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24-26. 10. 2012 - Nałęczów technika i technologia w przemyśle spożywczym 4/2012 (8) JESIEŃ

ISSN: 2083-0009

Jakość piwa Jakość wody Począwszy od wody jako głównego składnika piwa, przez wodę do mycia kadzi, aż po wodę do zasilania kotłów, nasza szeroka gama urządzeń zapewnia spełnienie wszystkich wymagań stawianych wodzie dla przemysłu browarniczego. Uzdatniamy wodę od 1936 roku. EUROWATER posiada wiedzę i doświadczenie oraz dysponuje technologiami pozwalającymi projektować optymalne stacje uzdatniania wody.

EUROWATER Spółka z o.o. Ul. Izabelińska 113, Lipków PL 05-080 Izabelin (Warszawa) Tel.: +48/22/722-80-25

EUROWATER Spółka z o.o. ul. Mydlana 1 PL 51-502 Wrocław Tel.: +48/71/345-01-15




140th anniversary – The brewery in Elbląg


Smoke-flavoured bock beer from Szczecin Interview with Andrzej Miller


The Baltic Porter Rafał Kowalczyk


One Very Green. The brewery in Elbląg


Cheese inventors SM Spomlek


You don´t just find bags of money lying in the street Interview with Tadeusz Remiszewski


Blue cheese from Skalmierzyce Lazur


Water footprinting in the dairy sector Jan Marjanowski, Jarosław Ostrowski


At “Budny´s”


Once a year in Elgiszewo


Production of non-alcoholic beverages in an economical-ecological system Lech Maryniak


Polish adulterated food Urszula Wieteska


Unilever Invests in the Environment Janusz Zakręta

EDITORIAL Skłodowskiej-Curie 42 street 47-400 Racibórz, POLAND tel. +48 32 726 79 47, fax 32 720 65 85 PROGRAMME BOARD Lech Maryniak Adam Pawełas (Carlsberg Polska) Ireneusz Plichta (ProEko) prof. Janusz Wojdalski (SGGW) prof. Zygmunt Zander (UWM) EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Aleksandra Wojnarowska mobile: +48 535 094 517 SECRETARY OF EDITORIAL Janusz Zakręta, mobile: +48 608 664 129

e take great pleasure in delivering to our readers this bilingual issue of Agro Industry. The growing interest of non-Polish speaking readers in our magazine encouraged us to take up this challenge. The magazine will be published in a bilingual format for such occasions as international fairs and industry conferences. My friend who works for a huge food corporation told me recently that his company has no intention of spending a single penny on creating a consumer culture or building consumer awareness. The cost of it should be moved somewhere else, while his corporation will just take advantage of market trends and, if necessary, take over and buy a small-size innovative production company. The series of dynamic changes in the Polish food market provides much food for thought. On one hand, there are small-size companies which, when implementing an innovative product, have to consider the serious risk of total failure. On the other hand, there are corporations that spend enormous amounts of money on marketing, and through large-scale production turn emerging trends into tangible profits. This is how it is. And this is the reason why we are so pleased to see successful small-size companies. A good example of this is the Lazur Dairy, which, in its plant in Skalmierzyce, has installed probably the most modern line for the production of blue cheeses in the world. Meanwhile, shandy beers, mixtures of beer with lemonade or juice, have been successfully launched on the Polish market. The segment of special beers, which also includes flavoured beers, is growing dynamically. The puzzling thing is whether beer mixed with lemonade or juice is still beer. Are the proportions important? Some Customs Offices cannot decide on this problem. Thus, the need for a precise definition of beer is increasingly urgent, as it would affect the level of excise duty, which is more favourable on beer than on wine or other alcohol. Enjoy reading. We have made our best effort to provide you with relaxing and inspiring topics in this magazine. We eagerly await your suggestions and comments.

DTP TRANSLATION PRINTING Drukarnia Wydawnictwa NOWINY Olimpijska 20 street, 41-100 Siemianowice Śl. POLAND PUBLISHED BY Agencja Promocji Biznesu s.c. Skłodowskiej-Curie 42 street 47-400 Racibórz, POLAND Phone: +48 32 726 79 47 fax +48 32 720 65 85

Editorial is not responsible for the content of advertisements and articles prepared by independent authors. Editorial does not return materials unordered. Quarterly. Edition: 2 000 copies

english issue

Aleksandra Wojnarowska

brewing industry



th anniversary

Elbląg has always had propitious circumstances for beer production and consumption. Beer was known to the Teutonic knights, who in 1237 established a fortified settlement on the bank of the Elbląg river. In 1309 Teutonic Master Siegfried von Leuchtwangen granted the town brewing privileges. The people of Elbląg relied for their brewing rights not only on the first Teutonic privilege, but in later years primarily on Sigismund the Old’s privileges from 1526, and Sigismund August’s privileges from 1566.

