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NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016 · Volume 31 Number 6

RISK MANAGEMENT

• Managing risk in contract winemaking • Changes in wine ethanol content due to evaporation from wine glasses • Soil compaction - why worry? • Tasting: Yarra Valley vs Hawke's Bay Shiraz/Syrah


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IN THIS ISSUE

C O NN ET W E N S T S

V I T I C U LT U R E

R E G U L A R F E AT U R E S

8 WINE AUSTRALIA (STEVE GUY): Working towards a beneficial regulatory framework post-Brexit

39 TONY HOARE: Soil compaction – why worry?

9 WFA (TONY BATTAGLENE): Recent developments in export market regulations 10 ASVO (MARDI LONGBOTTOM): ASVO acknowledges industry excellence and exemplary contributions 14 KEY FILES (TONY KEYS): Wine through time – Part 2: A parallel walk through two decades of The Octavius and significant events in the Australian wine industry

42 Proximal and remote sensing tools for regional-scale characterisation of grapevine water and nitrogen status in Coonawarra

EVENTS

12 International Trade Fair for Winemaking and Bottling Technology

48 Susceptibility of pruning wounds to grapevine trunk disease pathogens 51 Climate change and emerging cool climate wine regions 54 ALTERNATIVE VARIETIES: Aucerot

W I N E M A K I N G

22 Is it the closure or the wine? BUSINESS & MARKETING

56 MARK ROWLEY: Opportunities for Australian wine in Asia 58 Rising sun shining on Australia’s premium push 61 Fish where the fish are: Awareness, perception and purchases at brick-and-mortar and online retailers in China

26 CATHY HOWARD: Managing risk in contract winemaking 28 Could natural flavourings be the antidote for a poor vintage? 32 Changes in wine ethanol content due to evaporation from wine glasses

63 Wine labelling regulations reviewed – health-related and compositional claims, geographical indications and traditional expressions 66 Working to change perceptions of Australian wine 69 Regional marketing delivers growth in wine export values for Austrian wine industry

36 AWRI REPORT: Wine pH, copper and ‘reductive’ aromas in wines

W I N E TA S T I N G

74 Yarra Valley and Hawke’s Bay Shiraz/Syrah

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I recently had the pleasure of attending the Wine Communicators of Australia 2016 Wine Communicator Awards in Sydney where I represented the Wine & Viticulture Journal which was shortlisted for the award for Best Wine Publication (Trade, Technical or Consumer). Alas, we didn’t end up winning, beaten by Gourmet Traveller Wine which went on to win Best Wine Communicator of all the seven category winners. But it was a thrill to be a finalist all the same – a 30th birthday present of sorts and a reflection on the many, many contributors to the Journal without whom there wouldn’t be a Journal. It was also a pleasure to meet and spend much of the awards chatting to fellow South Australians Colin Kay, of Kay Brothers at McLaren Vale, and his wife Ruth, whose book, Kay Brothers: The first 125 years, written by Colin’s sister Alice, was ultimately unsuccessful in the category of Best Wine Book (Technical, Trade or Consumer). There’s a fair bit of history at the winery - and much more to be written if the title of the book is anything to go by - and I was fascinated to hear Colin’s personal accounts of just a few snippets and learn how it all came together in the book. This is the last issue of the Journal for the year, and its focus is on risk management. We assigned the task of writing on this topic to our regular writer Cathy Howard – herself a former winner of Best Trade or Technical Wine Writer at the 2014 Wine Communicator Awards – who has drawn on her experience on both sides of the contract winemaking sector to offer readers some advice in managing the risks associated with using such facilities (page 26). Still on the topic of risk management is an article written by yours truly on some recently concluded research at The University of Adelaide which explored

the potential of natural flavour additives in wine production to boost quality in years when juices fail to reach desired expectations. Sure, such additives are currently illegal in wine products, but you might be surprised to learn that the research showed consumers would be quite open to the idea of having them in their wine if it meant their risk of consuming a less-than-perfect tipple would be nil (see page 28). Another interesting read in Winemaking is the results of an analysis by the AWRI of the wines entered in the International Wine Challenge over the past decade that were rejected for faults. It has shown that screwcaps are not as responsible for reductive characters as we’ve been thinking (page 22). I also draw your attention to an article based on a poster that picked up the People’s Choice Award at this year’s Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference on the effect of evaporation of ethanol from wine glasses which has significant implications for informal sensory trials and wine show judging (page 32). Over in Viticulture, Tony Hoare discusses how to mitigate soil compaction (page 39) – a rather pertinent topic given the wet conditions experienced throughout many regions this season – while trunk disease researchers reveal whether the timing of winter pruning influences the susceptibility of wounds to disease infection, with their trials not mimicking results from overseas (page 48). And Business & Marketing has plenty to offer on this issue’s topic of export market development and regulations, starting on page 56. May those of you who will be busy picking by the time the next issue of the Journal rolls around, have a good start to vintage 2017.

ISSN 1838-6547

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N E W S

S N I P S

WINEMAKERS' FEDERATION CONFIRMS NEW LEADERSHIP Former chair of Brown Brothers Group and Mitchelton Wines, Sandy Clark, has been appointed president of the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia, succeeding Tony D’Aloisio whose second and final term in the role as president concluded at the close of the organisation’s AGM on 15 November. “I am delighted that such a qualified and experienced individual as Mr Clark is taking over as president. He brings an extraordinary wealth of business acumen spanning various sectors. I wish him well,” D’Aloisio said. In accepting the role, Clark said, “I am delighted to be WFA’s next president, and I am looking forward to working with the board and the WFA executive team and representatives of the industry more generally on the key issues and challenges confronting Australian winemakers and the wider industry.” D’Aloisio also confirmed that Tony Battaglene has been appointed chief executive of the WFA. Battaglene had been acting in the role after Paul Evans’ resignation in April 2016. “Over the past few months acting in the role, Mr Battaglene has demonstrated to the board’s selection committee and the board that he is the best person for the position to lead WFA,” D’Aloisio said. WFA also welcomed the following new members to the board whose appointments took effect at the conclusion of the AGM: Large Winemaker Board Representatives - Georgia Lennon (Accolade Wines), Helen Strachan (Pernod Ricard Winemakers Pty Ltd); Medium Winemaker Board Representatives - Alistair Purbrick (Tahbilk Pty Ltd), Bill Moularadellis (Kingston

Sandy Clark

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Estate Wines Pty Ltd), Darren de Bortoli (de Bortoli Wines); Small Winemaker Board Representative - James Marsh, Heathvale Wines Pty Ltd. FUTURE OF NATIONAL GROWER BODY HANGS IN BALANCE The future of Australian Vignerons, formerly known as Wine Grape Growers Australia, remains uncertain despite efforts to restructure and refocus the organisation to garner support from all the nation’s wineproducing regions. At its inaugural annual general meeting on 23 November, Australian Vignerons chief executive Andrew Weeks reported that despite unanimous support from its members at a special general meeting in September for changes to its constitution, this had not translated into “national financial support”. He said although there were ongoing efforts to attract more members, a decision would need to be made about the viability of Australian Vignerons at the end of the 2016-17 financial year. As reported in the September-October issue of the Wine & Viticulture Journal, Wine Grape Growers Australia was facing wind-up proceedings due to declining income from member contributions, particularly following the withdrawal of the Riverina Wine Grapes Marketing Board and Murray Valley Winegrowers from the organisation in February and May, respectively. A meeting in April aimed at setting a new strategic direction for the organisation saw WGGA become Australian Vignerons and the drafting of a new constitution. These constitutional changes included the election of an independent, skills-based board to govern the organisation, represented by a council of general members who would determine the issues and policy framework for the board to implement. Changes to the membership structure were also included, requiring general members to be representatives of industry bodies rather than a mix of bodies and individual members. Weeks told the AGM that despite ongoing consultation with eligible member organisations, membership uptake of Australian Vignerons remained low with only the Wine Grape Council of SA and Wines of WA signing up. This combined with the short time since the special general meeting meant selection of an independent board had not been possible, meaning the interim board – comprising the organisation’s current executive committee – would continue. “The period from now to the end of the current financial year will effectively be a testing ground for the new organisation, and by June 30, 2017, a decision will need to be made about the viability of Australian

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Vignerons,” Weeks said. He said given the WGGA was not sustainable, the reformed organisation “offers a future”. “This is a considered offer by a board that represents the nation’s winegrowers, acting in the interests of those winegrowers, and the national wine community. Is it the prerogative of industry associations as to whether they accept this offer or not and that decision carries with it consequences.” Weeks told the AGM. POPPING THE CORK ON SPARKLING WINE RESEARCH Tasmanian wine producers recently had the opportunity to sample and provide tasting notes on sparkling wines produced as part of a research project looking at the impact of vineyard treatments on sparkling wine characteristics. Held at the Tamar Ridge cellar door in early November, the Effervescence Technical Day presented 18 sparkling wines which were the product of a research project undertaken in 2010 by the Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture (TIA). TIA Research Fellow Dr Fiona Kerslake said the tasting represented almost six years of research which commenced with Tasmanian vineyard trials looking at the impact of isolated viticulture practices, such as leaf removal, crop load and pruning techniques, had on the characteristics of sparkling wine produced in the state. The 18 sparkling wines were then sent to the Australian Wine Research Institute, Metabolomics Australia and The University of Adelaide for further analysis of the compounds associated with texture, mouthfeel, flavour and aroma. These results and the tasting notes from the Technical Day would contribute to the identification of compounds that influence the characteristics of aged sparkling wines, Kerslake said. She said most wine producers applied a variety of vineyard treatments during the year which made it difficult to pinpoint which treatment contributed to a particular characteristic in sparkling wine. “By looking at the different treatments in isolation it is hoped that our findings will help wine producers manage their vines to produce the fruit needed to create a particular style of sparkling wine,” Kerslake said. “The next phase of this project is to investigate technologies to shorten the process of ageing premium sparkling wines whilst maintaining or improving the quality. This aim is to provide an efficiency increase for wine producers by enabling them to get product on the shelves in a shorter period of time while improving quality.” The current $1.4 million project is funded by Wine Australia with in-kind support from

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TIA, Hill-Smith Family Vineyards (Jansz/ Dalrymple/Yalumba), University of Adelaide, Apogee Tasmania and Josef Chromy. The original 2010 project, Improving Australian sparkling wine and Pinot Noir, was funded by AusIndustry in collaboration with Wine Tasmania and a consortium of wine companies. NEW ONLINE TOOL TO IDENTIFY BEST ROOTSTOCKS Wine Australia has released a new free online tool to help winegrape growers determine the rootstocks that will best suit their vineyard, based on the most recent research. The Grapevine Rootstock Selector brings together knowledge from Australian and international research about the specific characteristics of different rootstocks. “This work distills the comprehensive research in this area into a useable tool that allows grapegrowers to choose specific rootstocks suited to their individual vineyard’s conditions,” said Wine Australia general manager research, development and extension, Dr Liz Waters. “The tool provides growers with research-backed information before they talk to their local nursery about different rootstocks “The Grapevine Rootstock Selector has gathered the relevant research literature into one place, to help growers who may be considering rootstocks to see what might be the best options for their vineyard. “By answering a series of specific questions about their vineyard, growers can use the Grapevine Rootstock Selector to identify a small number of appropriate rootstocks for their vineyard.

“The Grapevine Rootstock Selector highlights the specific characteristics of different rootstocks and provides further information about the grape varieties that have been shown to be suitable for each option.” The Grapevine Rootstock Selector is based on a tool first developed in 2002 by Yalumba Nursery, the Yalumba Nursery Rootstock Selector. Wine Australia developed the Grapevine Rootstock Selector in conjunction with Nick Dry, of Yalumba Nursery, and Dr Rob Walker and Peter Clingleffer, of CSIRO. It draws on published, peer-reviewed research by respected Australian and international research organisations on how the rootstocks perform. The Grapevine Rootstock Selector can be accessed at www.grapevinerootstock. com. CALABRIA FAMILY WINES PURCHASE LARGE RIVERINA WINERY Calabria Family Wines has purchased a large Riverina facility in Griffith, New South Wales, for an undisclosed sum. The company said the purchase was “to assist with storage and production facilities”. The transaction, which was scheduled to settle late in October, includes purchase of the winery, cellar door and warehousing. The original winery was built by the Italian company ‘Cinzano’ in 1976, which later became the ASX-listed Cranswick Estate. In 2006 the world’s third largest winemaker, The Wine Group, purchased the site. The winery includes more than 18 million litres of storage capacity, 3000 square metres of cold store warehousing and 22,000 tonnes of crushing capacity. The purchase follows the Calabria

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S N I P S

The Calabria family. family’s recent diversification into the Barossa Valley where it operates three premium vineyards and a cellar door which will be opened in 2019. ACCOLADE MAKES $40M INVESTMENT IN NEW BOTTLING AND PACKAGING FACILITIES Accolade Wines has announced it will make a $40 million investment to set up a new glass bottling plant and packaging facility at its Berri winery in South Australia’s Riverland. The company said the investment was a further step forward in its strategy to expand into new markets and would better serve its needs to support its growing business into Asia. Development of the new facility is expected to commence in early 2017 with an estimated construction time of 18 months to two years. Once complete, the new facility will employ about 40 people, have a bottling capacity of up to 8 million cases of wine annually and storage capacity of more than 22 million pallets of inventory. Once the facility is in operation, Accolade Wines and Treasury Wine Estates will cease their current bottling arrangement that was established in 2012. WVJ

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WINE AUSTRALIA

Working towards a beneficial regulatory framework post-Brexit By Steve Guy, General Manager, Regulatory Services, Wine Australia

I

n the May/June 2016 issue of the Wine & Viticulture Journal, my colleague Angelica Crabb discussed some of the potential economic consequences of the United Kingdom’s recent decision to move towards leaving the European Union. In the article, Angelica concluded that there is considerable uncertainty about the economic consequences of ‘Brexit’ and, six months later, much of that uncertainty remains. In the meantime, however, UK Prime Minister Theresa May has indicated that she will initiate the process to break with the Union by the end of March 2017 and, since Britain remains Australia’s largest wine export market (by volume sold), it is vital that we continue to monitor developments in that part of the world. The impact of Brexit on general economic conditions in the UK market, exchange rates between the pound and the dollar, and consumer spending is largely beyond our control. Angelica discussed how the tariff situation may change as a result of Britain leaving the European Customs Union but a changed regulatory landscape, particularly regarding winemaking practices, wine composition, labelling and certification is at least as important to Australian wine exporters as tariff considerations. Furthermore, Australia may be well-placed to influence developments in the UK’s wine regulatory framework. Currently, exporters of wine to the UK must comply with European Union (EU) wine regulations. These regulations have largely evolved to satisfy the demands of the highly restrictive appellation systems that prevail across the major wine-producing members of the European Union. They do not always provide a rational basis for regulating the import of wine from countries that do not have such restrictive systems. Australia has, therefore, pursued a treaty with Europe to ensure our wines are not confronted with major technical barriers to trade. An initial version of this agreement came into force in 1994 and a subsequent version in 2010. These agreements cover a range of technical matters and provide, for example: • Acceptance of each party’s authorised winemaking techniques. Practices

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permitted under Australia’s Food Standards Code are, therefore, acceptable in wine exported to the European Union • Simplified wine certification arrangements. Australian wine need only be analysed for three items, rather than the usual eight, on the ‘VI1 document’ essential for entry into European markets • Labelling concessions. The alcohol content on an Australia wine label can be expressed to a decimal place, rather than merely a whole or half unit and is subject to a wider tolerance than wine from other countries. Australian products can be labelled as blends of wine from up to three regions, an option not permitted to others under EU law • Recognition of the influence of Australian agricultural soils on wine composition, thus avoiding the invalid rejection of Australian wine based on its mineral content. Such rejections had been encountered before the negotiation of the treaty. Critically, the treaty includes a ‘standstill’ clause that prevents the EU introducing more restrictive conditions on Australian wine producers through any future review of its domestic wine regulations. Following Brexit, European wine law will no longer automatically apply in the UK market. On the other hand, the UK will not be bound by the treaty Australia has negotiated with the EU to avoid many of the trade impediments resulting from that law. How the UK will seek to fill this gap is – like other aspects of Brexit – uncertain. It will clearly be in Australia’s interest to ensure that, whatever regulatory regime is developed, our wine exporters are at least no worse off than they are currently. But we should be more ambitious than to settle for the status quo. Despite the aforementioned treaty there remain aspects of European law that pose problems for Australian wine exporters. Here are just a few examples: • A high proportion of Australian wine is shipped to Europe in bulk containers, rather than in bottle. Sometimes the

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customer prefers the wine to display residual sweetness and this request can, legitimately, be satisfied through the addition of concentrated Australian grape juice. In order to prevent possible spoilage during the long voyage to Europe it is preferable to transport the concentrated juice separately from the wine, for subsequent blending prior to bottling at the destination. This practice, however, is prohibited under European law. Imported wine cannot be sweetened with concentrate within Europe. Similarly, wines rendered sparkling through the addition of carbon dioxide can only be carbonated prior to export, which presents obvious technical difficulties in the case of wines transported in bulk. More generally, the European concept of ‘coupage’ prevents the blending, within Europe, of batches of Australian wine of different regional origin. There are no sound technical reasons for any of these restrictions on the handling of bulk wine, and it would be very useful if they did not apply to wine shipments to the UK once they are no longer subject to EU regulation • Some European regulators have interpreted the law in a way that prevents sparkling wine being sealed with innovative closures such as crown seals. Following Brexit, UK authorities would be free to adopt a more liberal interpretation • Australia does not require imported wine to be accompanied by an official certificate containing the details of (expensive) chemical analysis. Wine shipments to the EU are subject to this requirement. Ideally, we could negotiate reciprocal arrangements with the UK whereby certificates are not required for wine traded between our two countries. Hence, in addition to the possible tariff relief mentioned in an earlier article, Australian wine exporters could derive significant technical benefits once Britain leaves the EU. An enlightened and rational regulatory framework could also assist in the further development of the exciting English and Welsh wine sectors. WVJ

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Recent developments in export market regulations By Tony Battaglene, Strategy & International Affairs General Manager, Winemakers’ Federation of Australia

Writing from Brazil where he was attending the 14th General Assembly of the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV), Tony briefs readers on what’s new in the world of wine regulation. INTRODUCTION The world of wine regulation and the rate it is changing is little understood. This means that WFA spends quite a lot of time monitoring developments, preparing responses, and liaising with the Australian Government to deliver these responses. This is in addition to the work undertaken by the Australian Grape and Wine Authority (Wine Australia) in dealing with shipments that have been stopped at the border due to regulatory issues. For example, recent developments include: • a proposal to introduce pre-market registration for wine production facilities exporting to China • introduction of health warnings in Korea • changes to the registration systems for importers to Vietnam • revision of permissible wine additives in India • changes to additives in Vietnam • a revision of wine regulations in the United Kingdom over the next two years following Brexit • the introduction by the Argentine Government of a regulation covering wine products imported in bulk into Argentina • the introduction by the European Union of a regulation covering production processes for aromatised wine products • the amendment by Mexico of an agreement that determines additives and adjuvants in food, beverages and food supplements, their use and health standards to add newlyapproved substances. This is by no means an exhaustive list, but is illustrative of the amount of change. Differing requirements for these cause cost and trade disruptions for exporters. These issues are normally dealt with bilaterally on a case-by-case basis. However, a number of international institutions establish specific guidelines to try to reduce trade barriers in these areas. These include the World Trade Organisation Agreements (principles-based) Codex Alimentarius Commission (advisory standards-based), AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation (regulatory coherence) and for wine the World Wine Trade Group (mutual acceptance/harmonisation approach) and the International Organisation of Wine and Vine (OIV). Failure to deal with these at the systems level leads to expensive and resource-intensive approaches with limited success. Some good examples of this are to be found within APEC. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The sixth meeting of the APEC Wine Regulatory Forum (WRF) was held on 6-7 October 2016, in Ottawa, Canada1. The WRF seeks to eliminate non-science based testing and certification requirements for wine trade in an effort to increase wine production, expand trade and create jobs in the region. Government officials and wine sector representatives from 14 APEC economies participated in the 2016 meeting: Australia 1 The Ottawa meeting was the fourth of six annual technical conferences scheduled under the WRF multi-year project entitled ‘Good Regulatory Practices Action Plan’ sponsored by Australia, Canada, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Indonesia, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Russia, United States and Vietnam (M CTI 01 2013A).

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(represented by Tony Battaglene for industry), Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, United States and Vietnam. In addition, two observer economies participated, representing the governments and wineries of Argentina and South Africa. • A working group on export certificates has been developed and is implementing a Model Wine Certificate to overcome differing certification requirements between markets. • A working group is developing a compendium on methods of analysis used in the regulation of wine within the APEC trade environment. The purpose of the compendium is to encourage transparency regarding endorsed analytical methods and the continued exchange of information among APEC WRF economies. • A working group on enhanced risk controls presented the results from its second year of ring test results overseen by the Interwinery Analysis Group. Participation in the 2016 tests included 20 laboratories from 12 economies. Difficulties with commercial shipments continued and the working group chair met with economies to resolve specific issues. • A working group on pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) outlined its next steps on the program designed to reduce trade barriers arising from differing MRLs across the APEC region. This working group is now testing a guideline developed to approve import tolerances by selecting several priority compounds for which member economies will be asked to consider whether they could establish MRLs based on the guideline criteria. • A good regulatory practices working group has developed a guide to the development of wine standards that aligns with widely accepted international regulatory practice. The guide seeks to be a reference source for economies to consult when creating or reviewing wine standards. It is not intended to be adopted as a standard. The 2017 WRF meeting will be held on the margins of the APEC Food Safety Cooperation Forum meeting during the Second Senior Official's Meeting in Hanoi, Vietnam, in May 2017. The OIV also met in Brazil in October 2016. Key developments within this organisation included the commitment to work on additives in the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a commitment to work with the European Commission on the development of product category rules for environmental claims to ensure the international acceptability of this EU project, and a revision of a number of methods of analysis. CONCLUSION WFA continues to advocate for a systems-based approach for dealing with regulatory changes. Establishing robust and defensible systems at the international level through existing institutions provides the best mechanism to overcome the frequent and ad-hoc changes to wine regulation that plague our exports. WFA, in cooperation with AGWA and the Australian Government and other commodity groups, are focussing on the area of liberalising food and wine regulation to reduce the technical WVJ barriers to trade that add so much cost to our exports.

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A S V O

ASVO acknowledges industry excellence and exemplary contributions By Mardi Longbottom, President, Australian Society of Viticulture & Oenology 2016 ASVO AWARDS FOR EXCELLENCE On 17 November, the Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology (ASVO) celebrated its annual Awards for Excellence at the Adelaide Botanic Gardens restaurant. ASVO president Mardi Longbottom announced the winners and its two new Fellows of the Society while guests were entertained by both the science and wit of the outstanding prize winners from the 16th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference (AWITC), the viticulturist and winemaker of the year and special guests Kim Chalmers, from Chalmers Wines, and Chester Osborn, from d’Arenberg. The ASVO Awards for Excellence recognises professional excellence in viticulture, winemaking and research. Finalists are nominated by two panels of winemaking and viticulture experts who assess the candidates on their contributions to the Australian wine industry through the implementation and promotion of innovative practices and processes to enhance Australian grape and wine production. Each finalist responds in a written application which undergoes further assessment by the panel and a recommendation is made to the ASVO board. Twenty-six judges reviewed 30 nominations for viticulturist and winemaker of the year and 54 research papers were also assessed. We thank all involved for the time dedicated to their involvement in this process. The ASVO Viticulturist of the Year was awarded to Colin Hinze, of Taylors Wines, in the Clare Valley, South Australia. The award judges praised Colin’s endeavours to implement and refine the use of precision viticulture (PV) and his commitment to extend his experiences to the Australian wine industry. “The key driver for implementation of PV is to improve vineyard productivity and profit,” said Colin. The ASVO Winemaker of the Year was awarded to a team entry from Sue Hodder and Sarah Pidgeon, from Wynns Coonawarra Estates. The judges acknowledged the dynamic pair for their contribution to the advancement of red winemaking in Coonawarra. Together Sue and Sarah have overseen the improvement in wine quality at Wynn’s by focussing on the optimisation of grape quality in a time of climate change and ongoing investigation of winemaking microbes. Two awards were presented for research papers published in the ASVO’s Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research. The winning viticulture paper was authored by Joaquim Bellvert, Pablo Zarco-Tejada, Jordi Marsal, Joan Girona, Victoria GonzálezDugo and Elias Fereres from the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentàries (IRTA) Centre. Their paper, ‘Vineyard irrigation scheduling based on airborne thermal imagery and water potential thresholds’, appealed to the judging panel because it will enable practitioners to refine current irrigation practices particularly in a water-constrained future. The best oenology paper was awarded to Marlize Bekker, Martin Day, Helen Holt, Eric Wilkes and Paul Smith, from the Australian Wine Research Institute. Their paper, ‘Effect of oxygen exposure during fermentation on volatile sulfur compounds in Shiraz wine

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and a comparison of strategies for remediation of reductive character’, was selected because of the potential for high rates of immediate adoption in winemaking. 2016 FELLOWS OF THE ASVO Each year, by unanimous decision of its board, the ASVO can invite a new Fellow to the Society. The honorary membership category of Fellow recognises the exemplary contributions by members of the Society to the Australian wine industry and to the society itself. Two new Fellows, Brian Croser AO and Dianne Davidson AM, were announced at the annual general meeting of the ASVO on 16 November. The collective wisdom that both these people encapsulate is extraordinary as is their diversity of background and experience, and the ASVO board looks forward to working with both Brian and Di in their capacity as Fellows. Brian Croser has been intimately involved in the evolution of the Australian wine industry for the last 40 years. Brian’s leadership roles in the wine industry are numerous including two stints as president of the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia. Through his early leadership roles Brian influenced the formation of the CRC for Viticulture and the establishment of the Australian Wine Research Institute’s Advanced Wine Assessment Course, both activities contributing to the wider research and education of today’s wine industry professionals. Brian is an accomplished wine show judge and a wine educator to many other judges, having served as chairman of Adelaide, Canberra, Sydney and Perth wine shows and participating as a tutor at the Len Evans Tutorials.

Joint recipients of the ASVO Winemaker of the Year award were Sue Hodder (left) and Sarah Pidgeon, from Wynns Coonawarra Estates, who were acknowledged for their contribution to the advancement of red winemaking in Coonawarra.

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ASVO Viticulturist of the Year Colin Hinze, of Taylors Wines, in South Australia’s Clare Valley, who the judges praised for his endeavours to implement and refine the use of precision viticulture.

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will assist with the promotion of the ASVO and its events via the Wine & Viticulture Journal and its social media e-newsletter channels, as well as the publication of proceedings from our seminars. ASVO members will also be entitled to receive discounts on subscriptions to the Wine & Viticulture Journal and on purchases of the Australian and New Zealand Wine Industry Directory and Winetitles Media books. Look out for more details in the ASVO newsletter. Wine Australia is also an important partner of the ASVO. Sponsorship provided by Wine Australia enables the ASVO to deliver more to its members. One example of this is the ability to invite and host international speakers at ASVO events. ASVO president Mardi Longbottom (far left) with the ASVO’s two new Fellows, Dianne Davidson and Brian Croser. Brian has two Honorary Doctorates (Charles Sturt University, 1998, and University of Adelaide, 2007) which recognise his contributions to education, research and the Australian wine industry. Brian received the Maurice O’Shea Award in 1997, he was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in 2000, he received a Centenary Medal in 2001 and was named Decanter Man of The Year in 2004. Brian is the deputy chair of Wine Australia. Brian is a founding member of the ASVO. He was secretary and treasurer for the first ASVO board (1980-1981), and ASVO president a few years later (1985-1986). He has contributed to numerous ASVO events and at the Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference (AWITC). Brian lives at his vineyard in the Adelaide Hills and is the winemaker for Tapanappa Wines, based in South Australia, and Tunkalilla Vineyard, in Oregon. Di Davidson’s 40-year career in the wine industry began as the first national vineyard manager for Penfolds Wines but she is possibly better known for her impact on the Australian wine industry as a viticultural consultant working in every Australian wine region. Throughout her career, Di has served on innumerable wine industry committees, including nine years on the board of the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. She has written hundreds of articles and presentations to industry journals, workshops and seminars in her career and is also the author of two books. In 2015, Di was appointed a Member of the Order of Australia for ‘services to the wine and horticulture industries and higher education’. Di is currently the deputy chancellor of The University of Adelaide. Di is a founding member of the ASVO and has provided a unique offering to the ASVO. As managing director of her own business, Di has provided both direct personal service to the ASVO and indirect service through her employees who served on the board and contributed to numerous ASVO seminars and the AWITC. Di has also actively promoted the benefits of ASVO membership and encouraged its uptake amongst students and early career wine industry professionals. Di is currently working on major water reform in Australia as a board member of the Murray Darling Basin Authority. She is also a director of the Plant Biosecurity CRC and manages her own vineyards in the Adelaide Hills.

BOARD COMINGS AND GOINGS The ASVO Board farewelled Vlad Jiranek after two terms as an ASVO director and Tony Proffitt after one term and thank them both for their contribution to the ASVO during their tenure. Replacing them are Associate Professor Paul Grbin, who represents South Australia, and Dr Fiona Kerslake, from the combined regions Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania. David Wollan returns to represent Victoria for a second term. DATES FOR MILDURA SEMINAR The ASVO is excited to announce the dates of the annual pilgrimage to Mildura where ASVO members join with other professionals, researchers and practitioners to hear the latest in viticulture innovation and technology. Save the date: Thursday 27 July and Friday 28 July 2017, in Mildura. We look forward to seeing WVJ you there.

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organisers of SIMEI, the world’s leading event for king and bottling and equipment orgaSmachinery EEENVVVEEEEW NNNT TTSSS E V E N T S DATES y the Unione Italiana Vini since 1963, are already 11-15 September 2017 on the 27th edition, which will take place from 15th September 2017 in Munich, Germany. The PLACE ds, as always, will be innovation and technology. ous innovations on the agenda, starting with the Munich, Germany – Messe München Exhibition . In 2017, the event will move from Italy, where turn in 2019, to Germany, to forge a fruitful and PARTICIPATION synergy with drinktec, the international trade fair • exhibitors: complete the form and follow the in erage and liquid food industry equipment. 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PLACE PLACE PLACE looking for the best solutions for companies”. production, conditioning, storage, bottling and Numerous Numerous innovations on the agenda, starting with the Numerousinnovations innovationson onthe theagenda, agenda,starting startingwith withthe the Munich, Munich, Germany Messe München Exhibition Centre Munich,Germany Germany–––Messe MesseMünchen MünchenExhibition ExhibitionCentre Centre ing oflocation. wine, spanning from logistics services. will move Italy, where location. 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ADVOCACY

Intervitis: Stuttgart, 27-30November November 2016 n Wine Intervitis: Fair: London, 22-24 May 2017 Intervitis: Stuttgart, 27-30 November 2016 Intervitis: Stuttgart, 27-30 November 2016 Stuttgart, 27-30 2016 Vinitech:Bordeaux, Bordeaux,29 29Nov-1 Nov-1December December2016 2016 Vinitech: Bordeaux, 29 Nov-1 December 2016 Vinitech: Bordeaux, 29 Nov-1 December 2016 Vinitech: Enomaq:Saragozza, Saragozza,14-17 14-17February February2017 2017 Enomaq: Saragozza, 14-17 February 2017 Enomaq: Saragozza, 14-17 February 2017 Enomaq: LondonWine WineFair: Fair:London, London,22-24 22-24May May2017 2017 London Wine Fair: London, 22-24 May 2017 London Wine Fair: London, 22-24 May 2017 London

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WINE JOURNAL NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016 W IINNEE &&&&VVVITICULTURE IIVITICULTURE TTIICCULT R EE JO UR VVEMBER/DEC JOURNAL NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2016 WWINE ULTUUR JO URNNAALL NO NO EMBER/DECEMBER EMBER 2016 2016

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WORLD LEADER IN WINE TECHNOLOGY

27TH EDITION INTERNATIONAL ENOLOGICAL AND BOTTLING EQUIPMENT EXHIBITION

ORGANIZED BY

11th-15th September 2017 Messe München - Germany

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Wine through time – Part 2 A parallel walk through two decades of The Octavius and significant events in the Australian wine industry By Tony Keys

Having looked at the years 1990 to 1999 in the September-October issue of the Journal, Tony concludes his pairing of his tasting notes on The Octavius Old Vine Shiraz with some of the big news that happened in the industry in the corresponding years. RISE, FALL, RECOVER Depending on how the reader approaches this two-part article it can appear in different ways. The simple approach is a tasting of the same wine representing vintages spread over two and a half decades with some observations of the industry tied in. Or, the reader may spot the development of Australian wine, reflected by The Octavius, in the struggle and development of the industry within the same timeframe. The point of difference between the two is that where wine has shown steady improvement, the industry behind it has been somewhat erratic. The first Yalumba Octavius was a Cabernet Sauvignon from the Menzies vineyard in Coonawarra in 1988. Why did it change into a Shiraz from the Barossa; what viticulture and winemaking decisions were behind the change? Like much of life, circumstance was the driving force, says winemaker Kevin Glastonbury: “The octaves were only finished at the end of vintage when all the Barossa Shiraz was already tucked away in oak. The only wine available was Menzies, so Menzies it was. No

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Shiraz was deemed worthy enough in 1989 and no Octavius was made or released.” During the last two decades of the 20th century the wine industry was a roller coaster ride; money was made, growth the byword, onwards, upwards, and conquest the mantra of Wine Australia, Winemakers’ Federation of Australia and companies large or otherwise. Australian wine didn’t enter the 21st century, it came busting through the millennium barrier like Vikings through an Anglo-Saxon village. 2000

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2000: Again, unpleasant on the nose and dull all the way. Past its best. 85 points. Warning signals had quietly been going off and the signs of something being not quite right were appearing but defining them was difficult. Difficult because the figures were so very good. The export report for the 1999 calendar year released in January 2000 said 258.3 million litres (up 29.5 per cent) valued at $1.195 billion (up 35.1 per cent) left Australian shores.

