign vessels, as well as EU passengers arriving on ferries from Ireland and France. HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN HELP SECURE BRITAIN’S BORDERS Following concerns being raised about gaps in British border security and the rise in the number of guns found on the streets in many major cities, Neil Basu, the new national co-ordinator for counter terrorism policing, has said that an increase in biometric scans and tamper-proof passports would do more to protect the border. In an interview with the Press Association, Basu said: “Just in the same way you can smuggle illegal firearms into a country, you can smuggle people into a country. And if one of those happens to be a terrorist, that’s a big problem. Society needs to debate what’s required. But in law enforcement, I’d say if you want security, you need to improve your biometrics at the borders. “Everybody’s identity should be checked as they come through a border in a way

that is foolproof. Fingerprints, iris scans, the documents need to be tamper‑proof. What we need is a debate about what border security really means.” Moreover, a briefing paper entitled ‘The border after Brexit: How technology can help secure Britain’s borders’, published by the Adam Smith Institute, looks at why, in light of Brexit, it will become even more important for Britain’s borders to be secure. The authors of the report, Sam Bowman and Ed West, argue that, at present, Britain’s Border Force is not equipped to quickly, accurately and securely monitor passengers in and out of Britain, claiming that the Border Force Warning Index and Semaphore systems are outdated. With 7.5 per cent of high risk flights not being scanned appropriately, this has consequently allowed known terrorists to leave the country without being detained properly. Post-Brexit Britain will undeniably take a new form to that which it has held for a number of decades. As relationships within the European Union and between European countries begin to stretch under political tension, the landscape of border security will become more scrutinised than ever before. The full extent to which Theresa May will change our border control is yet to be revealed, but it is likely that its tightening will please the British public. With new lines being drawn within the EU, it is an opportunity to strengthen our border control – both of people coming in and out, and weapons.

This article first appeared in submission to Security and Counter Terror Expo as part of Counter Terror Business’ monthly market reports. As media partner to the event, Counter Terror Business will be providing six reports covering the show’s six security capabilities in detail: border security; policing and law enforcement; major events; cyber security; critical national infrastructure; and security services. L




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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO The November 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris shook the whole of Europe and raised the importance of event security to British and European law and security leaders. In a report for the Security & Counter Terror Expo, Counter Terror Business examines the importance of contingency planning at large events



he devastating events that took place in Paris on 13 November 2015 highlighted a number of things to those in charge of ensuring the safety and security of the public at large scale events. Ideological terrorism came to the fore, with coordinated attacks taking place across the French capital – starting at the Stade de France and ending at the Bataclan theatre, with several shootings, bombings and attacks aimed at restaurants and cafes in between. That evening of attacks killed 130 people, leaving nearly 400 more injured, with 100 of those deemed seriously injured. It was, and to date remains, the worst terrorist attack on European soil that many people can remember. The two bookends to that night of terrorist activity, being the events at the Stade de France and the Bataclan theatre, highlight the importance of security and counter terrorist protection at major events. While the tragedy that shook Paris, and with it the rest of Europe, was

an act of terrorism that should not be given a disservice in discussion, there is no denying that the outcome had the potential to be much worse. The Bataclan attack will forever be known as a massacre, whereby the terrorists were able to carry out mass shootings into a large crowd who had little time or space to disperse, thus initiating maximum casualty possibilities, while the terrorist attacks at the Stade de France are better known as the attacks that started the succession of planned assaults. The first attacks, which took place 20 minutes into a football match between France and Germany, resulted in just four deaths, three of which were

the suicide bombers, later revealed to be acting on behalf of the so-called Islamic State group. Following that November night, French investigators revealed that the first suicide bomber had planned to detonate his vest within the Stade de France, the French national stadium, hoping to trigger a panicked exit onto the streets where the two remaining suicide bombers would detonate their own bombs, ensuring mass casualties. The Stade de France has a capacity of just over 81,000. We now know that the first suicide bomber was prevented from entering the stadium after a security guard discovered the suicide vest while patting him down. He E




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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  detonated his vest after being turned away, initiating the second and third terrorists to detonate theirs soon after, away from the stadium and away from the feeling flock of fans. One can only imagine how high the death toll could have been had the first terrorist not been refused entry to the stadium. The most worrying thing for those organising security at large events is that they happen so regularly, with supporters or visitors usually unaware of the security risks. Every weekend, sports grounds are packed to the rim with fans, just like the Stade de France, while concerts, gigs, festivals, shows and exhibitions take place in hundreds of locations across the UK every week. Over the Summer, in which 135,000 people descended on Glastonbury alone, the Metropolitan Police said that sporting and music venues had been placed on high alert. More recently, just before Christmas, on 19 December 2016, a lorry ploughed into a Christmas market in the German capital of Berlin, killing 12 people and injuring 48. While not quite on the same level as the Paris attacks in terms of fatalities, the attack once again showed how terrorists target large groups of people, to maximise the fatalities. For many people, even over a year on from the Paris attacks, the question of if we are likely to see similar atrocities at Wembley, Twickenham or Wimbledon remain. Following the Paris attacks,


consequent football matches, like that of Belgium v Spain and Germany v Netherlands were cancelled following suspicions of explosives targeting the stadiums. So should we expect more stadiums to be targeted?

WITHIN THE UK, THE THREAT FROM TERRORISM REMAINS ’SEVERE’ THE EUROS AND THE LOGISTICS OF SECURITY Within the UK the threat from terrorism remains ’severe’, and the UK’s Sports Grounds Safety Authority (SGSA) urges event managers and sports grounds to ‘remain vigilant’ and to ‘review relevant contingency plans’. In Counter Terror Business issue 28, Mike White, immediate past chairman of the International Professional Security Association, discussed the security success of the football European Championships. Taking place in Paris, it was no surprise that the money spent of security and counter terrorism measures surpassed that which is usually seen. 90,000 security staff were employed to monitor the matches, with 1,200 solely for the Stade de France. There was just over 26 miles of temporary fencing near the stadiums, and layers of security

that started several hundred metres away from the ground where initial body and bag searches took place. On the day the England football team played its first Euro 2016 game against Russia in Marseille, clashes in the stadium and flares being set off in the stands marred the match itself. The French port city had also been victim to violent clashes between the opposing supporters in the two days leading up to the event, leaving French police to disperse the outbreaks of violence by using tear gas and a water cannon. While this was seen at the time, and remains seen, as the too often common thuggishness that follows football in Europe, it does continue to raise questions about the extra security that was put in place. The police presence, which became heavier the closer to the stadium, with police prepared in riot gear, was unable to prevent the riots breaking out in front of them. More worrying was the ease and number of fans who were able to transport flares into the stadium. There was additional trouble at later matches, with Croatia, Hungary, Portugal and Turkey fined for trouble related to flares and pitch invasions. Coordinating the security and logistics of any large scale event is a tricky business, before factoring in the threat of terrorism. For example, an international E


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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  football match at Wembley will see 90,000 people congregate on the stadium with the aim of being inside the facility for a specific time – usually five minutes before kick-off. Less practical, the majority of those fans surround the stadium 10 or 15 minutes before that, meaning that security and access staff have to safely and securely monitor the traffic of tens of thousands of fans into the stadium in an alarmingly short time frame. When you factor in possible bag checks, difficult inebriated fans and those not ready with their ticket in their hand, then the task becomes almost impossible. Additionally, fan segregation, both within and outside of stadiums, can prove a tough task, even more so with the ease of unauthorised ticket sales. The situation is no less complicated when it comes to the end of an event. Whilst large stadiums feature numerous entrances and exits, in the example of Wembley, security staff face mass departures, with 90,000 members of the public rushing to leave within five minutes of the event or match finishing, eager to depart the area and beat the rush of fans heading for train stations or car parks. This is countered by those who are happy to linger for a longer period of time, but unintentionally block passageways and exits, making the management and safety of staff more difficult.


CONTINGENCY PLANNING The threat of terrorism and other attacks is multifaceted, and is no longer restricted to one type of attack. As the November 2015 Paris attacks showed, attacks can be coordinated, yet sometimes need to be treated separately. They can be carried out at different locations, at different times, in different ways by people with different incentives. While Islamic State take credit for the majority of terrorist crimes taking place across the globe at the moment, it is hard to determine how many of those attacks were planned and orchestrated by the terrorist group. Lone wolf attackers and self-radicalised assailants who have their own incentives, usually borne out of an overwhelming sense of injustice or mental health illnesses, also pose a threat - despite the media often painting it as an Islamic State orchestrated plot. As Mike O’Neill, chairman of the British Security Industry Association’s (BSIA) Specialist Services Section, told Counter Terror Business magazine, ‘it is absolutely essential to know what you’re protecting yourself against’. However, knowing what you are protecting yourself against is only one half of the answer. Many event organisers and venues will accept the notion that are largely powerless against a well-planned, efficiently executed terrorist attack. The attack at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino, California, in December 2015 and more recently the terrorist attack in gay nightclub Pulse, in Orlando, Florida, both highlight that prevention is not always possible. The Christmas market attack last month also demonstrates how security organisers and counter terrorist officials cannot be expected to know the locations and timing of terrorist acts, especially when carried out by a lone wolf attacker, as with Omar Mateen in Orlando. Therefore, the importance of focusing attention and efforts into establishing effective systems and procedures that will save lives, limit damage and reduce the impact of terrorist attacks after they have happened become more noticeable. Terrorism, and more specifically how to react to a terrorist attack, should be a major part of an event venue or organiser’s safety plan. Plans should contain all possible situations, and in today’s terrorist climate, the possibility of a terrorist attack is unfortunately more likely than many wish to believe. Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe, retiring Metropolitan Police commissioner, and the government have maintained the stance that an attack remains a ‘when’ not an ‘if’ and that organisers should ‘remain alert, not alarmed’. Remaining alert means remaining E


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SECURITY & COUNTER TERROR EXPO  prepared and confident that the safety and emergency plan is sufficient to deal with a crisis, no matter how it unfolds. Counter terrorist specialists, who will be expected to be the main respondents to any terrorist attack, are unlikely to reach the scene until after the initial damage has been made. It will be the police presence, stewards and security officers who are therefore responsible for acting appropriately from the start. Referring back again to the Paris attacks, an action plan was followed through which saw French President Francois Hollande evacuated from the stadium at half time. More importantly, Hollande met with Interior Minister Bernard Cazeneuve to co-ordinate a response to the emergency, which saw the game continue without a public announcement, meaning that the players and fans were unaware of the situation until the match was completed - other than the social media leaks and the sound of the first explosion echoing around the stadium. Upon the full time whistle, as the players were informed and congregated in the tunnel, the fans were brought onto the pitch to await evacuation as police monitored all the exits around the venue. Furthermore, the German football team spent the night sleeping in the stadium on mattresses alongside their French counterparts, who remained with them as an act of solitude and camaraderie, after being advised not to return to their

hotel for fears of another bomb threat. This was an example of an emergency plan that was seen through and adapted where necessary. The evacuation of the fans, first to the pitch and then escorted by police from the stadium, was carried out, in its first instance, by the stewards and security staff at the stadium. EMERGENCY SAFETY PROCEDURES Returning to the two main bookends of the Paris attacks, the Stade de France and the Bataclan theatre, it is imperative to understand and plan emergency safety procedures according to the requirements of the venue and surrounding areas. The Stade de France is a huge venue in comparison to the Bataclan, which only holds a capacity of 1,500. As a result of the attacks, where three gunmen wearing suicide belts entered the building openly firing and taking hostages, 90 people were killed and over 200 were wounded. While the surprise nature of the attack was detrimental to the initial response, alongside the noise of bullets being mistaken for pyrotechnics, there are key differences between the Bataclan massacre and the attack earlier in the day. Firstly, the Bataclan terrorists, two of whom killed themselves during the later police raid, gained access to the building. Secondly, the possibility to escape was limited by the number of exits and the difficulty to carry through an emergency plan.

According to the BBC News report ‘What happened at the Bataclan?’, a number of lucky survivors were able to escape via an emergency exit onto the street, with a small number also escaping unto the roof. The majority, meanwhile, resorted to taking refuge in toilets and office, or feigning death by laying motionless on the floor. Whilst this vaguely fits into the ‘Run, Hide, Tell’ advice, issued by the National Police Chiefs Council and the National Counter Terrorism Policing, it lacks the cohesive action plan of the Stade de France response team. The circumstances were different, namely the access to the target building, meaning that the approaches and outcomes were always likely to differ, but the importance of clear, instructive guidelines on how to respond to a terror attack cannot be stressed enough.