C enturies-long traditions were revived in 1872, when Towarzystwo Akcyj-


official supplier of beer for the German

the brewhouse and the malt-house,

emperor Wilhelm II’s court.

burned down.

ne “Browar Elbląski” (“Elbląg Brewery”

The Versailles Treaty had deva-

After the war the first brew was

Stock Company) was established and

stating consequences for the brewery.

ready on 6 February 1946. The first

bought “Angielski Zdrój” (“English

After the loss of markets and the esta-

post-war beer was sold under the name

Spring”) manor from the town. Near

blishment of the Free City of Gdańsk

Eksport Bałtycki. In the 1950s brewing

that site the Stock Company built the

beer production dropped to 34,000 hl.

equipment was replaced, the brewery

brewery, which in 1888 was taken over

However, smooth-running organization

was modernised, and the Elbląg malt

by the “Brauerei English Brunnen” (the

and good beer quality allowed it to

house was rebuilt. Oak vats were

English Spring Brewery). This name

regain markets in the east and south

replaced with metal tanks.

was kept until 1945.

of Prussia, as well as in Berlin. In 1923

T h e c o m p a ny e m b a r ke d o n

production of lemonade and sparkling

a huge expansion of the Elbląg brewe-

water was launched here, besides beer

ry. In 1880-1915 beer output increased


from 5,000 to 85,000 hl. The “English

The Second World War was

Spring” Brewery brewed many types

a period of low malt extract content

of beer: regular malt, caramel malt,

beer and mineral water production

Bavarian lager, matured, Berliner

for the military on a large scale

white lager, German pilsner, export

(about 300,000 hl in total per annum).

ale, German porter and bock beer.

In the course of war operations

In 1900 the brewery became the

the main manufacturing buildings,


english issue

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The Elbląg brewery, F. Dzierżyńskiego street (today Browarna street), late 1940s

In 1959 the company decided to

weries in Poland. Elbląg brewers began

expand the malt-house to 7,000 tonnes

to use a modern brewhouse - a complex

annual production. In 1964 The Elbląg

of 34 unitanks used for the fermentation

Brewery and Gdańsk Brewery were

and seasoning of beer - with a capacity

merged. In the 1970s a new brewhouse

of 4,600 hl each; clear beer tanks, a new

was installed, and equipment in the

filtering line, a KEG line, and a bottle

fermenting house, storage cellar and

filling line, with production capacity

filling line were replaced. In 1975 the

of 90,000 bottles per hour. The large-

brewery’s output was 530,000 hl. In

-scale of the changes in the Elbląg

December 1976 Specjal beer was

brewery is reflected by the fact that

launched on the market.

in 1990 beer production amounted to

1991 opened a new phase in the hundred-year history of Elbląg brewing.

420,000 hl, and in 1997 as much as 1.93 million hl.

On 17 April, Elbrewery Company Limited The brewery became a part of Grupa Żywiec in November 1998

After the period of reorganization and

was formally established, with 51% of

At the end of 1997, Elbrewery co.

shares owned by Australian Brewpole

Ltd., as one of the first in the industry,

PTY, and 49% by Zakłady Piwowarskie

was granted the ISO 9001 quality

in Elbląg. On 2 May 1991 Elbrewery Co.

management certificate, through which

then year after year the output grew

Ltd. became operational. In 1993 the

it confirmed that it was a part of an

to reach, in 2008, a record-breaking

company launched an entirely new beer

elite group of companies following

production level of beer at 2,662,000 hl, of

on the market, EB Specjal Pils, which

international standards for quality

which 1,767,000 hl was Specjal beer, the

immediately gained clients’ recognition

management. In the following years the

strongest regional beer brand in Poland.

and became the market hit of the 1990s.

company was granted other certificates:

The brewery in Elbląg remained

HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical

the flagship facility of the dynamically

Control Point), and a certificate for its

growing company. A three-year long

Integrated Quality, Environment and

redevelopment of the Elbląg brewery

Safety Management System.

started at the end of 1993, resulting in

The brewery became a part of Grupa

one of the largest and most modern bre-

Żywiec in November 1998.

changes, beer production at the Elbląg brewery reduced in the late 1990s, but

Today the Elbląg brewery has two filling lines: a 0.5l bottle filling line with an output of 90,000 bot/h, and a 0.5l can filling line with an output of 28,000 cans/h. Facilities for the production of beer at the brewery cover an area of 6.5 ha. The world class production and logistics at the Elbląg brewery have been recognized, and in March 2010 the brewery received an award for the Best Heineken Brewery of 2009 in the Region of Central and Eastern Europe.