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This was to continue throughout the year. The figures for the 12 months to the end of June showed value of $1.381 million (up 34 per cent) and volume at 293 million litres (up 32 per cent). The October release showed the 12 months to the end of September recorded a volume of 304 million litres (up 24 per cent) at a value of $1.42 million (up 26 per cent). There was strong confidence in boardrooms as Fosters forked out $2.9 billion for California’s Beringer Wine Estates. The company suits and socalled marketing gurus were coming to the fore and manipulating the industry. Investment in Australian wine also continued. The Wine Industry Directory (WID) for 2000 reported 93 new wineries in 1999, down on the 106 that opened in 1998. The WID reported, “This doesn’t necessarily indicate that investment in the wine industry is diminishing.” It wasn’t but in hindsight it should have been. WID also reported large wineries (those crushing more than 5000 tonnes) had increased by nine and totalled 61. Grapegrowers were happy the average price for the Riverland 2000 vintage was $657 tonne. In 1999 the Riverina reported a small drop in the

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Chardonnay price (down from $700 to $650 tonne). Oh happy days! Where were the warnings to be found? Academia provided some. This from a paper released in June 2000, ‘Export-led growth: Lessons from Australia’s wine industry’, by Kym Anderson, School of Economics and Centre for International Economic Studies at The University of Adelaide: “These projected falls in grape prices are similar to those forecast by ABARE, who expect the real price of Riverland Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon to fall by around one-third between 1998 and 2003 (Shepherd 1998).” And prices did fall steadily over the coming years, but more of that later. The year 2000 also saw the Geographical Indications Committee (GIC) officially define the Coonawarra wine region. It took the GIC 10 years to come to a decision which left many inside and outside of the new boundary dissatisfied - a situation that exists today. This was also the year Murray Tyrrell died, aged 79. The industry lost one of its most colourful characters. There

remained plenty of others but the first decade of the 21st century has seen many depart and few arrive.

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who in his role as publisher of this journal (then named the Wine Industry Journal) wrote the following in the September/October 2001 issue: “The wine industry is about to enter its toughest decade yet and there is no place for complacency. With the continued ‘globalisation’ of wine business, the organisational structures which have steered the wine industry’s success in this country are at a very real risk of radical change. The more international the wine industry becomes the more severe will be the erosion of the national cohesion, organisation and collective collaboration which has underpinned the success everyone enjoys today. This is certainly not a time for complacency.” News that ran throughout this and the following couple of years was the fiasco of the National Wine Centre (NWC). Officially opened on 7 October, the centre had been causing trouble since it was first mooted in 1996. Situated on the site of a 19th century lunatic asylum, one wondered if the lunacy lingered somehow, impregnating those involved in the 20-21st century. ▶

News that ran throughout this and the following couple of years was the fiasco of the National Wine Centre (NWC).

2001

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2001: Plum fragrance on the nose and well balanced across the palate, all parts of the wine coming together in the middle of the palate. Slight tannin bite towards the end, but within bounds. 92 points Those troubled about industry direction in 2001 included Paul Clancy

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In 2002 it was to taken over by the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) with the then South Australian Treasurer Kevin Foley saying in an interview with The Age on 25 June: “that would be the end of taxpayer bailouts for the centre which has cost the state $40 million so far.” There was and remains a question mark on the need for a national wine centre. Handing over the running of the centre to the WFA was not a solution as on 1 July 2003, it was taken over by The University of Adelaide for $1 million on a 40-year lease. Prior to the opening the NWC, chairman Rick Allert said the centre was looking to attract 170,000 visitors a year - a somewhat optimistic figure that invited ridicule. At the time Allert was chairman of Southcorp. Ironically, after the NWC debacle, Allert was appointed chair of Tourism Australia from 2007 to 2012. Paul Clancy pointed out the pertinent issues at the beginning of 2001: “On what was supposed to be a good news day for the centre, when the Premier conducted a walk-through of the site for the media, news broke of the Auditor-General’s severe criticism of the centre’s tendering processes. A consultancy to former SOCOG executive, Mal Hemmerling, to provide marketing advice was originally tendered at $40,000 but was later extended by the NWC Board, without going to tender, to $100,000 which subsequently blew out to $228,000. Another $169,000 was spent on a consultant for ‘e-commerce’ advice without the contract going to tender. What these consultancies for marketing and ‘e-commerce’ have achieved for the centre is not yet evident. “The accident-prone NWC was again embroiled in controversy earlier this year when the parliamentary Economic and Finance Committee revealed that the Government-owned NWC had paid $85,000 to the South Australian Wine & Brandy Industry Association to buy its website (for which the Government had given a grant of $50,000 to establish four years earlier). A further $40,000 has been spent improving the site. In effect the Government/NWC paid $125,000 to buy back and upgrade a website which had already cost taxpayers $50,000.”

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Those involved in certain aspects of wine and based in Adelaide at this period in time were more akin to a masonic lodge. The collective arrogance was overbearing. One assumes their confidence was boosted by the export figures which were still on an upward trend. The year to the end of June showed volume up 18 per cent to 339 million litres and value up 19 per cent to $1.6 billion. At the time export was mainly in bottle and the average FOB price was $4.76 litre.

Others may disagree but the merger of Southcorp and Rosemount Estates [in 2001] was, in my opinion, a dark day in the Australian wine industry. This was also the year Australian wine producers learnt they weren’t immune to the pressure of global brands. Small Tasmanian producer Stefano Lubiana Wines agreed to stop using the colour orange on its Lubiana Non-Vintage Brut sparkling wine following the threat of legal action by Champagne house Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin. Others may disagree but the merger of Southcorp and Rosemount Estates this year was, in my opinion, a dark day in the Australian wine industry. The price was $1.49 billion plus $90 million debt. Rosemount management moved in and many fine and loyal Southcorp employees departed over the next couple of years. Brands suffered, Rosemount included. Chairman Rick Allert said, “Rosemount is an excellent strategic fit with Southcorp and also delivers significant cost savings and synergies through the consolidation of the two businesses.” Keith Lambert, the son-in-law of Rosemount owner Robert Oatley, became CEO of ‘Rosecorp’, as the new merged company was dubbed. The next four years were incredibly painful for the company and the Oatley family, excluding Keith. Despite the cracks appearing at the big end of Australian wine, 121 new wine producers joined the ranks. In December Kreglinger (Australia) Ltd, an extension of the Belgian company G&C Kreglinger, took control of Pipers

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Brook for around $40 million and removed it from the ASX in 2002. 2002

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2002: The rich, earthy nose that has been shown as a character of Octavius comes through again. It’s generous across the palate, finishes well and has handsome perfume hinting of violets on the return. 94 points Keith Lambert was settling into his role as CEO of Southcorp. ‘King Keith’ suited his manner and arrogance. Early in the year he announced plans to increase the Penfolds brand from 1.8 million cases in 2001 to 5 million cases within five years. At the time the average price of Lindeman’s was $63 per nine-litre case; Rosemount was $88/case and Penfolds an average of $115/case. His supreme confidence in his abilities was not backed by others and in February 2003 he was asked to resign. Before Lambert’s departure John Duval left Penfolds after 28 years with the company. The media release said it was to follow his own path. In an interview with Jeni Port in The Age on 20 August Duval appeared on edge, with Port speculating on Duval’s departure: “Or, is it when you reach the age of 51 [Duval] and find a new corporate machine installed at your workplace, replacing the old guard - perhaps even old values - and making some sweeping winemaking and marketing changes?” Duval: “Can I say right from the start I’m not going to bag Southcorp today, right!” he says. “So, let’s talk about all the positives, etcetera - Peter (Gago) taking on the mantle, talk about what I have contributed for 28 years - but I am not going to dump on Southcorp, right! I didn’t get pushed. This is my decision.” Other notable departures from Southcorp or semi-retirements, either voluntary or by request, included: Philip John (Lindeman’s) Ian McKenzie (Penfolds) Geoff Henriks (Lindeman’s) James Halliday (Coldstream Hills) David Murdock (chief viticulturist) Neville Falkenberg (Yattarna). The Federal Government announced an independent review of the wine tourism and export industries. The Government said the review was to “seek to identify additional strategies and actions that individual wine producers, the industry

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as a whole and governments can take to promote growth in wine tourism and to increase wine exports”. Clare Valley-based Jeffrey Grosset bottled a third of his Gaia 2000 under screwcap for the first time. Wine exports for the 12 months to the end of April 2002 saw volume growth of 19 per cent to 395 million litres, and value by 17 per cent to $1.86 billion. The Winegrape Growers’ Council of Australia warned an estimated 26,000 tonnes of winegrapes (mostly red varieties) from the 2002 vintage may not be sold.

turns into a period of tougher markets, unfavourable exchange rates, compaction and power imbalances in the retail sector and fightbacks by our competitors, the Australian wine industry is going to need positive spin more than ever before.” Grape prices were falling but exports continued to rise. Australian wine exports increased by 25 per cent to 503 million litres in the 12 months ending May 2003. The value of exports grew 25 per cent. It was also the year that wine in bulk shipments started to increase. The figures

2003

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2003: The base earthy nose lifted with fragrant elements. The wine has both depth and length across the palate with a lingering finish. 94 points The Octavius wines are now showing a high degree of consistent quality. The Australian wine industry was still riding high but consistency was not amongst its qualities. After the shock of ‘Rosecorp’ the next big cataclysm for the industry was Constellation Brands acquiring BRL Hardy Ltd, announced in January. Constellation offered BRL shareholders $10.50 per share, valuing BRL including debt at around $1.9 billion. Keith Lambert walks or struts with strong encouragement from the Southcorp board, including his father-in-law Robert (Bob) Oatley and brother-in-law Sandy Oatley, his departure somewhat softened with a $4.4 million pay-out. Lambert had a strategy of heavy discounting to gain market share and huge promotional spending. The discounting hurt profit margins not only for Southcorp but other Australian producers who were forced to follow, especially in the domestic and UK markets. Southcorp declares a 97 per cent drop in profits for the half year. Net profit, after tax, for the period was $5.7 million compared with $210 million for the corresponding period in the prior year. Southcorp also said it was unlikely to meet its profit targets for the year and warned it will be out of pocket by $20 million dollars on currency hedging contracts. In the Riverland the average price for grapes fell almost $100 a tonne from $674 in 2002 to $578, the start of a year-by-year, five-year decline. Paul Clancy in May said, “As our cycle

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In the Riverland the average price for grapes fell almost $100 a tonne from $674 in 2002 to $578, the start of a year-by-year, fiveyear decline.

to the end of September showed volume was 522 million litres, up 19 per cent, valued at $2.42 million, up 14 per cent In December Stephen Strachan took over as CEO of the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia. From the outset he identified health issues caused by alcohol would become a major issue for the Australian wine industry. Thirteen years later they still are yet to see the importance. 2004

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2004: Slight hint of fruitcake on the nose. The wine gives pleasure all along its journey. A gorgeous vinous experience. 95 points The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) battles with government to get a more equitable tax system for small wineries. It asks for the abolishment of the Wine Equalisation Tax (WET) on the first 600,000 litres of domestic wine sales, with a 29 per cent WET applied after that. The vintage came in at 1.86 million tonnes, 40 per cent more than the drought affected 2003 vintage and 23 per cent more than the previous record vintage of 1.51 million tonnes in 2002. Red varieties accounted for 1.07 million tonnes, Shiraz the leader at 442,102 tonnes (24 per cent of total) with Cabernet Sauvignon at 317,472 tonnes (17 per cent).

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Chardonnay dominated the whites at 329,000 tonnes, 18 per cent of total. The inaugural International Shiraz Alliance was held in the Barossa Valley from 30 July to 2 August. Post event, founder and chairman Peter Fuller said it exceeded expectations and was firmly established as a New World wine event. Unfortunately, it was not that established as there was only one other - a less grand affair held in 2006. Lasting longer but not by much, 2004 saw the launch of Zork, a new wine closure developed in South Australia which, according to the media release, “seals like a screwcap and pops like a cork”. Later to be published in The Future Makers, Max Allen interviewed David Anderson (Wild Duck Creek, Heathcote): “There are newcomers in it for the wrong reasons. They’re barking up the marketing tree, arguing about logos and corporate identity, before they’ve made anything.” Yes indeed, the The University of Adelaide’s marketing graduates were flowing into the wine business. 2005

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2005: Powerful black fruit nose. A sensual wine that lazily stretches itself across the palate. Long on the finish and generous on the return. 96 points From the Wine Industry Journal March/April issue: “The number of Australian wine producers listed in the Wine Industry Directory now stands at 1899, up from 1798 listed in the 2004 Directory. In the past 10 years, the Directory has seen an average net gain of about 101 wine producers per year.” Despite the enthusiasm of new entries and marketing graduates, the naysayers such as myself were proving correct; there was ‘trouble at mill’. If not full trouble there were enough pointers in 2005 to show not all was gold and candy in the industry yet still people were opening wineries. Paul Clancy could see the light. His opinion piece in the May/June 2005 Wine Industry Journal contained the following comments, “Popular premium is wine with retail prices in the US$3.50-7.99, domestic $3.50–9.99 and UK £3.00–4.99 range. It’s a market sector which has been spectacularly successful for the big Australian wine companies. However, an oversupply of grapes, the result of good seasons and over-planting, has

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caused a ‘race to the bottom’, with some wine producers taking advantage of the surplus to purchase grapes at $150 per tonne and making wine which sells in our export markets at the bottom end of the Popular premium price points.” The big news of 2005 was the Foster’s takeover of Southcorp in June for $3.17 billion. The action had started in December 2004 when, realising what a cockup the Rosemount-Southcorp merger was, Bob Oatley agreed to sell his 18.8 per cent stake to Foster's for $584 million. According to an ABARE report (two years later) the agriculture sector accounted for just under 60 per cent of total methane emissions, 84 per cent of total nitrous oxide emissions and 17 per cent of overall greenhouse gas emissions in 2005. Taking a different viewpoint, nonagriculture activities account for 83 per cent of Australia’s greenhouse problems. Therefore, when the report said that “climate change is likely to affect agricultural productivity through increased average temperatures, changed rainfall patterns and increased climate variability”, shouldn’t it be considered that Australian agriculture (admitting there is room for improvement) is more victim than perpetrator? 2006

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2006: As black as midnight with an incredibly complex nose which I found hard to pin as it kept changing; Huon Hooke suggested star anise. Beautifully balanced on its journey across the palate, long on the finish. 96 points A serene wine from such troubled times, the 2006 vintage came in at 1.846 million tonnes. The WFA vintage report contained this note: “The winegrape crush would have been higher had it not been for some winegrapes being left on the vines or harvested onto the ground in response to declining prices and poor returns for some grapegrowers.” The news in early 2006 was that despite export volumes increasing 9 per cent to 702 million litres in 2005 and the value up 2 per cent to $2.79 million, the FOB price per litre had fallen to $3.78 litre. The UK was still the largest market volume wise, accounting for 261 million

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litres, but its value was decreasing, down 2.9 per cent to $939 million. The USA remained the second largest market at 208 million litres but that saw a 10 per cent decline in value to $933 million. Part of the price per litre drop can be explained by the increasing use of bottling at destination rather than source. 2005 saw an increase of 40 per cent of wines shipped in bulk containers to 165 million litres, representing 28 per cent of total wine exports, the majority going to the UK and Germany.

... there was ‘trouble at mill’. If not full trouble there were enough pointers in 2005 to show not all was gold and candy in the industry yet still people were opening wineries. Export wise, the second half of 2006 and first half of 2007 (financial year) was the peak period - 789 million litres worth $2.99 billion left Australian shores. Retailer consolidation was growing in Australia. It was estimated Coles and Woolworths had around 45 per cent of the market. In the UK the big five supermarkets, led by Tesco, had around 80 per cent of the market. There was not an Octavius 2007 in the tasting but the events that culminated in McWilliam's acquiring a stake in Evans & Tate were in play in 2006. July 2007: McWilliam's takes a 25 per cent stake in Evans & Tate (E&T). E&T were into debt with the ANZ bank for around $100 million. To extract itself the bank agreed to convert $50 million of debt into shares, of which $10 million worth was bought by McWilliam’s. The rest of the shares were held in a joint venture between ANZ and a company called Pendulum Capital. ANZ retained a $55 million debt facility. Len Evans, for so long the face and voice of Australian wine, died on 17 August aged 75. 2008

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2008: such a wonderful wine hitting all the right points. 96 points Since 2001 the Octavius wines have

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changed for the better at a steady pace. The wine industry during the first part of the decade was still on the way up and the darkness was yet to descend. Another large harvest at 1.83 million tonnes. At the Outlook conference held in June, John Grant, president of the Hardy Wine Company, warned there was the equivalent of a 52 million case surplus and vines needed to be removed. He also pointed out imported wine, led by New Zealand, accounted for 13 per cent of consumption and was growing at 40 per cent. Exports to the UK and USA, the two largest export markets, were in steep decline. For those that observe the industry, mirth was to be found in this statement on the calendar year export figures from Wine Australia: “These results come after more than a decade of extraordinary growth in Australian wine exports, culminating in reaching the A$3 billion milestone in 2007. A slowdown was not unexpected given such factors as the global financial crisis, exchange rate volatility, continuing intense competition from other suppliers, tightening margins, and an extended drought causing initial supply uncertainty.” It had been clear for years, hence the chuckle. Drinks trade publication Drinks Business (UK) names Vanya Cullen, managing director and senior winemaker at Margaret River-based Cullen Wines, Woman of the Year. 2009

Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2009: Canned or glass jar black cherry nose. Lots of rich and ripe flavours on the journey. Very elegant, well balanced and a real joy. 96 points In my opinion this was an awakening year, when the majority involved in the industry realised something had gone wrong, was still going wrong and would not be mended soon. It was also the year where many realised established markets such as the UK and USA were turning away from bland brand Australian wine to be replaced by Asian markets looking for quality. John Angove, writing as the outgoing president of the South Australian Wine Industry Association, was quoted in the September/October issue of this journal: “However, we continue to see issues

www.winetitles. com . au

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e Dispersion Report Summary K E Y

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Figure 1: Winegrape average purchase prices over timeç

e e in rage econd than

Average purchase price ($ per tonne)

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move on Tasmania, buying all of Gunns Limited’s Tasmanian wine interests including the Tamer Ridge brand and vineyard management of winegrape MIS projects. The reported price paid was $32.5 million. Foster's announces it would call its wine division Treasury Wine Estates.

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Figure 1. Winegrape average purchase prices over time. Source: Winemakers’ Federation of Australia 2012 Vintage report (http://wfa.org.au/ assets/vintage-reports/PDFs/WFA-Vintage-Report-2012.pdf). Winegrape Purchases Price Dispersion – 2011, 2010 and 2009

500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000+

but 19 per cent in value. in the industry, such as over-supply, At the time its potential was not yet fully commercial sustainability, image and recognised but this was the year China water. These are not new issues, but started to become a serious player with they are at levels unprecedented in our exports increasing 51 per cent in value to memory. The over-supply problems are of $94 million. a magnitude that is not well-recognised, Out of the top 10 export markets seven perhaps even within the industry. In simple terms, there is about 25 per cent of planted showed a decline in volume, eight showed a decline in value and six showed a decline and producing vineyard that the industry in average price per litre. does not need. Sweden, China and Hong Kong were up “It is an all-pervading malignancy that in volume, China and Hong Kong were up needs some serious intervention. We keep in value and Germany, Netherlands, China on talking about market signals and the and Hong Kong were up in price per litre. response to those signals as the way we will get back to some sort of balance, but 2010 response to the signals to date has been muted.” Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz The export report to the end of June 2010: Powerful rich flavours sit at the front of the palate, then unfold gracefully; covering the 2008-09 financial year was the richness continues throughout. It’s grim reading despite the positive spin Wine youthful and will develop as it matures. Australia put on the figures. 95 points now but a point or two to come The volume of Australian wine exports as it ages increased 6 per cent to 750 million litres. The value declined 10 per cent to $2.43 Australia escaped the worst of the ersion billion of theand the average price There was15only 2008 a marginal improvement declined global financial crises but by 2010 per cent to $3.24 per litre. was feeling the results other countries’ e spectrum for in 2012, with 79% of wine grapes ofsold There had been consistent growth in sufferings. 012, compared to below $500 per tonne, compared with volume from financial years 1995-96 to Exports were 781 million litres, down 9 collections. A 80% in 2011, 73% in 2010 and 68% 2006-07 then in 2007-08 it dropped 90 from the 2006-07 high of 789 million litres. s paid,million particularly litres (11 per cent).in 2009. The 2010 value was $2.1 billion, down from In 2006-07 the value had peaked at the high of $2.99 billion in 2006-07. ice spectrum is $2.99 million. The price per litre had The vintage was 1.53 million tonnes, comparison to 2009. fallen from a high of $4.76 in 2000-01 grape prices were dropping the Riverland but consideration had to be given to the reporting an average of $269/tonne. increasing amount of wine shipped in The big news of the year was the release bulk containers. In this 2008-09 year bulk of The Henry Taxation Review, in May. shipments accounted for 34 per cent of Started in 2008 the WFA had been lobbying total shipments. hard, if not to get a better deal at least not This was exemplified in shipments to to get a worse one. the UK in total, down 1 per cent in volume In August Brown Brothers made its

viewed at www.wineaustralia.com/winefacts

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Yalumba ‘The Octavius’ Barossa Shiraz 2012: Beautifully crafted wine shyly showing the hints of greatness that is yet to come. It sits at 95 now but I think another two points to come Vintage 2012 was estimated at 1.66 million tonnes by WFA. Around one million tonnes came from warm inland regions. It shows how important these regions are but the average price of grapes in the Riverland was just $330/tonne - good in the fact it was up from $274/tonne in 2011 but still an unsustainable price ongoing. To compensate, growers were forcing more tonnes per hectare, this year being an average of 19.9 tonnes, the highest since 2006. Figure 1 is taken from the WFA report and shows the average grape price (warm and cool regions) from 1999 to 2012. Ray Beckwith, the man believed to be the first winemaker in Australia, if not the world, to use pH as a control factor in the prevention of bacterial spoilage, dies aged 100. As one era passes another opens. Tony D’Aloisio succeeds Peter Schulz as WFA president on 1 April and Paul Evans takes over the CEO role from Stephen Strachan on 1 June. Industry consultation gets under way for the proposed merger of Wine Australia and the Grape and Wine Research & Development Corporation. The proposal was put forward jointly by the Winemakers’ Federation of Australia and Wine Grape Growers Australia which agreed on a process and timeline to create the single, levy-funded statutory authority by 2014. Mandatory pre-export testing of all wines was replaced with a more rigorous auditing presence. As said in the previous article, as much has been put in, a lot more has been left out due to space. If you feel any important factor has been missed or skipped over, please get in touch and I will research it in greater depth. Perhaps it will be the basis for a new article. WVJ

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Is it the closure or the wine? By Eric Wilkes, Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064

Our knowledge of the overall impact of different closures on wine quality has been further boosted with an analysis by the AWRI of the proportion of wines entered in the International Wine Challenge over the past nine years that were rejected for faults. Of particular interest, the analysis suggests that winemaking choices have a much greater role to play in reductive characters than previously thought.

F

ew things appear to divide the global wine industry more than the choice of closure used in the final packaged product. The debate over the pros and cons of the various available options has raged for more than two decades in the mainstream industry and shows no real sign of abating. It can be an emotive choice that pits tradition against innovation, marketing against functionality. Surrounding it all are claims and counter-claims about the underlying science of how something as simple as a way to keep the wine in the bottle affects both wine quality and development. The closure, whether cork, screwcap or any of the other alternatives, in many ways has become the de facto culprit for any failure of a wine to live up to the expectations of the winemaker or the consumer. More recent studies, however, are beginning to shine a light on how much more nuanced the impact of the closure can be and how, rather than being the arbiter of the outcome, it is more a bit player in the complex story that presents wine to the consumer. Some of the first shots fired in this debate came from the landmark Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) study that began in 1999 looking at the impact of 14 different closures on the development of a white wine during bottle ageing (Godden et al. 2001). This study resulted in arguably one of the iconic images of wine research (Figure 1). The image clearly shows that the choice of closure can have a fundamental impact on the development of a wine postpackaging, with closures with higher oxygen transfer rates leading to significantly higher risk of the wine showing oxidative characters and premature development. In no small part, the outcomes of this study contributed to much of the Australian

wine industry’s confidence to embrace non-traditional closures. Importantly, the study did not dismiss cork as an effective closure, with high quality cork performing well in terms of the freshness of the wine. Rather, it showed that screwcaps were a viable alternative for packaging quality wines. Given the availability of viable alternative closures, the decline of cork in the Australian market was driven by persistent concerns about cork taint and the inconsistency in performance of what is, after all, a natural product. Another finding from the wine in this study was that while the wine under screwcap tended to have fresher and less developed characters, it also showed signs of characters associated with reduction. This has conceptually been taken to mean, in some quarters, that all wines under screwcap have a tendency towards reduction. The logic would appear simple enough: screwcaps let in less oxygen than the average cork, producing a more reductive environment and, therefore, leading to reductive characters. The natural cork, on the other hand, with its higher levels of oxygen transmission, would allow the wine to ‘breathe’, preventing or destroying the reductive characters. Supporting this premise, at least on face value, is some of the scientific research being carried out around the world. In a number of studies, including from the AWRI, it has been seen that wines under screwcaps have higher quantities of the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) associated with reductive characters than the same wines sealed under cork. This raises the question, has the rise of the screwcap as a wine closure led to an increase in the occurrence of reductive wines in the ▶ market?

Figure 1. Semillon wine stored for 63 months after bottling under 14 different closures.

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12.0

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Figure 2. Percentages of faults seen in wines submitted to the International Wine Challenge over nine years, broken down by wine closure, n=106,627. A number of studies have investigated this question but, by necessity, they have looked at individual wines or small groups of wines in isolation and have not always put the magnitude of their findings in context for the consumer. An important additional viewpoint, looking at the overall impact of different closure types in the marketplace, comes from results from one of the world’s largest wine shows, the International Wine Challenge (IWC). The AWRI worked with the IWC on a review of nine years of its results. More specifically, it looked at the proportions of wines that were rejected each year for a range

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5

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Figure 3. Development of methanethiol in a white wine under nine different closures. Error bars represent the range of results for the different closure types; the red line represents the average value across the nine closures. of well-defined faults. Figure 2 presents the relative failure rates for each category of faults for more than 100,000 wine entries under different closure types. This data represents just a small snapshot from a soon-to-be-released IWC report on the prevalence of wine faults in its entries. The first obvious finding is that the data is consistent with the 1999 AWRI study, with the percentage of wines rejected for oxidation much higher under cork than screwcap. A second, expected finding is the higher percentage of wines under cork being rejected for cork taint, although the fact that there are also wines under screwcap rejected for this fault is an indication that this character can sometimes find its way into wines before packaging. What is surprising, however, given the discussion above, is that the percentage of wines rejected for reductive characters is identical under each closure (0.81% rejection rate for both cork and screwcap), and this is upheld by statistical analysis of the data. In other words, across a very large selection of wines from around the world judged by internationallyrecognised experts, there is no difference in the occurrence of wines rejected for reductive characters under screwcap and cork. So how does this sit with the research results that showed an increase in VSC compounds under screwcaps? One clue may come from the results of the continuing closure trials carried out at the AWRI, some of which are presented in Figure 3. This graph shows the average amounts of methanethiol developed over 36 months in a white wine bottled under nine different closures, including screwcaps, corks and synthetic closures. The error bars represent the range of values found across the different closures. Methanethiol is a VSC whose odour is often described as ‘burnt rubber’ or ‘rotten cabbage’ and has a sensory threshold of about 1.8-3.1µg/L, as represented on the graph. While this is just one of the VSCs associated with reductive characters, it is an important marker of these characters and similar results are seen for the other common VSCs. The first feature of the graph that should be noted is the non-linear development of the VSC over time. This is typical of results seen in studies of the development of VSCs during bottle maturation and demonstrates the dynamic and changing nature of the chemistry occurring in wine as it ages in bottle. It is also important to note that the shape of the trend is the same independent of closure.

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C L O S U R E S

The next important feature is the size of the average change between measurement time points compared with the differences seen among the different closures. These average changes are much larger than the differences attributable to the closures themselves. The obvious conclusion, at least in the wine used in this trial, is that a wine’s intrinsic nature can play a much greater role in the development of reductive issues, with the closure modulating, but not defining, the outcome. Indeed, after the first two years in bottle the impact of closure is relatively insignificant compared with the average development of methanethiol. This goes some way to explain the seemingly contradictory results seen from research and wine show results. Closures do have an impact on the levels of VSCs formed in bottle, it is just that factors inherent to the wine also have a role to play and can be a bigger driver of reductive faults. The reductive faults in wines rejected by the judges at the IWC may be the result of issues inherent to the wine rather than the choice of closure. Similar trends have been seen in a range of closure trials carried out at the AWRI using different wines. These observations are supported by research from around the world which shows that the development of VSCs and their reductive odours is dependent on a wide range of winemaking and viticultural issues. These include: the concentrations of metals such as copper in the wine, both during ferment and after packaging; the nutritional status of the must during fermentation; the choice of yeast used; and the history of oxygen exposure of both the must and the wine all through its life. The effects of many of these factors, which can take place as early as the pressing of the fruit, may not become apparent immediately.

WWI INN E M M AAKKI NI GN G

Rather, they may surface much later, even after 12 months in bottle. Does the closure have an impact? Yes, as was clearly seen in the 1999 AWRI closure study. However, as to the question as to whether low oxygen transfer closures are responsible for the reductive nature of wines, the story would appear to be much more complicated, with winemaking choices having a much greater role to play than has been previously thought by many in the wider industry. It should be remembered that it is not a simple case of one closure allowing oxygen and the other not. All closures commonly used on wine bottles allow ingress of oxygen, it is just the rate at which this happens that varies. High quality cork can exhibit a similar oxygen transmission rate to screwcaps, especially when Saranex liners are used. Indeed, it is probably for this reason that good cork is such an effective closure for wine. So, the problem of reductive wines may not be solved by the choice of a closure. Rather, it requires continued investigation of the factors that cause reductive characters in wine and considered winemaking choices. Market perception, however, is a very different issue. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Neil Scrimgeour, Simon Nordestgaard and Tadro Abbott are thanked for collating the data and figures for this article. REFERENCE Godden, P.; Francis, L.; Field, J.; Gishen, M.; Coulter, A.; Valente, P.; Høj, P. and Robinson, E. (2001) Wine bottle closures: physical characteristics and effect on composition and sensory properties of a Semillon wine 1. Performance up to 20 WVJ months post-bottling. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 7:64-105.