This article first appeared in submission to Security and Counter Terror Expo as part of Counter Terror Business’ monthly market reports. As media partner to the event, Counter Terror Business will be providing six reports covering the show’s six security capabilities in detail: border security; policing and law enforcement; major events; cyber security; critical national infrastructure; and security services. L






PREVENTING AND MITIGATING LONE ACTOR TERRORIST EVENTS Terrorist attacks carried out by individuals acting alone can be highly damaging. Dr Noemie Bouhana, PRIME Project Coordinator, explains how PRIME aims to improve the prevention, interdiction and mitigation of lone extremist violence

PRIME This is the challenge that PRIME, a €2.9 million EU-FP7-funded research project, has been dealing with for the past three years. Led by University College London, PRIME brings together researchers from the UK, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Israel, who make up multidisciplinary teams of criminologists, political scientists, communication experts, psychologists, engineers and computer scientists. At the outset, PRIME aimed to deliver more than yet another decision-support tool made up of so-called risk factors or risk indicators. The fact is that lone actor profiles change across contexts. So do the characteristics of attacks and the discrete behaviours that precede them. If we were to base our assessment of future threats only on the knowledge of what past events looked like, we would invariably be taken by surprise. This is before we even consider that tools which rely on risk factors perform notoriously poorly when dealing with low base-rate behaviours or that new databases and new analyses tend to only generate new sets of indicators, while leaving no way to estimate their relative significance. Even in problem domains where prevalence rates are higher, data plentiful, and more sophisticated research methodologies are

available, factor-based approaches have shown their limitations: there are now hundreds of known correlates of crime and criminal involvement. Without the means to assess their relative importance, this statistical knowledge alone can’t help us choose or design interventions. In the crime prevention domain, this state of affairs has led to a revaluation of the need for robust analytical frameworks – theoretical tools that synthesise our causal understanding of a given problem. Framework in hand, the analyst can do more than take note of the presence or absence of given indicators. They can generate informed conjectures as to their significance. More importantly, they can recognise and interpret a new indicator in a new context, even if this particular factor has never before appeared in a database. RESEARCH The beauty of theory is that it doesn’t care about base rates. Inspired by this approach, PRIME researchers developed a risk assessment framework (RAF), drawing from some of the most robust research on criminal development and criminal events available to identify the key mechanisms involved in lone actor radicalisation, attack preparation and attack. In turn, the RAF informed data collection on the whole population of lone actor cases in Western Europe and North America between 1990 and 2015 (over 110 cases on close to 200 variables). Data on another set of cases was collected in Israel, where the lone actor problem is particularly acute, on the assumption that modus operandi which emerge in the Middle East tend to travel westward, which recent vehicle-based attacks in Europe appear to have borne out. Data-rich subsets of the Western cases

were then analysed in depth to produce subscripts of the radicalisation, attack preparation and attack phases. In conjunction with the RAF, the subscripts informed the choice of key variables to be included in the integrated analysis of all three phases, using, among other techniques, Bayesian networks, in order to better understand the sequencing and interaction of key indicators during lone actor terrorist events; hence, in order to better understand their meaning. ANALYSIS While the integrated analysis is soon to be completed, the subscripts have already yielded some interesting findings, among them a better appreciation for how, and indeed how much, our so-called lone actors remained socially connected throughout the process, or for the extent to which they leak their intentions prior to their attack, as well as the context, timing and sequencing of this leakage behaviour. As the scripting work nears its conclusion, other teams are wrapping up complementary tasks, which have involved interviewing practitioners whose remit is to deal with the threat, and carrying out nationally representative surveys in the UK and Denmark to test the impact of current UK government communication campaigns. Contrasting, and perhaps challenging, the perspectives of practitioners regarding effective counter-measures in light of our empirical and analytical findings is one of the many contributions PRIME aims to deliver. For further details, please contact Dr Noemie Bouhana. L

Written by Dr Neomie Bouhana, University College London

Terrorist attacks carried out by individuals acting alone remain rare occurrences and it is this rarity which makes lone actor terrorist events hard to detect, disrupt and mitigate. Like other high-impact, low-probability events, these incidents may be preceded by precursor signs (like tremors prior to a volcanic eruption), but in many cases these indicators are hard or even impossible to spot. Given the scarcity of the needles and the sheer size of the haystacks, data-mining strategies are likely to fail. Because these events will always be characterised by incomplete knowledge, strategies devised to investigate and deal with them will do better to include measures which are relatively less sensitive to lack of information. How, then, does one study something that almost never happens?




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Colocated with the Security & Counter Terror Expo, Forensics Europe Expo is the leading annual event for the entire forensic sector and supply chain. Counter Terror Business offers an insight into the conference programme and seminars of 2017’s event


aking place on the 3-4 May 2017 at Olympia London, Forensics Europe Expo is the only international exhibition and conference that showcases the latest equipment and services as well as providing the definitive source of education, best practice, training and networking. Unlike any other event, Forensics Europe Expo offers a unique 360 degree viewpoint of the entire forensics industry; whether your interest is in laboratory equipment, scene of crime, digital investigation or forensic analysis. Hoping to build upon the success of last year, Forensics Europe Expo 2016 saw a 60 per cent increase in new visitors with over 1,250 attendees over the two days. One in three of such attendees said that they would recommend the show to a friends with 84 per cent saying that they would attend the 2017 show. Additionally, there was a 50 per cent increase in exhibitors. CONFERENCE 2017 The Forensic Europe Expo conference has established itself as one of the

most important forums for debate for the international forensics and digital forensics community. It brings together senior opinion formers from all fields of forensic science for a two‑day conference that explores the latest advances in this rapidly evolving discipline. Day one will be dedicated to the changing digital forensic landscape with sessions covering all aspects of computer forensics from e-discovery and network analysis to mobile forensics and CCTV. The second day of the conference will explore the wider forensic landscape from laws and standards to new forensic techniques and innovations being used and developed across the world as well as developments in Familial DNA and cutting edge research in palaeontology and mycology. With the aim of connecting with industry professionals from across the world, key speakers at the conference include: Dr Gillian Tully, UK Forensic Regulator; Giles Herdale, programme director of the Digital Intelligence and Investigation Programme, National Police Chiefs Council; Paul Young, crime

adviser and digital forensics specialist at the National Crime Agency; Brian Donald, chief of staff at Europol; Jane Taylor Barron, National Crime Agency; Marcel de Puit, forensic chemist at Netherlands Forensic Institute; and DS Antti Kurittu, team leader of the IT crimes investigation unit, Helsinki Police. SHAPING THE FUTURE Visitors to day one of the conference will first hear the opening remarks of Peter Sommer, head of digital forensics at Birmingham City University. The opening address will be followed by Dr Gillian Tulley’s presentation on the ‘Latest information on setting the UK standards in forensic science’. Tully has worked in forensic science for over 25 years, specialising in DNA, innovation, validation and enhancement of quality standards. Her work has included provision of expert evidence to courts in the UK and overseas, and extensive collaborative working with forensic practitioners around the world. In November 2014, Gill took up the appointment of Forensic Science Regulator and is responsible for E




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FORENSICS EUROPE EXPO  setting standards in forensic science. Crime has gone digital and the latest ONS figures show that cyber crime and fraud are the new volume crimes. Therefore, Giles Hurdle will host the second conference session on day one of the Forensics Europe Expo on the topic of ‘The digital investigation of the future – challenges and opportunities’. Herdale leads the work to develop the strategic approach of the police service to addressing the threats and opportunities of the digital age. Giles works for CC Stephen Kavanagh, the national policing lead for digital intelligence and investigation, and co-ordinates the work of the Capability Management Group, a collaboration between the National Police Chiefs Council, College of Policing, National Crime Agency and Home Office, to develop police capabilities nationally, regionally and locally. Before the scheduled break in the Exhibition Hall, the National Crime Agency’s Paul Young will focus upon ‘Changing dynamics – digital media in investigations’. The last of the morning’s session will hear from: John Beckwith, head of forensics at Staffordshire Police and project advisor for ISO17025 at the National Police Chiefs Council, who will discuss ‘ISO17025 - working towards implementing minimum digital forensics standards in policing’; Detective Sergeant Adam Riley, of the Homicide Investigation Unit at Queensland Police; and Alex Caithness, principal analyst for CCL Forensics. The afternoon sessions have more of a software feel to them, with Bournemouth University’s Professor Matthew Bennett discussing ‘DigTrace: three-dimensional analysis of footwear traces’. Footwear impressions provide an important source of evidence within a range of criminal investigations, with Bennett exploring the reasons for why in intricate detail. This will be followed by Antti Kurittu, of the National Cyber Security Centre of Finland, who will present on the topic of ‘Kirjuri: An open-source digital forensic evidence management system’. The NCSC-FI is a part of the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority, and Kurittu currently works with incident response at the national CERT and designing cyber exercises for critical infrastructure providers. Peter Sommer will then bring day one of the conference to an end with his closing remarks. DAY TWO Brian Donald will host the first of the sessions on day two of the conference. Donald, who is chief of Staff at Europol, will address ‘The growing and evolving role of forensic science in major international criminal investigations’. ‘The evolving investigative avenue of Familial DNA’ will be explored by Jane Taylor-Barron, crime investigative support officer at the National Crime Agency. In

her role, Taylor-Barron provides strategic and tactical advice to major and serious crime investigations being conducted by police forces or the National Crime Agency. This can involve providing investigative suggestions, linking the SIO in with peer support from around the country, advising on best practice and identifying and co-ordinating other specialist resources from within the NCA that may enhance an investigation. The Netherlands Forensic Institute has developed a database, together with the police, for splinters of glass. The (trace) elemental composition of the glass may prove whether suspects of violent robberies or ATM raids were present at one or more crime scenes. Day two of the conference will hear from Marcel de Puit and Andrew van Es from the Netherlands Forensic Institute. de Puit will be presenting on ‘Fingerprints, the source and beyond – innovative research into the unique composition of fingerprints’, before van Es explains ‘A touch of glass: development of an innovative glass database’. The afternoon sessions will see delegates hear from Dr Claire Gwinnett, associate professor in Forensic and Crime Science, from Staffordshire University, who will conduct a stream on ‘Contamination issues at crime scenes: time for a change... of clothing?’. Furthermore, Michael Allard, a former detective at Massachusetts Police Department, looks at ‘Forensic mapping of crime scenes using laser technology’, providing a comprehensive look into modern crime scene mapping technologies and will discuss the pros and cons of modern mapping tools. Since the history of crime scene investigation, the concern was how to best visualise the scene to the jury. There are many cases worldwide involving the missing and the disappeared. The ongoing search for clandestine graves, the families given hope when a possible location has been found, only to learn that it was another negative result. Addressing this will be Dr Carole Davenport, a forensic anthropologist at Liverpool John Moores University, who hosts a session on ‘Searching for clues: how a combined approach comprising forensic anthropology, archaeology and geology disciplines can breathe new life into crime scene investigations’. SEMINARS 2017 The Seminar & Workshop Theatre at Forensics Europe Expo 2017 will see a range of forensic techniques showcased under the spotlight. Forensic experts will discuss the successes, challenges and lessons that they have faced and learnt to help delegates improve their expertise, and further their career progression by developing their ability to investigate skills and find out about the latest project efficiencies. Topics covered in the Seminar &

OVER 100 COUNTRIES ARE REPRESENTED AT THE SHOW, WITH NEARLY 100 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITORS SHOWCASING OVER 3,000 PRODUCTS Workshop Theatre include: forensic methods and techniques of developing latent fingerprints on different surfaces; high speed gunshot residue analysis; high powered, light-weight, robust forensic lasers; new technology for contactless latent print detection; how advanced mobile phone forensics with camera ballistics brings remarkable new results; and deep diving for forensic gold – applications, and deleted data. The Workshop Theatre is free to attend. EXHIBITION 2017 Over 100 countries are represented at the show, with nearly 100 international exhibitors showcasing over 3,000 products that makes meeting hard‑to‑reach decision makers an easy process. The exhibition serves to connect hard to reach buyers and specifiers with the products that will make a difference in their place of work and wider industry. Exhibitors are able to showcase their latest products and conduct live demonstrations for maximum exposure, with over 85 per cent of exhibitors who attended the 2016 event agreeing that the expo delivers good or excellent return on investment. Visitors and Exhibitors come from all over the world to network and explore opportunities in new markets. Over 25 per cent of visitors attended from outside the UK. Darlene Alvar, global marketing and sales manager for Amped Software, shared her experiences, saying: “Forensics Europe Expo is one of the few international events that is truly focused on digital forensics. We have attended as an exhibitor for the past two years and will attend again in 2017 as we believe this is the place to be to showcase our products to key customers in the UK and other international markets.” L