Production line, 1960

Fermentation tanks, 2012

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brewing industry Grand Champion

Smoke-flavoured bock beer from Szczecin Each year one home brewer is credited with a special privilege: his beer is made on an industrial scale by the best brewers of Grupa Żywiec. This time Janusz Konieczny (CEO at the Cieszyn brewery) and Dominik Szczodry (head brewer) will again make sure that the prize-winning brew is tasted by as many beer drinkers as possible. We have talked to Andrzej Miler, this year’s Grand Champion, about home beer brewing.

When did you start your adventure with beer brewing?

The second contest we entered was held in Wrocław, and our pilsner won the second prize. In another contest

I’ve been interested in home brewing

in Żywiec, recognized as the most

for over two years. I made the first

prestigious in Poland, my beers won

batches using Brew kits, hop-flavoured

3rd prize in the AIPA category and 1st

malt extracts. Then I soon realized

prize in the Rauchbock category, and

that the flavour of such beer was not

was then awarded the title of Grand

satisfying me and I included the full

Champion, the best beer of the contest.

mashing process into my brewing. My father Jerzy, who helps me brew almost every beer, got this bug from me very fast.

It must have been a great adventure... More like experimental ground. We

Which means it will be brewed on an industrial scale at Bracki Browar Zamkowy That’s right. I’m very pleased and proud of this. There is no contest more prestigious for home made beer in Poland.

did a test to find out what the result would be if we put certain malt into a tun, add some other ingredients and

What are your future plans?

flavour it with a certain hop. After a year

At Pivaria, a Szczecin pub, together

of experiments and coming to conclu-

with other home brewers, we organize

sions, we opened another season with

regular brewing workshops where we

an approach towards brewing stylish

show others how to make a tasty beer at

beer and entered them in contests if

home. Through these workshops many

the results were successful.

new brewers have got this passion from us. Month by month this event enjoys

Any success?


increasing popularity, and more and

Andrzej Miler brewing 67,500 litres of Grand Champion, the best beer of 2012. After fermentation the Rauchbock beer, hardly known in Poland, was moved to underground maturation tanks at the brewery, where it will stay until mid-November 2012. Rauchbock, a smoke-flavoured bock beer, is quite strong and substantial. It has an exceptional smoke and plum flavour.

What is so special about your beer? This is an old-style bock beer and refers to traditional brewing and the malt making process. In the old days all malt was more or less smoke-flavoured, because it used to be dried with smoke, so beer was also more or less smoke-flavoured. Today these brands of beer are very rare on the market. They have as many fans as adversaries. Some admire the excellent flavour of dried plums and other fruit, while others criticize their unacceptable smoky mouthfeel. In my

In the first contest we entered on 17

more people attend it, wishing to learn

opinion, this type of beer should be tried

March in Szczecin I won 3rd place in the

more about brewing, history and new

at least a few times, because you simply

green beer category.

beer brands.

have to get used to its taste.


english issue

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Porter Baltic

brewing industry

beer flavours

‚Porter Batycki’ is a strong brew and a very costly one to produce, which unfortunately cannot boast the same high drinkability as clear lagers. It’s known to the Polish beer industry players as ‚Pułkownik’ (the Colonel) which is a pun on the word ‚półka’, meaning ‘shelf’, for all that porter does is gather dust on shop shelves. Despite this, many breweries want to have a porter in their portfolio. Why would that be? Is it the ultimate tell-tale mark of high quality? Or is it because it’s good to evoke tradition and the regional treasure of the Baltic Porter?

Now, speaking of „porter” it is impos-

up to six beers were sold in one blend.

malt flavour had to be appropriately high

sible not to mention the other drinks

The blending was practiced primarily

and characteristic of this type of beer. Its

which go by that name. When in an

out of economic concerns and it consi-

modern successors are called Brown

English-speaking country and asking for

sted in mixing the low- cost, lighter and

Porters. The taste of these beers is indeed

a porter, you’ll get a dark and aromatic

weak, but rather heavily hopped beer

distinctly malty with a hint of roasted

brew with the alcohol content of about

(called the two penny) with a heavy,

grain. They are often caramel flavoured

5%, instead of a strong, warming beve-

strong and sweet dark beer. This was

with a hint of brown bread or even toast. Rafał Kowalczyk

There are also chocolate flavours, and the

rage. Brown Porter, as this is the drink

especially beneficial to the less wealthy

in question, is the direct descendant of

consumers, who most often were

the former porter native to England. He

manual labourers and porters. Hence

offers coffee-tinted and heavily smoked

was also the inspiration for American

the name of the drink - porter. The beer

blends. As this is a top-fermented beer,

brewers, who nowadays brew a bit

was relatively strong, well within the

you can also come across some esters, or

more roasted drink called Robust Porter.