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I NEE M MA G G WW I N A KKI N I N

CONTRACT WINEMAKING

Managing risk in contract winemaking By Cathy Howard

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From a customer point of view, the first step in managing the risks associated with using a contract winemaking facility is selecting a reputable, professional, well-organised and well-resourced contract winery. The second step right at the beginning of this relationship is to set up a process for both parties to maintain a constant and regular communication procedure during the winemaking process. As I stated in the November/December 2015 issue of the Wine & Viticulture Journal in an article titled ‘Harvest need not be a risky business’, communication is key to a successful grower-winery relationship, and this is definitely also the case with a wine producer-contract winery relationship. One major risk with contracting out all or part of your winemaking is the feeling of a loss of control in how your wines are made. The day-to-day operations and management of staff and procedures at the contract winery are outside of your direct control, which then presents challenges as to how to manage and minimise the potential business impacts if something does go wrong with one of your wines, and your wine quality is adversely affected. Mistakes can and do happen in any winery. If you ask the question of any winemaker who has used a contract winery, stories about what went wrong are an experience shared by many of us, and many result in a downgrade in final wine quality. Some examples include the addition of incorrect rates of a certain additive, or an incorrect additive mixed into a ferment or wine; loss of product during a cellar operation; a ‘custom crush’ facility ends up being anything but that, and despite agreeing to the contrary, each and every wine from every customer has been made following their own in-house cellar procedures resulting in wines which are not to a customer’s style requirements; ferment temperatures not adequately controlled resulting in either hot, racing ferments with a loss of aromas and sulfide issues, or ferments are chilled then become stuck which then requires re-starting; unusually high lees volumes, resulting in large racking losses; ullaged wine not handled correctly resulting in a

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Grapes arrive at the 2200-tonne capacity Flying Fish Cove winery in Margaret River, Western Australia, which produces wine for its own label as well as making wine under contract for others. The ever-present challenge of using contract winemaking facilities is not having total control over the winemaking.

Likelihood

T

he contract winemaking sector has been steadily growing over the past 10 years to service the needs of wine producers of all sizes. Many of these wine producers are small and utilise contract wineries as the economies of scale associated with their small production levels often does not justify either building their own winery, or equipping their existing small winery with expensive, specialised pieces of processing equipment. There are other contributing factors to the growth in this sector, too. With an export-led growth cycle requiring a rapid expansion in winemaking processing capacity and storage facilities, contract winemaking facilities have been wellplaced to fill this gap quickly and relatively easily, meaning that a wine producer can take immediate advantage of a growing export market without having to commit to a substantial capital investment in expanding the processing and storage space at their own winery. The past 10 years or so have also seen more grapegrowers diversifying and value adding their income streams by choosing to make wine out of their excess and uncontracted grapes. Larger wine companies have also utilised contract wineries to process grapes during compressed vintages when their own wineries reach full capacity and are incapable of receiving grapes at their optimal ripeness levels. Since moving to Western Australia in 2002, I have been actively involved on both sides of the contract winemaking sector, as a customer and as a winery manager of a contract facility. There are specific challenges associated with both. For a manager of a contract facility, the challenge is in managing the differing expectations and needs of each customer whilst maintaining a smooth, safe and efficient work program within the winery. For a customer, the ever present challenge is not having total control over the making of your wines. The key to a successful customercontract winemaking facility relationship is planning for and preparing to eliminate or minimise the risks before an incident or mistake happens.

Very likely

Medium

Hight

Extreme

Likely

2 1 1 Low

Medium

High

Low

Low

Medium

Minor

Moderate

Major

Unlikely What is the chance it will happen?

3 2 1

5 3 2

Impact

An example of a risk matrix. wine with a bacterial surface film being mixed and the wine then becoming volatile; cellar transfer and blending errors, the worst case scenario being the blending together of different customers’ wines. A key strategy to manage the risk of something going wrong during the contract winemaking process is to prepare and adopt a risk management plan for the contract winemaking which contains detailed strategies for dealing with the risks specifically related to using a contract winemaking facility.

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PREPARING A RISK MANAGEMENT PLAN When working on your risk management plan, start by identifying the risks associated with using the contract winemaking facility – when, where, why and how are risks likely to happen during the contract winemaking process. Some risk assessment tools to use include: • Ask yourself ‘what if?’ questions, such as ‘what if the contract winemaker was away from the winery, would my ferments have the correct ferment additions added at the right rate and correct timing?’; ‘hat if an error has been made on a cellar note in regards to the calculation of an addition to one of my wines, would it be picked up before it was added to my wine?’ • Brainstorm with different people within your business and those associated with your business, such as your accountant or supplier, to gain different perspectives on the potential risks to your business when using a contract winery. • Analyse various scenarios that might lead to an event, such as a volatile batch of wine, and consider what the possible outcomes might be and how it may affect your business. This will further assist in identifying risks. • Identify the individual steps in the contract winemaking process and think about the associated risks. Ask yourself what could prevent each step from happening and how that would affect the rest of the contract winemaking process. • Consider worst case scenarios as these could be the result of several risks happening at once or in succession. • The next step is analysing and evaluating the effect of the indentified risks, using a risk matrix, to rate the risk level from low to severe by assessing the likelihood of a risk happening and the possible consequences if it did occur. When evaluating each risk, consider the potential losses to your business, as well as any benefits or opportunities presented by the risk. Those risks rated as high to severe need to be managed first, followed by those rated as moderate. The final step in the risk management plan process is deciding upon the strategies to follow to minimise the effect of a risk.

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HOW TO MANAGE THE RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH USING A CONTRACT WINEMAKING FACILITY The best approach is to regard the contract winemaker and winery as part of your winery. Provide written product specifications with written winemaking techniques, and negotiate with the contract winemaker to be actively involved as much as possible in the winemaking process. Establish written reporting procedures between each party, and maintain regular daily and/or weekly visits and meetings, as required, with the contract winemaker. You need to be there to ensure that your wine is treated following industry best practice to optimise quality. In fact, professional contract winemakers who wish to build a long-term relationship with their customers will want to involve you in the winemaking process so they can identify your desired wine style and then ensure that they can deliver the desired quality product (or better) to you. When entering into a written contract with a contract winery, get some legal advice to ensure that your interests are protected and try to ascertain the financial standing of the contract winery and those associated with it. Ensure also that it is clear that title in the wine remains with you at all times, to avoid potential arguments with liquidators or receivers. Lastly, seriously consider insuring your product at a contract winemaking facility, and also check that the contract winery has indemnity insurance in place to meet your claim if your wine is spoilt due to an error on their part.

Grapes arriving at Flying Fish Cove contract winemaking facility in Margaret River. To manage the risks associated with using a contract winemaking facility, it is best to regard a contract winemaker and winery as part of your own winery by providing written product specifications with written winemaking techniques, and negotiating with the contract winemaker to be actively involved as much as possible in the winemaking process. basis in the contract winemaking facility. I can then anticipate potential problems before they occur, and act to eliminate or minimise the impact of a potential risk promptly. By being physically present, I get to know the staff and I become more accessible to the contract winemaking staff if they have any queries. USEFUL REFERENCE

CONCLUSIONS Having experienced both sides of the contract winemaking process, I understand that the working relationship developed between the two is a fine balancing act based on mutual respect, clearly written winemaking specifications, and effective communication. Get this right, and the end result is the wine quality that you were expecting when you were out in the vineyard tasting the grapes before harvest. As a winemaker having wine contract made, along with a risk management plan, one of my best risk management tools is my physical presence on a regular

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www.business.qld.gov.au/business/ running/risk-management/

Cathy Howard is a winemaker and, together with her husband Neil, proprietor of Whicher Ridge Wines, near Busselton, Western Australia. She has been making wine for more than 20 years and also consults part-time to some wineries in the Geographe region.

WVJ

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F L A V O U R S

Could natural flavourings be the antidote for a poor vintage? By Sonya Logan

Y

ou’ve just endured all the ‘challenges’ and ‘difficulties’ reminiscent of the 2010-11 Australian growing season, and before you is a tank of Sauvignon Blanc that lacks the flavour punch you desire, even if for a wine destined to sell for less than $15.00. After a quick consult with your flavour chemist, you add some natural flavouring to the wine to boost its passionfruit character, and the work of Mother Nature at her worst becomes just a memory. But that’s illegal, I hear you say. And you’d be right, of course. Natural flavour additives are not listed as either an approved additive, like tartaric acid, or processing aid, like copper sulfate, in the production of wine in the Australian New Zealand Food Standards Code. Use them, and you enter the realms of producing a ‘wine product’. But could the day when natural flavourings are listed as an approved additive for wine be on the horizon given research recently concluded at The University of Adelaide which showed that consumers were not only in favour of natural flavourings in wine – even over tannins and acid – in the pursuit of improved wine quality, but some of them even preferred them in taste tests? It was after witnessing a winemaker who for obvious reasons she won’t identify - casually added some natural passionfruit flavour to some Sauvignon Blanc that had failed to meet his expectations that prompted scientist and winemaker Yaelle Saltman to ask, why not? More than just wrestle with the question in her head, Saltman decided to investigate the potential of natural flavour additives to boost wine quality in years when juices fail to reach desired expectations. And the Australian wine industry’s RD&E investment body Wine Australia agreed her quest was noble, giving its approval to fund her endeavours. Acutely aware of the current illegality of natural flavour additives in wine, Saltman first decided to explore what consumers thought about the idea of adding them to improve the quality of wine. This resulted

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in 1031 wine consumers completing an online survey. She admits the results were surprising. “The survey results gave us a lot of knowledge about the acceptance of additives in wine and food among consumers,” Saltman said. “We didn’t just ask them about natural flavourings; we also surveyed their thoughts on the additives currently used in winemaking, as well as artificial flavourings, vitamins, and so on,” Saltman explained. The consumers’ responses were then segmented according to their self-reported level of wine knowledge. “The results were really surprising. Although there was some variation between the three wine knowledge segments, all three accepted natural flavourings significantly more than the additives already used in winemaking, like tannins, acid and oak chips,” she said. Artificial flavourings, however, were outright rejected. “The other thing I wanted to find out from the survey was what flavours consumers like in wine. The wine industry often leaves the decision on what flavours will be in a wine to winemakers. It rarely asks consumers what they’d like in a product, whereas a lot of other industries do. This was an optional question in the survey but more than 90% not only answered it but were happy to elaborate on their responses.” The question, in essence, asked, if you could create a wine with any flavours you like, what would be your preferred flavours? Saltman then put a call out to industry for red and white wine samples from the 2011 vintage with a recommended retail price of $7.00-10.00 with the aim of adding natural flavours to improve them. With limited information available on how and in what quantities natural flavours might be added to wine, Saltman turned to Leslie Norris, an internationally-renowned flavour chemist from California-based company FlavorSense, who had also previously worked for E. & J. Gallo as director of flavour and sensory studies. Norris worked alongside Saltman in the university’s sensory lab for a two-week

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Yaelle Saltman period in 2012 to flavour the wine samples donated by industry – a visit that received another Wine Australia grant. “To the best of our knowledge, this is the first project in the world to investigate the addition of flavourings to wine to improve quality, so there were no guidelines that I could follow to flavour the wine. By bringing in Leslie, she was able to teach me some fundamentals about flavourings and help me optimise the addition of flavourings to the wines donated by industry,” Saltman said. “We had two varietal wines – a Chardonnay and Shiraz – and added natural flavours to produce some flavoured versions of each. In deciding which flavours we’d use in the wines, we took into consideration what was missing in them, and the characters the consumers in our survey had said they liked. Our objective was to slightly intensify the aroma and flavour of the wines while mitigating some of the off-flavours, like green and earthy notes. “This is where adding flavours in this fashion differs from a wine product: a wine product might include flavours like elderflower or cucumber that aren’t necessarily in the wine to start with. All the flavours that we added were flavours that already existed in the wine, we just uplifted ▶ them.”

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I NEE M MA G G WW I N A KKI N I N

F L A V O U R S

A new generation of yeast protection

A spider plot showing mean intensity scores for the aroma (A), flavour (F), taste and mouthfeel attributes of the control and flavoured Chardonnay wine. Asterisks (*) denote statistical significance at p < 0.05.

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After focus groups taste-tested the flavoured wines that Saltman and Norris had come up with, two versions of each varietal were settled on for further consumer tasting and sensory and chemical analysis. The donated wines were opened, the necessary flavourings added and then rebottled with sulfur. Controls were also created by opening up some of the donated wines and simply rebottling them with sulfur. The untouched original wines provided a fourth control for comparison. All the wines were subjected to descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel which confirmed that the flavoured wines were significantly different to the control wines. A basic analysis of the flavoured and control wines further showed that the flavour additions did not change the pH, alcohol or total acidity of the wine. A consumer tasting followed involving 218 regular wine drinkers who were given the choice of tasting either the red or the white wines to determine if they preferred the flavoured wines or the controls. A cluster analysis performed on the preferences of the consumers revealed

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that there were indeed groups of consumers who preferred the flavoured wines. “Some liked all the wines, some only liked the controls. But at least this analysis enabled us to see that there were definitely consumers who liked the flavoured wines,” noted Saltman. The shelf life of the flavoured and control wines was then tested to determine how the composition and sensory properties of the wines changed after a year in storage. Descriptive analysis was again used to determine the sensory properties of the wines, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the volatile compounds responsible for the aromas in the wines. “At bottling and after 12 months storage the analysis showed the addition of those flavourings was in such miniscule amounts that they weren’t even detected by GCMS,” Saltman said. Although the descriptive analysis after bottling had shown the flavoured wines to have enhanced fruit aromas and flavours compared with the controls, after 12 months’ storage the same analysis showed these differences to be less

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Table 1. Results from the survey of just over a 1000 Australian wine consumers showing their acceptance of various additives in wine. Wine knowledge segments Low

Medium

High

P Value

Natural flavouring

6.4

6.1

5.4

0.0001

Artificial flavouring

3.1

3.4

2.5

0.0001

Preservatives

4.3

4.6

5.3

0.0001

Acid

4.3

4.7

5.3

0.0001

Oak chips

4.5

5.0

5.6

0.0001

Tannins

4.9

5.1

5.9

0.0001

Natural colour

6.4

6.0

5.6

0.0001

Artificial colour

3.3

3.6

2.6

0.0001

Grape sugar extracts

5.9

5.7

5.8

0.148

Gelatin

4.2

4.4

4.2

0.225

Vitamins

6.0

5.7

5.3

0.001

Data are means, where 1= highly unacceptable, 5= neither acceptable nor unacceptable and 9= highly acceptable. Different letters within a row indicate a significant difference (P<0.05, one-way ANOVA, Fisher’s LSD, DF=2).

apparent. Again, basic chemical analysis showed no changes to the pH, alcohol or TA in the flavoured wines after 12 months. With her project now completed, Saltman was left in no doubt that flavourings offer wine producers the potential to overcome sensory deficiencies from difficult vintages. This could extend to tailoring wine styles to better meet the needs and expectations of some consumers. “I am a winemaker so I am split on where I stand on the ramifications of this potential,” she admits. “I wasn’t taught to add flavourings to wine because where does it stop before you start to lose the notion of terroir or the magic of being able to fix a wine from a bad vintage. But if there is a group of consumers who will accept the use of natural flavourings to uplift wines then why not give it to them? “I’m not saying this would suit quality wines. But, if you’re going to make wine for around $10, assuming it was to become legal to add natural flavourings to wines, why wouldn’t you tweak the wines? What do oak chips do? They flavour wine. Why should they be deemed a processing aid and a natural flavouring not?” In an article on the early stages of Saltman’s research published in the Wine & Viticulture Journal’s sister publication Grapegrower & Winemaker in 2013, Steve Guy, Wine Australia’s general manager of regulatory services, said even if there was a desire on the part of the Australian wine industry to change the Australian and New Zealand Food Standards Code to allow a product with nautral flavourings to be described as wine, bringing the rest of the world along with us would be the next hurdle. “I can’t think of a wine-drinking country, Old Word or New World, that would allow a product with flavour additions to be desribed as wine,” Guy said. “If there’s a desire and will on the

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part of the wine industry to change the law, it could be done – but it would need to be recognised that although it can be done domestically, it won’t be an easy thing to do in other countries.” Saltman agreed the path to global acceptance of natural flavour additions in wine would be a difficult one. “I’ll leave that path to the professionals. I’m a scientist and winemaker and I just wanted to test the concept to make sure it was possible. “Maybe some time in the future winemakers might have access to different types of flavour kits to enhance, say, blueberry or blackberry characters. Add a few drops - magic!” Treasury Wine Estate’s chief winemaker Mark Robertson said if natural flavour additives were to become approved for wine production, his company would be likely to explore their potential for application. “A primary element of TWE’s strategic focus is to build our masstige and luxury wine portfolio in key global markets. Given that natural flavourings are not an accepted additive in wine, it is difficult to see where there would be benefits for TWE. “As a concept, however, it is conceivable that natural food additives could be used to make wine products more approachable or give them a point a difference which could attract new consumers and, therefore, benefit producers. “There is always a place for the evolution of beverages and it’s exciting to see natural flavour additives being explored. If these were to become approved additives in wine production, TWE would be likely to explore this innovation opportunity, particularly as the research suggests it is acceptable to WVJ consumers,” Robertson said.

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A L C O H O L

Changes in wine ethanol content due to evaporation from wine glasses By David Wollan1,2, Duc-Truc Pham1 and Kerry Leigh Wilkinson1

»

Winning the People's Choice Award for best poster at the 16th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference in July, authors David Wollan, Duc-Truc Pham and Kerry Wilkinson delve into the study on the evaporation of alcohol from wine glasses. INTRODUCTION It may seem obvious, but the evaporation of volatile wine components, particularly ethanol, from wine glasses exposed to air can have a significant impact on the sensory evaluation of wine. Our study, as reported recently in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (http://pubs.acs.org/doi/ abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b02691), was motivated by the presumption that even small changes in the relative proportion of water and ethanol present in wine can significantly influence the perception of that wine’s sensory attributes. We investigated the effect of evaporation by monitoring the changes in ethanol content of commercial wines in glasses exposed to ambient conditions, over time. There was no change in wine ethanol content where glasses were covered with plastic lids, but significant reductions in wine ethanol content were observed when glasses were not covered. u .a sit om Vi t.c s du op st

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Losses ranged from 0.9 to 1.9 per cent alcohol by volume (abv) for wines exposed to ambient airflow for two hours. The rate of ethanol loss was strongly influenced by more direct exposure to airflow from the laboratory air-conditioning unit, together with certain glass shape and wine parameters, glass headspace in particular. These findings have important implications for the technical evaluation of wine sensory properties, in particular, informal sensory trials and wine show judging, where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice. This article is a summary of our study. Readers interested in a more detailed explanation, including methodology, data and references should refer to the original paper as noted above. BACKGROUND There is extensive investigation in the literature of the interaction of various wine matrix components such as water, ethanol, acids, sugars, volatile aromatics, tannins, polysaccharides, etc and their effect on sensory perception. However, there is little specifically on the changes in the ethanol concentration in glasses exposed to the atmosphere. There is an implicit acceptance that this exposure may have an effect on volatile wine components and this is why glasses are covered prior to formal sensory evaluation. There is less awareness or acceptance that changes in ethanol may have important sensory effects in their own right. Certainly, many winemakers who practise alcohol correction are convinced that there is a ‘sweet spot’ phenomenon where for a given wine there are particular ethanol levels that are preferable to others. Indeed, the difference between a sweet spot and not may be quite small, so relatively small changes in ethanol as a result of evaporation may be significant. Until now, what has not been studied specifically is the influence of the wine glass on this. The form, size and material of wine glasses have an aesthetic appeal in their own right but we also believe that this glass ‘architecture’ can profoundly affect our appreciation of the wine contents. Glass manufacturers promote the virtues of their various products as being optimised for particular wine styles and the market has responded favourably. As consumers we explicitly accept that our enjoyment of our favourite wines is enhanced by the use of the most appropriate glass. We also believe that wines can be improved by ‘breathing’ or ‘opening up’ in the glass. As

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The University of Adelaide, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 The Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production. 2 Memstar Pty Ltd, 712 Research Road, Nuriootpa, South Australia 5355 1

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professionals we recognise this and have progressively discarded the previously accepted standard ISO XL5 tasting glass in favour of larger format glassware from Riedel and other high-end manufacturers. This is particularly evident in the Australian wine show system. It is in this system that the results of this study may find their greatest relevance. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In the first trial, 50mL of a 2014 Cabernet Sauvignon was poured into a group of ISO XL5 tasting glasses. Some of these were immediately covered with plastic lids (‘covered’). Of the remainder, half were placed, uncovered, in a position where they were not directly exposed to the airflow from the laboratory airconditioning duct (‘uncovered A’). The other uncovered glasses were placed in a position that received direct exposure to this airflow (‘uncovered B’). The airflows were measured at both of these positions and were found to correspond to linear speeds of 0.01 and 0.08m/second for A and B, respectively. While different, when compared with air speeds reported previously for indoor workplaces, neither was extreme. At regular 15-minute intervals for two hours and then again at four and six hours, samples were taken from the covered and uncovered glasses and alcohol and density was measured with an Anton Paar Alcolyser. Unsurprisingly, no significant changes were observed in the ethanol content of covered wines (Figure 1). Wine glasses that were not covered showed a significant drop in ethanol concentration over the 360-minute duration of the trial. With the group where the exposure to airflow was greatest (uncovered B), ethanol content decreased by 3.2% abv, i.e., from 15.1 to 11.9 per cent abv. Even where the exposure to airflow was moderate (uncovered A), after six hours, the ethanol content had decreased by almost 1 per cent abv. It is unlikely that wine glasses would be exposed to air for six hours but evaporation resulted in statistically significant differences in ethanol content being observed within just 15 minutes. After 60 minutes, uncovered B wines had dropped almost 0.5 per cent. For consumers, evaporation is therefore unlikely to be of any concern, since in most consumer-related wine consumption scenarios, it would be uncommon for a glass of wine to be exposed to ambient conditions for such a long time. However, more importantly, there are a number of professional wine tasting scenarios in which this could Covered

Uncovered A

Uncovered B

16.0

Ethanol concentration (%v/v)

15.0

14.0

13.0

12.0

11.0

For further information, please contact Kauri 10.0 0

50

100

150

200 Time (minutes)

250

300

350

400

AUS Tel: 1800 127 611

NZ Tel: 0800 KAURIWINE

Email: info@kauriwine.com

Website: www.kauriwine.com

Figure 1. Changes in ethanol concentration over time. V3 1N 6

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A L C O H O L

Table 1. Changes in ethanol in glasses after 120 minutes. Final ethanol concentration %

Ethanol concentration % Initial

Covered

Position B

Position A

Position B

ISO XL5 (50 mL)

15.00

15.00

14.80

14.00

0.20

1.00

ISO XL5 (100 mL)

15.00

15.00

14.90

14.30

0.10

0.70

Sparkling (CHF)

15.00

15.00

14.90

13.90

0.10

1.10

Riedel (RG)

15.10

15.00

14.40

13.20

0.70

1.90

Figure 2. Dimensions of XL5, sparkling and Riedel wine glasses. Reprinted with permission from Wollan et al. 2016, JAFC. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society

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Position A

Change in ethanol concentration (%v/v)

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conceivably occur, e.g. sensory trials (including those employed for ‘alcohol sweet-spotting’) and wine show judging where the use of covers on wine glasses is not standard practice. Variation in airflow/air speed within a given tasting area will exacerbate the evaporation rates experienced by different judges, in addition to the varying times taken by different judges to complete evaluation of a bracket of wines (especially large brackets, which can comprise more than 30 samples). This could be substantially overcome by ensuring wines are presented to judges in covered wine glasses. Whereas standard practice for formal, controlled wine sensory evaluations require wine glasses to be covered, informal sensory trials may be undertaken under far less rigorous conditions. Where evaluations are conducted over an extended period of time to accommodate panellist availability, and where wine glasses are not covered, there is again potential for wine alcohol content to significantly change due to evaporation, such that the sensory properties of the wines being evaluated may differ significantly between the time they are poured and when they are eventually assessed. In another trial, the effect on ethanol evaporation of glass shape, size and sample volume was investigated for glasses in two positions (A and B) with different airflows as in the previous trial. ISO XL5 glasses (filled to 50mL and 100mL), sparkling wine flute and Riedel Ouverture Magnum (both filled to 50mL) were compared. Various measurements were taken and these are shown in Figure 2. From these, other parameters were calculated (Table 2). In this trial, the results are shown in Table 1. As could be expected, there was no significant change in the ethanol concentration of the covered wines. Relatively small (≤ 0.2 per cent abv), but statistically significant changes in wine ethanol content were observed for uncovered wines in XL5 and sparkling wine glasses in position A with low airflow. However, for the uncovered XL5 glass in position A there was a smaller, but still significant change observed when the wine volume was doubled to 100mL. In contrast, the ethanol concentration in the uncovered Riedel glass in position A decreased substantially (0.7 per cent abv). The most significant changes in wine ethanol content occurred for uncovered glasses in position B, which can be attributed to direct exposure of wine glasses to greater ambient airflow. The Riedel glass in position B showed the greatest evaporation effect over 120 minutes, with the wine ethanol content decreasing from 15.1 to 13.2 per cent abv. These results led us to consider which of the glass parameters (Table 2) were most closely correlated with these differences in ethanol evaporation rates. Various combinations of these were charted against changes in ethanol concentration; linear regressions were performed and correlation coefficients were

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Table 2. Wine glass parameters. Glass volume (mL)

Glass code

Wine volume (mL)

Headspace (=glass -wine volume mL)

Opening diameter (mm)

Diameter at wine surface (mm)

Circumference at wine surface (mm)

Wine surface area (cm2)

ISO XL5 (50 mL)

215

50

165

44

65.0

204.2

33.2

ISO XL5 (100 mL)

215

100

115

44

63.5

199.5

31.7

Sparkling (CHF)

155

50

105

45.5

51.0

160.2

20.4

Riedel (RG)

560

50

510

68

72.0

226.2

40.7

Position A

Position B

Position A

Position A

Position B

Position B

Position A

Position B

2

2.5

RG 1.8 2

Change in ethanol (%v/v)

Change in ethanol (%v/v)

1.6

RG

R² = 0.9704 1.5 CHF 1

ISOXL5(50ml) R² = 0.9678

ISOXL5(100ml)

R² = 0.884

RG

1.4 1.2 CHF 1

ISOXL5(50ml)

0.8 ISOXL5(100ml)

RG

R² = 0.9987

0.6 0.4

0.5

ISOXL5(50ml)

ISOXL5(50ml) ISOXL5(100ml)

CHF

0 0

2

0.2

4

CHF

0

6 8 Ratio headspace volume to surface area

10

12

14

Figure 3. Change in ethanol versus headspace volume.

0

ISOXL5(100ml)

100

200

300 Headspace Volume (ml)

400

500

600

Figure 4. Change in ethanol versus ratio headspace volume/ surface area.

calculated. In summary, the strongest correlations (R2 values of 0.999 and 0.970) being observed for headspace volume (Figure 3) and the ratio of headspace volume to wine surface area (Figure 4), for uncovered wines in positions A and B, respectively. Interestingly, the larger Riedel style wine glass had the greatest headspace-to-wine volume ratio, so it is worth considering whether its increasing use in wine shows may exacerbate the effects of ethanol evaporation, particularly under conditions similar to those used in the current study. CONCLUSION The ethanol concentration of wine in uncovered glasses was found to decrease significantly over time as a consequence of evaporation with the rate of ethanol loss being strongly influenced by exposure to airflow, together with glass shape, headspace and wine volume. Our study also showed that evaporation can also result in the loss of wine volatile compounds and can have a marked impact on wine aroma. In some instances, there is the potential for significant sample variation as a consequence of evaporation. It is possible, therefore, that the consistency of wine evaluation could be significantly affected by such changes. However, the evaporation of ethanol was prevented by simply placing covers over wine glasses. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This research was conducted by the Australian Research Council Industrial Transformations Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production (project number IC130100005). WVJ

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NZ Tel: 0800 KAURIWINE Website: www.kauriwine.com

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V I T I AC W U L R TI U R E

Wine pH, copper and ‘reductive’ aromas in wines By Marlize Z. Bekker, Paul A. Smith, Eric N. Wilkes and Dan Johnson The Australian Wine Research Institute. PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, South Australia

Managing director Dan Johnson

Managing wine pH is important for nearly all aspects of winemaking, including protection against microbial spoilage, colour stability, tartrate precipitation and wine aroma and flavour. Recent research at the AWRI has investigated the effects of wine pH and the interaction between wine pH and copper on the formation of ‘reductive’ aromas post-bottling in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines. Elevated residual copper concentrations were associated with increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH), and carbon disulfide (CS2) concentrations; however, when the pH was lowered to 3.0, significantly less H2S and MeSH were produced. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) was not affected by copper additions; however, at lower pH up to 27% less DMS was produced in Shiraz wines after six months of storage. INTRODUCTION

AT A GLANCE

Certain volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) normally found in wine are associated with ‘reductive’ aromas, often described as rotten egg, sewage, rubber, cooked vegetables and canned corn. The main compounds associated with these aromas are hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Carbon disulfide (CS2) may also have a negative impact on wine flavour, as it imparts rubbery and sulfidic aromas (Siebert et al. 2010). Many factors affect the formation of VSCs in wines post-bottling, including early oxygen treatment during fermentation (Bekker et al. 2016a), the presence of the precursor compounds in wine, elevated copper concentrations post-bottling (Ugliano et al. 2011, Viviers et al. 2013) and anaerobic storage conditions (Ugliano et al. 2011). Wine pH also has the potential to influence the chemical reactions that are related to the formation or degradation and loss of flavour compounds. This can be through its effects on the precursor compounds or on catalytic compounds that facilitate the release of VSCs from their precursor compounds, or by influencing loss mechanisms. Winemakers have the ability to instil their unique signature on wine composition through winemaking practices that include yeast selection, oxygen management during vinification and acid adjustments to manipulate juice, must, and wine to the desired pH. Although the role of copper in the formation of H2S and MeSH has been established (Ugliano et al. 2011, Viviers et al. 2013), the ability of other winemaking variables, including pH, to modulate the effects of copper during the formation of VSCs had not been studied. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of wine pH, and the effects of interaction between pH and copper, on the formation of VSCs associated with ‘reductive’ aromas in wines post-bottling. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN A Chardonnay and a Shiraz wine (both with no residual copper) were selected and each was divided into two portions. The pH of one portion of wine was not adjusted (Chardonnay pH 3.46, Shiraz pH 3.72) and the pH of the second portion of the wine was adjusted using tartaric acid to pH 3.00 (Figure 1).

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• The post-bottling formation of several ‘reductive’ aroma compounds in wine (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and carbon disulfide) was significantly affected by elevated copper concentrations. • The effects of added copper on hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol formation were decreased when the wine pH was lowered. • Significantly less dimethyl sulfide was produced in wines at a lower pH. • There is potential to help minimise the risk of VSC formation in wines post-bottling through winemaking decisions that affect wine pH and copper concentration.

Unadjusted pH Chardonnay pH 3.46 Shiraz pH 3.72

+ 0.5 mg/L copper

No added copper

Chardonnay or Shiraz Low pH Chardonnay pH 3.00 Shiraz pH 3.00

+ 0.5 mg/L copper

No added copper

Figure 1. Experimental design and set-up used to study the effects of pH and the effects of the interaction between pH and copper on the formation of ‘reductive’ aromas in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines post-bottling. To investigate the interaction between residual copper and wine pH, the wines were again split into two portions and either treated with copper to give a final concentration of 0.5mg/L or left untreated (0mg/L residual copper) (Figure 1). The VSC profiles of all wines were monitored over six months post-treatment. All experiments were conducted and all wines stored in an oxygen-free environment (Bekker et al. 2016b).