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Training the public on how to respond to a terrorist attack can make the difference between mass fatalities and small casualties. in light of this, Counter Terror Business analyses the current offering of counter terror training in the UK, and how it can be provided to a wider audience



he worrying rise in terrorist activity over the last few years, provoked by the international prominence of terrorist groups such as Islamic State, Al-Qaeda and Boko Haram, has meant that the need for counter terrorist training has become more desirable and distinguished. With a number of high profile terrorist attacks being organised at large events, where crowded places cause maximum fatality rates, the UK government and police force have been keen to train UK workers to get terror response training. Last April, following the terror attacks in Brussels and Paris at the end of 2015, the National Police Chiefs Council

announced plans to provide training to over one million people who work in crowded places in the UK in how to deal with a possible terrorist attack. Under the premise that everyone will need to play a part in keeping the public alert, the initiative saw an extension to Project Griffin that allows existing trainers at companies to pass on police training and advice to colleagues. PROJECT GRIFFIN: ADVISE AND FAMILIARISE Project Griffin, developed by the City of London Police and introduced in central London in April 2004, aims to advise and familiarise managers, security officers

and employees of public and private sector organisations across the capital on security and counter terrorism issues. Additionally, in the case of April 2016, the initiative targeted public limited companies based in busy city centres and those in the entertainment, sports and retail sectors. Detective chief superintendent Scott Wilson said at the time: “We need everyone to play a part in keeping the public alert, not alarmed. Police can help explain what the threats and risks to different sectors are, but companies are better placed to explain to staff exactly what action they can take to enhance their security and how E



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COUNTER TERROR TRAINING  to respond if the worst happens. Individual organisations have vital protective security information such as building layouts, security equipment and safety procedures. They have the local knowledge that could be vital to keeping staff and the public safe.” Such emphasis on training was carried out in several locations across the UK last year. A training exercise to test the response of police and partners to a terrorist attack was held in Canary Wharf on 28 November, following Scotland Yard officials announcing that it will continue deploying counter terror police spotters across the capital to foil planned attacks. This followed a similar exercise in Carmarthenshire in June 2016, whereby South Wales and Dyfed‑Powys Police conducted a two-day exercise, which included blank gun fire and simulated explosions, to mirror the events of Paris and Brussels. On 5 December 2016, the Security Industry Authority launched a counter terrorism initiative with the Scottish Business Resilience Centre and Police Scotland, which emphasised the importance of initiatives like Project Griffin and Project Argus, which

Europe, appointed a full-time counterterrorism manager, a first for a sports club in the UK. With the potential for the Theatre of Dreams to become the Theatre of Nightmares, the club, now top of Deloitte rich list, has now hired a former inspector from Greater Manchester Police’s specialist search unit. As a stadium, Old Trafford boasts a reasonable security outlay, with every stadium window covered on clear anti‑shatter film in case of an explosion and full body searches and car searches at every home games. However, there have been two significant security breaches at Old Trafford in the past 12 months, including a well publicised fake bomb discovery hours before kick-off against Bournemouth on 15 May and two supporters spending the night in the stadium without detection after evading Old Trafford security by hiding in the stadium toilets before November’s match against Arsenal. Despite the ridicule these situations provoked, the seriousness of the matter should not be overlooked and the actions of Manchester United downplayed. The fake bomb resulted in a full stadium evacuation and the postponement of a match, which are the consequences that

WITH A NUMBER OF HIGH PROFILE TERRORIST ATTACKS BEING ORGANISED AT LARGE EVENTS, WHERE CROWDED PLACES CAUSE MAXIMUM FATALITY RATES, THE UK GOVERNMENT AND POLICE FORCE HAVE BEEN KEEN TO TRAIN UK WORKERS TO GET TERROR RESPONSE TRAINING encourages business preparedness for a terrorist attack. Similarly, the Hereford Business Improvement District is working in partnership with Warwickshire and West Midlands Police to provide a range of free courses and seminars aimed at helping businesses be prepared for a terrorist attack. ENTERTAINMENT SECURITY Speaking to the BBC’s Victoria Derbyshire programme, Baroness Ruth Henig, former chair of the Security Industry Authority, argued that licensing laws should be changed to force entertainment venues around the UK to undergo further counter terror training. London’s The O2 Arena increased its security measures last year with a number of visible and invisible tools, including airport-style security scanners and metal detector wands. However, as one of the largest venues in the country, Henig argues that it can afford to ‘have very well-trained security personnel’ and the financial capability to ‘top up this training regularly’. More recently, Manchester United Football Club, considered by most as the largest and most prominent sporting team in the UK, as well as

would be expected and that security personnel would have to be trained for. However, as Henig pointed out in her Victoria Derbyshire programme interview, there remain questions over the intentions and mindset of smaller venues, who are less able to spend large sums of money to ensure the highest quality security and security training. They are also likely to have less emergency exits, less corridors, stairways and general routes away from the venue. This means that communication and evacuation planning are firmly set in the planning process of the event and that all staff, regardless of their job role, are aware and adequately trained to help move people away from danger if an attack occurs. The biggest dilemma facing anyone responsible for an evacuation plan is how to judge where the safest place might be. For example, if an evacuation route takes people past a suspect device outside your building, or through an area believed to be contaminated, external evacuation may not be the best course of action. An appropriate plan may include full or partial evacuation outside the event area or building, or full or partial evacuation to an internal

AIDING PUBLIC RESPONSE AWARENESS With security services saying a UK terror attack is still highly likely, leading military and civilian medics have urged for essential life saving skills to be taught to relevant staff and the public because, in the event of a terrorist attack, it could take some time before it is deemed safe for paramedics to arrive on the scene. CitizenAID is an app that details how best to deal with injuries in the immediate aftermath of a mass shooting or bombing incident, including instructions on how to treat severe bleeding, which remains one of the major causes of death in these scenarios. Walking app owners through packing, putting pressure on and elevating a wound, the programme also explains how to prioritise those who need treatment first and what to tell the emergency services once they arrive. Richard Harding, chief inspector of the National Counter Terrorism Security Office, told the BBC: “One of the challenges we have is that when a serious incident, particularly a terrorist incident occurs, the first responders from a police perspective to a terrorist incident will inevitably be trying to deal with the people causing the threat. “They won’t have time to deal with the people who are injured and that gap is vital to saving people’s lives. So we are really interested in the concept of CitizenAID. It allows the public and people involved in very rare incidents like this to help themselves and help others and their loved ones survive the situation.”

safe area, such as a protected space. In some cases the evacuation may include all staff apart from designated searchers. It is important that evacuation instructions must be clearly communicated to staff and routes and exits must be well defined. More information on the significance of counter terrorist security at major events can be found in Counter Terror Business’ Major Event market report for the Security & Counter Terror Expo. This report can be read on page 37. For advice on counter terrorism training contact your local Counter Terrorism Security Advisers via the National Counter Terrorism Security Office website – government/organisations/ national-counter‑terrorism‑security‑office L



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B-APCO 2017

Following the success of B-APCO 2016, British APCO returns to the state-of-the-art International Centre, Telford on 21-22 March. Counter Terror Business previews the 2017 show

THE HEART OF UK PUBLIC SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS T he annual conference and exhibition provides the ideal environment in which companies and organisations with a key focus on public safety communications can showcase their products and solutions to a relevant, engaged and targeted audience. Alongside a plethora of the latest technology and solutions from the industry’s top suppliers and sessions exploring and discussing the latest topics, B-APCO 2017 will have more interactive features than ever for you to enjoy. B-APCO will introduce a range of unique feature areas. These will include a Technology Showcase Theatre, Control Rooms Arena, Product Innovation and Connected Vehicle Zone. As well as these, you will have the opportunity to enjoy the Media Zones, and a floor full of interactive and engaging stands. The B-APCO Annual Exhibition and Conference brings together the entire public safety communications sector to source the latest equipment and systems, develop current and make lasting relationships and generate

new business opportunities, establishing itself as the leading and must-attend event in the UK for the sector. Yet with the rapid evolution of technologies, and the constant shift of policy and challenging requirements of users, it is now more important than ever to stay abreast of the issues affecting you. B-APCO 2016 was a major success, and for the first time organised by the publishers of Land Mobile, TETRA Today and award-winning events team MA Exhibitions, combining some of the most respected organisations and drawing on a wealth of knowledge and expertise, the 2017 event will re-focus, re‑energise and re-engage with you, the public sector communications professional in mind. SPECIAL FEATURES AND THEATRES In 2017, B-APCO will introduce a range of unique feature areas. These will include a Technology Showcase Theatre, Control Rooms Arena, Product Innovation and Connected Vehicle Zone. As well as these, you will have the opportunity to enjoy E



B-APCO 2017

THE B-APCO ANNUAL EXHIBITION AND CONFERENCE BRINGS TOGETHER THE ENTIRE PUBLIC SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR TO SOURCE THE LATEST EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS, DEVELOP CURRENT AND MAKE LASTING RELATIONSHIPS AND GENERATE NEW BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES, ESTABLISHING ITSELF AS THE LEADING AND MUST-ATTEND EVENT IN THE UK FOR THE SECTOR  the Media Zones, and a floor full of interactive and engaging stands. The hive of activity at the centre of the show floor, the Technology Showcase Theatre features a wide range of the latest solutions and products being demonstrated live. Topics in 2016 included Control Rooms of the Future, Collaboration, the Trillion Project, Satellite Comms, Hybrid Environments and Next Generation Mobility Solutions and Services, from leading suppliers. At the heart of any public safety operation is the control room. The rapidly changing technology available for deployment is matched only by the changing nature of the incidents control rooms face across the globe. Both aspects pose significant challenges to operators, alongside increasing pressure for efficiency and a reduced budget. FINDING THE RIGHT ZONE From the latest handsets and state of the art UAVs, to the latest applications and fully kitted out vehicles, there’s something for everyone. Not only will you have the opportunity to see and learn about next-level technology, you will have the chance to vote for the product you believe will have the greatest impact on public safety communications. Showcasing the latest of in-vehicle capabilities across all blue-light agencies. The transition to ESN opens up whole new possibilities for this rapidly developing sector – from telematics to live infrared streaming from multiple sources, the offering for public safety professionals is vast. Speak to experts on how you can maximise your agency’s

in-vehicle capability, and how that can improve overall operational efficiency. ANNUAL DINNER The B-APCO annual dinner is renowned as ‘the’ night in the public safety communications calendar, attracting the UK’s most talented individuals, teams and companies. By attending the dinner, you will have the opportunity to network with 300 fellow public safety communications professionals and enjoy world class entertainment. The B-APCO annual dinner will conveniently take place on the evening of Tuesday 21 March, in the Ironbridge Suite at the International Centre, Telford. For 2017, British APCO will be presenting the inaugural B-APCO Product Innovation Award – to the product voted most innovative by visitors on the first day of the show. L


THE DOS OF VISITING B-APCO 2017 1 Go in with a plan Having a clear idea of what you want to get out of the visit will lend you purpose and prevent you staggering wide-eyed around the exhibition as if you don’t know what you’re doing. Your plan doesn’t have to be exhaustive, but definitely bullet‑point a couple of targets. They might include listening to a specific keynote presentation; finding one new idea you can implement when you get back; or stopping by a couple of exhibitors to get different perspectives on ESN-ready devices. Your game plan can be drawn up from the comfort of your office by logging on to Here you’ll find the full conference programme, plus a list of exhibitors. 2 Pre-register Pre-registering ahead of the event means you can breeze past the registration desk on 21-22 March. Registering early also allows you to pre-book conference and workshop sessions that you want to make a beeline for. And, we’ll also be able to email you updates about what’s coming up in the show, additions to the programme and any special events that might be taking place. Register for your space now at 3 See as much as you can As you’ll see from looking through this preview, the show is made up of a variety of fantastic areas and events, including the conference, innovation zone, technology showcase and much more. Each offers a different style of learning, and it’s only by visiting all of them that you’ll be able to maximise the value from your visit. 4 Bring the team Turning your visit into a team activity will allow you to cover the conference sessions, exhibition and technology/innovation areas much more effectively than you could hope to manage on your own. Places are free so you won’t incur additional costs for bringing a colleague or two. If you do attend as a group, establish who’s covering which show areas in your pre-visit debrief to prevent any duplicated efforts. Allocating responsibilities by content area would be a good place to start. E The don’ts of visiting B-APCO 2017, p71






The modernisation of the UK’s defence and security industries has been firmly on the agenda over the last few years. With Mike Stone’s lead, the MoD, for example, is proving the adoption of more common IT and standardised technologies can deliver a leaner, more agile IT operation which can better support soldiers actively involved in training and warfare Many technological innovations are starting to be tested and used in high risk and defence situations and to support security operations in the UK. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), robots and robotic carrying systems and artificial intelligence are all proving their worth in these industries and creating automation of important tasks and ultimately improve safety. Teams are also looking at ‘consumer-grade’ mobile devices with the aim of achieving better communication and productivity in the field. Put off by specific rugged devices that are all too often perceived to be heavy and cumbersome, it’s easy to see the appeal of consumer devices. But in this instance, these sorts of devices will invariably fail quickly as they lack the robustness and reliability to meet the needs of dismounted soldiers, security and defence workers, or survive the environments they operate in. In the case of mobile devices, there needs to be a balance that will provide soldiers and security workers the right technology to meet their data and security needs. Mission-critical tasks need specialist technology which is reliable and resilient, and designed with the use case in mind; it needs to be portable, easy to use, and can withstand harsh environments as well as be interoperable with other necessary technology used by defence personnel. So what are the key considerations for mobile devices for use in the field by dismounted soldiers, security workers or first responders: SECURITY In defence and security, more and more data is being transmitted from various locations, so security of sensitive and critical data and the need for device and data encryption and protection against hacks are the most important considerations when choosing mobile technology. Innovations at the system of chip level (SOC) are providing additional levels of assurance, but for the robust requirements of defence data protection is a must.This includes encryption and extends to system hardening, peripheral


control and centralised management, all of which significantly improves the ability to control devices, enforce security policies, and provide audit trails and reporting, while reducing support and maintenance overheads. It also gives administrators complete control, so they can create separate encrypted user accounts or personas, enforce strong authentication, and manage different application and device policies. To counter any limitations of software and hardware encryption, blister packs and bolt ons for specialist devices can be added that meet the hardware security required by government. CONNECTIVITY Connectivity is also among the top criteria when looking to new technologies for defence personnel who need to be able to communicate quickly and securely access and transmit critical data in real-time. Reliable connectivity allows field data to be rapidly captured, analysed and sent back to base in real time, for enhanced accuracy, efficiency, situational assessment and response and even, in some instances, be the difference between life and death. Defence uses a number of specialist connectors – either for legacy soldier or modern soldier systems – that are only made by a handful of manufactures, and are not available on consumer-grade devices. In specialist devices, the manufacturer can customise devices so that connections are mounted in the the best location on the device depending on how and where it will be used by the soldier. USABILITY Equipment to be used by defence is expected to stand the test of high-risk environments, drops, vibrations, spillages, extreme temperatures and even chemicals, but consumer devices will quickly fail in these situations. Only specialist rugged devices that have been tested against stringent industry standards are going to be able to withstand these environments. The dismounted soldier will likely need a

device to support operation in temperatures of between minus 21 degrees celsius pushing up to 60 degrees celsius. These workers are often required to wear specific protective clothing and technology needs to work within these conditions, so for example, it’s important to look for a touch-screen that will operate with gloves, or that can be clearly seen in low or bright light conditions and is compatible with night vision goggles (NVGs). Other productivity and efficiency features include barcode scanners, RFID readers, cameras and even fingerprint recognition sign on. ADOPTION AND IMPLEMENTATION Getac, a trusted provider of rugged technology for military and defence, provides rugged alternatives to consumer-grade mobile devices that are lightweight, compact, reliable and offer the features, functionality, security and connectors specifically required by defence. There is much to consider when looking to adopt new mobile technologies within defence and security. Pilot testing is one of the best ways to find out if a device is fit for specific purposes as workers put them through their paces in the field. It’s also a great way to ensure the adoption of the devices; workers need to understand and be able to work with equipment if it is going to deliver the ROI and efficiency improvements they promise. L FURTHER INFORMATION Tel: +44 (0) 1952 207 222


B-APCO 2017

THE DON’TS OF VISITING B-APCO 2017 1 Be afraid to approach exhibitors One party shuffles on the fringes trying to avoid eye contact, while the other plays it cool from the safety of their table in the coffee area… the typical exchange between trade show visitor and exhibitor borrows body language straight out of the sixth form leaving disco. This is baffling because both parties have a vested interest in breaking the ice. After all, visitors want to know how the supplier’s solution might help them better-protect the public. Exhibitors want to meet and greet with potential new clients. So, visitors, don’t dilly-dally on the edges of a stand – be bold and purposeful. Approach an exhibitor who doesn’t make the first move. Adopt a friendly tone and ask open questions such as how might your product help me?; how are you finding the show?; what does this product you’re exhibiting actually do? Exhibitors, in return please avoid crossed arms, thousand yard stares and heads buried in laptops. If both sides can take that on board then we look forward to watching some beautiful relationships blossom at the show.

2 Cram too much in Dashing from conference hall to workshop theatre while trying to email your chief superintendent from the work phone is both a health and safety hazard and counterproductive.  Try and dedicate sufficient time to soak up the show’s many features. A half‑to‑full day will give you scope for multiple conference sessions, a walk around the B-APCO 2017 exhibition floor, as well as time for dropping in on a workshop. Remember that there’s nothing stopping you from coming back again the following day, and you won’t incur a charge for visiting the show twice. While you are there, we do encourage you to turn your phone on its silent setting and focus entirely on the array of learning opportunities available to you.

3 Forget to ask questions and network All of our conference and technology showcase theatre seminars will conclude with a Q&A, which is your chance to tap into the expertise of some of the most respected minds in the sector. Don’t be shy – put your hand up and take advantage. Many of our speakers will also be staying on to see the show, so there opportunities to pick their brains after they leave the podium. The networking doesn’t have to stop there though. The show floor will be a hive of business and service improvement conversations, so don’t be afraid to discuss the state of your smart device roll-out to your neighbour in the cloakroom queue. Everyone attending is doing so in the spirit of promoting and spreading UK public safety communications excellence.



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UK SECURITY EXPO Having been media partner at November’s UK Security Expo, Counter Terror Business looks back at the key figures, discussions and products found at the leading security event in the UK



ith a 49 per cent increase in visitors year on year, UK Security Expo 2016 brought together 7,132 high-end international attendees from 81 countries and eight core sectors, including: transport, government, energy, major events, communications, finance, utilities and the private sector. On top of this, 189 exhibitors supported the six co-located conferences, where over 150 expert speakers shared their knowledge, advice and opinion on a wide array of topics that are threatening the security of nations across the globe. The success of the event highlighted the need for a high-end large scale security event which could deliver a global audience of heads of public and private sector security to London. Such a need was highlighted by Admiral Lord West, Advisory Board chairman and former Security Minister, and echoed by current Minister of State for Security Ben Wallace. Speaking at the show, West said: “There’s been a strong desire from the government for a number of years, starting during my time as Security Minister, for the UK to host a blockbuster security show welcoming a global top-level audience to London. and, here it is, UK Security Expo supported by HM Government. A long time coming and I’m thrilled to see such a positive take up with over 200 major brand names exhibiting.” Transport and government were the most represented sectors at the show, with 23 per cent and 17 per cent respectively, while 83 per cent of visitors surveyed declared their interest in returning to the 2017 event. The 7,132 attendees spanned from 81 countries, although 72 per cent came from within the UK itself. Most importantly, 88 per cent of attendees rated the sessions and features as excellent or good, showing an increasing appetite and appreciation for security expertise and counter terrorism best practice.

DESIGNING OUT TERRORISM Consistently returning to its Design | Secure | Respond format, the highlight of the show was the Designing Out Terrorism conference, a one-day conference specifically targeting and attracting an important new audience that influence and specify security from the outset – whether that be planning a new airport, power station or a stadium. A range of security, design and resilience subject matter experts afforded the Designing Out Terrorism conference a tremendous array of topics and subjects for discussion which considered everything from ‘designing for security’ to ‘new security assessments and certification schemes for buildings and infrastructure’.

WITH A 49 PER CENT INCREASE IN VISITORS YEAR ON YEAR, UK SECURITY EXPO 2016 BROUGHT TOGETHER 7,132 HIGH-END INTERNATIONAL ATTENDEES FROM 81 COUNTRIES AND EIGHT CORE SECTORS Highlights of the day included sessions on the ‘Design and security consideration for Intelligent Buildings’ as well as ‘The role of security engineering in designing out terrorism’. Other highlights were talks on ‘Cyber securing the built environment’ and ‘The impact of terrorism on urban design. Jon Coaffee, director of the Resilient Cities Laboratory at the University of Warwick, delivered two memorable sessions within the Designing Out Terrorism Conference, covering ‘Planning for threat and uncertainty’ and ‘Securing soft spaces: anticipation, intelligence and resilient governance’. Jon has revisited some aspects of his talks and contributed two further articles to this issue of Lord Jonathan Evans, Former Head of MI5, speaks at UK Security Expo

Counter Terror Business, addressing the impact of terrorism and other security concerns on the design of urban areas (page 79) and the use of social media in counter terrorism operations (page 83). THE GLOBAL TERRORISM CONFERENCE The problem of security and other counter terrorism measures can no longer be fought individually by nations. Cross border threats, particularly within Europe, Asia and Africa, mean that cooperation and collaboration are key tools in how a country operates its security and border protection. In light of this, the Global Counter Terrorism conference was a triumph of detailed discussion and expert assessments of the range of threats posed to the global community. An all-star cast of speakers shared their insights, knowledge and opinions on a wide range of topics and gave their predications for the future of global security, with standing room only for many of the sessions. The Grand Debate on the afternoon of day one was particularly topical covering the Implications for Global Security from the incoming Trump Presidency. With Trump now a few weeks into his Presidency, it is likely that the debate will continue to fuel security discussions, and it would be wise to expect the Republican to dominate discussions at 2017’s show as well. Day two of the conference continued the high level themes and expert participation from distinguished guest speakers Sir Charles Montgomery, director general of Border Force, who talked on the subject of ‘The UK’s border security strategy’ and Lord Jonathan Evans of Weardale, former director general of MI5, who made the keynote address on the topic of ‘Security implications for the UK arising from the decision to leave the EU’. TRANSPORT SECURITY Celebrating it’s 14th year, Transport Security Expo (Transec) 2016 took place on-site at the UK Security Expo, focusing on the secure movement of people and goods in aviation, maritime, public and commercial transportation. Ensuring safety while minimising disruption is a huge challenge for the transport industry, whether it be when moving people or goods between countries. The nature of these operations offers opportunities for terrorist activity – and indeed other E


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UK SECURITY EXPO  criminal behaviour such as smuggling – so it is vital that security is tailored to the specific operation and level of risk without compromising viability. Day one of the Transport Security conference focused on aviation security with sessions from a world class line of speakers addressing topics including security at the ‘back of the airport’, capacity building in airport security, capability building beyond compliance and security assurance, checkpoint security, border management security solutions, security and border control processes and innovations, behavioural detection and deterrents in aviation security and the cyber security challenges facing global air traffic management. Day two of the conference moved on to focus on maritime security where a series of subject matter experts discussed developments in maritime security, the role of technology in protective and physical security at ports, mitigating cyber threats in the maritime environment, global developments in maritime security threats and the challenge of piracy. MAINTAINING SAFETY AT MAJOR EVENTS The Major Events conference presented a multiplicity of expert presentations tackling the challenges facing major events security and sharing knowledge and insight on mitigation strategies and solutions. One of the absolute highlights of the

conference was the keynote address from Security Minister Ben Wallace, who shared his passion for security with the audience. Other notable talks featured speakers from the UK government, the National Counter Terrorism Security Office (NaCTSO), the Institute of Civil Protection and Emergency Management (ICPEM), the Sports Grounds Safety Authority (SGSA), the United Kingdom Crowd Management Association (UKCMA) and London Fire Brigade, who all generously shared their knowledge and insights on topics including ‘Lessons from recent soft target attacks’, ‘Integrating safety and security at sports grounds’, ‘Crowded Places Demonstrator - high throughput screening protecting crowded places’, ‘Crowd risk analysis and crowd safety for major events’, ‘Emerging challenges in crowd management for major events’, ‘Major events resilience planning and incident response’ and ‘Lessons from major events security planning’. With a similar focus, the Protecting Crowded Places conference drilled into key areas of risk for crowded places which have been brought all too much attention by recent soft target attacks. Experts addressed topics pertinent to the mitigation of the threat of crowded places which included ‘Blasts and their effects on buildings and crowded places’, ‘Lessons from recent soft target attacks’, ‘Securing soft spaces’ and ‘Protect and Prepare game changers’.