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HOW DOES RESIDUAL COPPER AFFECT WINE? All wines treated with copper displayed significantly increased H2S concentrations (Figure 2a, 2b). This is in agreement with recent studies that have highlighted the effects of elevated residual copper concentrations on the formation of VSCs associated with ‘reductive’ aromas. Hydrogen sulfide concentrations were consistently significantly higher in wines with added copper than in wines without copper over the six months post-treatment. Copper treatment was associated with a slight decrease in MeSH concentrations in the Chardonnay samples only at the six month time point (Figure 2c). This decrease in MeSH may be due to the quenching reaction between copper and MeSH to form a copper-thiol complex that decreased its concentration. In contrast, the Shiraz samples with added copper were associated with increased MeSH concentrations (Figure 2d). The different effects of copper on MeSH formation between red and white wine may be associated with the interaction of copper with wine compounds such as polyphenols and tannins, which are present in different concentrations in red and white wines. The loss of MeSH could also be through reactions with quinone compounds in white wines, or the formation of MeSH-adducts with red polyphenols. Copper addition had no effect on DMS formation, and CS2 formation was only significantly affected by increased copper concentrations in Chardonnay wines (Figure 2e). The reason for the variation in CS2 concentrations in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines between analysis time points is not clear. However, the CS2 concentrations measured in both Chardonnay and Shiraz wines were considerably lower than its odour threshold of 38µg/L and only slightly higher than the limit of quantitation for CS2 analysis (0.5µg/L). As such it is likely that this low concentration of CS2 did not have a meaningful effect on the aroma of the wine.

WINE PH AND ‘REDUCTIVE’ AROMAS The effects of wine pH on H2S and MeSH formation in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines were only observed in samples that were also treated with copper. In samples without added copper, pH had no effect on the amount of H2S and MeSH produced in the Chardonnay or Shiraz wines post-bottling. In samples with added copper, however, significantly less H2S was produced in Chardonnay wines when the pH levels of the wines were adjusted to pH3.00 compared with Chardonnay samples with added copper at the unadjusted pH of 3.46 (Figure 2a). This shows that wine pH significantly affects H2S formation when elevated residual copper concentrations are present. The effects of pH and copper interactions on H2S formation in Shiraz wines were not as pronounced as in the Chardonnay wines, with significant decreasing effects of lower pH levels only measured directly after treatment and again after one month. Methanethiol was not as strongly affected by lower pH conditions. Lower pH was only associated with significant effects on MeSH concentration at Day 0 in the Chardonnay samples. For Shiraz, decreasing the pH of the copper-treated Shiraz samples produced significantly less MeSH after one month and three months of storage but not after six months (Figure 3d). It is not clear why the interaction between pH and copper significantly affected MeSH formation only at certain stages of the experiment. It could be that the lower pH is affecting the reaction rate of the formation of MeSH. The differences may be a reflection of the

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Figure 2. The effects of copper on the formation of hydrogen sulfide [(a), (b)], methanethiol [(c), (d)], and carbon disulfide [(e), (f)] in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines measured over the course of six months post-treatment. Significance of copper effect: P-value < 0.0001 (***), P-value < 0.001 (**); P-value < 0.01 (*).

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V I T I AC W U L R TI U R E

time needed for the wines to reach the same end-point MeSH concentration. Dimethyl sulfide was significantly affected by the pH of the wines, with lower concentrations of DMS measured in both Chardonnay and Shiraz samples throughout the course of the six-month experiment in wines with a lower pH (Figure 3e, 3f). Six months post-treatment there was 27% less DMS measured in Shiraz wines with a pH of 3.00 compared with Shiraz wines with a pH of 3.72. The effect of pH on DMS formation in wines post-bottling is remarkable given that DMS is a stable molecule that remains unaffected by oxygen treatment during fermentation (Bekker et al. 2016a) and is also unaffected by metals such as copper, iron or manganese (Viviers et al. 2013). The decreased DMS measured in this study is most likely due to the precursor compounds of DMS becoming less prone to release DMS at a lower pH level. It is known that one of the main precursors to DMS, S-methyl methionine (SMM), is stable in acid conditions but rapidly decomposes at pH greater than 7.00 (Cantoni 1960). The decrease in pH from 3.72 to 3.00 most likely prevented the formation of DMS from SMM by stabilising SMM. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated that the post-bottling formation of the ‘reductive’ aroma compounds H2S, MeSH, DMS, and CS2 was significantly affected by both copper additions and wine pH. For some of these compounds, the interaction between pH and copper treatment was an important factor in determining their final concentrations. Specifically, less H2S and MeSH were produced through copper catalysed reactions in wines at a lower pH than in wines at a higher pH. Winemakers have some flexibility in managing both wine pH and residual copper and, therefore, there is potential to help minimise the risk of VSC formation in wines postbottling through winemaking decisions. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by Australia’s grapegrowers and winemakers through their investment body Wine Australia, with matching funds from the Australian Government. The AWRI is a member of the Wine Innovation Cluster. Ella Robinson is thanked for her editorial assistance. REFERENCES Bekker, M.Z.; Day, M.P.; Holt, H.E.; Wilkes, E. and Smith, P.A. (2016a) Effects of oxygen exposure during fermentation on volatile sulfur compounds in Shiraz wine and a comparison of strategies for remediation of reductive character. Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 22(1):24-35. Bekker, M.Z.; Mierczynska-Vasileva, A.; Smith, P.A. and Wilkes, E.N. (2016b) The effects of pH and copper on the formation of volatile sulfur compounds in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines post-bottling. Food Chem. 207:148-156. Cantoni, G.L. (1960) Onium compounds and their biological significance. Florkin, M., Mason, H.S. (eds.) Comparitive Biochemistry. A Comprehensive Treatise New York: Academic Press Inc.: 215. Siebert, T.E.; Solomon, M.R.; Pollnitz, A.P. and Jeffery, D.W. (2010) Selective determination of volatile sulfur compounds in wine by gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58(17):9454–9462.

Figure 3. The effects of pH, and the interaction between pH and copper, on the formation of hydrogen sulfide [(a), (b)], methanethiol [(c), (d)], and dimethylsulfide [(e), (f)] in Chardonnay and Shiraz wines measured over the course of six months post-treatment. Significance of pH effect: P-value < 0.0001 (***), P-value < 0.001 (**); P-value < 0.01 (*).

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Ugliano, M.; Kwiatkowski, M.; Vidal, S.; Capone, D.; Siebert, T.; Dieval, J.-B. and Waters, E.J. (2011) Evolution of 3-mercaptohexanol, hydrogen sulfide, and methyl mercaptan during bottle storage of Sauvignon blanc wines. Effect of glutathione, copper, oxygen exposure, and closure-derived oxygen. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59(6):2564–2572. Viviers, M.Z.; Smith, M.E.; Wilkes, E. and Smith, P.A. (2013) Effects of five metals on the evolution of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide during anaerobic storage of Chardonnay and Shiraz wines. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61(50):12385-12396.

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SOIL COMPACTION

V V II T T II C C U U L LT T U U R R E E

Soil compaction – why worry? By Tony Hoare Hoare Consulting, PO Box 1106, McLaren Flat, South Australia 5171 Email: tony@hoareconsulting.com.au

Hands up who’s bogged a tractor or quad bike in the vineyard this season? No doubt it’s a more common occurrence this season than in recent years given the wet conditions experienced throughout many of Australia's grapegrowing regions. Although driving machinery on wet soils is unavoidable in years like this, soil compaction can be managed and the negative effects mitigated, Tony writes.

V

ineyard soils cannot avoid compaction, especially in the mid-row. A long-lived, perennial plant, vines require tractor movement on a regular basis each season which leads to unavoidable soil compaction. Soil compaction increases with time in many soil types. If soil compaction is not managed, the effects can be costly to vineyard profitability and long-term viability. It is a particular issue when machinery is driven onto wet soils. WHAT IS SOIL COMPACTION AND HOW DOES IT OCCUR? Soil compaction is the exclusion of air from between soil particles due to compression caused when a heavy weight, such as a tractor tyre, is placed on the soil surface. This is exacerbated in soils depending on the percentage of clay content, moisture saturation, levels of organic matter, and timing and frequency of machinery traffic over the same surface area. Soil compaction occurs in the surface profile as well as subsurface layers of soil.

EFFECTS OF SOIL COMPACTION

compaction. A penetrometer can also be used to measure the extent and depth of subsurface compaction. Treasury Estate viticulturist David Hansen completed his Masters degree on soil compaction management. He recommends the following for assessing the degree of soil compaction: “The simplest way to understand soil limitations to vine root growth is to dig a soil pit and observe the distribution of vine roots down the soil profile. If roots occur in the mid-row and at depth (e.g. 0.7m) this would suggest that soil conditions are relatively favourable for root exploration. In this case, neither deep-ripping nor mounding are likely to improve vine performance. If, on the other hand, vine roots are seen to be sparse and restricted primarily under the vine-row, it is possible that deep ripping may improve root-length density, available water and vine performance, so long as the soil is sufficiently deep (i.e., no shallow rock). The work reported here indicates that soil conditions after ripping will steadily return to their original, hard states within two to three years, which suggests a frequency for ripping operations of once every two to ▶ three years.”

All plants require oxygen as a component of soil to survive. When oxygen is depleted, grapevine growth is compromised due to a reduction in root area which reduces the uptake of water and soluble soil nutrients. A reduction in overall grapevine health then contributes to reduced canopy growth, reduced yield and an increased susceptibility to certain soil and above ground pests and diseases. The reduction of oxygen in compacted soils also creates reduced soil drainage and impervious subsoil layers to moisture infiltration. The risk of soil erosion caused by water movement over the soil surface is increased by soil compaction, as less water infiltrates to deeper profiles and more is retained on the surface where it causes erosion damage. HOW TO ASSESS SOIL COMPACTION MEASURING SOIL COMPACTION Simply looking at wheel marks in vine rows can indicate soil compaction. Deep wheel ruts and lack of growth in wheel tracks is an indication of soil

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SOIL COMPACTION

If soil compaction is not managed, the effects can have implications on vineyard profitability and long-term viability. It is a particular issue when machinery is driven onto wet soils. HOW TO AVOID SOIL COMPACTION There are some practical ways to avoid soil compaction: • avoid driving machinery on wet soils, especially with a high clay content • reduce or eliminate soil tillage in midrows; grow a permanent sward or roll covercrops • adopt undervine irrigation to replace flood or overhead • alternate rows in which machinery movement occur • use over-row machinery in conjunction or as an alternative to conventional tractortowed machinery • use multi-row machinery • fit low compaction tyres or tracks to tractors in high rainfall regions • check axle loads and alter equipment to spread loads by adding axles • use lighter equipment such as low volume sprayers and smaller spray tanks • check tyre pressures; substitute waterfilled tyres for air and add water only when required • increase organic matter through covercrops, mulch, swards and volunteer growth • improve surface drainage by adding slotted drainage pipes, maintaining vegetative growth in the mid-row or aerating soil mechanically • deep rip prior to planting a new vineyard and ameliorate soil to improve soil structure with organic matter, gypsum, etc. SOIL COMPACTION MANAGEMENT – HOW TO FIX THE PROBLEM AND AVOID FUTURE ISSUES The negative effects of soil compaction can be alleviated by first understanding the soil conditions affected. Soil compaction

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Growing a permanent sward or rolling covercrops can mitigate soil compaction.

can be managed through identifying the contributing factors listed above. It can be managed through a combination of management options listed above, as well as periodic shallow ripping with a chisel plough. Machinery to assist in soil compaction Chisel ploughs are designed for access into vineyards for topsoil compaction management. Multiple tynes can be added depending on row width and compaction in the mid-row and wheel tracks. Other attachments are designed to customise ploughs for applications. The addition of coulters is a benefit to preserve permanent swards. Shake aerators reduce the load on tractors by cracking soil, and hoppers with feed lines allow the targeted allocation of subsurface ameliorants such as gypsum, lime, superphosphate and organic matter.

Berrends Grow Master Aerator The Berrends Grow Master Aerator is a tractor-mounted implement that assists in improving soil compaction through aeration of the soil surface. The action of the implement is effective on soil surface compaction to a depth of eight inches. It can be used in vineyards with permanent swards without compromising the growth of the swards. Visit www.johnberendsimplmeents.com. au Agroplough The Agroplow AP11 is a plough that can penetrate to 13 inches to alleviate soil compaction without mixing or inverting soil layers which can lead to moisture loss and a reduction of soil microbiology. This plough has depth wheels to control the precise depth of tillage. Visit www.agroplow.com.au

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Yeomans plough The Yeomans Keyline plough is another shallow ripping tool. It can be used in conjunction with a ‘shakerator’ attachment which assists in the subsurface cracking and amelioration of compacted soils without added stress on tractors. When coulters are added the surface of soil is preserved which allows permanent swards to be saved. Visit www.yeomansplough.com.au Agsoilworks Agsoilworks offers the patented midrow Vibrosoiler, a twin ripper comprising a winged keel and optional ringed rollers, designed to address soil compaction and pans between rows with minimal root pruning. Visit www.agsoilworks.com Soil compaction will be an issue for many Australian vineyards after the recent wet winter and spring rains. Soil compaction can be managed and the negative effects, especially yield loss, can be mitigated by adopting a program of management practices to maintain healthy and productive grapevines.

Before setting up his own vineyard and winery consultancy business with wife Briony, Tony Hoare established and managed the Ablington Vineyard Estate block in the Lower Hunter for five years before joining Wirra Wirra in McLaren Vale in 2002 where he managed the winery’s estate and contract vineyards. He and Briony also have their own wine label and cellar door, Beach Road Wines.

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MILES AHEAD

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NITROGEN & WATER STATUS

Proximal and remote sensing tools for regionalscale characterisation of grapevine water and nitrogen status in Coonawarra By Vinay Pagay1*, Catherine Kidman2 and Allen Jenkins2

»

INTRODUCTION The long-term sustainability of vineyards in Australia is critically dependent on the availability of natural resources, especially freshwater for irrigation. Patterns of regional climate change are manifested as decreasing precipitation with erratic frequency, and increasing evapotranspiration rates driven by higher growing season temperatures. These trends are increasing the pressure on irrigators to continually seek opportunities to maximise the efficient use of freshwater. In the south-eastern part of South Australia, which includes the Coonawarra viticultural region, recent changes to the Lower Limestone Coast Water Allocation Plan, coupled with the likelihood of a more variable climate of drought and temperature extremes highlight the need for viticulturists to efficiently and sustainably manage the precious water resource. Strategic water management is also an important tool for manipulating vine vigour, yield and fruit quality (Collins and Loveys 2010). Nitrogen (N) is an essential macronutrient for grapevines required for nucleic acid and protein synthesis, and a key component of the (green) chlorophyll pigment in leaves responsible for photosynthesis. N is the nutrient that is required by grapevines in the greatest quantity (Keller 2005). N strongly influences shoot growth and vigour, grape composition, fermentation performance and wine composition (Iland et al. 2011). While excessive N inputs are associated with high N concentration in vegetative organs resulting in excess vigour (Metay et al. 2015), N deficiency can slow shoot growth and development, result in inferior berry composition, and reduce yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) concentrations, which affect juice fermentations (Iland et al. 2011, Metay et al. 2015). Prudent application of nitrogen in vineyards is important to avoid leaching or oversupply to the vines.

recently, portable porometers to measure leaf stomatal conductance, which is a measure of water flux out of the leaf. However, for the majority of these strategies, a degree of interpretation is required, particularly for soil moisture monitoring, and although the two measures of vine water status are relatively accurate for estimating vine water stress, these strategies lack the commercial applicability as none of the above methods are well-adapted for automation (Jones 2004) being time- and labour-intensive. Furthermore with these methods, variability between results means that many measurements are required for reliable data and, therefore, are more suited to the research environment (Loveys 2005). Of the 5800ha of vineyards in Coonawarra, drip irrigation comprises the majority of irrigation systems and plays a major role in improving water use efficiency (WUE) through the use of deficit irrigation practices. However, drip irrigation requires precision to optimise WUE at the vineyard scale and, consequently, new methods of accurate scheduling and control (Jones 2004). TOOLS TO CHARACTERISE THE NITROGEN STATUS OF VINEYARDS Established methods to assess N status in grapevines that are routinely used include tissue analysis of petioles and/or leaf blades. With the exception of petiole sampling at flowering, leaf or petiole N values at other phenological stages are not well-defined (Metay et al. 2015). Leaf chlorophyll has been shown to be affected by N availability, A

B

CURRENT TOOLS TO AID IRRIGATION SCHEDULING IN COONAWARRA VINEYARDS In Coonawarra, irrigation is commonly scheduled based on interpretations of soil moisture, evapotranspiration, visual assessments, weather forecasts and climate outlooks. In addition, some vineyards measure vine water status on a weekly basis through the use of a Scholander pressure chamber to measure stem or leaf water potential and, more

»

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Figure 1. Current techniques to measure vine water status to aid irrigation scheduling decisions: (a) Scholander pressure chamber to measure leaf and stem water potentials; (b) Delta-T AP4 porometer to measure leaf stomatal conductance.

School of Agriculture, Food & Wine, The University of Adelaide (Waite Campus), Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 ²Wynns Coonawarra Estate, Coonawarra, South Australia 5263 *Corresponding author: vinay.pagay@adelaide.edu.au

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NITROGEN & WATER STATUS

A

B

Figure 2. Some instruments to non-destructively estimate vine nitrogen status: (a) SPAD 502 Plus chlorophyll meter and (b) Trimble GreenSeeker® optical sensor for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) measurement. particularly from flowering onwards, as this is when the vine switches from reserve metabolism to N uptake by the roots (Metay et al. 2015). Previous relationships have been established between leaf chlorophyll and N content in other crop species (Schlemmer et al. 2013). Tissue analysis is a destructive approach involving analytical (laboratory-based) techniques such as Kjeldahl wet digestion (determines ammonia concentration) or combustion (determines total N). Remote sensing techniques of chlorophyll content may provide accurate measures of N content (Schlemmer et al. 2013). Non-destructive proximal and remote sensing techniques to measure vine nitrogen status include electrical techniques (N selective electrodes, electrical impedance), and optical techniques such as leaf (SPAD (Figure 2a), chlorophyll fluorescence) and canopy (GreenSeeker® (Figure 2b), Yarra N-sensor™, Crop Circle™, CropScan) reflectance sensors (Munoz-Huerta et al. 2013). While these techniques are rapid compared with the destructive approaches, they have drawbacks including appropriate sample selection and size, calibration technique, atmospheric interference, and plant specificity.

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USA) was equipped with a digital RGB camera, a five-band multispectral (three visible, one red edge, one near infrared wavelengths) camera, and a thermal (long wave infrared wavelength) imaging sensor. Airborne campaigns were performed on two sunny and low-wind days corresponding to veraison (4 February 2016) and two weeks prior to commercial harvest (2 March 2016) between 1100h and 1400h on each day. Aerial temperature images were resolved at approximately 0.35m per pixel. On the same days (and times as close as possible to the flights), ground truthing was performed on each of the four vines per block comprising measurements of stem water potential (SWP), leaf stomatal conductance to water vapour (gs), canopy surface temperature (FLIR B400 handheld IR camera; Tcanopy), and leaf chlorophyll index using a handheld chlorophyll meter (Model CCM-200, Apogee Instruments, Inc.). From both aerial and ground temperature data, the crop water stress index (CWSI) and the conductance index (Ig) were calculated as per Jones (1999). CWSI is a normalised index that has values between 0 and 1, 1 being high stress while 0 being low/no water stress; Ig is proportional to leaf conductance and has values from 0 (high stress) to large positive values (low/no stress). Leaf samples were also collected for destructive measurements of N. At harvest, fruit samples were collected from each block for fruit composition measurements including soluble solids, TA, pH, tannins, anthocyanins, and polyphenols. Yield was also measured in each block. The two key objectives of this study were to: (a) determine whether remotely-sensed vine water status based on aerial thermography and nitrogen status based on multispectral imagery were reliable compared with traditional groundbased measures; and, (b) evaluate whether the remotelysensed thermography data of vine water status could be used by viticulturists to make irrigation scheduling decisions. PROXIMAL AND REMOTE SENSING OF VINE WATER STATUS

2015-16 TRIAL IN COONAWARRA VINEYARDS Perhaps the greatest limitation of any ground-based measurement is that of adequate spatial coverage in a short timeframe in order to capture spatial variability of water and nitrogen status across blocks as well as entire viticultural regions to aid in precise, block-specific applications of water and N. To address this limitation, a pilot study, part of the PIRSA cluster funding program to Coonawarra Grape and Wine Incorporated, was initiated during the 2015-16 growing season to assess the feasibility of using an airborne remote sensing platform to characterise the water and N status across the Coonawarra region. The trial was conducted over 11 sites planted to Shiraz or Cabernet Sauvignon across the Coonawarra viticultural region in SE South Australia representing approximately 1000ha and distributed across the entire north-south span of the region. In each vineyard block, four vines were chosen, two per sub-block, for ground-truthing of the remotely-sensed data. All vines were geolocated with a Trimble AgGPS receiver to aid in later vine identification from remote sensing imagery. A manned fixed-wing aircraft commissioned by Ceres Imaging (CA,

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Aerial thermography maps of a 5.6ha Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard at veraison and pre-harvest are depicted in Figures 3a and 3b (see page 44), respectively. Maximum vapour pressure deficit (VPD) values, an indicator of the atmospheric demand for water and a driver for vine transpiration, were 2.1kPa (low demand) and 3.7kPa (moderate demand) at veraison and pre-harvest, respectively. From all the vineyards surveyed in this trial, this block was among the most wellwatered as indicated by predominantly blue and green regions at both timepoints. Ground-truthing of the vines in the top left section of the block (indicated by a ‘X’ on the maps) confirmed that they had good water status based on their stem potential (>-1.0 MPa) and stomatal conductance (>150mmol m2 s -1) values. Canopy temperatures were slightly cooler around veraison, which correlated well with the SWP and gs values; these cooler temperatures resulted in low CWSI values of 0.4 and 0.3 (ground data), respectively. Aerial thermography data suggested higher canopy temperatures which were likely due to differences in viewing angle (canopy top in aerial versus side in ground) as well as differences between camera calibrations. In contrast, another block showed a high degree of vine water stress, especially at the southern

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Figure 3. Remotely-sensed maps of a Coonawarra vineyard (~5.6ha) around (a) veraison (4 February 2016) and (b) preharvest (2 March 2016) colour-coded to temperature. Colour codes of relative values: blue/green=no water stress, yellow/ red=moderate water stress. Pins on the maps indicate vines used for ground-truthing. Data presented in the table is for the position marked ‘X’ on the maps.

end of the block (bottom of map) indicated by higher canopy temperatures and CWSI values, and lower Ig, SWP and gs values compared with the northern end of the block (Figure 4). In order to compare the calculated temperature indices, CWSI and Ig, with existing metrics of vine water status, correlation analysis was done across all 11 vineyards surveyed (Figure 4). At veraison, both temperature indices correlated strongly with each other (inversely), while Ig correlated strongly with conventional metrics of vine water status, SWP and gs, particularly in Shiraz. In Cabernet Sauvignon, the ground-based Ig index was better at predicting vine water status at this time compared with CWSI. In Cabernet Sauvignon at pre-harvest, a high degree of correlation was found between the ground-based temperature metrics and SWP and gs, with a lack of correlation to aerial temperature metrics. In contrast, Shiraz at this time had a good correlation between all temperature indices, ground and aerial, and gs and SWP. Overall, the correlation analyses indicates much potential to use thermography, particularly ground-based data, to predict vine water status for irrigation scheduling. This pilot study identified differences in varietal differences in response to the water stress indices assessed with Shiraz having a greater potential for more accurate estimation of vine water status by remote sensing than Cabernet Sauvignon. In addition, our study indicated that phenology was a significant factor affecting VPD and CWSI, and less so Ig making the latter a more reliable indicator of vine water status.

Hardworking, and ever reliable. With best in class botrytis protection. Nothing comes close to the long lasting efficacy of Teldor, making it ideal to launch a robust, preventative spray program. As well as protecting against botrytis, it prevents laccase and polysaccharide formation, so there’s no adverse impact on fermentation or the wine’s taste. Soft on beneficial insects (when used as directed), and with no known cross-resistance, you can trust Teldor. And it’s compatible with a range of Bayer and other complementary products. For your crop protection needs, Bayer’s got you covered. Speak to your agent today, or to see our full range of viticulture products, visit crop.bayer.com.au/grapes

Bayer CropScience Pty Ltd ABN 87 000 226 022 Level 1, 8 Redfern Road Hawthorn East VIC 3123, Australia crop.bayer.com.au Technical Enquiries: 1800 804 479 enquires.australia@bayer.com Teldor®, Basta®, Movento®, Scala®, Prosper® and Flint and Device® are Registered Trademarks of the Bayer Group

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Figure 4. Correlograms of vine water status and canopy temperature variables from all vineyards surveyed. Larger circles indicate a higher degree of correlation (R2 values) between two variables. No circles indicate lack of statistically significant difference at P<0.05. Subscripts ‘a’ indicate aerial or remotely-sensed temperature data, while ‘g’ indicates ground-based or proximally-sensed temperature. AERIAL IMAGERY AS A SPATIAL INVESTIGATIVE TOOL A significant opportunity of airborne remote sensing is the ability to conduct high resolution spatial surveys of vineyards to delineate zones of non-uniformity, and to identify differences in soil water availability and vine water use between individual vines within a row. This ability provides growers with a tool to differentially manage these zones with variable rate inputs such as water, nutrients or canopy management such that variability across a block is minimised or even eliminated. As an example, one block surveyed in this trial at veraison had contrasting vine water status between

the north and south ends of the block (Figure 5a, see page 46). The north end of the block (top of map ‘a’, position 1) had significantly better water status compared with the south end of the block and highlighted opportunities for differential irrigation at the sub-block scale. A survey of dripper uniformity was subsequently conducted and it was found that in the southern section, 25 per cent of the drippers were blocked due to the presence of iron bacteria in the drip lines and emitters. The presence of iron bacteria and associated precipitates have been found to decrease bore productivity, block irrigation systems or render them inefficient, damage pumps and pumping equipment as

Teldor is part of Bayer’s integrated Viticulture range

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well as result in overall system deterioration. Subsequent replacement of the lines and drip emitters in the south end of the block resulted in high dripper uniformity and less variability in vine water status between the north and south ends of the block at pre-harvest (Figure 5b).

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PROXIMAL AND REMOTE SENSING OF VINE NITROGEN STATUS Airborne remotely-sensed canopy temperature of one Coonawarra Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard at veraison indicated distinct zones of well-irrigated (blue-green) regions and water stress (red-yellow) (Figure 6a). For the same block, airborne multispectral imagery of leaf chlorophyll (wavelengths between 550-560nm (green) and 700-710nm (red edge)) and NDVI (wavelengths around 670nm (red) and 860nm (near infrared)) appeared to be promising surrogates for the more traditional, destructive plant-based assessments of total N (Figure 6b-c, Table 1). However, the correlations with total N were found to be stronger with the ground-based leaf chlorophyll index than with the remotelysensed chlorophyll index (Figure 6c, Table 1). The preliminary investigation indicated that spatial resolution data had the ability to detect total N through the relationship with chlorophyll, but less so for YAN in the fruit as only a positive weak relationship was established between total N and YAN values in the fruit (Table 1). The use of aerial chlorophyll imagery would be beneficial to growers as a spatial investigative tool to identify spatial variations in vine nitrogen status within a vineyard block. This information would help refine strategies for nutrient sampling and also help to address the variation using variable rate application of composts or fertilisers. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK This study highlighted some of the key benefits and drawbacks of using airborne remote sensing to assess the water and nitrogen status of vineyards. One of the major advantages of this technique is the ability to map large areas or even entire regions, as we have done in this study, within a few hours, allowing for a comparison of both intra- and inter-block variability in water and N status to aid in precision and variable rate applications. Aerial and especially groundbased temperature indices showed good correlations with conventional metrics of vine water status. Our data suggests that canopy temperature indices can be used to estimate vine water status to establish cultivar- and phenologyspecific thresholds for irrigation scheduling in the future. Significantly, the study has identified a ‘step change’ towards improved irrigation and nitrogen management. The results provide confidence that further work is merited across future seasons to verify thermography prior to its adoption in vineyards elsewhere in Australia, for different cultivars, and potentially in other irrigated agriculture. Interestingly, and emerging from this work, we have developed a new low-cost platform for continuous proximal sensing of canopy temperature as well as a novel crop water status index that appears promising to predict vine water status under different environmental and soil moisture

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Figure 5. Remotely-sensed maps of a Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard (~24ha) around (a) veraison (4 February 2016) and (b) pre-harvest (2 March 2016) colour-coded to temperature. Colour codes of relative values: blue/green=no water stress, yellow/red=moderate water stress. Pins on the maps indicate vines used for ground-truthing. conditions. This new sensing platform, coupled with the water status index will be incorporated into the larger remotesensing study during the 2016-17 season and validated on both Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz grapevines in multiple vineyards throughout Coonawarra. Such a platform would enable continuous monitoring of vine water status for the two varieties, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, across key phenological stages and in multiple blocks. This new, ground-breaking innovation is practical and cost-effective, while providing significant opportunities to refine irrigation practices and automate irrigation scheduling that can ultimately improve wine quality. In light of a more variable climate of drought, extreme heat events, and consequent water restrictions, the rapid development and adoption of thermography as demonstrated through this extensive trial is an imperative. This community trial provides evidence to support a vision of ground-based networks, coupled with targeted aerial imagery that can enhance the viability and sustainability of the winegrape community.

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Table 1. Moderately- to highly-correlated (R2 > 0.5) nitrogen variables obtained at pre-harvest (2 March 2016). Variables: Chlorg: proximally-sensed (ground) chlorophyll index; Chlora: remotely-sensed (aerial) chlorophyll index; N: total leaf nitrogen concentration; YAN: yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration. VARIABLES

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Figure 6. Remotely-sensed maps of a Coonawarra vineyard (~6 ha) around veraison (4 February 2016) colour-coded to (a) temperature index; (b) normalised index (NDVI); and (c) chlorophyll index. Colour codes of relative values: temperature: blue/ green=no water stress, yellow/red=moderate water stress; NDVI: light green=low vigour, dark green=high vigour; chlorophyll index: green=high leaf chlorophyll, yellow/red=low leaf chlorophyll content.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work has been funded by Primary Industries and Regions SA (PIRSA) through the Premium Food and Wine Co-Innovation Cluster Program. The authors, on behalf of Coonawarra Grape and Wine Incorporated (CGWI), wish to thank Katnook Estate, Wynns Coonawarra Estate, Balnaves Coonawarra and Yalumba for access to their vineyards and for providing substantial material and in kind support. We wish to acknowledge University of Adelaide (Waite) through the support of Dr Vinay Pagay, as well as Silvina Dayer for her assistance with the data collection. We would like to acknowledge Ceres Imaging, for the technical support and assistance provided throughout the trial. REFERENCES Collins, M. and Loveys, B.R. (2010) Optimising irrigation for different cultivars. Final report to the Grape and Wine Research and Development Corporation. CSIRO.

SEARCH N W WID16_Directory online buyers guide 43x185.indd 1

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Iland, P.; Proffitt, T.; Dry, P.R. and Tyerman, S.D. (2011) The grapevine: from the science to the practice of growing vines for wine. Patrick Iland Wine Promotions, Campbelltown, SA. Jones, H.G. (1999) Use of infrared thermometry for estimation of stomatal conductance as a possible aid to irrigation scheduling. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 95:139-149. Jones, H.G. (2004) Irrigation scheduling: advantages and pitfalls of plant-based methods. Journal of Experimental Botany 55:2427-2436. Keller, M. (2005) Deficit irrigation and vine mineral nutrition. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 56:267-283. Loveys, B.R. (2005) When to water? Assessment of plant-based measurements to indicate irrigation requirements. Final Report to the Grape and Wine Research & Development Corporation. CSIRO. Metay, A.; Magnier, J.; Guilpart, N. and Christophe, A. (2015) Nitrogen supply controls vegetative growth, biomass and nitrogen allocation for grapevine (cv Shiraz) grown in pots. Functional Plant Biology 42:105-114. Munoz-Huerta, R.F.; Guevara-Gonzalez, R.G.; Contreras-Medina, L.M.; TorresPacheco, I.; Prado-Olivarez, J. and Ocampo-Velazquez, R.V. (2013) A review of methods for sensing the nitrogen status in plants: advantages, disadvantages and recent advances. Sensors 13:10,823-10,843. Schlemmer, M.; Gitelson, A.; Schepers, J.; Ferguson, R.; Peng, Y.; Shanahan, J. and Rundquist, D. (2013) Remote estimation of nitrogen and chlorophyll contents in maize at leaf and canopy levels. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation WVJ and Geoinformation 25:47-54.