The discussion then moved on to the response to attack, with talks on key subject areas including: ‘Emergency services interoperability and multi‑agency response’, ‘Fire Rescue Service role in responding to terrorist incidents in crowded places’, ‘Responding to CBRNE events in crowded places’ and ‘Emergency planning, crowd management and the integration of blue‑light services and private security operations’. EXHIBITING PRODUCTS AND SERVICES 197 companies exhibited at UK Security Expo 2016, including leading manufacturers, systems integrators and small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) supplying to the global security sector. A cross section of suppliers were present including video analytics, biometrics, surveillance, perimeter security, intrusion detection, cyber security, integrated systems, blast containment, EOD/IEDD, UAV and training and consultancy. The exhibition floor was buzzing on both days and over 90 per cent of exhibitors rebooked on-site for 2017. UK Security Expo 2017 will be moving into the larger grand hall at London Olympia on 29-30 November 2017. L











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UK SECURITY EXPO Having presented at December’s UK Security Expo, Jon Coaffee, professor in the Resilient Cities Lab at the University of Warwick, addresses the impact of terrorism and other security concerns on the design of urban areas



uch has changed since the deployment of militarised forms of urban design in the wake of 9/11. Terrorist attacks have become more sophisticated, employing tactics and targeting locations which negate these traditional deterrents. The challenge for now is to develop innovative counter-responses which balance the security effectiveness and social and political acceptability of designed-in security measures. THE TARGETING OF ‘SOFT’ SPACES Defending vulnerable urban spaces of Western cities against the ever‑changing nature of terrorism has long occupied state security services. But until 9/11 seldom did these have major impacts upon everyday life in the city, or upon the practice of built environment professionals such as town planners, civil engineers, architects and developers. As we have seen most recently from the recent attacks across continental Europe, the modus operandi of terrorists has changed significantly since the millennium. Vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices targeting major financial or political centres have been replaced by person-borne improvised explosive devices – especially suicide attacks – and subsequently Fedayeen-style mass shooting attacks and the deliberate targeting of crowds with fast-moving vehicles. Consequently, traditional territorial counter terrorism approaches

THE INITIAL SWATHE OF SECURITY BOLLARDS AND BARRIERS THAT LITTERED THE LANDSCAPE OF MANY CITIES AFTER 9/11 IS GIVING WAY TO MORE SUBTLE ALTERATIONS IN THE URBAN LANDSCAPE – the construction of defensive cordons, or ‘rings of steel’ where access is restricted and surveillance significantly enhanced – are largely inadequate and have been rethought given the increased appreciation of the changing threat. Although debates continue about the relationship between new and traditional threats, the methods and tactics adopted by terror groups are increasingly novel, innovative and focused on mass casualty strikes or multiple coordinated attacks. Such attacks are tactically aimed at soft targets and more generally crowded places that cannot be altered without radically changing citizen experience of such, largely, public places. THE LOOK AND FEEL OF SECURITY Over the last decade, processes of urban revitalisation have become increasingly influential in urban policy‑making, emphasising inclusivity,

liveability and accessibility. However, these ‘quality‑of‑life’ issues sit uneasily beside concerns to design out terrorism. Attacks against ‘soft’ public spaces have necessitated that in ‘at risk’ areas security becomes part of the urban design process and is proportionate to the risk faced. In the aftermath of 9/11 many unrefined and obtrusive security features were quite literally ‘thrown’ around key sites, as security installations needed to be ‘seen to be doing something’ – employing features that are relatively effective at stopping vehicles carrying explosives penetrating defined urban spaces (notably reinforced steel barriers, bollards or concrete ‘planters’) but which were not necessarily socially acceptable nor aesthetically pleasing. Moreover, the ‘guns, guards, gates’ posture adopted was counterproductive owing to the way such measures can serve to enhance fear of attack. To improve this process, over recent years, a range of built environment professionals have been encouraged and trained to be involved in security design, working alongside dedicated security professionals, to provide more specialised input into interventions within the public realm. As a result, the initial swathe of security bollards and barriers that littered the landscape of many cities after 9/11 is slowly giving way to more subtle alterations in the urban landscape that seek to balance the need to provide effective physical security with aesthetic and social impact considerations (although in many cases bollard-type solutions still prevail or have been retained). It is now often argued that the introduction of additional security features should not, where possible, negatively impact upon everyday economic and democratic activities. This realisation has led to a predominant view that security features should be as unobtrusive as possible. In response to this challenge we now see security features being increasingly camouflaged and subtlety embedded within the urban landscape so that to the general public they do not obviously serve a counter terrorism purpose. E



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UK SECURITY EXPO  Examples of such ‘stealthy’ features include ornamental or landscaped measures such as balustrades or artwork erected as part of public-realm ‘streetscape’ improvements that have deliberately designed-in security more attractively and inconspicuously whilst still providing a hostile vehicle mitigation (HVM) functionality, with designs capable of stopping a seven tonne truck travelling at 50 miles per hour. EVOLVING PROTECTIVE COUNTER TERRORIST SECURITY Evolving urban security strategies seeking to counter terrorism are attempting to balance the twin aims of security effectiveness and social and political acceptability. Since 9/11 a much more proactive and integrated approach to protective ‘designed-in’ counter terrorist security in cities has emerged where instead of reacting at pace, a more reflexive response is now possible. This takes into account issues such as proportionality and aesthetics of design, as well as developing a strategic framework whereby many more stakeholders – notably planners, architects and designers – are given responsibility for delivering the agenda. Protective counter terrorism is no longer just a police and security services issues as many professional and practice communities, together with the general public, are being enrolled in the fight against terrorism.

Over time the dynamic nature of the terrorist threat and the occurrence of particular incidents has meant that design-based counter terrorist activity have remained in flux, tempered by the increasing cost of urban security in an age of austerity as well as the reluctance of urban developers to consider significant security improvements within their designs. The lack of a regulatory requirement designed-in security has also been re‑emphasised by 2016 attacks events in Paris, Nice, Brussels and elsewhere as well as highlighted in an independent report on London’s preparedness for a major terrorist incident. Here it was argued that ‘London becomes a city where security and resilience is designed in and is part of the city’s fabric’. To this end the author argued that government should introduce a statutory obligation for resilience to be designed into new and existing buildings. Most recently, the international reaction to the attack on a Berlin Christmas market in December 2016 has served to illuminate that the difficulties in balancing reactive and proactive counter terrorism elements within the built environment and in many areas has brought us full circle back to immediate post-9/11 responses. In the wake of the Berlin attack the media has been awash with security experts promoting the virtues of hostile vehicle mitigation measures to restrict access to ‘Trojan’ vehicle attacks whist on the ground, markets and other public spaces

across Europe have put in place makeshift security and extra visible policing to quell the fears of the public. For example, those in charge of security at the annual German market in Birmingham, UK, installed a series of concrete blockers, wooden crates filled with earth (although a number were empty) and plastic barriers as temporary security measures. Moreover, in a repeat of events in the early 1990s, designing out terrorism schemes based on the ‘ring of steel’ principle also resurfaced in the City of London based on armed checkpoints, rising security bollards and crash-proof barricades. This was in response to a report that identified newly established areas of the City as ‘highly sensitive to a hostile vehicle‑borne security threat’. Such an area-based approach to physical protective security – a long held aspiration of counter terrorism professionals – represents one vision of how designing out terrorisms might proceed if attacks remain an everyday fear in crowded city locations. But the question remains, how do you proportionally protect soft-targets from terrorism through designed-in interventions? L FURTHER INFORMATION


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Audax showcasing at Europe's top security show Body Body Worn Worn Video Video pioneers pioneers Audax AudaxGlobal GlobalSolutions Solutions are showcasing at Europe’s top are showcasing at Europe's top international international Security Security and and Counter Counter Terror Terror exhibition exhibitionininLondon’s London's Olympia – 3rd-4th May 2017. Olympia - from the 30th November to 1st December 2016. The team at Audax will be displaying our body worn video cameras, and introducing our new 'BIO-AX' technology for which we recently secured 772,000 euros from the European Union to develop high-tech body worn security cameras and scanners. The UK UK based based digital digital technology technology company company was was handed handed the the grant grantunder underthe theEU’s EU'sHorizon Horizon2020 2020programme programmeto to The fund research and innovation to develop body worn camera and scanning systems that can be used to fund research and innovation to develop body worn camera and scanning systems that can be used to check check people, baggage, andprotecting airports, protecting critical infrastructure with video live stream people, baggage, vehiclesvehicles at ports at andports airports, critical infrastructure with live stream to video torooms. control rooms. control

Audax join aanumber numberofofinternational internationalcompanies companies Audax will will join exhibiting atthe theLondon London security showcase", said exhibiting at security showcase”, said Audax Audax Adam “Liardet. "We understand directordirector Adam Liardet. the European Commissionthat the Commission will be one in attendance are European very supportive of Audax as also we are of the very as weUK are one of the few UK based 'Project few based ‘Project Champions’ and they are closely Champi-ons' andsuccess they are supportive monitoring our atvery events like this”of Audax." Mr Liardet, Liardet, said: “We Mr "We are are very verygrateful gratefultotothe theEUEUand and the Commission Commission and and it's it’s a huge win for the for us. us. As Assecurity security crosses borders it will crosses will provide provideaareturn returnfor forthe theEU, EU, in in so muchthat thatitit will will benefit from andand so much fromjob jobcreation creation enhanced security." security.” enhanced "Although early next year “Although our our project project is is for for two two years, years, Audax Audax plans plans to to pilot pilot demos demos and and carry carry out out market market testing testing in early 2017 with selected organizations." with selected organisations.”

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UK SECURITY EXPO Jon Coaffee, professor in the Resilient Cities Lab at the University of Warwick, discusses the use of social media in counter terrorism operations



n recent years new security threats have emerged alongside conventional risks to urban areas. Most notable amongst these has been the targeting of crowded places by terrorists in mass-casualty, no-warning attacks. Whilst most counter-responses have taken the form of designed-in interventions linked to hostile vehicle mitigation, emerging technologies, particularly social media, are playing an increasingly key role in counter terrorist operations before, during and after terrorist incidents.

SOCIAL MEDIA IS NOW A CORE POLICE TOOL ALLOWING POLICE TO ASK FOR AND RECEIVE INFORMATION FROM CITIZENS INSTANTANEOUSLY Social media – Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and others – is now a core police tool allowing police to ask for and receive information from citizens instantaneously and provide a monitoring function. Its uptake presents a number of opportunities to enhance the resilience of crowded public

places: advanced system monitoring; improved analytical capabilities; better coordinated information flow between multiple public agencies; better and faster communication with the public; and, more generally, an enhanced ability to utilise a greater amount of data and information more quickly. These facets of social media use are being explored on a new European Union Horizon 2020 project – MEDIA@4SEC – which is focused upon enhancing understanding of the opportunities, challenges and ethical considerations of social media use for public security that can be used by end‑users to improve their decision making. THE USE OF SOCIAL MEDIA But how do law enforcement authorities use social media before, during and after a terror attack? How can law enforcement authorities use crowd‑sourced social media to assist live anti-terror operations and enhance their situational awareness? And, what is the overall effect of social media use during incidents? Does it shift the tactical advantage from counter terror officials to the perpetrators? Recent international experiences of responding to terrorists events have illuminated a range of ways in which policing practice is adapting to the new social media landscape. One important adaptation is the increasing use made

of social media to dispel rumours that can become toxic to an ongoing operation if left unchecked. Police are increasingly using social media during counter terror operations to quash rumours by proactively intervening in discussions and conversations and, in doing so, assist their own operations. But this is not without its drawbacks. For example, during the operation in the wake of the Boston Marathon bombing of 2013, negative outcomes resulted from the FBI’s attempts to use social media to identify the perpetrators through actively engaging with citizens on social media. This led to online ‘trials’ of innocent people who had been wrongly identified by Reddit users and starkly illuminated the dangers of do-it-yourself policing by the public. SITUATIONAL AWARENESS Other pressing quandaries for coping with live terror events include how to best cope with live video-sharing of tactical security operations during incidents, or attackers tweeting during an event. For example, during the Sydney siege in 2014, tweets highlighting police activity that could be viewed online served to enhance the perpetrator’s situational awareness and hence capacity to execute the attack. Similarly, during the Westgate shopping centre attack in Nairobi in 2014 the perpetrators used Twitter to claim responsibility for, E

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Jon Coaffee is a Professor at the University of Warwick ( and coordinator of the MEDI@4SEC project.