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Susceptibility of pruning wounds to grapevine trunk disease pathogens By Matthew Ayres1, Regina Billones-Baaijens2, Sandra Savocchia2, Eileen Scott3 and Mark Sosnowski1,3 »

Research funded by Wine Australia is examining whether the timing of winter pruning of grapevines influences the susceptibility of wounds to infection by trunk disease pathogens. Preliminary results indicate that regardless of the pruning time, wounds are typically most susceptible to infection by spores of the pathogens in the two weeks after pruning, while susceptibility to the three trunk pathogens tested differed. INTRODUCTION The grapevine trunk diseases eutypa dieback (ED) and botryosphaeria dieback (BD) are caused by fungal pathogens that infect pruning wounds and pose a serious threat to Australian winegrape production by impacting on vine health and longevity. Spores of the causal fungi Eutypa lata (in the case of ED) and Diplodia seriata and Neofusicoccum luteum (in the case of BD) are released from fruiting bodies in dead, infected wood following rain and land on exposed pruning wounds where they germinate and colonise the woody tissue. The fungi slowly destroy the vascular system and can eventually kill the vine. In Australia, no research has been conducted into the susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to infection at different times throughout the pruning season. Research conducted by Carter and Moller (1970) suggested that pruning wounds on apricot trees were susceptible to infection by E. lata for at least four weeks after pruning, with a lower incidence

Figure 1. Pruning Shiraz canes to two-bud spurs in McLaren Vale prior to inoculation with fungal spores. Flagging tape was used to denote treatments.

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Figure 2. Grapevine pruning wound.

South Australian Research and Development Institute, GPO Box 397, Adelaide South Australia 5001

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre, Charles Sturt University, School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga NSW 2678 3

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of infection when trees were pruned in early winter than when pruned in late autumn or early spring. Since then, research on grapes in temperate climates of California (Moller and Kasimatis 1980, Petzoldt et al 1981 and Munkvold & Marois 1995) and south-west France (Chapius et al. 1998) indicated high wound susceptibility for periods up to seven weeks in early winter down to low susceptibility for periods of only two weeks in late winter and early spring. However, in Michigan (Trese et al. 1982) and South Africa (van Niekerk et al. 2011) the trend was for higher susceptibility in late winter and early spring, compared with that in early winter. For species that cause botryosphaeria dieback, grapevine wounds were susceptible up to 16 weeks in Italy (Serra et al. 2008), up to 12 weeks in California (Úrbez-Torres and Gubler 2011) and up to 21 days in South Africa (Van Niekerk et al. 2011). Furthermore, the degree of susceptibility throughout the pruning season varied greatly between these countries: in California, pruning in late winter reduced the risk of infection, whereas in South Africa wounds made in late winter were more susceptible to

School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Waite Campus, Glen Osmond South Australia 5064

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Trials were established on Shiraz vines planted in 1996 (McLaren Vale, SA) and Cabernet Sauvignon vines planted circa 1990 (Wagga Wagga, NSW). In McLaren Vale, one-year-old canes were pruned to two buds on 4 June, 16 July and 27 August 2013 using secateurs (Figures 1 and 2). For each pruning time, wounds were inoculated with approximately 500 spores of E. lata at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after pruning. A non-inoculated control was included at each pruning time. Each treatment was allocated to a vine with 10 pruned canes. The trial was set up as a randomised block design with 10 replications. In Wagga Wagga, one-year-old canes were pruned to two buds on 12 June, 22 July and 22 August 2014 and 19 June, 20 July and 17 August 2015 using secateurs. For each pruning time, wounds were inoculated with approximately 1000 spores of D. seriata (2014) or N. luteum (2015) at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84 and 112 days after pruning. Treatments, controls, design and replication were as described above. For each trial, canes were harvested from vines between April and June in the following year and assessed for recovery of the pathogens by isolation on artificial media in the laboratory. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) at the 5% level was used for all pairwise comparisons, and standard error of the means calculated. RESULTS In the McLaren Vale trial, recovery of E. lata from wounds inoculated one day after pruning was 53-78%, and was significantly lower for the vines pruned in July compared with those pruned early in June (Figure 3). Recovery following the late pruning in August was not significantly different than the other two pruning times. For those canes pruned in June, recovery of E. lata decreased sharply when the fungus was applied seven days after pruning. At all three pruning times, recovery of E. lata decreased significantly from 5378% to 6-22% for inoculations made 14 days post-pruning. Recovery rates from wounds inoculated 28-56 days post-pruning were not significantly different from those for the non-inoculated controls (0-8% for all three pruning times). In the Wagga Wagga field trial established in 2014, D. seriata was recovered from 94-100% of wounds inoculated within 14 days of pruning (Figure 4) but less frequently (22-88%) when inoculations were made 28â&#x20AC;&#x201C;112 days post-pruning. D. seriata was recovered frequently from non-inoculated controls (22-36% across pruning times). In the Wagga Wagga field trial established in 2015, recovery of N. luteum from inoculations made one day after pruning was 64-98%, and was significantly lower for the late pruning than the two earlier pruning times (Figure 5). For the first two pruning times, recovery was reduced to between 56 and 64% for inoculations made seven days post-pruning, whereas at the late pruning time N. luteum was

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Figure 3. Incidence of recovery of Eutypa lata from canes pruned on 4 June (Early), 16 July (Mid) and 27 August (Late) 2013 and inoculated with 500 spores at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 56 days after pruning. NIC = non-inoculated control. Bars represent standard error of the mean. 100

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Figure 4. Incidence of recovery of Diplodia seriata from canes pruned on 12 June (Early), 22 July (Mid) and 22 August (Late) 2014 and inoculated with 1000 spores at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84 and 112 days after pruning. NIC = non-inoculated control. Bars represent standard error of the mean.

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infection than wounds made earlier in the season. In view of these contrasting findings from around the world, and considering the paucity of local information, there is a need to evaluate the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by grapevine trunk disease pathogens throughout the pruning season under Australian conditions.

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Figure 5. Incidence of recovery of Neofusicoccum luteum from canes pruned on 19 June (Early), 20 July (Mid) and 17 August (Late) 2015 and inoculated with 1000 spores at 1, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 84 and 112 days after pruning. NIC = non-inoculated control. Bars represent standard error of the mean.

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recovered from only 20% of wounds. Thereafter recovery continued to decrease over time, and the fungus was not recovered from wounds inoculated from 84 (early), 112 (mid) and 56 days (late) after pruning. CONCLUSION These results suggest that, in McLaren Vale and Wagga Wagga, there may be little advantage in choosing one pruning time over another with regard to minimising the risk of infection by E. lata , D. seriata and N. luteum. This finding is not consistent with results obtained in other countries, where either early or late pruning affected wound susceptibility. Regardless of the pruning time, wounds were generally susceptible to infection by each of the pathogens for at least the first two weeks after pruning, although susceptibility to D. seriata declined more slowly over time. Application of fungicide to pruning wounds may be effective in reducing the incidence of infection by trunk disease pathogens (Pitt et al. 2012, Ayres et al. 2014, 2016). Current research is also investigating the preventative and curative effects of fungicides on trunk disease pathogens. Preliminary results suggest that application of fungicide to pruning wounds could provide disease control for at least three weeks, thereby covering the critical first two weeks of wound susceptibility shown here. In order to ensure a sufficient incidence of pathogen recovery for comparison with non-inoculated controls, 500-1000 fungal spores were applied to the pruning wounds. Carter and Moller (1971) estimated that the number of spores that would naturally

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infect a pruning wound on apricot was in the order of 10 spores. In this study, based on previous research, 50-100 times this dose was used, which represents an extreme disease pressure not normally present in vineyards. Elena et al. (2015) showed that applying fewer E. lata spores (as few as 10) resulted in reduced pathogen recovery, more closely reflecting natural disease pressure. Ayres et al. (2016) showed that using fewer spores (200) resulted in increased efficacy of fungicide treatments when compared with higher spore doses. Trials have been repeated and, if results are confirmed, will provide valuable information for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. This research highlights the importance of evaluating wound susceptibility in the grapegrowing region of interest. Future research will extend this work to other Australian wine regions with different climates, including using the pathogen species to which wounds were most susceptible and under lower disease pressure. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was funded by Wine Australia, with additional support from Nufarm Australia, Adelaide Hills Wine Region, Barossa Grape and Wine Association, McLaren Vale Grape Wine and Tourism Association and Clare Region Winegrape Growers Association. The authors thank Ian Bogisch, Cathy Todd, Lee Bartlett, Georgina Elena and the Wagga Wagga technical staff for technical assistance. REFERENCES Ayres, M.; Wicks, T.; Scott, E. and Sosnowski, M. (2014) Optimising pruning wound protection for the control of eutypa dieback. Australian and New Zealand Grapegrower and Winemaker 602:30-33. Ayres, M.R.; Wicks, T.J.; Scott, E.S. and Sosnowski, M.R. (2016) Developing pruning wound protection strategies for managing Eutypa dieback. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research (In press). Carter, M.V. and Moller, W.J. (1970) Duration of susceptibility of apricot pruning wounds to infection by Eutypa armeniacae. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 21:915-920. Carter, M.V. and Moller, W.J. (1971) The quantity of inoculum required to infect apricot and other Prunus species with Eutypa armeniacae. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry 11:684-686. Chapuis, L.; Richard, L. and Dubos, B. (1998) Variation in susceptibility of grapevine pruning wound to infection by Eutypa lata in south-western France. Plant Pathology 47:463-472. Elena, G.; Sosnowski, M.R.; Ayres, M.R.; Lecomte, P.; Benetreau, C.; GarciaFigueres, F. and Luque, J. (2015) Effect of the inoculum dose of three grapevine trunk pathogens on the infection of artificially inoculated pruning wounds. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 54:345-354. Moller, W.J. and Kasimatis, J.J. (1980) Protection of grapevine pruning wounds from Eutypa dieback. Plant Disease 64:278-280. Munkvold, G.P. and Marois, J.J. (1995) Factors associated with variation in susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to infection by Eutypa lata. Phytopathology 85:249-256. Petzoldt, C.H.; Moller, W.J. and Sall, M.A. (1981) Eutypa dieback of grapevine: seasonal differences in infection and duration of susceptibility of pruning wounds. Phytopathology 71:540-543. Pitt, W.M.; Sosnowski, M.R.; Huang, R.; Qiu, Y.; Steel, C.C. and Savocchia, S. (2012) Evaluation of fungicides for the management of Botryosphaeria canker of grapevines. Plant Disease 96:1303-1308.

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Serra, S.; Mannoni, M.A. and Ligios, V. (2008). Studies on the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by fungi involved in grapevine wood diseases in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 47:234-246.

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Trese, A.T.; Ramsdell, C.D. and Burton, C.L. (1982) Effects of winter and spring pruning and post inoculation cold weather on infection of grapevine by Eutypa armeniacae. Phytopathology 72:438-440. Úrbez-Torres, J.R. and Gubler, W.D. (2011) Susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to infection by Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Neofusicoccum parvum. Plant Pathology 60:261-270. van Niekerk, J.M.; Calitz, F.J.; Halleen, F. and Fourie, P.H. (2011) Temporal susceptibility of grapevine pruning wounds to trunk pathogen infection in South African WVJ grapevines. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 50:139-150.

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Climate change and emerging cool climate wine regions By Gregory V. Jones1* and Hans R. Schultz2

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This article is based on a joint presentation given by the authors at the 9th International Cool Climate Symposium held in Brighton, England, on 26-28 May, 2016, for which they examined how climate change is influencing the cool climate limits to viticulture and wine production. INTRODUCTION All crops are grown under environmental constraints that isolate their productivity and quality to certain conditions. The most prominent of these constraints is climate. For some crops there are more broad climatic and, therefore, geographic ranges (e.g., corn, wheat, soybeans), while for other crops their ranges are much more limited (e.g., coffee, cacao, winegrapes). Given the changes in climate that have been observed and projected for the future, there has been much concern on how crop suitability will change from region to region and over time. Grapes grown for wine production have been especially interesting due to their relatively narrow climate niche, both as a species and as individual varieties. Grapevines are cultivated on six of the seven continents, historically occurring roughly between the latitudes of 4° to 51° in the Northern Hemisphere and between 6° to 44° in the Southern Hemisphere across a large diversity of climates (oceanic, warm oceanic, transition temperate, continental, cold continental, Mediterranean, subtropical, attenuated tropical, and arid climates). Accordingly, the range and magnitude of environmental factors differ considerably from region to region and so do the principal environmental constraints for grape production. In addition, with a warming climate the focus is more commonly given to the high end of these limits where rising temperatures are often accompanied by increasing heat stress and changing drought frequency that have the potential to challenge suitability and even viability. However, changes in climate also have the ability to produce opportunities at the cooler limits for wine production through expansion of suitable zones. CLIMATE SUITABILITY FOR WINEGRAPES Historically, there have been numerous temperaturebased metrics (e.g., degree-days, mean temperature of the warmest month, average growing season temperatures, etc.) that have been used for establishing optimum criteria for climates for the range of winegrape cultivars (Gladstones 1992, Jones et al. 2010). At the global scale the general bounds on climate suitability for viticulture are found between 12-22°C for the seven-month growing seasons in each hemisphere (Gladstones 2004, Jones 2006). The 12-22°C climate bounds depict a largely midlatitude suitability for winegrape production. While the vast majority of the world’s wine regions are found

within these average growing season climate zones, there are some exceptions. For example, there are defined winegrape growing areas in the eastern United States, southeastern China, northeast Brazil, and South Africa that are warmer than 22°C during their respective growing seasons. However, these regions have different climate risks (i.e., monsoons, hurricanes, high humidity or intense evapotranspiration rates) and have developed viticultural practices to deal with the warmer and wetter or drier climates (e.g., two crops per year, irrigation, etc.), or produce table grapes or raisins, and do not necessarily represent the average wine region. At the other end of the viticulture bounds are classic cool climate wine regions where the growing seasons average roughly 13-15°C (850-1389 growing degree-days on the Winkler Index or 1200-1800 on the Huglin Index). While some cool climate production does occur at growing season average temperatures below 13°C, it is typically limited to hybrids or very early ripening cultivars that do not necessarily have large-scale commercial appeal. Numerous risks exist at the cool climate fringes for wine production, including relatively short growing seasons (typically <7 months), often with an increased frequency of spring and fall frost. Furthermore, more inland cool climate zones can have increased risk of winter low temperature impacts, while those at higher latitudes along the coast typically have higher growing season rainfall that would increase disease risk. However, opportunities exist in these regions due to longer summer day lengths due to latitude and these zones are often located close to large consumer markets. In fact, day length is one factor probably insufficiently represented by commonly used climate indices (Figure 1, see page 52). For the 9th International Cool Climate Wine Symposium held in England in May 2016, we took the opportunity to examine how climate change is influencing the cool climate limits to viticulture and wine production. The focus of our talk and this paper was to examine the climate development of regions classified as classic cool climate viticultural areas globally over the past 50-100 years and look into their future potential for the next 50 years. DATA AND RESULTS In our research we collected data and information on the most extreme poleward vineyards and established or emerging producing regions. Data and information for this examination came

» ¹Environmental Science and Policy, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, OR, 97520, USA. Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, 65366, Germany

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*Corresponding author: gjones@sou.edu

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from numerous growers’ groups or individual producers. Table 1 gives examples of the locations that we could find growing grapevines the furthest poleward in both hemispheres. However, it should be noted that these locations are mostly individual sites and do not represent large-scale developments in these regions. For the Northern Hemisphere, vineyards are planted as far north as 57.70° near Gothenburg, Sweden, and 57.10° near Aalborg, Denmark. While it may seem surprising to some, Sweden does actually have a wine industry. While small, there are more than 20 commercial vineyards in Sweden that collaborate through a growers’ association with a strong pioneering spirit of being at the absolute fringe of cool climate viticulture. Meanwhile, similar pioneering efforts are occurring in North America, where poleward vineyards are found largely with the 45-51° latitudes in the United States and Canada, with the furthest north being Kamloops, British Columbia (Table 1). In the Southern Hemisphere poleward extensions in viticulture are limited by landmass positions but vineyards are currently found beyond 42°S with the furthest poleward at 45.58° in Sarmiento, Argentina, and 45.26° in Alexandra, New Zealand. Within established or emerging cool climate producing regions worldwide the varieties being grown are similar, but also show some variation due to regional interests or climate extremes. The most common cool climate varieties being grown in these areas include Müller-Thurgau, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Pinot Gris, and Sauvignon Blanc (Table 2) with some regional focus on very early maturing varieties such as Madeleine Angevine and Siegerrebe. Numerous regions are also experimenting with hybrids that include Rondo, Vidal, Regent, and others. Some regions with extreme winter minimum temperatures have also planted more hardy V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Franc. To examine the thermal climate of established or emerging cool climate regions we collected long-term records from stations within each of the regions in Table 3. The data came from national agencies in each region or collective networks with meteorological data and represent the best available data for these regions. The time periods range from 41 years (Aalborg, Denmark) to 132 years (Niagara, Canada). Current average growing season temperatures range from 13.1°C in Rio Negro, Argentina, to 15.8°C in Niagara (Canada), Tasmania (Australia),

Table 1. Examples of extreme locations growing grapevines for wine production. Positions of the locations are as given by various sources within these regions and may not be exact. Data sorted by highest latitude in each hemisphere. Location

Latitude

Gothenburg, Sweden

57.70°N

Aalborg, Denmark

57.10°N

York, Britian

54.01°N

Zilona Góra, Poland

51.56°N

Maastricht, Netherlands

50.90°N

Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada

50.68°N

Lake Te, Magiami, Ontario, Canada

46.40°N

Quebec City, Quebec, Canada

46.40°N

Sussex, New Brunswick, Canada

45.40°N

Leelanau Peninsula, Michigan, USA

45.15°N

Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada

45.15°N

Sarmiento, Argentina

45.58°S

Alexandra, New Zealand

45.26°S

Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia

43.32°S

Chiloé Island, Chile

42.67°S

and Geisenheim (Germany), and average 14.5°C. Decadal trends in climate warming average +0.17°C, with higher trends for the shorter, more recent time periods where the global rate of change of temperature has been higher. Period of record trends range from 0.7°C in Rio Negro (Argentina) during 1952-2015 to 2.0°C in Niagara (Canada) during 1883-2015 (Table 3). For many of these regions the trends in growing season average temperatures have moved them from what would be considered too cool for production to within the range of cool climate viticulture or even into intermediate climate suitability (Jones et al. 2012). Climate modelling efforts show us that continued warming into the future is highly likely. Across winegrape regions globally model results point to a range of 1-4°C warming by 2050-2070, with higher warming rates in the Northern Hemisphere vs the Southern Hemisphere. However, many regions over the past 10-20 years have already seen conditions that were expected to become reality on average by 2050. Furthermore, climate models are projecting continued increases in climate variability, bringing further risk on top of the average changes in climate. CONCLUSIONS

Figure 1. Differences in day length during the growing season for several wine producing regions classified as ‘cool climate areas’ in the Northern and Southern Hemisphere.

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Many new potential regions are emerging due to climate change while existing cool climate regions are becoming more suitable as the climate evolves. Extreme poleward viticulture can now be found above 57°N in Sweden and Denmark in the Northern Hemisphere and above 45°S in Argentina and New Zealand. The 16 cool climate regions examined here are growing many traditional cool climate varieties (e.g., MüllerThurgau, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Riesling, Pinot Gris, and Sauvignon Blanc), early maturing ones (Madeleine Angevine, Siegerrebe), or hybrids (e.g., Rondo, Vidal, and Regent). Still other regions, where extreme winter minimum temperatures present a great risk, have also planted more hardy V. vinifera varieties such as Cabernet Franc with the drawback of its late maturing phase.

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Table 2. Examples of varieties being cultivated in established and emerging cool climate regions. Information provided by regional growers groups or individual producers in each region. Region

Typical Varieties

Okanagan Valley, Canada

Merlot, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir

England

Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Bacchus

Denmak

Rondo, Müller-Thurgau, Solaris

Nova Scotia, Canada

Cabernet Franc, Chardonnay, Pinot

 uget Sound, Washington P USA

Madeleine Angevine, Siegerre

 eelanau Peninsula, L Michigan USA

Riesling, Pinot Gris, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Franc, numerous hybrids

Sweden

Chardonnay, Vidal, Regent, Solaris, Rondo

Poland

Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Regent, Solaris,

Netherlands

Chardonnay, Pinot Gris, Müller-Thurgau, Regent,

Tasmania, Australia

Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc

Malleco, Chile

País,

 entral Otago, C New Zealand

Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Riesling

Rio Negro, Argentina

Sauvignon Blanc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Malbec

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photosynthetic adaptive capacity that are important assets. However, despite summer warmth that is increasing the suitability to ripen fruit, variability in low winter temperatures at these latitudes will remain a risk. Also, regardless of their similarities in temperature, precipitation amounts during flowering or ripening will likely be higher in many of these areas as they are found further poleward where the seasonal shifts in storm tracks occur later in the spring or earlier in the fall, affecting flowering and ripening, respectively. Furthermore, impacts from variations in seasonal water budgets could be vastly different across these regions. While adaptive capacity in cool climate regions is large due to a warming climate, issues with identifying the best varieties and rootstocks for the climates and soils in these regions and how these vineyards can be best managed are critical to better understanding the potential. Climatically, other factors such as the length of the growing season and frost frequency and timing need to be considered to better understand the suitability and future sustainability of viticulture and wine production in these regions. REFERENCES Gladstones, J.S. (1992) Viticulture and Environment. Winetitles, Underdale, Australia, 310pp.

The 16 cool climate regions worldwide that were examined have average trends of 0.17°C warming/decade or period of record and an absolute increase in temperature of 1.4°C during the late 1800s through 2015. In some cases, the warming has allowed regions to move from marginal climates for viticulture to more suitable cool climates for viticulture. In other areas, warming has moved the regions to the upper end of cool climate suitability (more consistent year to year) or even slightly into a more intermediate climate capable of ripening different varieties. The higher latitudes of these regions produce longer day lengths and, therefore, a high

Gladstones, J.S. (2004) Climate and Australian Viticulture. In Viticulture 1 – Resources, Dry, P.R. and B.G. Coombe, editors. Winetitles, 255pp. Jones, G.V. (2006) Climate and Terroir: Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Wine. In Fine Wine and Terroir - The Geoscience Perspective. Macqueen, R.W., and Meinert, L.D., (eds.), Geoscience Canada Reprint Series Number 9, Geological Association of Canada, St. John’s, Newfoundland, 247 pages. Jones, G.V.; Duff, A.A.; Hall, A. and Myers, J. (2010) Spatial analysis of climate in winegrape growing regions in the western United States. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 61:313-326. Jones, G.V.; Reid, R. and Vilks, A. (2012) Climate, Grapes, and Wine: Structure and Suitability in a Variable and Changing Climate, pp109-133 in The Geography of Wine: Regions, Terrior, and Techniques, edited by P. Dougherty. Springer Press, 255pp. Schultz, H.R. and Jones, G.V. (2010) Climate induced historic and future changes in viticulture. Journal of Wine Research 21:137-145.

WVJ

Table 3. Cool wine producing region climate station locations, time periods, trends per decade, trends over the period of record (POR), and current growing season average temperatures (NH: April-October; SH: October-April). Location

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Time Period

Trend (°C/decade)

Trend (°C, POR)

Current GSTavg (°C)

Rio Negro, Argentina

1952-2015

+0.10

+0.7

13.1

Malleco, Chile

1932-2016

+0.12

+1.0

13.2

Aalborg, Denmark

1974-2015

+0.32

+1.3

13.2

Puget Sound, USA

1892-2016

+0.11

+1.5

13.4

Gothenborg, Gottenborg

1961-2015

+0.23

+1.2

13.9

Nova Scotia, Canada

1913-2015

+0.13

+1.3

14.1

Leelanau Peninsula, USA

1895-2015

+0.11

+1.3

14.4

Otago, New Zealand

1930-2016

+0.19

+1.6

14.5

Oxford, England

1900-2015

+0.13

+1.5

14.5

Maastricht, Netherlands

1955-2015

+0.13

+0.8

14.6

Zielona, Gora, Roland

1973-2015

+0.35

+1.5

14.8

Eastbourne, England

1959-2015

+0.27

+1.5

14.9

Okanagan Valley, Canada

1900-2015

+0.10

+1.2

15.0

Niagara, Canada

1883-2015

+0.15

+2.0

15.8

Tasmania, Australia

1893-2015

+0.11

+1.4

15.8

Geisenheim, Germany

1900-2015

+0.14

+1.6

15.8

Average

90 years

+0.17

+1.4

14.5

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Aucerot - a delicious enigma By Cyril Ciavarella, Ciavarella Oxley Estate, King Valley, Victoria

Cyril Ciavarella, founder of the King Valley’s Ciavarella Oxley Estate, describes how in 1988 he came to plant half a hectare of a variety known as Aucerot, whose true identity remains a mystery to this day.

C

iavarella Oxley Estate is unique in the fact that it is Australia’s sole producer of Aucerot, a rare and mysterious variety about which there is very little reliable documentation. Most winemakers have never heard of it. Our vines came from Baileys Bundarra vineyard at Glenrowan, in Victoria, where the Bailey family had produced some fine wines from these grapes, including a dry white and a renowned late harvest called ‘Auslese Aucerot’, which remains in the memories of older wine-lovers. The story handed down through several generations about Aucerot reveals very little concrete evidence of its origins, but one of the Baileys is said to have returned from France after the First World War with some cuttings from somewhere in the north of France, proclaiming them to be Aucerot, and planted them. Sometime after that, probably in the 1930s, a well-known ampelographer, François Robert de Castella, who was employed by the Victorian Department

of Agriculture as its viticultural expert, is said to have identified it as Aucerot. One day soon, a researcher will hopefully do a DNA test on the vines and we will all know for sure what we should call it; until then, it is Aucerot to us. I recall the late Alan Bailey telling me that he met with French ampelographer Paul Truel in the 1970s who identified the variety as Aucerot. Historian Valmai Hankel did some research of her own into the variety in 2005 (Winestate, Nov-Dec 2005), though her results were less definite and somewhat puzzling as she stated in her article that Truel “admitted never having seen the variety anywhere”. In the late 1980s, Baileys was sold to Davis Consolidated and the Aucerot vines were removed to make way for something more fashionable – Chardonnay. Luckily, my son Michael, who was studying viticulture at the time while working at Baileys, informed me of the impending demise of the vines and we gained permission to take some grafting material which subsequently

A label from a bottle of Aucerot produced by Baileys Bundarra Vineyard, later known as Baileys of Glenrowan. The label refers to a visit by French ampelographer Paul Truel who confirmed “its authenticity”.

Ciavarella Oxley Estate produces either a fortified white from its Aucerot grapes or a late harvest style, sometimes blended with Semillon or Viognier. In 2010 the winery also produced a Noble Aucerot, of which a mere 302 bottles were made.

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joined the Ciavarella vineyard at Oxley in 1988. I was aware that the variety was rare in Australia so was keen not to have it disappear, as I recognised the excellent quality of the wines that Alan had made from this variety. Alan Bailey made two distinctly different wines from Aucerot. One was a dry table wine simply called Aucerot. As Alan handed me a bottle of this in the 1970s, I distinctly remember his words: “Cyril, the old timers used to call this French Riesling!” I’m sorry I never pursued this further with Alan, who sadly passed away a few years later. The better known ‘sticky’ was produced under the label Auslese Aucerot and was presented in those days in a 750ml flint bottle; my wife Jan and I enjoyed the occasional bottle of it in those days. Quite a few of our cellar door visitors have fond memories of this wine, and about five years ago one fellow came in search of our Aucerot, declaring he was an old fan of the Baileys version, and still had the odd bottle of the Auslese in his cellar. I hope the corks stood the test of time. So, we embarked on our journey with Aucerot, eager to see how it performed in the quite different soils of our Oxley vineyard. The results have been very rewarding, with some fantastic late harvest dessert wines produced over the years, sometimes as a straight varietal and sometimes blended with Semillon or Viognier. We have almost sold out of our 2005 Late Harvest Semillon Aucerot, which had a devoted following. This will be succeeded by our 2009 Autumn Gold, a straight Aucerot with distinctive flavours; great as an aperitif, with a fruit and cheese platter after dinner. The 2010 Noble Aucerot is something else again, with intense botrytis characters adding to its distinctive flavours. Overall, we are extremely happy that we have saved this enigmatic variety from extinction and it lives to delight for another day.

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Ciavarella Oxley Estate has experienced a number of seasons that have produced excellent noble rot infections, enabling the production of a Noble Aucerot in 2010. BACKGROUND Aucerot is a mystery variety about which there seems to be little documentation. There was a grape known as Aucerot in the Hunter Valley many years ago, but this turned out to be Montils. In their book Wine Grapes, wine writer Jancis Robinson and her co-authors suggested Aucerot was an Australian synonym for the French Auxerrois Blanc, but the characteristics of the vine we’re growing are different. Much discussion has taken place over the years as to the origins of this variety. Perhaps a keen young viticulturist with a bent for genetics will one day test its DNA and identify it categorically as a very rare variety in its own right, or something else entirely. So far, we have not come across any other named variety that could be our Aucerot. There have been numerous comments, opinions, guesses and suppositions over many years, but we will continue to know it as Aucerot unless it is definitively proven to be something else. After all, a rose by any other name... VITICULTURE Our Oxley vineyard has sandy loam soil, and the Aucerot is grafted to Schwarzmann and Paulsen rootstocks. Budburst occurs in late September to early October, depending on the season. Vine vigour is moderate with minimal or no drip irrigation, again,

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Aucerot growing in the Ciavarella Oxley Estate vineyard. There have been numerous comments, opinions, guesses and suppositions as to the true identity of the variety, Cyril Ciavarella says, but it will remain known as Aucerot until “definitely proven” to be something else. depending on the season. In heatwave conditions we maintain soil moisture to avoid leaf burning and to sustain functioning leaves. Exposed bunches on the eastern side will sunburn if fully exposed. Minimal leaf plucking is done on the opposite side at pea-sized berries to assist air movement within the canopy. In earlier years cropping was light to moderate, but recently there has been a significant increase in productivity. To this end, we have modified pruning to a mixture of single and two-bud spurs on bilateral cordons on a single wire trellis. We carry out shoot thinning once the danger of frosts has passed, and bunch thinning at veraison. The canopy is vertical shoot positioned. Bunch size and weight are similar to a typical Chardonnay bunch, though the spherical berries are somewhat larger. Harvest occurs anywhere between the end of April and the end of May (our seasons have been somewhat unpredictable lately). Powdery mildew has never been a problem, but in wet seasons there have been some issues with bunch rot. Luckily, we have had a number of seasons that have produced excellent noble rot infections. Aucerot seems to have an appetite for magnesium, showing typical foliar deficiency symptoms. To this end, we broadcast 60g of magnesium sulfate per vine annually. Other varieties in the same block and on the same rootstock, namely Chardonnay, Zinfandel, Viognier,

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Semillon and Durif, do not exhibit the same requirement. WINE We make our Aucerot into either a fortified white (once known as white port), or a late harvest style, sometimes blended with Semillon or Viognier. Ripeness varies from 16 to 18+ Baumé. Berries are heavily raisined and in some years nicely infected with botrytis, as was the case in 2010. For the late harvest wine, chilled grapes are crushed, sulfur dioxide and enzyme added, and kept in anaerobic conditions to macerate for up to 48 hours. It is basket pressed over an extended period to achieve maximum extraction. Juice is then cold-settled, racked, pH adjusted to approximately 3.0, yeast 2226 added, followed by a coolish fermentation until the desired Baumé is reached. Then sulfur dioxide is added to the desired level and the wine is sterile filtered. Cold stability and protein stability are checked, then the wine is bottled into 500ml bottles via a 0.8µ membrane filter. The 2005 Late Harvest Semillon Aucerot, of which just a few bottles remain, continues to display exquisite freshness. Another outstanding wine is our 2010 Noble Aucerot, of which a mere 302 bottles were produced, which carries intense rich flavours, not a hint of any cloying characters and finishes with bright, uplifting acidity. WVJ

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BUSINESS & MARKETING

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E X P O R T S

Opportunities for Australian wine in Asia By Mark Rowley, Industry Analyst, Wine Australia

China has overtaken the United States as the biggest buyer of Australian wine after purchasing $474 million worth in the 12 months to 30 September 2016. Exports to the rest of Asia are also growing strongly, Mark writes.

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he recent release of the Wine Australia Export Report for September highlighted the stunning growth China is delivering for the Australian wine community. The amount of attention and analysis given to China is warranted as it overtook the USA to become Australia’s number one export market by value. However, collectively the rest of Asia is also growing strongly and presenting opportunities on our doorstep. This article examines some of the other trends emerging in Asia outside of China. Asian markets (excluding mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau) were among the regions to contribute to the strong growth of Australian exports. In the 12 months to September 2016, the value of Australian wine exports grew by 10 per cent to $2.17 billion and volume increased by 0.2 per cent to 734 million litres. All export regions recorded growth in the last year, except for Europe, which declined by 3 per cent to $570 million. China (including Hong Kong and Macau) was the biggest mover – up 39 per cent to $600 million, which resulted in it overtaking North America as the largest market by value for Australian exports. As a region, ‘Other Asia’ (excluding mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau) also put in a strong performance, with value increasing by 11 per cent to $236 million. Figure 1 illustrates that as a region, ‘Other Asia’ has recorded strong growth from mid-2014 onwards. Each country has different drivers for the growth. The ratification of Australia’s free trade agreements has spurred growth in Japan and South Korea. However, growth has been more organic in the southern markets. The most significant markets in the ‘Other Asia’ region in value terms were: • Singapore, up 9 per cent to $62 million • Malaysia, up 24 per cent to $55 million • Japan, down 0.3 per cent to $45 million • Taiwan, up 23 per cent to $19 million • Thailand, down 6 per cent to $15 million • South Korea, up 42 per cent to $14 million • Philippines, up 6 per cent to $7 million, and • Vietnam, down 12 per cent to $7 million. Compared with other key mature markets in greater Asia, Southeast Asia is a relatively new frontier for the Australian wine community and for fine wine in general. This is a region that is quickly gaining in importance as consumers in markets like Malaysia and Thailand continue to change their drinking preferences. Malaysia has grown to be Australia’s eighth largest destination by value, following China, Hong Kong and Singapore. Australia is the number one exporter to Malaysia. It has particularly strong value growth of 24 per cent to $55 million dollars in the 12 months to September 2016. With a population of 31.2 million and a GDP growth of 6 per cent (as of 2014) and the third highest GDP per capita in Southeast Asia after Singapore and Brunei,

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there is obviously an upside – despite some key challenges – if the Australian wine community engages with this market more closely than ever. Australia is generally well-placed in Asia’s wine markets. Australia is the top-ranked imported wine category by value in Malaysia, second in Singapore and the Philippines, third in Thailand and Vietnam, fifth in Taiwan and sixth in Japan and South Korea. Numerous factors contribute to the growth of Australian exports to Asia. Our geographic location helps – it’s easy to travel to and from Asia. Australia has a high degree of inward investment from Asia and connections formed through education and migration to Australia, as well as the familiarity with Australia for the expatriates and those educated internationally. Australia has also benefited from a rise in consumption across Asia with nascent consumer awareness and interest in wine. We are well-placed placed to benefit further from this as consumers across Asia start to change their drinking preferences should we continue to successfully engage with these emerging Asian markets. FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS – FOUNDATION FOR SUCCESS? Australian wine producers have also recently either gained an advantage over or secured a level playing field with some of our competitors in the Chinese, Korean, Japanese and Thai markets, where tariffs have either been eliminated or are reducing to zero over time. While exports to China, South Korea and Thailand have increased, the value of exports to Japan has fallen over the last 12 months. This is due to a decline in bulk wine and soft-pack exports. After an initial surge due to the immediate removal of the tariff on bulk wine, bulk wine exports to Japan declined by 36 per cent to $2.6 million. Soft-pack exports declined 47 per cent to $2 million. On the other hand, the tariff on bottled exports will gradually reduce to zero by 2022. The tariff reduction to date has provided a boost to bottled exports, up 10 per cent to $38 million. The growth has been particularly strong at the higher end, as some Australian wine importers have commented, with optimism for further growths in the premium segment as the market prepares for the 2020 Olympic Games. Exports of wine in the $7.50–9.99 per litre FOB category increased by 25 per cent to $5 million and wines of $10 and above per litre FOB grew by 16 per cent to $8 million. MALAYSIAN ON-PREMISE: OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS? According to Andrew Tierney, sales and export manager for Torbreck, in the Barossa, the on-premise segment is key to success for Australian wine businesses in Malaysia. Primary

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drinkers of wine are people of Chinese Malay descent (25 per cent of the population), Indian Malaysians (7 per cent), foreign tourists and expats. Tierney believes that, in a society where alcohol is not widely tolerated, 60 to 70 per cent of the wine drinkers there are locals who use private dining outlets as safe places to drink. This makes up a very large proportion of wine consumption in Malaysia and highlights the importance of the on-trade sector for Australian wine businesses. THAILAND – TOURISM A KEY FACTOR The market segment that is of most interest is that of travellers to Thailand. Bangkok was already a top global destination, but in 2016 has pushed aside London to be the world’s most visited city – with around 21.47 million international overnight visitors according to the latest MasterCard Worldwide Global Destination Cities Index. Bangkok is emerging as a fine dining gastronomic centre, with a number of Michelin chefs opening restaurants. Australian wine is highly valued for its quality in the restaurant and food retail scene and, with the right approach, exporters of wine can leverage that. But the market isn’t without its challenges. Thailand applies the highest excise against wine of almost any country. However, Australian wine is included in the tariff reductions secured through the Thailand–Australia Free Trade Agreement (TAFTA), providing Australia with a competitive advantage against other countries. The applicable tariff to Australian wines is zero per cent. However, exporters must remember this does not automatically apply and TAFTA

Figure 1. Value growth for Asia, excluding mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. benefits need to be claimed by the importer and supported by Certificates of Origin from Australia. THE FUTURE FOR AUSTRALIAN WINE IN ASIA While it is clear that there are opportunities for the Australian wine community in Asia, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the market and the cultural nuances that make it unique. If this is combined with the patience, commitment and consistency that are always required for export success, then the future truly looks bright for Australian wine in Asia. WVJ

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Rising sun shining on Australia’s premium push By Anthony Fensom

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ine Australia’s (WA’s) premium push in Japan is showing pleasing results, more than a year after the “most liberalising trade deal ever” slashed tariffs on Australian wine exports. But with the China boom grabbing the headlines, winemakers have been urged to maintain the momentum in Asia’s second-largest wine market. “Australian winemakers have renewed their focus on Japan following the trade deal, and that can only help sales in this important wine market,” said Ko Nagata, managing director of Global Sky Group, an importer of premium Australian wine through its Tokyo-based Winetree business. “Japan imported US$1.5 billion of wine in fiscal 2016, and with Australia’s market share at just 4 per cent, there’s still plenty of opportunity for growth.” Implemented in January 2015, the Japan-Australia Economic Partnership Agreement (JAEPA) eliminated Japan’s 45 yen (AUS$0.57) per litre excise on bulk wine shipments, while its 15 per cent tariff on bottled and sparkling wine is to be phased out by 2022. The trade deal saw an immediate gain for Australian wine exporters, with a 28 per cent rise in Australian wine exports to Japan in the year to June 2015, particularly bulk wine. However, the latest WA export report for the 12 months from October 2015 to September 2016 painted a different picture. While exports to China, South Korea and other Asian destinations increased in value in the year to September 2016, the value of exports to Japan actually dropped by 0.3 per cent to $45 million, making it Australia’s 10th largest export market by value. The decline was attributed to a fall in bulk wine exports,

down 36 per cent `to $2.6 million, and soft-pack exports, dropping by 47 per cent to $2 million. In contrast, bottled exports rose by 10% to $38 million, with growth particularly strong at the higher end, according to the wine authority. “Some Australian wine importers have commented with optimism for further growth in the premium segment as the market prepares for the 2020 Olympic Games,” the report said. It noted that wine exports in the $7.50 to $9.99 per litre FOB category grew by 26 per cent to $5 million, and wines of $10 and above per litre FOB increased by 16 per cent to $8 million. Fiscal 2016 saw Chile, another ‘New World’ producer, seize the crown from France as the top exporter of wine to Japan by volume with a 30 per cent market share, compared with France’s

24 per cent. Italy accounted for 15 per cent and Spain 12 per cent, with the United States on 8 per cent and Australia at 4 per cent, according to the Global Trade Atlas. By value, France retained top spot with 52 per cent of the import market, followed by Chile on 13% and Australia in sixth place with 3%. Chile’s rise to top spot took nearly 10 years after its 2007 free trade deal with Japan. But Australia’s peak wine body is not planning to emulate the South Americans any time soon. “At the end of the day, we’re not competing on price anymore – for those importers looking to buy bargains, we should not be competing with Chile. This performance is almost exactly how we want it, because we want to create a stronger position as a premium and fine wine producer,” said Hiro Tejima, WA’s head of market, Asia-Pacific.

Wine Australia executive director Victor De Bortoli. The company has been exporting to Japan since the 1990s, and Victor says the recent trade deal with the country should help Australian wine producers, placing them on a level playing field with competitors such as Chile.

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Anthony Fensom is a communications consultant and freelance writer based in Brisbane. After gaining experience in Australia’s financial markets at the Australian Securities Exchange in the 1990s, he moved to Tokyo in 2000 where he worked for some of Japan’s top newspapers for six years. Returning to Australia in mid-2006, Fensom worked for two Queensland-based PR consultancies before establishing his own, Fensom Communication, in 2014. He continues to write on Asia-Pacific business and is vice president of the Queensland Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry.

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“CELEBRITY STATUS” Tejima pointed to the success of WA’s annual grand tasting in Japan in September, which achieved a record turnout of more than 530 industry attendees, including international hotels and sommeliers, as demonstrating the increased interest in Australian wine. “The Japan tasting has been running for over 10 years but this year’s record turnout had a really positive vibe, with a number of people commenting that Australian wine has really changed. To trigger change in a country like Japan takes time, but I think it’s becoming more of a norm – Japan has come to realise that the Australian wine style is now different,” he said. Tejima said Australian natural wine had also gained in popularity, including brands such as BK Wines, Jauma and Lucy Margaux. “These producers have celebrity status, so when they visit Japan there is a strong pull for these producers. And that’s changed the perception of Australian wine, especially among younger sommeliers who like less traditional styles,” he said. “I think that’s really positive and should be a trigger for us to delve deeper into regional fine wines.” Marketing efforts have included holding industry seminars and bringing celebrity Japanese wine sommeliers and journalists to Australia, with the aim of changing attitudes towards Australian wine. Tejima said winemakers needed to continue working to change perceptions and on positioning their wine in the right context. “Storytelling is great, but knowing what the market already has from other countries, and knowing where Australian wine may fit in that context, is really important. So is understanding what are the unique selling points of Australian wine that they need to sell,” he said. The wine body’s premium strategy is supported by recent research by The University of Adelaide which pointed to the need for Australian winemakers to emphasise the nation’s reliability and premium products. Rather than focussing on ‘Brand Australia’, makers should promote regional distinctions, given Australia’s ‘image issues’ in markets such as the United States, Britain, South Korea and Vietnam.

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Wine Australia’s Japan grand tasting, held at the Cerulean Tower Tokyu Hotel, in Tokyo in September 2016. “Limit the ‘easy going’ image and highlight elements associated with fine wine, such as product mastery. Make it exciting, but more like James Bond and less like Crocodile Dundee,” WA has advised winemakers. It also suggested makers be “true to self and place” and be unique, while avoiding positioning the product with an element where Australia lacks authenticity, such as culture and sophistication like the Europeans. Victor De Bortoli, executive director of De Bortoli Wines, says Australian wine’s image reflects the nation’s gradual emergence onto the international stage. “It’s no one’s fault really – it’s just an evolution of how Australian wine grew. And now it’s about focussing on that regionality and highlighting our premium efforts more,” he said. “We’d like to be doing more and for Australia to be doing more, but it comes down to resources, including government.” An exporter to Japan since the 1990s, De Bortoli said the recent trade deal should help Australian makers, placing them on a level playing field with competitors such as Chile. “Chile was behind Australia when they achieved their trade deal but have since taken off…The FTA deal has probably woken a few people up about Japan, with the number of Australian exporters increasing substantially. We’re pretty happy with our volume of sales in Japan,

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and we see opportunity at the higher price points,” he said. De Bortoli said winemakers contemplating entering the Japanese market should “find a partner you can trust and can believe in – if you aren’t working with someone you can trust, you’re probably better off not being in the market at all”. Sirromet Wines general manager, Rod Hill, said building relationships with Japanese wine experts and sommeliers as part of the education process was critical in establishing Australian brands. “What we’re trying to do consistently is tell the authentic story of where the wine is from, and give people a really good understanding of what the terroir is like in the Granite Belt region and what makes it unique,” he said. “We’ve found that Japanese consumers who are interested really want to learn more about where this wine is from, and what makes it different, so we’re trying to be really consistent in delivering this message.” In August, the Queensland winemaker invited a Japanese delegation comprised of leading wine sommeliers and journalists to tour Queensland’s Granite Belt wineries, including Sirromet’s Seven Scenes, St Judes and Night Sky Vineyards, along with other local wineries including Ballandean Estate, Golden Grove, Symphony Hill and Tobin ▶ Wines.

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The seven-member Japanese delegation included sommeliers Kenichi Tsuji, of Kanazawa’s famous wine bar Chateau Chinnon, Tsuyoshi Hanashima, of Ishikawa Prefecture’s luxury Kagaya ryokan hotel, and Tetsuya Ebisawa, of Tokyo restaurant Manuel, along with leading wine writer Rika Ogura and Minoru Numata, an adviser to the Japan Sommelier Association and an “A+ Specialist Educator” for Wine Australia. “Sirromet’s focus is on developing premium wines and we are continuously looking for ways to push the boundaries and remain industry leaders. We are proud to be part of the growth of the Granite Belt, and by inviting international visitors to our region we are helping the world wake up to the quality of Queensland wine,” Hill said. Hill said Sirromet’s sparkling red continued to find favour in Japan, along with white wines such as Chardonnay and Verdelho. The winery has been active in entering its wines in Japan awards, which has a “knock-on effect for sales,” he added. Japan’s increasing penchant for Australian eateries has also been capitalised on by Sirromet, with its Japanese importer Winetree promoting Sirromet wines at its newly-established Terra Australis and Terra Azabu-juban restaurants in inner-city Tokyo. “Demand for Australian cuisine in Tokyo is rapidly increasing as more of our sophisticated consumers become familiar with the gourmet dining experience the land Down Under has to offer,” Winetree’s Nagata said. “Tokyo diners are excited by authentic, contemporary Australian food and wine, and our restaurants aim to bring this experience to an international audience in the build up to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics.” GENERATIONAL SHIFT While the free trade deal with Japan has improved Australian wine’s price competitiveness, changing tastes may also assist the Australian industry. While beer is the preferred alcoholic beverage, it has been in steady decline for the past decade, while wine has won an increasing audience, particularly amongst women in the late 20s to early 30s age group, according to WA research. Euromonitor data revealed that Japanese wine consumption increased by

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Sirromet’s chief winemaker Adam Chapman with Hiroya Kobayashi, food and beverage officer and chief sommelier at the Capitol Hotel Tokyo. In August, Sirromet invited a delegation of leading wine sommeliers and journalists from Japan to tour Queensland’s Granite Belt. 3.6% in volume and 8.7 per cent in value from 2010 to 2015, with beer dropping by 4.4 per cent and 5.4 per cent, respectively over the same period. “The new wave of younger wine consumers are more adventurous and increasingly searching for new styles of winemaking and new varieties away from the traditional European styles,” it said. Jonathan O’Neill, of South Australia’s Angove Family Winemakers, agrees describing a “generational shift” in alcohol consumption patterns, with younger generations in Japan turning to wine as the beverage of choice, forsaking the sake and shochu favoured by previous generations. “If you go to bars or restaurants in Japan, around the 20 to 40 year old age brackets, they are embracing wine. They are having it with their food, they are exploring wine from all parts of the world, and that is more fascinating and exciting than free trade agreements. Wine is the flavour of the next generation, and that is the future for us and the excitement,” he told WA. Sirromet’s Hill suggests Australia’s relative proximity to Japan should support further growth in sales, along with its educated consumers. “What excites me about Japan is the consumer base which is very motivated to

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be educated about wine. And as soon as they are educated, they look for these real quality offerings in that space that offer true value,” he said. WA’s Tejima says the potential for growth in Japan is enormous, should its 126 million population continue their shift toward wine. “Japan is a very big import wine market and we only have a small share of it. Is our wine good enough to be successful? I would say yes, and it’s more to do with how we are perceived as a country. Many think of Australia as a cheaper country of origin but, in reality, we are not. Our wines have world-class style without breaking the bank, sitting in the middle tier between luxurious expensive wine and super cheap,” he said. “China is creating obvious excitement but Japan is also exciting – we just need to keep working there, being creative and making a stronger impression. People respond to exciting wines and Australia is full of them.” With the approach of the 2019 Rugby World Cup and 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Australian winemakers will be hoping some of the excitement rubs off on Japan’s wine-consuming public. And with the benefit of further tariff cuts, brighter times are ahead for Australian wines in WVJ the land of the rising sun.

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Fish where the fish are Awareness, perception and purchases at brick-and-mortar and online retailers in China By Justin Cohen, Armando Maria Corsi and Larry Lockshin Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science - School of Marketing, University of South Australia

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ishing is an Australian pastime. A group of mates in a tinny passing the day in a billabong catching fish sounds idyllic. However, that is a challenging model to translate into a profitable business. The fisherman making a go of it are braving rough seas and seeking waters where the fish are. If you want to be profitable, you need to efficiently catch as many fish as possible. Selling wine is no different. China is a crucial market for Australia. A recent article in the media reported that China is the top export market for Australian wine, now worth $474 million Australian dollars in the last year (England 2016). Thinking of the size, scale and complexity of China, Australian brands that can manage these challenges can obtain great rewards. The Chinese population is massive. Imported wine is not a massmarket product yet, but the middle class in China is exploding. There are said to be nearly half a billion active smartphone users in China. This means that a middle-class Chinese person in a Tier 3 city now has as much a chance as someone living in Shanghai to be influenced by popular social media platforms like Weibo and WeChat and buy wine from Alibaba’s T-Mall. Virtually all of China is now open for business. The China Wine Barometer (CWB), supported by Wine Australia, has explored the evolution of the China wine market across nine key cities for a three-year period. Our six slide decks cataloguing the ‘state-of-play’ in China are freely available for download from http://research.wineaustralia.com/ resources/ or www.MarketingScience. info/wine. Australian wine brands have to navigate a complex route to market in China. A few of our biggest brands are able to develop their own distribution, but the rest must find distributors/agents to trade in the

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Figure 1. Penetration of retail channels in China. China market. Waves 2, 4 and 6 of the China Wine Barometer have a retail focus and for three years have explored overall channel performance and in key channels individual retail brands. Irrespective of brand size and routeto-market, the key question is where to sell your wine? Despite an evolving marketplace and some evident changes, the overall patterns across the three years are similar, as first reported by Cohen et al. (2014) in this journal. Figure 1 illustrates the average penetration of retail channels in China across the cities investigated in the CWB. Three sales channels are dominant. Hypermarkets, specialty wine stores and online retailers have the highest penetration among regular drinkers of imported wine. However, 80 per cent of the channels investigated have penetrations above 50 per cent suggesting that for brands not able to sell through these core channels, or preferably in addition, there is certainly scope to succeed in other channels

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albeit with access to fewer shoppers. The CWB investigates in greater detail individual retail brands in both brick and mortar and online retail and reports on data collected annually regarding awareness, visitation and purchase among a sample of retail brands relevant to regular drinkers of imported wine. The EhrenbergBass Institute for Marketing Science is recognised globally for helping brands understand their categories and grow. A key product we offer is our ‘Laws of Growth’ analysis. One key tool investigates patterns associated with the law of ‘double jeopardy’ (Sharp 2010). In simple terms, smaller brands have fewer buyers who buy less frequently from them. This means that bigger brands have more buyers and these buyers buy more often from them. This has been proven across time periods, categories (including wine), markets and even retail brands. Testing for this law requires having access to data that relates to the size of each (retail) brand as well as data

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Figure 2. Brick & mortar visitation and conversion rate of visitors.

Figure 3. Online retailer visitation and conversion rate of visitors.

assume the level of service and range provided outperform their competition. Figure 3 illustrates the same ‘double jeopardy’ pattern for online retailers in China. The largest platforms – JD.com, T-Mall and Yhd.com – all have visitation rates above 80 per cent with a sales conversion ranging from 62 per cent to 53per cent. The smallest online wine retailers investigated have visitation rates of roughly 40 per cent with sales conversion of about 30 per cent. Again, this illustrates that the bigger online retailers that have more visitors have a higher ‘loyalty', evidenced by higher conversion rates than small online retail brands that suffer twice from low visitation and low conversion. Succeeding in retail in China requires understanding how to build ‘physical availability’ (Romaniuk and Sharp 2015). Being ‘present’ where the biggest customer base shops is a key to selling wine. However, it would be naïve to simply suggest you place your range in the retail outlets with the largest visitation. You or your representatives in China may not have access to these retailers or you may even lack the volume to trade with retailers of that size. Furthermore, ‘relevance’ may be an issue. Your products may not fit in that retailer because of pricing or style. ‘Prominence’ is also a challenge. Most wine drinkers in China will have never heard of your brand. How

that is a proxy for loyalty. China is not a market where we have access to actual consumer purchase records for wine across retailers. Currently we have to rely on the tool of retrospective recall. In this article, we report our double jeopardy-type analysis by showing visitation, which is our proxy for size, and a conversion ratio, which shows the percentage of visitors who make a purchase, which is our proxy for loyalty. Figure 2 (see page 62) illustrates this phenomenon for brick and mortar retailers. The largest brands, hypermarkets Walmart and Carrefour, are visited by approximately 85 per cent of our sample and roughly three quarters of their wine category visitors buy wine. On the other hand, the retailers with the lowest visitation for the purpose of buying wine have visitation of approximately 40% of our sample and roughly a third of these visitors buy wine. Looking at the data it is apparent that there is not a particular format that suffers. Simply, the retail brands that have fewer visitors are much less likely to convert those visitors to a sale. Another powerful insight from exploring the data is benchmarking performance relative to size. It is clear that certain retail brands, such as the hypermarket Auchan or speciality wine stores Pudao and Everwines, perform better than expected. This warrants further investigation as to why, but one can

do you stand out, get noticed and build awareness? Online platforms like T-Mall now make it possible for brands to sell directly to consumers across China, but just having a T-Mall site doesn’t guarantee visitation. It is said that there are more than 70,000 brands from around the world that have T-Mall sites. Without a strategy to drive visitation to your specific T-Mall site, investment in this channel will fail. Circling back to the fishing analogy we opened with, the evidence suggests that the way to grow in China is to place yourself in ‘waters’ (retailers) teaming with ‘fish’ (customers). We might feel safer fishing in a placid ‘billabong’. However, the way for Australian wine brands to grow is to fish in the ‘scary open ocean’ where there certainly is some high value fish to be caught. REFERENCES See: www.MarketingScience.info/wine Cohen, J.; Corsi, A.M. and Lockshin, L. (2014) Forget special occasion, it is time to relax in China. Wine & Viticulture Journal 29(4):66-67. England, C. (2016) China has surged into top spot as a destination for Australian wine exports. The Advertiser, 20 October. Romaniuk, J. and Sharp, B. (2015) How brands grow: part 2, Oxford University Press: Melbourne. Sharp, B. (2010) How brands grow, Oxford University Press: Melbourne.

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Wine labelling regulations reviewed – healthrelated and compositional claims, geographical indications and traditional expressions By Creina Stockley1 and Rachel Triggs2

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Drawing on a workshop they convened at this year’s Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference, Creina and Rachel bring wine producers up to speed on the changes to winemaking, labelling and marketing regulations that have occurred in the last three years.

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he Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) and Wine Australia recently convened a workshop titled ‘The changing regulatory environment of Australian wine’ at the 16th Australian Wine Industry Technical Conference. The workshop focussed on the changes that have occurred to winemaking, labelling and marketing regulations over the past three years. Speakers at the workshop included representatives from the AWRI, Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ), Wine Australia, Accolade Wines and Treasury Wine Estates. Key topics covered in the workshop were: • nutrition, health and related claims on wine labels • health warnings on wine labels • analytical testing for compliance • social media regulatory risks • the use of geographical indications (GIs) and traditional expressions (TEs) on wine labels • Free Trade Agreement developments in wine industry. This article provides a brief summary of the material covered in these topics at the workshop. NUTRITION AND HEALTH CLAIMS In Australian and New Zealand consumer law any claims and labelling for foods must not be false or misleading. A claim is considered to be an express or implied statement, representation, design or information in relation to a food, or a property of food, which is not mandatory in the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code. Claims are generally made to support healthy food choices and accordingly can be about nutrition content and certain disease risk reductions. For example, according to Standard 1.2.7, ‘source of calcium’ is considered a nutrition content claim, ‘calcium builds stronger bones’ is a general level health claim linking to a function but not to a disease, and ‘calcium reduces the risk of osteoporosis’ is a high level health claim linking to a disease. A statement such as ‘Healthy Bones Australia’ included on a food label is considered to be an endorsement. Nutrition and health claims are not permitted for any alcoholic beverages with an alcohol content greater than 1.15%v/v, except for claims about carbohydrate, energy or

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gluten content. Correspondingly, nutrition information panels are only mandatorily required for wine labels if claims are made about the carbohydrate, energy or gluten content of a wine. They may, however, be voluntarily included on a wine label. In addition, no endorsements are permitted. Claims about the alcohol content of a wine are not considered to be a nutrition content claim, such as ‘reduced alcohol’, although a claim of ‘low alcohol’ cannot be made if the wine contains greater than 1.15%v/v. Claims about the risk or danger of immoderate wine consumption or that wine should only be consumed in moderation are permitted. Any other claims that are expressly permitted by another standard, such as claims about allergens, are also permitted on the label of wines of any alcohol content. Further information on nutrition, health and related claims for wine sold in Australia, can be found in these resources: • The health claims section of the FSANZ website (http:// www.foodstandards.gov.au/industry/labelling/Pages/ Nutrition-health-and-related-claims.aspx) • The Implementation Subcommittee for Food Regulation (ISFR) website (http://www.health.gov.au/internet/ publications/publishing.nsf/Content/frs-getting-yourclaims-right-toc). This provides a 62-page guide to complying with the relevant Standard [1.27] of the Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code, as well as a flowchart which is a useful tool in determining which type of claim is being made on a particular label and, therefore, which section of the guide to refer to. HEALTH WARNING LABELS Claims about the risk or dangers of immoderate wine consumption are generally considered health warnings. Although there is no mandatory requirement for any form of health warning in Australia, at least 37 countries to which Australia exports wine have mandated health warning labelling; a further six countries endorse voluntary health warning labelling. This number has grown since 1997 when only nine countries had mandated such labelling. The increase has been predominantly in non-traditional alcohol consuming

The Australian Wine Research Institute, PO Box 197, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064

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Legal Counsel, Wine Australia, PO Box 2733, Kent Town, South Australia 5071

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health care provider. If you are concerned about your own drinking, consult your General Practitioner.

WINE REGULATIONS

Figure 1. The French government’s pictogram (left) and DrinkWise Australia’s pictogram (right).

cultures, developing and emerging economies and non-grape growing/non-winemaking countries. Health warning labelling can be classified as either general health messages, or specific health messages such as that in relation to drinking while driving or operating machinery, if breast feeding or pregnant or underage, or in relation to alcohol drinking guidelines. In addition to written labels, countries such as France have introduced pictograms. The French pictogram is similar to that developed by DrinkWise Australia which is currently being adopted by the Australian wine industry as well as by other alcohol beverage producers following the Federal Government’s Review of Food Labelling Law and Policy of 2011. In 2007, a systematic review by World Health Organization’s Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption found that consumer exposure to health warning labels did not change drinking behaviour per se or have a direct impact on behaviour, as do tobacco warning labels. They did find, however, that they do influence intervening variables, such as intention to change drinking patterns that could heighten risk, having conversations about drinking and willingness to intervene with people who are seen as hazardous drinkers. The Winemakers’ Federation of Australia (WFA) has formed a partnership with DrinkWise Australia that gives all wineries access to DrinkWise Australia’s campaign material at no cost to them, regardless of whether they are direct funding contributors to either DrinkWise Australia or WFA. For wineries wishing to register for access to the Get the facts logos for use on their products, it is available at: https:// drinkwise.org.au/our-work/get-the-facts-labeling-on-alcoholproducts-and-packaging/# and https://industry.drinkwise.org. au/ ANALYTICAL COMPLIANCE All Australia’s wine markets do not necessarily have a long history of wine consumption or regulation. This can lead to applications of analytical procedures or standards that were originally designed for other food and beverage groups but are not necessarily suitable for wine. Regulations and standards can also be based on national rather than international criteria. One example is the concentration of sugar in wine, where certain markets have set strict labelling criteria. The Codex Alimentarius Commission’s prescribed analytical method, which is used as the basis of one market’s national standard, is a generalised method for all foods and beverages and does not consider wine-specific matrix issues, such as colour interference. The same analytical methods

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are also used in the determination of total dry extract, which has been used to identify adulteration by water, where national standards refer to historical outdated data which is not universally applicable. The accurate measurement of the concentration of sugar in wine has become increasingly important as wines have recently been rejected in certain markets due to labelling disputes related to the analysis of sugar in wine. Although modern winemaking generally relies on a direct ‘glucose + fructose’ method which gives more accurate, precise and relevant results in the wine matrix, the older indirect reducing sugar method gives artificially high results with a much greater spread between laboratories. Indeed, using the reducing sugar method, the concentration of sugar is usually 0-3g/L higher than that measured by the ‘glucose + fructose’ method. Unfortunately, because of the variable nature of interferents such as phenolic compounds, it is not possible to directly convert results between the two methods. International efforts continue to reduce/remove the required analytical testing for imports and align testing methods and performance based on sound science. REGULATORY RISKS OF SOCIAL MEDIA In addition to compliance with labelling regulations, wine and wine products must also comply with the advertising and packaging regulations of the Alcoholic Beverages Advertising Code (ABAC) Scheme (http://www.abac.org.au/). Under the Code, any marketing communication about a wine must be moderately and responsibly portrayed. For example, it must not show or encourage the excessive or rapid consumption of wine, or the abuse and misuse of wine. It must also be responsible regarding minors with no specific or strong appeal to them, or depict a person who is or appears to be a minor unless they are shown in an incidental role in a natural situation, for example, a family socialising responsibly, and where there is no implication they will consume or serve wine. It must also not suggest that the consumption or presence of wine may create or contribute to a significant change in mood or environment, as well as not show the consumption of wine before or during any activity that, for safety reasons, requires a high degree of alertness or physical co-ordination, such as swimming or the control of a motor vehicle, boat or machinery. Relatively recently, the Code has extended to all digital marketing through social media, apps, blogs, brand websites, instant messaging, live casting, mobile messaging, online/ banner ads, online gaming, photo sharing, Pinterest,

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podcasts, proximity marketing, QR Codes, relationship marketing, search engine optimisation, social networking, social news, user-generated content, video sharing and wikis. As of July 2016, 18 promotions had been subject to ABAC adjudication. Of these, 11 promotions had a digital component and four were upheld as non-compliant to the Code, and were asked to be modified or withdrawn within five working days. The ABAC Best Practice for the Responsible Marketing of Alcohol Beverages in Digital Marketing can be found at http://www.abac.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/BestPractice-in-Digital-Marketing-6-6-14.pdf. USE OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATIONS AND TRADITIONAL EXPRESSIONS ON WINE LABELS Wine Australia maintains the Register of Geographical Indications and Other Terms and ensures compliance with labelling regulations. A key part of the regulations relates to the use of geographical indications (GIs) and traditional expressions (TEs). A GI identifies wine as coming from a particular region or locality. Examples include Mount Lofty Ranges, Mudgee or High Eden. A TE in relation to wine originating in a foreign country means a traditionally used name referring, in particular, to the method of production or to the quality, colour or type of the wine. Examples include terms like Auslese or Vin de Pays. Under the Australian Grape and Wine Authority Act 2013 and Regulations (https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/ F2014C00910), it is an offence to sell, import or export a wine with a false description and presentation, or with a misleading description and presentation (sections 40C and 40E, respectively). With some small carve outs, under section 40D of the Act, the description and presentation of a wine is false if it includes a registered GI, and the wine did not originate in that GI. Even if a carve out can be applied, the use can be held to be misleading if, in any event, it is likely to mislead as to the origin. Carve outs include pre-existing trademark rights, terms used as part of an individual’s name or winery address, inclusion of a business name (TE only), and common English words. For example, use of a registered GI or TE is not considered to be misleading if: the term is a common English word; the use does not indicate that the wine originated from somewhere that it did not; the description and presentation indicates the true origin of the wine; and the word or term is used in good faith. The same does not necessarily apply to more specific regions. A ‘test’ would be: • Does the label include a GI or country from which the wine does not originate? • Does the label include a term that so resembles a GI that it is likely to mislead? • Is there a common English word carve out? Are there any other carve outs? • If so, in any event, is the use of the GI (or term so resembling the GI) misleading? The restrictions apply to all descriptions and presentations of wine including advertising by retailers. The rules also apply even when a GI is accompanied by expressions such as ‘kind’, ‘type’, ‘style’, ‘imitation’, ‘method’, or any such similar expression.