UK SECURITY EXPO  and live tweet throughout, the attack in an attempt to control the narrative of the event as it unfolded. KEY COMMUNICATIONS Most recently, 2016 attacks in Munich and Berlin have once again highlighted myriad ways social media can be utilised to aid public security. On 22 July 2016, a mass shooting (downgraded later from terrorism) occurred in the vicinity of the Olympia Shopping Mall Munich, Germany. Ten people were killed and 36 injured. In this highly fluid situation, Munich police showed how social media can be a force of good in a crisis by keeping people informed with key communications on a regular basis, in several languages. Facebook activated its Safety Check feature so people in the area could let their friends and relatives know if they are safe (a feature also activated in Nice on 14 July when a 19‑tonne truck was deliberately driven into a crowd killing 86 people and injuring over 400). Moreover, citizens became actively involved when thousands of people stranded by the emergency and unable to get home were offered shelter by local residents via Twitter hashtag #Offenetür (open door). Tweets sent by Munich police during the live operation also advised citizens to stay inside and avoid public places amidst concerns crowded areas might be attacked – #Munich Police: “We currently do not know where the

perpetrators are. Watch out and avoid public places.” After the first shooting, rumours spread like digital wildfire on social media of possible further attacks in other parts of the city and of terrorists on the loose in the public transport system. However social media use was not exclusively positive, illuminating a critical tension regarding the sharing of information during a live event. During the incident the Munich police pleaded with social-media users via its Twitter account to show respect by not sharing photographs of any victims. Additionally, tweets were sent during the incident asking the public not to share tactical information with the attackers. After the crisis passed, the police condemned those who had used social media to spread rumours and ‘play a wretched game with fear’. Via Twitter, Munich police warned that ‘people who come up with such rumours should be prepared for us’. In contrast, after the attack the police tweeted to ask the public to upload material for evidence gathering. Five months later when a lorry was driven at a Christmas market crowd in West Berlin killing 12 and injuring 56, a similar strategic pattern of social media activity emerged; on Twitter people were told to stay at home and not to spread rumours or divulge ongoing operations. ‘Suspicious’ people nearby were arrested (and subsequently released), #Breitscheidplatz was established so that citizens could follow developments, and a ‘safety

check’ page was activated in Facebook. What these cases highlight are the need for law enforcement agencies to take into account social media developments which have added a new dimension to terrorist activity, and created a series of implementation challenges for police forces in using social media for live counter terrorism operations. Notably it showcases a need to learn from practice, advance strategic frameworks for using social media and develop a clearer understanding of how social media can and cannot be used for public security purposes, in so doing enhancing the ability of policing to respond effectively to similar events in the future. This in itself will require enhanced training opportunities – especially around ethical, legal and data protection considerations when social media is employed – and new technical and governance frameworks to effectively manage social media. Moreover, the cases in Munich and Berlin highlight that security is not just a police responsibility and that citizens can play an active role during events and in the post event investigative phase through do-it-yourself policing activities or citizen investigative journalism, but that such involvement needs to be effectively and responsibly managed. L











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UK SECURITY EXPO Tony Smith, global border security consultant and former director general of the UK Border Force, looks at the pressures upon our border agencies and how technology is both aiding and challenging border security efforts within the UK


lot has been said and written about border security over the past 18 months. The horrendous attacks in Paris, Brussels and Berlin have reminded us that a primary function of border control is to protect the indigenous population from harm. Yet time after time we see fundamental flaws in border security which have allowed terrorists to travel unchallenged across international borders; and around the borderless Schengen zone, often with no identity papers and sometimes with lethal weapons. So what can be done? Are modern day border controls fit for purpose? How can we continue to promote free travel and trade – and all the good things that globalisation brings – whilst at the same time protecting our people from harm? There is no doubt that pressures upon our border agencies are greater than ever before. With predictions of a doubling in global air traffic over the next 20 years, and a quadrupling in the amount of freight by 2050, volume continues to rise inexorably. Civil war and unrest in many parts of the world means that a record 65 million people have now fled their homes, in search of refuge elsewhere. The decision of the British people to leave the European Union after 50 years – based significantly around fears of immigration and population growth – has led to significant turmoil about the future of Schengen, the Customs Union and the EU itself. The presidential election in the United States was won largely on a nationalist philosophy; with promises of much tougher border controls and enforcement than ever before. And meanwhile terrorist attacks of various size and complexion continue to threaten our way of life. Of course, there is no easy answer to any of this. But there are lessons we can learn from the past; indeed lessons

that we ignore at our peril. Having been in leadership roles in government during times of severe crisis, I can see some substantial parallels between the challenges facing us today and those we have faced before. Having spent a good deal of time attending expert conferences and events around the globe over the past two years, I know full well that modern day border management demands that we must make best use of all the assets, people, technology and intelligence at our disposal to deliver the three fundamental principles of border management. ADOPTING STRONG STRATEGIES Firstly, we need to espouse the multiple borders strategy wherever and whenever we can. Simply put, this means checking everyone and everything we can – and as thoroughly as we can – at the earliest possible point in the journey. By working together to build systems and processes to share and analyse data in advance of travel. Not just between the control agencies themselves – but also with the airlines, the shipping companies, the airport authorities, the freight companies and so on. With the use of better and smarter technology, this is much more achievable these days than it was in the past. Secondly, we need a proper strategy for managing identity. This means that we must embrace the sensible and proportionate use of biometrics in the traveller continuum. Developments in passport technology – and especially the capacity to store biometric and biographic data on machine readable chips – opens up a vast array of opportunities for border control that were also not available in the past. Increasingly, more and more countries are demanding biometrics from travellers in their visa, border and immigration systems. Capturing and verifying an


identity from the outset – and being able to verify it at each stage of the journey, and even in country for entitlement purposes – provides huge opportunities to facilitate genuine travel whilst at the same time deterring unlawful, harmful or illegitimate travel. Which is ultimately the vision for all of us. And thirdly, countries must embrace the principles of integrated border management. This was a major failure identified in reports about the worst terrorist attacks in history. The 9/11 report identified that as many as 15 of the 19 hijackers were potentially vulnerable to interception by border authorities. Analysing their characteristic travel documents and travel patterns could have allowed authorities to intercept four to 15 hijackers; and more effective use of information available in U.S. government databases could have identified up to three hijackers. Yet in the Paris attacks over 14 years later, at least seven of the attackers were believed to have travelled to Syria to fight for ISIL and return undetected. All the attackers were known to the police – some for crime, some for terrorism, some for both. And two of the attackers were fingerprinted at the Greek border six weeks earlier, posing as refugees in the migrant crisis. E



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UK SECURITY EXPO  BORDER CONTROL AND HOME GROWN TERRORISM Integrated border management doesn’t take place just at the border. It demands a clear and consistent strategy for joint agency working – both at national and international level – between immigration, customs, police, military and security sectors who are united behind a common purpose to protect the Homeland. Following the attacks on the London underground system on 7/7 the UK government committed its departments and agencies to the CONTEST strategy, recognising that border control was not just about foreign fighters, but also about the enemy within. The 7/7 terrorists had been undertaking training exercises for Al Qaeda; but because they were British nationals we had not been focusing upon their travel patterns. Since then there has been very close collaboration between the security services, the police and the UK Border Force to identify home grown terrorists and to track their movements. Something that has effectively deterred terrorist attacks in the UK ever since, including during the London 2012 Olympics. Most of the Paris attackers lived in residential areas in Paris and Brussels which were known to be breeding grounds for ISIL; yet information about their movements was not shared either at a national or international level.

The recent case of the Berlin attacker on the Christmas market in Berlin in December 2016 only serves to illustrate the point. Anis Amri was a convicted criminal before he even arrived in Italy, but was nonetheless admitted. Following conviction of a serious offence in Italy he was released without deportation; and despite his criminal record he was allowed to travel freely to Germany. Once there he registered with the authorities and continued to operate in criminal circles; and was even identified as a security threat. Yet despite being liable to deportation he remained at liberty and was able not just to perpetrate this attack but also to escape the scene and travel across EU borders – despite a manhunt – with no identity papers and a gun in his bag. We can continue the political rhetoric about Schengen and free movement; but the fact is that even Schengen countries can (and do) erect internal border controls at times of crisis. The fact that they failed to do so on this occasion continues to raise questions about the capability of control agencies to track and intercept terrorists – both before and after the fact. To be fair, the EU Commission has now recognised the need for a much greater integration of enforcement systems under the Smart Borders programme; and the value of entry/exit checks (and even biometric checks) at the external frontier in future. But it still has

some way to go to demonstrate that it is fully embracing the fundamental principles of multiple borders, identity management and integrated border management within the Union itself. ENCOURAGING COLLABORATION Of course, the most important ingredient in all this is collaboration. Border leaders – and the politicians that govern them – need to look outwards for support. Not just to other countries – but also to intergovernmental and non‑governmental organisations working in this area; to all of the stakeholders in the travel and transportation business; and to the world of technology, where many of the tools to deliver the aforementioned principles are developed. This means getting back to basics. Then – and only then – will we they be able to face up to the significant challenges that lie ahead. L

Tony Smith retired as director general of the UK Border Force after 40 years’ service with the UK Home Office. He is now a global border security consultant; managing director of Fortinus Global Ltd; and deputy director general at BORDERPOL.





The fourth annual CBRNe Summit Europe conference and exhibition will be taking place in Madrid, Spain on the 24-27 April 2017. Counter Terror Business previews the summit



ver the last few years the risk of a CBRNe attack has increased dramatically due to the threat of home grown terrorist cells who have become disillusioned with national governments. There has also been strong intelligence that suggests that Islamic State now has the capability to use chemical weapons which increases the threat across major European cities. With open borders across Europe, Islamic State have used this to their advantage to play terrorist cells in major European cities and towns who they can call upon at any time to create devastating attacks on civilians and without any warning. We are also seeing North Korea developing their nuclear program and long-range missile capabilities against UN sanctions placed on them. With the threat that one day Kim Jong-un will launch a WMD against a neighbouring country many governments are preparing for such a threat to arise from North Korea. Closer to home we are seeing tensions rise between Russia and the United States of America. We saw in February 2014 Russia occupy Crimea without any international response and many

western European nations becoming concerned that Vladimir Putin may target eastern European nations next. With this in mind, many NATO allies have placed troops in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania in case of an attack from Russia to occupy these nations. If the tensions between Russia and the United States continues to worsen this could create more CBRNe threats to Europe if Russia decides to make a stand against the UN sanctions they have faced in recent months. Europe has seen a number of deadly terrorist attacks since the 2004 Madrid train bombings, most notably the London and Paris attacks in 2007 and 2015 respectively. Apart from the Norwegian terror attack which was a lone wolf attack in 2011, the attacks Europe has faced have been carried out by Al-Qaeda, Islamic State and Hezbollah cells. UNPREDICTED AND UNEXPECTED The terrorist attacks that have taken place in Europe over the last few years have been unpredicted and unexpected causing mass casualties. After the Brussels Airport bombings it was claimed that the Belgium law

enforcement agencies had been warned about the terrorist bombers before the attack happened. Since then, the terrorist group Islamic State have targeted large gatherings of civilians where they can inflict mass casualties - for example the lorry attack in Nice took place during a fireworks display to celebrate Bastille Day. Then, as recent as December, another lorry attack took place at a Christmas market in Berlin. The attacks have been quick, which makes it extremely difficult for law enforcement agencies to prepare for attacks such as these. This is where intelligence agencies need to work closely with border agencies, local governments and law enforcement agencies to warn of and counter potential threats. With Islamic State having the potential to use chemical weapons there is a greater need for CBRNe agencies to work side-by-side with intelligence agencies to help counter threats in major cities and towns in Europe. In 2016, we have seen some major government changes in the United Kingdom with the public voting to leave the European Union and Donald Trump beating Hillary Clinton to become the next US President. E