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For information on GIs and TEs included on wine labels, please consult http://www.wineaustralia.com/en/ Production%20and%20Exporting/Labelling.aspx  FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) are already established between Australia and ASEAN-New Zealand, Chile, China, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore and Thailand, which has realised considerable growth of Australian wine exports since their establishment, ranging from 4-64 per cent. FTAs are also under negotiation with the Gulf Cooperation Council, India, Indonesia and the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. Australia also participates in the APEC economies Wine Regulatory Forum. This forum includes five working groups that have designed a certificate for use across the APEC region, with the objective of avoiding chemical analysis, and produced a database containing all food safety and wine labelling requirements of each APEC economy. Laboratories across the APEC region also have participated in a ring test to compare test results of key wine components such as alcohol, sulfur dioxide and sugar. The possibility of APEC economies accepting external test reports from ISO 17025 accredited laboratories will be explored. A priority list of agricultural chemicals for which maximum residue limits should be established through Codex Alimentarius is under development, as is a model wine standard. For more information on wine regulation contact Wine WVJ Australia.

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EXPORT MARKETS

Working to change perceptions of Australian wine By Stuart Barclay, General Manager, Marketing, Wine Australia

Stuart provides an overview of some of the new initiatives Wine Australia is undertaking in our major exports markets in 2017.

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n the 12 months to the end of September 2016, we have seen our wine exports grow in value by 10 per cent to $2.17 billion, and much of this increase has been driven by the increased interest in our fine wines. Next year is shaping up to be an important year to maintain the momentum of the Australian category in our key export markets. In an exciting step, Australia has been selected as the host country for the World’s 50 Best Restaurants 2017, and Wine Australia will be the official partner. The most influential chefs, restaurateurs, sommeliers and media from across the globe will travel to Melbourne in April for a series of the ultimate gastronomic experience events that Australia has to offer. Wine Australia is providing the wine for the awards and the surrounding program of events, and will showcase some of Australia’s most exciting wines. We are working closely with Tourism Australia and the Melbourne Food and Wine Festival to continue to grow global awareness of Australia’s outstanding food and wine offering. By bringing top sommeliers to our shores and exposing them to our exciting wines, we believe that we can turn them into ambassadors of fine Australian wine. We are working to change people’s perceptions of Australian wine and excite the world about our premium offering. We have already started to see a shift through activities such as the Artisans of Australian Wine tasting in London in September, and the Wine & Spirits Scavenger Hunt 2015. SUPPORTING CULTURAL AWARENESS IN ASIAN MARKETS Asian markets are increasingly important to the success of the Australian wine sector. As our Export Report for the year ended September 2016 shows, in addition to exports of $474 million to China’s mainland, $126 million of wine was exported to Hong Kong and $237 million to the rest of Asia.

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A scene from the 2016 Australia Day Tasting in London which attracted more than 1200 trade-only visitors. The tasting has outgrown its current venue, with a new venue found to enable an expansion of both exhibitors and visitors. There is a lot that the Australian wine sector can be excited about in Asia and we need to be prepared to respond to opportunities as they arise. Business decisions across Asia – like in Australia – are made by people, and being able to understand the influence of relationships and etiquette are one of the keys to success. Our winemakers and exporters are committed to building meaningful business relationships in Asia. As such, one of our activities in 2017 will be to help build the cross cultural awareness required of the Australian wine sector. In 2016, we held our first Asian Cultural Workshop, in Adelaide, to give Australian wine exporters a better understanding of the importance of becoming more aware, sensitive and pragmatic in how they work in key Asian markets. In addition to business etiquette – such as gifting practices – and cellar door experiences for Asian guests, the workshop investigated the differences in business culture. Australian business culture encourages a linear, logical approach to meetings and business relationships, but this is very different

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to Asian business culture that is more ambiguous and non-linear. In Asian business culture, at any point of the decision making or meeting process it is possible to move in multiple directions. Attendees to our Asian Cultural Workshop were encouraged to understand that this repetition and repeated analysis is how you qualify and build trust in Asian business culture. By the end of the workshop, attendees had a better understanding of the importance of considering culture when exporting Australian wine to Asia. This ‘acquisition of empathy’ will help attendees to make better business decisions with the patience, commitment and consistency that are required for success in these key export markets. In 2017, we are exploring the opportunities to hold this workshop in different capital cities and regions across Australia to encourage further opportunities for the success of the Australian wine sector in Asia’s markets. Meanwhile, more information about the workshop and the topics discussed can be read on our blog www.wineaustraliablog. com/events/asian-cultural-workshop.

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DEMAND FOR AUSTRALIA DAY TASTING SEES NEW VENUE IN 2017 The UK is one of the most mature and influential wine markets, with far reaching effects across the world. With a full calendar of trade tastings, master classes and seminars, the Wine Australia team is able to tell the many stories of Australian wine to a wide and extremely knowledgeable audience. The biggest event in the year is the annual Australia Day Tasting. Held in London in January of each year, the trade-only tasting has now outgrown the elegant Lindley Halls, in Victoria, having over 1200 visitors in 2016 and a queue around the building to gain entry. A new venue, not previously used for a trade wine tasting, will enable us to expand both exhibitor and visitor numbers and allow us to present a new series of master classes in a much larger space in central London. These will focus on trade education with themed presentations from the regional bodies including McLaren Vale and Adelaide Hills, as well as expanding on the ability of Semillon to age across the decades, which will be popular with the press and educators in particular. With room for more than 90 exhibitor tables in 2017, the Wine Australia team is looking to showcase a wider range of premium wines than before and to attract a broad audience of sommeliers, on-trade buyers, educators, retailers and independent specialists. The Australia Day Tasting has become one of the ‘must go to’ events, with importers and wineries reporting listings and strong commercial outcomes from the day. Smaller Australia Day tasting events will take place again in Edinburgh and Dublin at the end of January 2017 to take advantage of those winemakers who are able to make it over from Australia to show their wines and tell their stories. We are expanding our target audience in the UK wine trade, as evidenced by the attendees at the Artisans of Australian Wine tasting. As well as senior members of the UK wine trade, we had younger sommeliers, press and bloggers who were interested in the new wave, craft styles of wines that were being shown, and in talking to the 23 winemakers who attended the event. Held in a nightclub in Shoreditch, a decidedly hipster area of London, the tasting made a big impact and has led to discussions about which

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city in which country to host something similar. This was the first time Wine Australia has focussed on these styles of wine. FINE AUSTRALIAN WINE TAKES TO THE ROAD IN NORTH AMERICA The USA has the largest wine market in the world, with a retail value of US$40 billion. Australia is the third-largest exporter of wine by value – behind Italy and France – and while the challenges of selling Australian wine in the US remain significant, our Export Report September 2016 indicated that a broader recovery may be under way, with a decline in volume offset by an increase in value. Recently published articles on Australian wine in North America, along with research commissioned by Wine Australia, reflect that positive sentiment for our fine wines among trade and consumers is still on the rise. Now is the time to increase the awareness and availability of premium Australian wine in the USA. In 2017, we will host a range of events and activities that will support a longterm approach to re-establish confidence in the category, supported by significant, consistent investment to drive the Australian fine wine message. One of our largest and most farreaching campaigns of 2016 was our Savour Australia Roadshow, which took Australian fine wine across North America in a series of 20 events throughout April and May. The collaborative events – working with partners including G’day USA; the Australian Embassy and Consulates in

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Los Angeles, New York and Chicago; the Australian High Commission and Consulates in Ottawa, Toronto and Vancouver; and importers and agents of Australian fine wine – showcased more than 200 Australian wines from over 20 wine regions and demonstrated the innovation and diverse regionality of our fine wines. The Spring Roadshow will be back in 2017 and will engage wine trade, media and consumers in the USA and Canada in a series of events that will drive ongoing visibility, education and outreach fine Australian wine. The Roadshow events in both markets will be supported by a PR and social media campaign with additional, smaller, partner activities running concurrently to increase engagement. GRAND TASTINGS TO BE HELD ACROSS MAINLAND CHINA For the first time, mainland China is now the number one destination by value for Australian wine. Aided by the introduction of the China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) in December 2015 and the growing interest of the Chinese middle class in wine, exports to mainland China grew by 51 per cent to $474 million in the year to the end of September 2016. To capitalise on the market opportunities that China presents, we have designed a program of activities for 2017 including online promotions, participation at trade shows, hosting the Wine Australia China Awards and our ▶ annual Roadshow.

A tasting held as part of this year’s North America Roadshow.

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EXPORT MARKETS

The 2016 Wine Australia China Roadshow. In 2017, the event will include a series of grand tastings in Beijing and three second-tier cities. Every year since 2011, Wine Australia has hosted free-pour tastings in four of China’s first- and second-tier cities targeting trade, media and consumers. The tastings aim to maintain Australia’s share of voice in mainland China, now our most valuable export market. In May 2017, Wine Australia will host the China Roadshow, which includes a series of grand tastings in Beijing and

three second-tier cities to give China’s influential wine media and trade an opportunity to taste some of Australia’s most highly-rated wines as recognised by leading wine reviewers, as well as help brands secure commercial leads. First-tier city events will include a buyer tasting, a trade tasting, a consumer tasting and an exclusive two-and-ahalf-hour master class delivered by a prominent Australian wine influencer.

Media, educators, sommeliers, importers, retailers and distributors are anticipated to attend. Second-tier city events will include a buyer tasting, an educational tasting class and a trade tasting. A two-and-ahalf-hour tasting will feature a general introduction to Australian wine and includes an overview of geographical indications, key varieties, styles, the Label Integrity Program and a tasting of six to eight wines. The class will be presented by one of Wine Australia’s accredited Chinese wine educators to local media, importers, distributors, retailers and food service buyers. Wine Australia will also organise a networking dinner, inviting media, key opinion leaders and educators as well as all the exhibitors to maximise the impact of the event. More than 1500 guests attended in 2016 with overwhelmingly positive feedback on the quality and diversity of the Australian wines on show, and we look forward to even more interest next year. For more information about upcoming activities visit www.wineaustralia.com WVJ

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Regional marketing delivers growth in wine export values for Austrian wine industry By Willi Klinger, Managing Director, Austrian Wine Marketing Board

This article is based on a presentation Willi gave to this year’s International Cool Climate Wine Symposium in Brighton, England, in late May in which he described how the recent climb in the value of the country’s wine exports was attributable to a consistent marketing strategy with a strong focus on quality and regional identities.

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ustria is a fairly small wine country that produces less than 1 per cent of the world‘s wine from little more than 45,000 hectares of vines. The average acreage per wine estate is little more than 3ha, although the upper third of estates has been growing exponentially whereas the total number of estates has been declining (from 48,000ha in 1988 to less than 15,000ha today). In 2003 Austria exported 83 million litres of wine at an average price of only 0.83€/litre with 73 per cent of all exports in bulk. In 2015 the export volume dropped to 48.5 million litres but the average price climbed to 3€/L, pushing the export value to 143 million euros. Although the country’s annual wine production has been repeatedly under the long-term average of 2.5 million hectolitres in recent years, the increased value comes from a consistent marketing strategy with a strong focus on quality and regional identities.

Austrian wine regions.

Willi Klinger addresses this year’s International Cool Climate Symposium in Brighton, England. Photo: Julia Claxton V3 1N 6

In 1999 Austria established official inter-professional industry associations with regional committees headed by one national committee. The goal of these committees was to implement a specific marketing strategy with region typical wines in each region under the umbrella of a specific regulation called DAC (Districtus Austriae Controllatus). Nine of the 16 Austrian regions have legally defined their wine profiles, the remaining seven are on their way. While there is enough room for innovation and diversity in the bigger umbrella appellations Niederösterreich, Burgenland, Steiermark and Wien, the specific DAC-wines provide a distinctive profile. Any new DAC wine has to be decided on first by the regional committee and subsequently by the national committee, before the proposal can be turned into law by regulation of the Minister of Agriculture whose statutory authorisation is defined in wine law. These DAC wines can be further ‘upgraded’ by an additional village or even a single vineyard designation. We are currently working on a mapping and legal definition of every single vineyard in all the winegrowing communities. Single vineyard wines

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A U S T R I A

Austrian Sekt g.U., concerning point of origin as well as a style of certified quality to be anticipated. Klassik, Reserve & Grosse Reserve (Grand Reserve) – among other aspects, these three categories indicate varying lengths of time spent maturing on the less but never come into competition with one another. The diversity of high-quality Sekt classified in the three categories can be, according to taste, served to perfectly match the most widely varied of occasions.

have to carry the word ‘Ried’ (cf. French ‘cru’) together with the vineyard’s name on the label. The latest achievement has been the implementation of a three-tier premium sparkling regulation for Austrian Sekt with protected designation of origin and criteria for ‘Klassik’, ‘Reserve’ and ‘Grosse Reserve’ categories. Sweet wines still come in the ‘Germanic’ system according to the sugar content of the must in the categories: Spätlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese. Eiswein (ice wine) can only be made under natural frost (no cryo-extraction). Climate change has an important influence on Austria’s wines. Shooting, flowering and ripening today are 20 days earlier than 20 years ago. Our researchers foresee another two decades of favourable influences, especially for Austria’s new red wine culture. But the first signs of character change can be seen in white wines, which show more alcohol and less acidity than we are used to. Therefore, environmental concerns are also growing Three-tier Quality Pyramid, © AWMB in Austria leading to a wave of new organic estates (more than 10 The three-tier quality pyramid for Austrian Sekt with Sekt with the meal? The style makes the flavour per cent of the vineyards are currently certified organic). Protected Designation of Origin is the manifestation of of factors are responsible for the style of a Sekt: the grape variety of the base wine, Additionally, Austria has implemented a certification processA variety Austrian communicate information to its geographic originSekt takingproducers into account to soils and climate, the clear vinification of the base wine, for sustainable estates after a scientific benchmark study carried durationconsumers of time on thepurchasing lees after the second and not leastthe the dosage, which theirfermentation products –regarding point of the ultimate sweetness of the finished product. Depending out by the University for Agriculture and Advanced Life Sciencesdetermines origin and style of each certified quality level. upon the stylistic tone of the Sekt, these wines easily fit more than just the role of aperitif, but also work of Vienna. marvellously as table companions for the entire menu. This has been known in France for thewith products buy. One ofits the basicisrequirements for some time regard tothey Champagne, where elegance celebrated as an accompaniment to evening-long programmes of successive with detailed expressions of of style responsible consumption isdishes locality, as some aspects anand joie REGIONAL MARKETING de vivre. While Sekt g.U. Klassik presents itself as aromatic and graceful, faithfully mirroring agricultural product depend on the place where they come the primary aromas of grape varieties used in the base wine, Sekts from the categories from. Regional identities have become more important in the Regional identities: marketing of wine than ‘brand-only’ endeavours than experts in consumer marketing might usually think. The growing • provide a fair income for the farmers interest in the origin of wine by producers stems from the • avoid interchangeability fact that wines with a strong regional identity generally reach • help promote local tourism higher prices than branded wines without a specific origin. • create a spirit of cultural identity This is because in times of rising environmental concerns, • facilitate sustainable consumption sustainability becomes a key marketing issue with more • provide more pleasure. and more consumers questioning the ethical standards of Regional identities are not only heritage but cultural achievements. They are created by a process of long-lasting self-identification and become collective assets/brands. There is no conflict between brand and origin in the marketing of fine wine because the identity of wine consists of at least four elements: wine style, grape variety, brand and origin. No other agricultural product is culturally more dependent on its origin – or ‘terroir’ – than fine wine. These refined agricultural products are not under pressure to be sold at world market commodity prices like bulk or cheap branded wines. Country marketing can facilitate the creation of regional identities and, thus, a better and socially just income for farmers by creating a legal framework and promoting it to the public. Official inter-professional industry associations with regional committees headed by a single national committee have played a key role in this process in Austria. WVJ The growth in value of Austrian wine exports.

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Shiraz and Syrah the Yarra Valley and Hawke’s Bay way The producers behind three of the top-rated wines identified in our tastings held across both sides of the Tasman for this issue (see results page 74) share some background on their making. STEVE FLAMSTEED, CHIEF WINEMAKER JULIAN GROUNDS, WINEMAKER STUART MARSHALL, VITICULTURIST SUZANNE TYZACK, MARKETING GIANT STEPS WINERY YARRA VALLEY, VICTORIA Wine: 2015 Giant Steps Yarra Valley Syrah (RRP$35.00/bottle)

VITICULTURE The fruit for this wine is sourced from two of our estate sites: the Tarraford and Sexton Vineyards. Tarraford Vineyard is in the Tarrawarra Shire, and sits 100m above sea level. The soils are grey duplex clay loam. The clone planted is unknown but is on own roots having been propagated from a mother vine on the property back in 2004-05. The vineyard is north facing and has a vine density of 2500 vines per hectare. The vines are trained to a VSP. Sexton Vineyard is in the Gruyere Shire, 190m above sea level, and is also north facing. Soils are a shallow clay loam over mudstone. The vines are 12 years old of clone PT23 on 101-14 rootstocks. Vine density is 2200 vines per hectare and, again, trained to a VSP. Across both sites, the maximum temperature from October to April can be as high as 37°C. Minimum temperatures can hit 0°C in October. Frost is only occasionally a problem as we tend

to get healthy spring rains and these vineyards are all on reasonable welldrained slopes. Winds for that period are generally from the north-west. Canopy management across both sites consists of a combination of hand shoot thinning in October and a single pass bunch-thinning at the commencement of veraison. Irrigation is carried out on a case-bycase basis via drippers, generally 5L/vine every two days during the warm, dry periods and to keep the canopy green in the period leading up to harvest. Both sites have a permanent sward in the midrows for ground cover and we apply compost bi-annually under vine. Side-throw mowers are used to add some organic matter under-vine which assists in retaining soil moisture. Pruning is done by hand using a combination of spur and cane pruning to give 18-24 buds per vine. Shiraz is a fairly low maintenance variety in the Yarra Valley. The only real issues we experience concerns the control of downy and powdery mildew during October and November. The Shiraz yields an average of 6.0 tones/hectare. We are currently moving towards the removal of under-vine spraying across both vineyards with the purchase of a Twister under-vine mower, while at the

The fruit for Giant Steps’ Yarra Valley Syrah wine is sourced from two estate sites: the Sexton (pictured) and Tarraford vineyards. V3 1N 6

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Sexton vineyard we have developed a healthy compost system that utilises all the winery grape skins, coffee grounds and as much organic material as possible from our hospitality business. This practice will be rolled out across all of our vineyards in the future.

WINEMAKING All fruit is hand-harvested and sorted at the vineyard into 350kg vented crates and chilled for 24 hours in a large cold room. Crushing is a combination of whole bunch and whole berry semi-carbonic maceration. The fruit is then tipped over a Bucher 4.5 metre conveyer and sorted to the Oscillys destemmer where it subsequently falls into one of two 1200-litre stainless ‘kibbles’ on wheels. The kibbles are then taken by an overhead crane to the open fermentation vat (either 4000L oak or 5000L stainless steel). PMS powder is applied at this stage at a rate of 100mg/L. Cold soaking generally takes place five days before the vats are warmed to 17°C and indigenous fermentation is allowed to commence. During maceration and fermentation we do twice-daily aerative drain-andreturns (again, using the open kibbles and the crane) and only at the final stage of fermentation do we foot stomp the

Chief winemaker for the Yarra Valley’s Giant Steps Winery, Steve Flamsteed. www.winetitles. com . au

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whole bunch vats to sustain and extend the fermentation. The total time on skins is up to three weeks. The peak fermentation temperature is 32°C. Maturation takes place in 500L puncheons for 15 months; mainly older oak is used. Fining and filtration are avoided, so the extraction of any tannin needs to be carefully handled with this end game in mind. The aim is a fresh, perfumed wine with a velvety mouthfeel, an element of structure and soft tannin.

MARKETING The wine is marketed as part of a quartet that make up our Yarra Valley range: Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Syrah and Merlot. It is sold both domestically and internationally, priced in a range where it is available for pours in quality establishments. We made the decision to refer to the variety as Syrah to differentiate the wine from the warmer climate Shiraz coming out of Australia. We have found a really good audience for it as a medium bodied, perfumed red wine, particularly on pour by the glass on premise. We feel this may be the variety that really puts the Yarra on the map in the next 10 years. NICK PICONE GROUP CHIEF WINEMAKER VILLA MARIA Wine: Villa Maria 2014 Reserve Gimblett Gravels Syrah (RRP$60.00NZ/bottle)

VITICULTURE Fruit for this wine is sourced from two of our vineyard sites from within the Gimblett Gravels sub-region of Hawke’s Bay: Twyford Gravels and Omahu Gravels. The Gimblett Gravels is a 800ha appellation based on its soil type. The gravelly soils were laid down by the Ngaruroro River after a huge flood in the 1860s. Fine sand or fine loamy sand topsoils are typical of the area with deep, free-draining shingle/gravel soils beneath. The long-term average of growing degree days is 1500 with maximum daytime temperatures often between 2-3°C higher than other viticultural localities within the region. Like many New Zealand sites we can be vulnerable to frost (wind fans are in place). Moderating sea breezes and a diurnal range encourage slow and steady ripening.

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Villa Maria’s group chief winemaker Nick Picone.

Permanent grass is grown in the interrows, with the blocks receiving banded compost under vine every three to four seasons to increase organic matter and improve the water-holding capacity of the soils. The vines are mechanically pre-pruned then hand spur pruned to eight to 10 twobud spurs per vine. Leaf-roll virus type 3 is the main pest and disease issue experienced in the vineyards which is identified and removed. We are currently exploring sub-surface irrigation in these vineyards to reduce water use and promote deeper rooting, and cane pruning for better management of wood diseases. The vineyards yield an average of 6t/ha.

WINEMAKING

Villa Maria’s Twyford Gravels vineyard in New Zealand’s Hawke’s Bay region, one of two sources of fruit, along with the company’s Omahu Gravels vineyards, for its Reserve Gimblett Gravels Syrah. The average monthly air temperature from October to April is 14-19°C while the average peak summer temperature in January and February is 25-26°C. At the peak of summer in January and February we experience, on average, between three to five days per month of greater than 30°C. The vines in both vineyards are 15 years old and comprise the MS clone planted on both RG and 101-14 rootstocks. They are spur pruned to a VSP with 2.0m row widths and 1.6m vine spacings. Shoot and bunch thinning is carried out with the aim of achieving 6t/ha. Drip line irrigation is applied from a well in an unconfined aquifer. Soil moisture levels are monitored with TDR probes and irrigation only applied when a trigger point is reached, generally 3.5L/day for a maximum of five days per week in the hottest/driest period of the season.

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Successful wines are made from machine and hand harvesting. Our modern Pellenc harvesters are equipped with on-board Selectiv destemming and this generally provides an excellent sample to the winery hopper, although hand-harvesting facilitates whole bunch inclusion which is a blending option. We are still finding our way here but have generally found this an attractive option in warmer/riper vintages for contributing freshness and complexity, so this is seasonal rather than prescriptive. Whole bunches are incorporated at 20 per cent of the fermentation for select ferments (note the Reserve 2014 only has approximately 2 per cent whole bunch overall). We also occasionally dabble with Viognier co-ferments at the lowertier level but generally go for more of a ‘pure Syrah’ program under the premium Reserve label. Regardless of whether machine or hand picking, we remove the crusher at the winery to encourage whole berries. Depending on set up and batch size, we either tip the fruit directly into fermenters or use a gentle pump to an elevated fermenter (if we had to choose it’s better to pump the fruit rather than the fermented must when seeds are more vulnerable to extraction). Pumping is gentle enough that whole berries are still coming into the fermenter. The fruit is inoculated after 24 hours with L2323. No cold pre-soaking takes place. Fermentation starts within 48-72 hours and peaks at 32°C and plunging is carried out four times a day, with the inclusion of air via delestage or an

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aerative pump-over early on in the growth phase. Post-ferment maceration varies from year to year but is never for too long, as we prefer to press off the wines while they are fresh. No pumps are used at this stage. The wines are gravity fed to bag presses with air contact. No press cuts are made, with pressing to dryness the norm. Depending on the parcel size, MLF is carried out in barrel or tank straight away with either a cultured or natural bacteria added if malic acid is low or on the move. The wines are then racked gently but aeratively off gross lees and returned to age in French oak barriques on light lees for a total elevage of 17-18 months with no further disturbance other than topping and SO2 management. Only excessively sulfidic batches would be considered for further aerative work but this is rare. Barrels are generally three-year seasoned, French, tight-grained oak. Depending on the wine we aim for up to 35% new oak. Around October of the following year the wines are blended, egg white fined and eventually coarse filtered to bottling.

MARKETING Only Villa Maria wines of exceptional quality are awarded the designation Reserve. These wines are produced in limited volumes and are positioned at the top of our portfolio. The Reserve Gimblett Gravels Syrah is mainly sold within the domestic New Zealand market to fine wine and on-premise outlets and via cellar door. WARREN GIBSON AND LORRAINE LEHENY PROPRIETORS/WINEMAKERS BILANCIA LIMITED HAWKE’S BAY, NEW ZEALAND Wine: Bilancia 2013 La Collina Syrah (RRP$120.00NZ/bottle)

VITICULTURE The La Collina vineyard is a steep, terraced and incline-planted hillside vineyard on the north-northwest facing slopes of Roys Hill, west of Hastings, in Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand. It is 30-100m above sea level with a 10-25 per cent northwest aspect/slope. The hillside is protected from the cooling effects of the southerly and south-westerly winds and during the growing season is bathed in sunshine. There is no frost risk due to the aspect. The terraces are planted to Syrah

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Proprietors and winemakers for Bilancia Ltd in Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand, are Warren Gibson and Lorraine Leheny. while the lower slopes and gravels flat are planted to Viognier and Chardonnay. The first stages of the Syrah vineyard were planted in 1998 and continued through until 2000. The soil is sandstone over limestone. The original plantings of Syrah were of the MS clone on varying rootstocks. Parts of the vineyard have been replanted recently to a wider range of clones. The temperature range experienced across the vineyard during the daytime is 6-38°C. The vines are trained to a VSP with standard viticulture maintained to achieve balance. The wind does plenty of this too! Flowering and budburst occur during the windiest time of the year in Hawke’s Bay and the vineyard faces into the prevailing winds. This generally assists with crop levels. Irrigation is generally only used for young vines or in cases of extreme drying winds. The water is sourced from a bore connected to a monitored underground aquifer. Compost is applied to young vines and devigorated areas. A natural sward is maintained in midrows. The vines are cane pruned with bud numbers based on vigour. The wind and aspect limits disease and pests with powdery mildew the largest risk. The average vine yield is less than one kilogram per vine.

WINEMAKING 2013 was a great vintage in Hawke’s Bay; all aspects of growing and ripening were on point. La Collina Syrah is always handpicked.

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2013 was a small crop and the whole harvest fitted into one open-top fermentation tank. It was initially foot stomped. It was inoculated and foot stomped twice a day during fermentation. There is a small percentage of Viognier included in the ferment. The quality of the fruit was so good the whole harvest was whole bunch fermented. This was a vintage-based decision and it has been the only time we have used 100 per cent whole bunch. The fruit was foot crushed in the fermenter. This shift in winemaking style for the 2013 vintage has done little to affect the overall ideal for La Collina wines to show ‘place’ but, rather, it adds to the complexity of the wine. The wine was pressed off at dryness and sent to barriques. In its lifetime in the winery very little was done in the cellar. The wine was left to its own devices although always monitored. Malolactic fermentation went through after the first winter. The winemaking philosophy is, and always has been, to preserve the very distinct vineyard character and fruit purity along with support from new but low impact French oak. Over the years we have determined that the wine seems to prefer little intervention while it is resting in barrel. There is a regime of low sulfur dioxide ageing in a cold cellar. Winemaking practices are adapted to the vintage with regard to maintaining the vineyard character.

MARKETING La Collina Syrah is our premium product, single vineyard wine. The small volume of 2013 La Collina Syrah was first offered en primeur to our mailing list customers, a process that we repeated with the 2014 La Collina. The 2013 was then released in October 2015 via mail order and to general release. The wine is available via our website, through our distributors then to on-premise and limited retail outlets. The history and the pedigree of the wine means that it almost sells itself. The wine was recently chosen as part of the inaugural Air New Zealand fine wine list. In Australia the wine is available via our distributors, IS Wine in New South Wales and Beaune and Beyond in states other than NSW. In New Zealand the wine is available to trade via Vintners New Zealand WVJ or via our website for mail order.

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Just not cricket – Hawke’s Bay gets an edge over Yarra Valley in Syrah Twenty20 In a first for the Wine & Viticulture Journal, we put Yarra Valley Syrah/Shiraz up against equivalents from New Zealand’s Hawke’s Bay for a cool climate taste-off held on both sides of the Tasman.

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o coincide with the cricket season and inspired by the keen cricketing rivalry between Australia and New Zealand, the Wine & Viticulture Journal recently held its own version of the short form of the game, Twenty20, sending Yarra Valley Shiraz/ Syrah into bat against a line-up of their peers from Hawke’s Bay. To avoid any home-ground advantages, two tastings were held – one on both sides of ‘The Ditch’. The Australian line-up of tasters comprised Adam Wadewitz, from Shaw & Smith, in the Adelaide Hills; Brock Harrison, from Pernod Ricard; Sue Bastian, researcher and lecturer in oenology and sensory studies at The University of Adelaide and regular wine show judge; and Marcel Kustos, a PhD candidate in food and wine pairing at The University of Adelaide. The tasting on the eastern side of the Tasman was hosted by Warren Gibson at Trinity Hill winery in Hawke’s Bay where the panellists were Hawke’s Bay winemakers Matt Kirby, of Clearview Estate; Richard Painter, of Te Awa; and Rod Easthope, of Easthope Family Winegrowers. The blind tasting included 12 wines from the Yarra Valley and 18 wines from Hawke’s Bay - so to be accurate it was a tasting of 12 vs 18 as opposed to 20 vs

The Australian tasting panellists (from left) Marcel Kustos, PhD candidate from The University of Adelaide; Sue Bastian, lecturer in oenology and sensory studies at The University of Adelaide and regular wine show judge; Brock Harrison, from Pernod Ricard; and Adam Wadewitz, from Shaw & Smith. 20, but that doesn't have quite the same ring! As we did for our Eden and Clare Valley Riesling tasting last year (September-October 2015 issue), we’ve had a bit of play with the scores awarded to each wine by the tasting panellists to determine a regional winner. After averaging all the judges’ scores the following was revealed:

The New Zealand tasting panellists (from left) Matt Kirby, of Clearview Estate; Richard Painter, of Te Awa; and Rod Easthope, of Easthope Family Winegrowers. Photo: Sara Dooley

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• the top 7 wines were from Hawke’s Bay, with the first Australian wine coming in at 8th spot with Giants Steps 2015 Yarra Valley Syrah • the second highest rated Australian wine was in 13th spot – another Giant Steps submission in its 2015 Tarraford Vineyard Syrah • the third highest Australian wine was De Bortoli’s 2014 Section 8 Syrah (16th) • no wine achieved an average of 95 points or more (gold medal) • 7 Hawke’s Bay Syrah received an average of 90-94 points (silver medal) (or 39% of the total entries from the region) • 9 Hawke’s Bay Syrah received an average of 86-89 points (bronze medal) (or 50% of the entries from the region) • one Yarra Valley wine received a silver medal – the Giants Steps 2015 Yarra Valley Syrah • 8 Yarra Valley wines received a bronze medal (or 67% of the entries from the region) Adam Wadewitz said the tasting comprised a mixture of bright young wines and some with age. He noted that

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TASTING NOTES

the use of whole bunch fermentation or generous oak resulted in some “interesting” characteristics. He added the tasting had confirmed that Shiraz can certainly suit whole bunch fermentation. Brock Harrison said he was overall “pretty impressed” with the line-up of wines with most having a balance of acid and tannin. “Those that have got it right really stand out. Likewise with the over-worked wines due to the fruit being so delicate,” Harrison said, adding the tasting had shown there was a “fine line between a complexing and overbearing wine”. Richard Painter commented that the Yarra Valley wines tended to show more stemmy characters which highlighted savoury and umami notes, were in the red fruit spectrum, and were quite soft. “I was surprised not to see more eucalypt flavours in the Yarra Valley wines which made it harder to pick the regional differences,” Painter said. “In hindsight the differences seemed to be more winemaker led with more whole bunch characters evident in the Yarra Valley wines. “The Hawke’s Bay wines tended to be in the darker fruit spectrum, with more

pure fruit flavours, and black pepper,” Painter said. Matt Kirby said the Yarra Valley wines seemed to exhibit nice leather and ripe red fruit characters, while the Hawke’s Bay contenders often showed more blue-to-purple fruit characters and spicy notes. “The whole bunch influence from Hawke’s Bay seemed less obvious than in the Yarra Valley examples, showing abundant five-spice notes and a marked change in tannin structure from this treatment,” Kirby said. “The Yarra Valley wines tended to show up winemaking decisions, particularly oak and whole bunch, as well as decisions on picking earlier or later. The Hawke’s Bay wines tended to show a regional stamp, with a certain likeness to the wines.” He said in spite of this likeness, this by no means ensured the tasting panellists could consistently pick the origin of the wines. “Through a regional stamp feel, the Hawke’s Bay wines tended to be the ones that stood out as being from New Zealand. That being said, in no way did any of us get these right, as some

likeness among the wines from the Yarra Valley definitely came through. “You could almost say those wines that were apparently whole bunch stood out as being from the Yarra, while those wines that were a little riper with less whole bunch influence were harder to pick and could have been from either region. “The top wines from Hawke’s Bay showed concentration and spice. A little reduction seemed to come through from some of the Hawke’s Bay wines which did not seem to appear in the Yarra Valley wines,” Kirby said. The top wines of the tasting as identified by the Australian panellists were Giant Steps 2015 Yarra Valley Syrah, Bilancia 2013 La Collina Syrah and Trinity Hill 2014 Gimblett Gravels Syrah. The New Zealand panellists agreed with their Australian counterparts that the Giant Steps 2015 Yarra Valley Syrah was among the top wines, along with their picks of the Trinity Hill 2014 Homage Syrah and Villa Maria 2014 Reserve Gimblett Gravels Hawke’s Bay Syrah and Craggy Range 2014 Le Sol Gimblett Gravels Syrah. WVJ

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GIANT STEPS 2015 YARRA VALLEY SYRAH

TRINITY HILL 2014 GIMBLETT GRAVELS SYRAH

Yarra Valley, Victoria 14.0%v/v – screwcap RRP$35.00/bottle

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$35.00NZ/bottle

Best of tasting (Australian and New Zealand panel): AU: Deep ruby in colour with a purple rim. Medium intensity, pretty nose of berry fruits and hints of spice and herbs indicative of whole bunch fermentation. Lots of lovely mixed berry fruits on the palate which is very soft and has well-integrated oak. “Palate has poise and interest,” noted one taster. “Medium bodied with lovely textural length,” said another. A touch hard and drying on the finish. NZ: Vibrant purple in colour. An aromatic nose reminiscent of whole bunch fermentation; characters of red cherry and raspberry fruit along with Chinese five spice powder, spicy oak, vanillin, with some mint, grass and a stemmy note. Palate is quite linear and youthful with fresh acidity, long, fine stalky tannins and a spicy pepper kick. “A complex wine that is very youthful and tight at this stage; lacks a little mid-palate generosity; will age well,” noted one taster.

Best of tasting (Australian panel): AU: Deep ruby in colour with purple hues. A fragrant, attractive, punchy nose of blueberries, plums, lavender, mint, and spice. White pepper, plum skin, and blueberries on the stylish, vibrant palate. Firm, savoury tannins. Good structure and fruit weight. Great balance. Fairly tightly wound still. NZ: Dense purple colour. Pretty floral and dark berry fruits on the nose together with a touch of black pepper. Mouthfilling with a juicy mid-palate and fine tannins. “All the flavour but not the length,” noted one taster. Acid a bit spiky. “Classic cool climate Syrah with floral, pepper and dark fruit notes; an elegant style,” noted another.

BILANCIA 2013 LA COLLINA SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$130.00NZ/bottle Best of tasting (Australian panel): AU: Magenta in colour with brown tints. Rotundone, spice, red cherries, dark fruits, apricot jam and charry oak on the nose. Rotundone, spice and cherries also on the palate which is tightly structured, savoury and attractive with good length and drive. Toasty oak and mouthcoating tannins. “Loads of generosity on the palate,” noted one taster. NZ: Deep purple in colour. Raisin fruit on the nose, along with strawberries and subtle stemmy and spicy notes. Intense and complex palate which has a juicy entry and loads of tannins on the finish. One taster described the palate as “old school but a good drink”. “Intense wine with loads of ripe fruit with complexing stem-like tannins; quirky,” said another.

CRAGGY RANGE 2014 LE SOL GIMBLETT GRAVELS SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 14.0%v/v – cork RRP$60.00NZ/bottle Best of tasting (NZ panel): AU: Deep magenta in colour with a bluey/ purple rim. Fragrant nose of lavender, violets, bath salts, cherries, spicy oak and hints of jam. Quite savourydriven palate featuring lots of dark cherries, blueberries, Christmas cake, raisins, soft dusty tannins, integrated oak and lots of spice. An elegant, generous wine. NZ: Dense, vibrant purple in colour. A spicy, seductive nose of lifted black pepper, black cherries, mushroom/ earthy notes, plums, red to blue fruits, spice, sandalwood with a slight reductive note. Lovely palate weight with a plush mid-palate, firm yet ripe tannins and spicy oak. “A complex wine with lots of concentration and length; needs time,” noted one taster.

TRINITY HILL 2014 HOMAGE SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v - cork RRP$130.00NZ/bottle Best of tasting (NZ panel): AU: Deep ruby in colour with a purple rim. Very attractive, fragrant, lifted nose of lavender, apricot, spice, white pepper and a hint of eucalypt and menthol. Slippery and perfumed palate with a soft mid-palate and bright, balanced acid. Lavender, spice, apricot and white pepper characters apparent. Finishes a bit short. “An exciting wine – there’s something really cool about it,” noted one taster. NZ: Dense, deep purple in colour. A dark, brooding and beautiful nose of blueberries, vanillin oak, red liquorice and a touch of florals and pepper. A concentrated palate with lots of fruit, spice and oak tannin with a suggestion of a stemmy character. A dense wine that needs time. “Fantastic tannins,” noted one taster.

VILLA MARIA 2014 RESERVE GIMBLETT GRAVELS HAWKE’S BAY SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$59.99NZ/bottle Best of tasting (NZ panel): AU: Very, very, very deep ink colour – opaque. Dark and blueberry fruits on the complex nose together with violets, florals and nutty oak. “A brooding style,” noted one taster. Quite rich fruit in the riper spectrum on the palate which is plush and balanced but a bit simple. Drying finish. NZ: Dense purple in colour. A rich, brooding nose with loads of dark fruits and spice. A dense palate with loads of concentration, layers of big, chewy mouthcoating tannins, and fresh acidity. “Structured elegance,” noted one taster. “A dense, concentrated wine yet doesn’t lose elegance; classic floral and pepper notes,” said another.

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CLEARVIEW ESTATE 2015 RESERVE SYRAH

GIANT STEPS 2015 TARRAFORD VINEYARD SYRAH

CLEARVIEW ESTATE 2015 CAPE KIDNAPPERS SYRAH

DOMAINE CHANDON MISSION ESTATE 2015 BARREL 2015 BARRIQUE SELECTION SHIRAZ RESERVE SYRAH

SOUMAH 2015 SINGLE VINEYARD SYRAH

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.3%v/v – screwcap RRP$36.00NZ/bottle

Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.8%v/v – screwcap RRP$50.00/bottle

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.2%v/v – screwcap RRP$27.00NZ/bottle

Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$46.00NZ/bottle

Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.8%v/v – screwcap RRP$35.00/bottle

AU: Magenta in colour with a purple rim. Intense, quite complex nose of red and dark berries with some leafiness and hints of charry, toasty oak. Quite firm acid in the mouth where bright berry fruit characters are apparent along with some green notes. Slightly drying tannins on the finish which is a touch short. Lacks some fruit vibrancy. A solid, delicate wine with some green elements. NZ: Deep purple in colour. Lovely nose featuring classic blueberry, black cherry and violet notes, prominent chocolate/vanilla oak and underlying black pepper and spice. Primary fruit is quite dense on the palate which is firm and has fleshy mid-palate weight with underlying oak and spice; nice acid; mouthcoating oak tannins. “Fresh and fruit-driven style; a classic cool climate Syrah but slightly oaky at this stage,” noted one taster.

a slight brown tint. Intense, plush nose of blue fruits, spice, red cherries, lavender, a touch of apricot and some obvious dusty/toasty oak. One taster questioned whether there was some Viognier influence while another noted reductive thiol notes. Some chocolate/ mocha-like elements on the palate with some white pepper, spice, sour red cherry, vanilla, soft tannins, slight pencil shavings. Slightly drying with some sour acid on the finish. NZ: Deep purple in colour. Slightly confected nose of red fruits, dark plums, black pepper and good stalky notes with underlying savoury and spicy notes; a touch leathery. One taster questioned whether there was some Viognier influence. Red to blue fruits and spice on the palate which has a plush midpalate and lovely mouthfeel; nice acid and tannin balance. Finishes a little short and dry.

AU: Bright colour of mid to deep ruby with a purple rim. Attractive florals on the nose as well as blue fruits, violets, cedary oak, and delicate spice. Mediumbodied, moderately complex palate of red fruits, vanilla oak and mouth-coating tannins; rich mid-palate; balanced alcohol, medium length. A delicate, fruity style reminiscent of a cool climate, noted one taster. A lovely wine – a touch oak dominant, noted another. NZ: A vibrant colour of deep purple. Clean, aromatic and high-toned nose of florals, dark berry fruits, bitter cherries, red plums, spice, sandalwood, pepper and a hint of mint and camphor; slight reductive note. A juicy palate which is quite supple with fresh acidity and nice even tannins; red cherries, verging on green characters; a bit short. “An aromatic wine with lovely acidity and freshness; very youthful, needs time,” noted one taster.

AU: Deep magenta in colour with a purple rim. Slight stalky notes on the medium-intensity nose along with dark fruits, sour cherry, violets and a hint of rubber. Quite rich blackberry fruit on the palate with some herbal notes, good acid balance, green tannins and a sour finish; slightly warming. A very fragrant and whole bunch style, noted one taster. NZ: Vibrant purple in colour. A complex nose of stemmy notes reminiscent of whole bunch fermentation, subtle fruit, developed mocha notes, prunes, stewed fruit, Chinese five spice powder, cloves and a touch of white pepper and raspberry. Fresh and lively palate with firm acidity and grippy tannins. Good length. “A complex wine showing whole bunch characters, giving aromatic complexity and good structure,” noted one taster.

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.9%v/v – screwcap RRP$28.00NZ/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with AU: Vibrant colour of deep magenta with a purple rim. Lifted berries and florals on the nose with some herbs, white pepper and delicate vanilla spice. One taster described the nose as featuring a “rotundone explosion”. Firm acid on the palate with some mixed berries, pepper, red berry (almost strawberry) fruit, and tightly structured tannins. Good length and persistence. NZ: Intense colour of very deep purple. A brooding and slightly reductive nose of dark fruits, black and white pepper, some violet notes and a touch of sweet oak. Soft entry on the very pretty palate which is more fruitdriven and supple than the nose suggests. Nice pepper edge with waves of tannin. Medium acidity. Good balance. Touch dry on the finish. “A seductive wine in a dark, brooding style. Palate a bit closed compared with the nose. Lots of potential here,” noted one taster.

AU: Deep ruby in colour with a slight orange/ purple tint. Intense nose of dark berries and nutty/dusty oak. Rich sweet fruit on the palate which lacks freshness. Slightly chewy tannins. Oak could be better integrated. Short, dry finish. NZ: Deep purple in colour. A very ripe and touch porty nose with some soy sauce and pepper notes tending towards the red fruit spectrum. One taster detected peaches. Sour cherries and raspberries in the mouth. Palate is rich, balanced and quite long with a supple mouthfeel, strong acid and even tannins. “A lovely, soft, spicy wine with good consumer appeal, though lacks some concentration,” noted one taster.

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BIRD ON A WIRE 2014 SYRAH Yarra Valley, Victoria 14.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$40.00/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with a slight brown tint. A complex nose of dark liqueur cherries and spice. One taster noted a character of soup-mix herbs. Rich fruit and spicy oak on the fullbodied palate which is a touch slippery, over-ripe and warming. NZ: Purple in colour, slightly fading. Aromas of red fruits, spice, lanolin, stems, tree tomatoes, olives and seaweed. Palate shows a bit of age and is slightly savouring, featuring dried fruits, chocolate and leather notes. A touch hot.

COSMO WINES 2014 YARRA VALLEY SHIRAZ Yarra Valley, Victoria 12.9%v/v – screwcap RRP$28.00NZ/bottle AU: Deep garnet in colour with a slight brown tint. Aromas of dark berries, cola, raisins, fruitcake, spice, vanilla bean oak and shoe polish. On the palate, red fruits are hidden behind charry oak; raisin, fruitcake and cola characters also apparent. Acid a touch sour and hard. Drying tannins. Lacks freshness. Oak seems out of balance in this wine. NZ: Quite dense purple in colour. Lots of sappy green oak on the nose – a “cedar bomb”, described one taster - along with stewed red fruits and leathery spice. Palate is quite soft, juicy and fresh but a bit disjointed. “A ripe, juicy, generous wine; perhaps lacks aromatic elegance,” noted one taster.

DE BORTOLI 2014 SECTION A8 SYRAH

DENTON VIEW HILL 2014 DM SHIRAZ

Yarra Valley, Victoria 14.0%v/v – screwcap RRP$55.00/bottle

Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$38.00/bottle

AU: Deep ruby in colour with a slight brown tint. Medium intense nose of dark fruits, dill and some leafy/stemmy characters indicative of whole bunch fermentation. Strawberries, red cherries and sour cherries on the generous palate which is tightly structured but slightly sappy which cuts it short. Balanced acid. Lacks some fruit intensity. NZ: Purple in colour. Red and purple fruits on the nose as well as some pretty floral notes, Chinese five spice powder, and cloves. A soft palate with a slight graphite-like texture and stalky tannins. Lacks a bit of length.

AU: Deep garnet in colour with slight brown tints. Dried prunes, raisins, cola and charry/ nutty oak on the jammy nose which lacks vibrancy. Rich, ripe dark fruits on the palate which are somewhat masked by the toasty/ sweet oak. Lacks freshness and falls away on the finish. NZ: Quite dense purple in colour. A rich, savoury nose showing a touch of age; notes of umami, soy sauce, cola, some pepper and cedary oak. Ripe fruit, including plums, on the wellbalanced palate with interesting whole bunch tannins, spice and sweet, toasty oak.

ELEPHANT HILL 2014 RESERVE SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.0%v/v - screwcap RRP$49.00NZ/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with slight brown/purple tints. Slightly reductive nose of apricots, spice, cedar, blueberry, jubey fruits and charry oak. Lots of toast and spice on the palate which has a rich mouthfeel and nice chalky tannins but lacks fruit. “A mouthful of wine but lacks some elegance,” said one taster. NZ: Intense colour of dark purple. Spicy oak, coffee, mocha and vanillin notes on the nose – complex barrel ferment-like characters; touch of white pepper. Well-structured palate with sweet fruits and waves of tannin. “A dense wine; very oaky although it appears to hold it; lacks a bit of finesse,” noted one taster.

ESK VALLEY 2014 WINEMAKERS RESERVE GIMBLETT GRAVELS HAWKE’S BAY SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 4.0%v/v – screwcap RRP$59.95NZ/bottle AU: Magenta in colour with a purple. Blueberry and floral notes on the nose along with liqueur and sour cherries, white pepper, sweet spice, touch of VA and a slight cheesy note. Palate is quite rich and fruity featuring berry fruits, white pepper, spicy oak, some sweet fruit through the mid-palate and a good tannin structure. A touch of heat on the back gives the wine a hardness and dries it out. Still offers a generosity of flavour. NZ: Deep purple in colour. Nice lifted florals and dark fruits on the nose complemented by pepper, spice and sweet vanillin. Soft, supple entry to the mouth where the wine exhibits red to blue fruits, lovely weight in the midpalate, good acid, nice oak and long tannins. Finishes with some dry oak spice.

ALENTED AUSSIE & NZ WINE GROWERS WITH OUR WINE LOVERS.

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TASTING NOTES

NGATARAWA 2014 PROPRIETORS RESERVE SYRAH

PASK 2014 DECLARATION SYRAH

PAYNE'S RISE 2014 REDLANDS SHIRAZ

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 14.0%v/v – screwcap RRP$39.00NZ/bottle

Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$50.00NZ/bottle

Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.2%v/v – screwcap RRP$30.00NZ/bottle

AU: Deep ruby in colour with purple tints. Quite intense nose of dark fruits, plum jam, florals and a hint of coconut with lots of barnyard characters initially. Very rich palate – one taster questioned whether there was a touch of residual sugar – which is slightly dried out, featuring toasty oak. NZ: Purple in colour which is fading a little. Classic Brett notes give a complex, savoury nose. Palate is soft and supple on entry. Finishes dry and tannic. “A complex wine where savoury and spicy characters over-ride the fruit. Risks drying out and becoming more tannic over time,” noted one taster.

AU: Deep ruby in colour with purple hues. Medium to high intensity nose of plum jam, white pepper, dried herbs, spice and some choc/ vanilla charry/toasty oak. Dark fruits on the slightly clumsy palate where the acid is quite firm. Toasty/charry oak also apparent. Tannins slightly grippy. Finishes short. NZ: Opaque purple in colour. An aromatic nose of red plum fruit, blackberries, violets and subtle black pepper. Nice ripe and fresh palate with a raspberry to cherry fruit profile, juicy acidity, and lovely fruit tannins. A touch short.

AU: Deep magenta in colour with a slight brown tint. A fragrant and perfumed nose of blue and red cherry fruits, strawberries and hints of florals. A complex, cool climate nose, noted one taster. Palate has great focus and balance, with upfront blueberries, strawberries, red cherries, fine dusty tannins and a slight phenolic grip. A slightly simple, fruity palate, noted one taster. Another detected a slight grubbiness and bitterness. NZ: Purple colour. A floral nose, verging on grassy, with light red fruits; slight minty and stemmy notes. Juicy palate featuring red plums with fresh acidity, spicy tannins and medium length. “A complex wine with spicy aromatics and ripe, supple palate,” noted one taster.

SQUAWKING MAGPIE 2014 STONED CROW SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 14.0%v/v - screwcap RRP$49.95NZ/bottle AU: Very deep purple in colour which is inky/opaque. Loads of chocolate and charry oak on the nose along with some dark berries, vanilla, fresh and dried herbs and a Bandaid/ horsey character. Lovely berry/charry fruits on the palate but oak wraps around this and cuts the palate a little short, hence it’s a little simple. “Some people would love this wine because of the oak,” noted one taster. AU: Deep purple in colour. Savoury, spicy nose with blue fruits, mint, camphor, sandalwood, red cherries and pepper with perhaps a hint of oxidation. Dense and rich palate which is very soft and supple although tending to be a bit flabby. Juicy fruit. Good tannin. Modest length.

SOUMAH 2014 EQUILIBRIO SYRAH Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.2%v/v - screwcap RRP$68.00NZ/bottle AU: Deep ruby with slight orange and brown tints. Cola and dusty oak on the nose with a hint of barnyard characters, soy sauce and mint. Beetroot, cooked plums and charry oak on the palate. Lacks complexity. “Nice weight but a volatility flows through to the palate and dries it out,” noted one taster. NZ: Deep purple in colour. Savoury and spicy notes on the nose which is quite ripe, bordering on being raisin-like, with developed prune fruit, red liquorice and big showy oak. Soft, supple entry into the mouth where the palate is juicy, quite fruit-driven, and balanced but lacks a bit of length and drive. Chewy tannins. Nice acidity.

VIDAL 2014 LEGACY GIMBLETT GRAVELS HAWKE’S BAY SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v - screwcap RRP$79.99NZ/bottle AU: Opaque, inky purple in colour. Aromas of dark fruits, florals, violets and toasty/nutty oak along with a leafy character. Rich fruit, including blackberries, and prunes, and charry oak on the palate which is slightly warming. Fine, chewy, powdery tannins. Sour finish. NZ: Dense, deep purple in colour. Blackberry, aniseed, camphor and black pepper notes on the nose supported by sweet vanillin oak and a hint of florals. Loads of tannin on the concentrated palate which has nice fruit, a soft entry and fresh acidity. Long and balanced.

WE BRING TOGETHER TA

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TASTING NOTES

COSMO WINES 2013 YARRA VALLEY RESERVE SHIRAZ Yarra Valley, Victoria 13.7%v/v - screwcap RRP$40.00/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with slight brown tints. A slightly reductive, stewy nose that is starting to show some aged characters; nutty, dusty oak. Palate is good upfront but starts to crack at the end and shows dryness. Mouth-watering acid. Slight sweet and sour character. NZ: Dense purple colour. Ripe nose of confected red fruits, raspberry, red liquorice, lifted vanillin oak, cinnamon and some stalkiness. Velvety soft palate with sweet fruit – “almost a fruit syrup flavour”, noted one taste - and nice maturity notes. “A little bit simple and sweet with confected fruits,” noted one taster.

ELEPHANT HILL 2013 ARAVATA SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – cork RRP$105.00NZ/bottle AU: Ridiculously inky in colour with brown tints and a very deep purple rim. Dark plum jam on the nose characterised predominantly by oak. Lashings of fruit and spice on the palate with a touch of white pepper and more charry oak. Good length but drying finish. NZ: Dense purple colour. Forest floor notes, raisins, black cherries and Chinese five spice powder on the nose. On the palate, the tannins act as an excellent counterweight to the intense fruit; good length; dry, grippy tannins. “An attractive wine exhibiting secondary savoury and spicy notes; a dry, tannic style,” noted one taster.

MILLS REEF 2013 ELSPETH SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.6%v/v - screwcap RRP$49.95NZ/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with slight purple/brown tints. White pepper and red and dark cherries on the nose along with a cheesiness, touch of VA and dusty note. White pepper, red cherries, dried herbs and resinous oak on the palate. NZ: Vibrant purple in colour. Floral, berry and savoury notes on the nose with clove and Brett notes. Two tasters questioned whether there was evidence of VA. Juicy palate with a bit of flesh in the midpalate and juicy acid and tannin on the finish.

MISSION ESTATE 2013 JEWELSTONE SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealanad 14.3%v/v - cork RRP$48.00NZ/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with a purple rim. Viogner-like nose which is rich and ripe, with characters of cold tea, musk and florals and a stalkiness. Lean and green on the palate which is interesting and generous; sweet plums and berries; bright acid. Acid and stalkiness quite predominant. Banana skin finish. NZ: Dense purple colour. Spice, mocha and vanillin on the nose with some dark fruits but slightly musty and dank. Very dense and concentrated palate – “a real ‘wow’ wine”, noted one taster – with a plush midpalate, some marzipan and cherry fruit and perhaps some Viognier coming through. Well balanced with a touch of fine-grained tannin. “A disjointed but very interesting wine,” noted another taster. “So much going on,” said another.

VIDAL 2013 LEGACY GIMBLETT GRAVELS HAWKE’S BAY SYRAH Hawke’s Bay, New Zealand 13.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$79.99NZ/bottle

AU: Deep purple in colour. Nose is a little muted but has dark fruit complexity. Bright acid on the palate which is rich, featuring chocolate/ mocha, blackberry, spice and satsuma plum characters; lacks flesh across middle palate. Tannins a bit drying. NZ: Dense colour of dark purple. Sweet vanillin oak, dark berries, some florals and a hint of black pepper on the nose. Soft entry onto the palate where the wine stays soft and supple in the mouth; lovely coating of fruit, oak and tannins with an intense core of fruit. “A dense wine packed with fruit and oak,” noted one taster.

BUTTERMAN’S TRACK 2012 SHIRAZ Yarra Valley, Victoria 12.5%v/v – screwcap RRP$32.00/bottle AU: Deep ruby in colour with brown tints. Whole bunch characters on the complex and interesting nose which exhibits leafy/stalky characters upfront, green beans and lots of dill. Whole bunch characters also dominate the palate, which has bright acid and good fruit length, but finishes a touch tired and green. NZ: Purple in colour with a lighter hue. Aromas of mint, stems, tree tomatoes, spicy pepper and some red fruits. Palate is very soft and ripe – almost sweet – with evolved red fruits and prominent fruit tannin. Lacks a little structure. Finishes a little short.

ALENTED AUSSIE & NZ WINE GROWERS WITH OUR WINE LOVERS.

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PRODUCTS N E &WSERVICES S

Wet weather hasn’t dampened demand for Toro’s new Hippo Clamps

A

ustralia may have experienced one of its wettest years on record, but that hasn’t stopped irrigation experts across the nation lining up to get their hands on Toro’s new Hippo Clamps. Before hitting the market this month, a handful of industry professionals had the chance to test out the clamps for themselves. And despite the wet weather hindering some installation attempts, the feedback has already been very encouraging, as Leon Larson, of Darling Irrigation, has found. “It’s been a challenging season for many farmers this year. I haven’t seen such a wet winter in years — but customers are still stocking up on Hippo Clamps in anticipation for the drier months,” Larsen said. “We’re already selling Hippo Clamps by the thousands. Customers are happy to test them out because they’re confident in the Toro brand.” Larson has a wealth of expertise in irrigation, and supplies a range of customers across the domestic, commercial and agricultural field. He is already highly impressed with the Hippo Clamps, and predicts they will be very advantageous to experts across the agricultural space.

Hippo stainless steel irrigation clamps provide a quick and secure fastening solution for LD poly pipe and drip tube systems. “What really stands out for me is the distinct colouring on Hippo Clamps. The colour-coded system makes it really easy to identify clamp sizes. I can tell by the quality of the workmanship the colours wouldn’t fade over time either, which is another great bonus,” Larson said. One of Larson’s longstanding customers, Agri Australis (a subsidiary of the Ferrero Group), is also on schedule to trial the Hippo Clamps on its hazelnut plantation in New South Wales. Project manager David Busnello is particularly eager to see the unique positive lock system in action. “Hippo Clamps are a massive improvement from anything we’ve ever

used before. The latching mechanism is very intuitive, which is something other clamps lack. The positive lock means we can hear when the clamp is locked into place, and once it’s locked in, it’s locked tight,” Busnello said. These innovative stainless steel irrigation clamps provide a quick and secure fastening solution for LD poly pipe and drip tube systems. Manufactured to the highest standards, Hippo Clamps are guaranteed to last.

For further information or to request a free trial visit www.hippoclamps.com.au or see your local Toro dealer.

Gas and winemaking

A

A. There are more applications and more gases than listed here, but see if your answers are in this list of possibilities:

www.w i n eti tl es .c om.au

Main gases used in the wine industry: CO2, nitrogen, oxygen, dry ice, ozone, sulfur dioxide and even Argon.

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Processes where gases are used: glass making for wine bottles, grape chilling, cooling and protection during transportation and storage, field spraying, must/ juice cooling, carbonic maceration, yeast propagation, alcoholic fermentation, ion exchange, bentonite preparation, temperature control, tank inerting, pressing, filtration, settling, micro oxygenation, aroma recovery, tank mixing, sparging, pressure transfer, cleaning/sterilisation, bottling tanks, bottling line pre fill, bottling line post fill, carbonation, waste water treatment, pH control

little bit of gas trivia… Q. Can you name three gases or five applications where packaged gases play a part in the winemaking industry? Air Liquide and its predecessor companies have been trading in Australia since the 1920s. And it advertised in the Wine & Viticulture Journal during its first year of publication in 1986. Air Liquide Australia is proud of its part in the world-class Australian winemaking industry. As a worldwide industry benchmark, our food grade ALIGALTM products help customers produce better quality and improve productivity. From grape to glass and more, Air Liquide has specialised solutions and local experts across any gas-involved application. Contact the company’s branch closest to you and see how it can complement your craft: VIC & TAS, phone 03 9290 1100, email: alavicsales@airliquide.com; WA & NT, phone 08 9494 9600, email: alwacst@airliquide.com; NSW, phone 02 9892 9777, email: alanswsales@airliquide.com; SA, phone 08 8209 3600, email: alasasales@airliquide.com; QLD, phone 07 3246 6363, email: alaqldadmin@airliquide.com

W I N E & V I T I C ULT U R E JO UR N A L NO V EMBER/DEC EMBER 2016

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BETTER PROTECTION, LESS COPPER... GREENER FOOTPRINT There was a time in vineyards when a “greener footprint” may have been because of this. Today you can do it with DuPont™ Kocide® Opti™ fungicide. The elemental copper in Kocide® Opti™ is so active you only need a fraction of the amount used in other copper formulations. In fact when you use Kocide® Opti™, you’re protecting your crops with a fraction of copper per unit area. Kocide® Opti™ not only gives superior protection with less actual copper, it is also easy to handle, mix and pour and keeps foaming to a minimum. All this while leaving a far smaller footprint on the environment. Everyone wins.

Kocide® Opti™ - designed for this season, with a step to the future.

ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. Copyright © 2016 DuPont. All rights reserved. DuPont and Opti are trademarks or registered trademarks of DuPont or its affiliates. Kocide® is a registered trademark of Kocide LLC. Du Pont (Australia) Pty Ltd. 7 Eden Park Drive, Macquarie Park NSW 2113. ACN 000 716 469.


Melbourne

Adelaide

WA

New Zealand

EXCITING

NEW TECHNOLOGY

FROM

SMART LEES SMART LEES is a tangential cross flow unit utilising spinning ceramic discs for the filtration of Lees from Juice and wine. It is suitable for the filtration of products with a high suspended solids including those with Bentonite. The action of the filter ensures a high quality permeate and allows for a recovery of up to 97%.

MMR PLUS – DEGASSING The Juclas MMR Plus enables the control of gases including the reduction and impregnation treatment of gases in wine… the reduction of oxygen and carbon dioxide in young wines, deoxygenation of wines prior to bottling or addition of carbon dioxide to refresh whites or roses when bottling. The MMR Plus can also be used for dealcoholisation.

For further details, contact us on: Melbourne 59 Banbury Rd, Reservoir Ph. 1300 882 850 Adelaide 12 Hamilton Tce, Newton Ph. 08 8365 0044 Western Australia 5/1 Ostler Dve, Vasse Ph. 08 9755 4433 New Zealand 3M Henry Rose Place, Albany, Auckland Ph. 0800 699 599 E. sales@winequip.com.au www.winequip.com.au www.winequip.co.nz


Wine & Viticulture Journal - November/December 2016  

Welcome to Australia's specialist wine industry publication, dedicated to covering all aspects of winemaking and technology, viticulture, wi...

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