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CBRNe SUMMIT EUROPE 2017  We are also seeing the rise of Marine Le Pen in France, who is a looking a strong contender to beat Francois Fillion or Manual Valls in the French general election on the 23 April 2017, which could potentially lead to France possibly leaving the European Union in 2018. CLOSED STATES With the rise in Nationalist Parties gaining strong support across Europe, this could ultimately lead to closed states where sharing information and intelligence is limited with neighbouring countries, leading to little or no intelligence in stopping potential CBRNe attacks and monitoring known terrorist cells working across Europe. In the US, Donald Trump beat the odds to become the 45th President and has set out an agenda that has alienated many Americans and oversea allies. With Trump looking to set his own political agenda, this could heighten the threat of attacks in the US and across Europe due to the close ties that European nations have with the US. On 24-27 April this year Intelligence‑Sec will be hosting their fourth annual CBRNe Summit Europe conference and exhibition in Madrid, Spain, where leading government and military officials from the CBRNe community meet and share details of their CBRNe capabilities and threats that they have faced in their respective nations. This important gathering of over 200 officials allows for information sharing and knowledge on

WITH ISLAMIC STATE HAVING THE POTENTIAL TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS THERE IS A GREATER NEED FOR CBRNe AGENCIES TO WORK SIDE-BY-SIDE WITH INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES TO HELP COUNTER THREATS ACROSS EUROPE how different agencies across Europe respond to CBRNe threats and attacks. Superintendent Ian Womerseley, head of the UK’s National CBRN Centre, believes sharing knowledge and expertise across border is vital in preparing the emergency services for a robust response to a CBRN incident. “A COMPLEX FIELD” He said: “CBRN is a complex field, with many potential outcomes and scenarios. No single organisation or nation should tackle it alone. The National CRNE Centre proactively works with international partners to develop and improve on best practice around CBRN operational response strategy. This reflects our

nationals approach, which focuses on interoperability between the emergency services and further integrated working with local and national agencies involved in the investigation and recovery stages, Collaboration is the key to be effective, flexible planning in line with the CBRN threat, a theme you will hear about from our UK speakers in Madrid.” During the conference there will be specially focused case studies delivered by the Spanish CBRNe law enforcement agencies, UK National CBRN Centre and by the French Ministry of Interior who will provide insights into their CBRNe capabilities, developments and response techniques used during recent threats and attacks. On 27 April 2017, there will be an official site visit and live demonstration conducted by the Spanish Amy Medical Brigade. Major Sergio Martinez Ordonez, of the Operations Branch of the Medical Brigade, explains their current capabilities: “The Spanish Medical Brigade is the Unit of the Spanish Army in charge of the medical support to Army units in operations. We also support Spanish Military Emergencies Unit (UME), and civilian administrations in the case of big disasters and national emergencies. “CAPABILITY TO TREAT CONTAMINATED PATIENTS” “Among our Units, we have three Medical Decontamination Units, which have the capability to treat contaminated patients, at the same time as having normal wounds, giving them the first medical treatment and the decontamination simultaneously. Once they have been decontaminated and treated, they are evacuated to one of our second echelon medical units. “We have also developed the protocols of dressing and decontamination of medical staff that look after the patients that have been infected with infectious diseases like Ebola. We have also developed the means to evacuate the patients with the Spanish Army means (ambulances and helicopters). These are to NBC capacities that the Spanish Medical Brigade has, and we will provide a live demonstration during the CBRNe Summit Europe meeting in April.” Colonel Jose Igancio Castro Torres, the Commander of the Spanish Army NBC Regiment, explains the role of the NBC and its duties. He said: “The Spanish CBRN Regiment is an Army Combat Support Unit that supports and provides advice on CBRN Defence to the Land Forces HQ, Allied Command and Land Component Command. Many of our tasks involve surveillance, detection, identification and follow up contamination of BCR agents and industrial agents. We have a responsibility to support law enforcement departments

and civilian authorities to mitigate effects in CBRN/TIC contingencies. “The NBC Regiments set up in accordance to national regulations and NATO doctrine. The NBC Regiment has the capability to set up an Assessment Team and a CBRN collection centre. The CBRN Defence Battalion has the capability to provide CBRN Reconnaissance and Decontamination assets in the area of a Land Component Command. Finally, our Technical Unit has the capability to obtain technical and forensic BCR samples and provide theatre analytical laboratory support.” EASILY ACCESSIBLE FOR TERRORIST CELLS Madrid has yet to experience a terrorist attack since the 2004 train bombings where 191 people lost their lives. Since then Madrid has not been targeted by any terrorist group, unlike other major cities across Europe. However, with the attacks which have rocked Europe over the last two years which have been unpredicted and unexpected, and with Spain having an open Schengen border with France and Portugal there is a greater need to strengthen their response to any threat or attack in one of the major cities, as passage in and out of Spain is easily assessible for terrorist cells. During the CBRNe Summit Europe conference there will be an emphasis on discussing the importance of sharing intelligence, especially between EU nations and agencies to help track individual terrorist cells that might be planning to carry out an attack in a major city across Europe. With a serious concern that Islamic State have developed chemical weapon capabilities this creates a greater need for the intelligence communities across Europe, the Middle East and Africa to share their intelligence with first responder and preparedness agencies in the region. Gustavo Segura Martinez, the CBRN/C-IED project manager at Indra, explains the importance of the CBRNe Summit in Madrid in April. He said: “Indra, as a global consulting and technology company with capacity to develop CBRNe solutions and products, considers this CBRNe Summit Europe, to be held in Madrid, as an opportunity to demonstrate the strengths of the Spanish companies to successfully develop and execute projects in the CBRNe field. “More specifically in our case Indra will sponsor, have a booth and participate in the dynamic demonstration with our Advance CBRN Reconnaissance Vehicle, thus showing the capabilities in this field.” L




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US warns North Korea of ‘overwhelming’ nuclear response US Defence Secretary James Mattis has warned that any use of nuclear weapons by North Korea would be met with an ‘effective and overwhelming’ response. Confirming plans to deploy a US missile defence system in South Korea later this year, Mattis was speaking in South Korea alongside his South Korean counterpart Han Min-koo, where he had been reaffirming US support. He told reporters that ‘any attack on the United States, or our allies, will be defeated, and any use of nuclear weapons would be met with a response that would be effective and overwhelming’. The US has a considerable military presence in South Korea and Japan, as part of a post-war defence deal. However, North Korea’s repeated missile and nuclear tests and aggressive statements continue to alarm U.S forces in the region. The nations conducted its fifth test of a nuclear device last year. New US President Donald Trump has


PM presses EU on defence spending Prime Minister Theresa May is understood to have urged EU Nato members to spend more on defence at an informal summit in Malta. The UK is one of the few alliance members, including the US, Greece, Poland and Estonia, to meet pledges to spend a minimum of two per cent of GDP on defence. Speaking in Washington, May said the burden of spending within Nato should be more ‘fairly shared’. Following recent meetings with new US President Donald Trump, May is reported to have told EU leaders of Trump’s 100 per cent commitment to Nato, but will still face substantial challenges in pushing for higher defence spending. May’s Nato message follows Defence Secretary Sir Michael Fallon’s warning that Russia was ‘clearly testing Nato and the West’ by carrying out a sustained campaign of cyber attacks targeting democracy and critical infrastructure in the West.


said that he wants both South Korea and Japan to pay more towards maintaining the US’s military presence, for which Seoul reportedly pays £710 million annually.



£6m Accelerator Enduring Challenge launched Minister for Defence Procurement Harriett Baldwin has launched the Innovation Initiative’s £6 million Accelerator Enduring Challenge to fast-track innovative ideas which aim to keep the UK and its Armed Forces safe. According to a statement from the Defence and Security Accelerator, Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) and Ministry of Defence (MoD), the competition will encourage cutting-edge ideas. The groups cited former innovations such as the life-saving device being developed by the University of Strathclyde to minimise blood loss in severely injured personnel; and 2iC’s state-of-the-art work on secure data exchange between soldiers, vehicles, and bases and between coalition partners and allies. The Enduring Challenge will fast‑track the best ideas by funding their development, matching suppliers with expert innovation partners, and boosting supplier access to defence.


Investment in submarine training school announced

Defence Secretary Michael Fallon has announced the approval of a £4 million investment in the building of a single UK hub for Royal Navy’s submarine service at HMNB Clyde. According to a statement from the Ministry of Defence (MoD), HM Treasury has approved the Initial Gate Business Case for the new submarine school to be built at Scotland’s largest military establishment, with the final design approval is expected soon, which will allow work to begin later this year. The new schools will provide academic and technical training for all Royal Naval personnel entering

the submarine service from 2022. All 11 Royal Navy submarines will be based at HMNB Clyde from 2020, seeing the number of people employed at the base will rise from 6,800 people to 8,200. The school will also support the Astute hunter killer submarines, as well as the delivery of training for the new Dreadnought nuclear deterrent boats, which provide the UK with its continuous nuclear deterrent.




ISDEF 2017

The 8th edition of ISDEF, Israel’s largest international Defence and Homeland Security Expo, will take place on 6-8 June 2017, in Tel Aviv, Israel. Since 2007, ISDEF has gained international recognition and is renowned as the ideal platform for HLS, defence and business. Counter Terror Business explains why


ver the last few years we have seen a shift from conventional warfare to global terrorism, led by extremist groups that demonstrate complete disregard for international treaties and innocent civilian lives. Today, terrorist groups are infiltrating communities around the world, and combatting these terrorist groups has become the greatest challenge to governments and security agencies across the globe. It is with this in mind that ISDEF focuses on mitigating terrorism and providing military, law enforcement and governments with the latest technologies and solutions to secure a safer future. Israel’s status as a leading provider of defence and security systems in the global market, coupled with ISDEF’s position as the industry’s premier international exhibition in the region,

provides end-users and decision makers with access to cutting-edge technology, innovative products and systems that fulfil national security needs, whilst reflecting the defence and security industries’ ability to adapt and meet new challenges. UNIQUE APPROACH The unique approach of ISDEF is tailored towards business development and promotion for exhibitors. ISDEF provides an ideal venue for companies to exhibit and showcase their products and services via a myriad of platforms, including their company booths, workshops, indoor and outdoor live demo areas, professional panels, lectures and more. ISDEF 2017 will also include an international three day conference. The conference will cover topics ranging from the threat of global terrorism, with

an emphasis on combating the Islamic State, to the European refugee crisis. In addition, a considerable portion of the conference will touch on the subjects of cyber and financial security, with an emphasis on means and methods of preventing terrorism funding. All topics in the conference will be discussed with a focus on the implications that countries face due to the influx of terrorist groups that have embedded themselves within the refugee population, and the challenge of surgically eliminating this problem without harming innocent civilians. In addition to lectures and workshops, the conference will also include a panel of counter terrorism experts, including leading policy makers, scholars, and industry professionals. The panel will discuss the issues and risks and E



21st-23rd March 2017

Casablanca, Morocco

Confirmed speakers include:

Supported by the Ministry of Interior of Morocco, the Organisation for Security & Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), National Security & Resilience Consortium, International Security Industry Organisation and International Association of CIP Professionals, the World Border Security Congress is the premier multi-jurisdictional global platform where the border protection policy-makers, management and practitioners together with security industry professionals, convene annually to discuss the international challenges faced in protecting borders.

- Alvaro Rodriguez-Gaya, Head of Strategy and Outreach - European Migrant Smuggling Centre, EUROPOL - Simon Deignan, Counter Terrorism Officer, OSCE - Rear Admiral Enrico Credendino, Commander, EU Naval Force Mediterranean - Peter Nilsson, Project Manager, Border Police Division, AIRPOL - Muhammed Babandede MFR, Comptroller General, Nigeria Immigration Service, Nigeria - Lieutenant-Colonel Olga Derkach PhD, Senior Officer, International cooperation and Eurointegration Department, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine - Lieutenant-General Vasyl Servatiuk, The First Deputy Head, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine - Rear Admiral Dr Hatem Albesher, Assistant of the General Department Director for Legal Affairs & International Cooperation, Saudi Border Guards and Chairman, Saudi Maritime Center for Consultations and Services, Saudi Arabia - Josef Iroko, General Legal Counsel Board Secretary, Ghana National Identification Authority, Ghana - Peter van den Berg, President, European Association of Airport & Seaport Police - Senior Representative, ICAO, WACAF Office - Alket Furxhiu, Executive Director, Central Bureau of Investigation, Albania - Michael Gaul, Senior Advisor, NATO’s Emerging Security Challenges Division

We look forward to welcoming you to Casablanca, Morocco on 21st-23rd March 2017 for the premier gathering of border and migration management professionals.

Invitation to Exhibit:

Developing strategic border management resolutions and solutions SAVE THE DATES 2015/16 saw unprecedented crisis on a global scale, from the Middle East warring factions creating mass refugee movements across Europe, illegal economic migrants from Africa and Asia have created increasing challenges for the international border management and security community. 2016 is expected to see a continuation of the migration challenges for the border management and security community, as little sign of peace and security in the Middle East is apparent. The World Border Security Congress is a high level 3 day event that will discuss and debate current and future policies, implementation issues and challenges as well as new and developing technologies that contribute towards safe and secure border and migration management. We need to continue the discussion, collaboration and intelligence sharing. for the international border management and security industry

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Media Partners:

ISDEF 2017 more than 90 nations, as well as 100 international delegations. Expanding defence and security trade with allies and partners not only helps countries better deal with shared security challenges, but also strengthens diplomatic ties and increases the likelihood of cooperation in other areas as well.


medium‑sized enterprises as well as major contractors from the defence and HLS sectors, organised in both individual booths and national pavilions. In addition, the exhibition and conference organisers are expecting over 15,000 visitors from

IDEAL ENVIRONMENT ISDEF provides the ideal environment for networking and deal-making, primarily due to the qualification of its visitors. At the core of ISDEF is a team of experts that work around the clock to bring high ranking officials, delegations and dealers with buying and decision making power to ISDEF, guaranteeing that exhibitors get a maximal return on their investment. Official delegations include key figures in the fields of counter terrorism, security and intelligence; including chiefs of staff, defence ministers and high-ranking army, navy and air force representatives from around the globe. ISDEF is an essential event that is guaranteed to impact the defence and HLS landscape of the future, and a worthwhile event for anyone involved in maintaining the safety and security of their community. L


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A report has warned that the Ministry of Defence will struggle to afford the new jets, ships and armoured vehicles set out in its 2015 plans. Defence Business analyses the figures and saving and spending plans of the MoD


he risks to the affordability of the Ministry of Defence (MoD) Equipment Plan are greater than at any point since reporting began in 2012, according to a January 2017 report from the National Audit Office (NAO). The government’s Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR), published in November 2015, announced an additional £12 billion in defence spending, and, at the time of its publication, the SDSR was widely welcomed. Malcolm Chalmers, deputy director of the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), said that the outcome of the SDSR ‘is much better than the armed forces had been expecting’, while the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) claimed that it offered ‘a credible plan to improve, modernise and increase UK security and hard power’ and ‘maintains the UK as a significant defence power’. The Equipment Plan, first established in 2012 as a new approach to generate greater stability in the MoD’s procurement

activity, involves developing a budget for a ‘core programme’ of key equipment projects, covering forecast spend for 10 years. This is then updated annually. Spending on equipment and associated support in the 2016 Plan is projected to be £178 billion, an increase of seven per cent, compared to an increase of just 1.2 per cent between 2013 and 2015. The SDSR added £24.4 billion of new commitments to the MoD budget, including the Mechanised Infantry Vehicle, the Poseidon Maritime Patrol Aircraft and an acceleration of purchases of the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. The NAO, the body established to scrutinise public spending for Parliament, has warned that in order to meet the funding requirements proposed by the Review, the MoD must use the entirety of the £10.7 billion headroom previously set aside to meet emerging requirements in future years, suggesting the absence of future flexibility. E



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THE EQUIPMENT PLAN, FIRST ESTABLISHED IN 2012 AS A NEW APPROACH TO GENERATE GREATER STABILITY IN THE MOD’S PROCUREMENT ACTIVITY, INVOLVES DEVELOPING A BUDGET FOR A ‘CORE PROGRAMME’ OF KEY EQUIPMENT PROJECTS, COVERING FORECAST SPEND FOR 10 YEARS. THIS IS THEN UPDATED ANNUALLY  To further ensure the affordability of the Plan, the MoD must also find £5.8 billion of savings from existing projects in the next 10 years. Plans for achieving these are still under development. Of this, £1.5 billion will be provided from savings elsewhere in the Defence budget, for example through military and civilian pay restraint, or savings from the running of the defence estate, the latter of which the NAO reported in November 2016 would be extremely challenging. These savings targets are in addition to £7.1 billion of brought forward savings already assumed in the Plan, £2.5 billion of which have yet to be generated. COST UNCERTAINTY The level of cost uncertainty in the Plan has also increased considerably, with 15 per cent of additional commitments yet to go through detailed costing at project level. The MoD’s current costing practice can lead to significant understatement in the cost of projects

in their early stages of development, the proportion of which has increased as a result of the Review. The MoD’s independent Cost Assurance and Analysis Service estimates that currently the Plan is underestimating financial risk by £4.8 billion. This figure is within the contingency provision of £5.3 billion but it does not include estimates for the new Review commitments. Major changes to the requirement for the Type 26 Global Combat Ship mean that costings for this, the largest non‑nuclear programme in the Plan, will be unclear until 2018. The Plan also reports cost increases to various parts of the nuclear submarine programme. The Plan is also vulnerable to changes in foreign exchange rates. Approximately £18.6 billion of the Plan will be paid in US dollars and £2.6 billion in Euros over the 10 year period. Planning assumptions are currently based upon rates set before the result of the EU referendum, and the recent exchange rate fluctuations

threaten to impact significantly upon the affordability of the Plan. Amyas Morse, head of the NAO, said of the report: “The affordability of the Equipment Plan is at greater risk than at any time since its inception. It is worrying to see that the costs of the new commitments arising from the Review considerably exceed the net increase in funding for the Plan. The difference is to be found partly by demanding efficiency targets. “There is little room for unplanned cost growth and the MoD must actively guard against the risk of a return to previous practice where affordability could only be maintained by delaying or reducing the scope of projects.” Harriett Baldwin, Minister for Defence Procurement, has reassured that the 10-year plan would deliver ‘the best kit for our armed forces at the best value for the taxpayer’. She said: ”We are focused on maintaining an affordable programme and delivering the efficiencies we need to reinvest in cutting-edge ships, planes, versatile strike brigades, and greater cyber capabilities, so that our Armed Forces have the equipment they need to keep the UK safe and secure.” L


DSEI 2017, 12-15 SEPTEMBER 2017 Following the success of DSEI 2015, the leading UK defence event will return on 12-15 September this year at London’s ExCeL. DSEI brings together the entire defence and security industry to source the latest equipment and systems, develop international relationships, and generate new business opportunities. Alongside a plethora of international pavilions and feature areas, DSEI 2017 will have five key sector-focused zones: the Air Zone, which addresses the frontline operational requirements and andfully support kittedfunctions out vehicles, available there’s to something the aerospace for everyone. sector; the Not Land onlyZone, will you which haveprovides the opportunity insight into to see the and future learn of global aboutland next-level capability; technology, the Naval you will Zone, havewhich the chance displaystoavote range forofthe product vessels,you from believe warships will to have high thespeed greatest impact craft, along on public the safety Royal Victoria communications. Dock; Showcasing the Security Zone, which the latest of in-vehicle will tackle capabilities current issues across such all as blue-light the impact agencies. of The international transition to terrorism ESN opens andup regional whole new instability possibilities on security for thisdecisions rapidly developing and humanitarian sector – needs; from telematics and the to live Joint infrared Zone,streaming which is being from expanded multiple sources, the offering for public safety

in 2017 to offer more companies the chance to network and a wider demonstration zone in which to learn. With 2017 bringing new world leaders, new governments, controversial elections and mass political change across Europe and the U.S, the DSEI Strategic Conferences and Seminar Programme will carefully

consider the global defence and security market amid the changes. It will examine the influences on industrial strategies, technology and organisations and tap into the ideas and theories of the people who drive the defence and security sector forward in pursuit of innovation and long-term economic prosperity.




Providing extremism and radicalisation training Me and You Education is a collaboration between two companies, two individuals with divergent backgrounds and deep insights into the murky and complex world of counter terrorism. As Office of Security and Counter Terrorism approved Interventionists Me and You Education speak with both vulnerable individuals on a pathway towards extremism and also those that have been convicted of TACT offences – put more bluntly it speaks one to one with those that want to blow us all up! As key people working in the security world Me and You Education believe its specialist training sessions will be invaluable for your work. The company present and debunk the Extremist Narrative – both on domestic (far right extremism) as well as the international threat of Islamism. It believes the world of countering terrorism is far 5 | ISSUE 29







Looking back at UK Security Expo, including the impact of terrorism on urban design

more nuanced than simply locks, guns and surveillance. Me and You Education would like to be able to disarm the terrorist mind-set by providing ideological, scientific and sometimes very simple logical counter narratives. Interactive training sessions equip delegates with the knowledge and understanding of the actual thought process of individuals willing to commit atrocities that put both themselves and others in harms way. Check out Me and You Education’s Youtube channel and website and enquire about its bespoke packages today.



With advances in drone technology aiding both the security services and terrorist, how dangerous can drone development be? SCTX


The Security & Counter Terror Expo returns in May to provide answers to the questions posed by terrorism

In-depth editorials from government agencies and worldwide experts in counter terrorism will cover:  Effective counter-terrorism strategies an the latest information from Government agencies  Emerging threats: CBRN, terrorism and organised crime, cyber-terrorism  Best practices for effective inter-agency collaboration  Policy and frameworks for emergency planning and crisis management  Defence and emergency services procurement updates  Specialist Training, Recruitment and HR management  Security products for the armed forces, emergency services and private sector security operations



The publishers accept no responsibility for errors or omissions in this free service Adani Systems 98 Advanced Laser 76 Aerial Group B.V. 18 Ansell Microgard 90 APMG 16 Applied Satellite 40 Armour 88 Assa Abloy LTD 42 Audax Global 82 B.E.S.T Police 52 BBI Detection 58 CEA 36 Chenega Corporation 34 Clarion Events LTD 23 Clarion Events LTD 73 Clarion Events LTD 96 Cognitec Systems 6 Crewshield LTD 80 Daniel Technologies 28 De La Rue Holdings IBC Emergent 92 Energetics 33 Exoskel Group LTD BC Exoskel Group LTD 24 Facets Consulting 106 Frontier Pitts 77 Garrett Metal 26 Getac UK LTD 70 Hikvision UK 30 IBC Academy / ST 10 Institute of Risk 17 Isdef 101 Issee LTD 78 Jolly Safety 49 JSB United Kingdom 56 Jtol Limited 44 KBC Networks LTD 22 Keela International 81


Keysight 50 Kic IE AB 86 Knect 365 60 Knect 365 61 Leidos UK 14 Lincoln Security LTD 46 Mark Allen Group 67 Marshalls 13 Merican Labels LTD IFC Morgan Marine LTD 41 Oakmays LTD 85 Ovio Technologies 84 Paramo LTD 95 PDR Online 47 Polarm Group 102 Primetech (UK) LTD 68 Ramora UK 38 Red Tulip Systems 64 Rheinmetall Air 32 Saepio Land Services 74 Science Media 72 Science Media 72 Secutech India 89 Seequestor 8 Solid State supplies 35 Technocover LTD 104 Teledyne 48 Telent Technology 66 Terrafix 71 Time Data Security 53 Tmd Technologies 4 Torch Marketing 100 Traka 27 Trakm8-Lawmate 54 University College 55 University of Birmingham 20 Viewpoint Training 62 Vision Base LTD 94


De La Rue is a leading provider of sophisticated products, services and solutions that help keep the world’s nations, economies and populations secure. At De La Rue, we provide governments and commercial organisations with the products and services that enable countries to trade, companies to sell, economies to grow and people to move securely around an ever-more connected world. With a 200 year heritage, we work to the highest ethical standards and stand firm in the fight against counterfeit and fraud.

Counter Terror Business 29  

The Magazine Dedicated to Combatting Terrorism

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