range of about 6.5 - 7%. It was dark,

However our Baltic Porter has got very

strongly caramelised and very filling.

little in common with its distant English

Manual labourers would treat a pint of

relative. The same goes for its other

porter as a pick-me-up kind of a drink.

relatives, because - as it turns out - not

In 1722 Ralph Harwood, the owner of

only porter could have had an impact

the Bell Brewhouse in Shoreditch (East

on its flavour profile.

London) decided to brew a malt which

American version of robust porter even

would be poured from one barrel and

The Beer of Porters

which would resemble in taste the

The history of this English species

popular blend. It soon won recognition

dates back to the 18th century, when

among consumers and was hailed the

Polish was not yet widely spoken in

”Entire Butt”.

London pubs. It was customary back then to mix three different kinds of beer from separate barrels. This blend was

What Did The Other Porter Taste Like?

known as „three threads”. In London,

Of this we can never be quite sure.

where 23 different beer kinds were on

Some darker malts were used in its

offer back then, it often happened that

production, so the share of caramel and

e-issue downloadable from:



brewing industry

beer flavours fruit flavours, although they should not be

export her brews to the remotest corners

fermentation that we may appreciate the

particularly predominant. The bitter taste

of the world. The beers were brewed in

aromas derived from malt.

of gentian should only serve to offset the

such a way to make sure that they can

In addition to the outstanding malt

sweetness of the beer and hop aroma, if

last through the journey. Therefore, they

and caramel tone, you will also be able

at all noticeable, should be only tasted

had to have a greater power, bitterness

to sense a great deal of smokiness. Since

as a delicate hint in the background,

and fullness. Among them there was

this liquor has a very potent initial extract,

not by any means dominating the malt

the porter and with it stout, a brew even

up to 22o Plato, the alcohol content

character of the beer. The beer should

heavier and more roasted. By way of

may reach up to 10%. With it the beer

be semi-double, well fermented, with

the sea trade routes both brews found

comes out sweeter, but it should always

an alcohol content of about 4-5% and a

their way to the Baltic states. Today it

be well-balanced with the appropriate

brown colour bordering on ruby. It should

is difficult to speculate which particular

level of acidity and a clearly heightened

also have a good drinkability.

brew had the greatest influence on the

bitterness. The latter one should have a

taste of our porter. At one point the

lingering heavy taste without being too

The Porter Travels

exports from the UK ceased and the

sharp and irritating at the same time. It is

It is also worth mentioning how

local brewers, used to the taste began

a full and velvety brew. When mixed with

Porter made its way from the British

to brew new beers resembling in taste

caramel, it becomes grater sharp and

Isles to Poland and how it took on a

their English ”ancestors”. The creation

leaves an unpleasant aftertaste.

completely different style. Well then,

of a strong beer from a Baltic country

Although the initial extract is rather

Great Britain was once really great –

was in keeping with the market trends

high, the beer can be qualified to the

huh! – even imperial great and it had

at that time. Bock beer, especially their

more fermented ones. At the end, the

a lot of exotic colonies. So she would

double versions were widely available

brew is quite rich with a lot of body, but

on the German market at the time.

you need to make sure it doesn’t have

The Baltic Porter, modeled on the

too much of it, for it will turn too sweet

English export versions, would meet mpany the expectations of customers from Is an independent co e brewing operating within th the same segment as Doppelbock. formative sector, which offers es. and advisory servic So What Does Our Baltic alczyk, Kow ał It is run by Raf d an wer Porter Taste Like? an experienced bre g win bre e th Nowadays, it is a bottom fermena connoisseur of pes. As an ted brew, so you’d be hard pushed culture and beer ty sensory expert sampler and to trace any esters in it. You will be en an be evaluator, he has able to trace other fruit flavours, brewing adjudicator at many namely all kinds of dried fruit. And years. He competitions over the er iew rev a so, prunes, cherries and raisins will and is also a critic ch coa a And . be a significant element of a porter of the beer market ong other bouquet, however, they are not the and lecturer at, am a (The centres, Studium Piw effect of the toil of yeasts, but a published Beer College). He has consequence of a generous dose ers in many articles on be of caramel that comes along with the trade hobby magazines and s get tar darker malts versions. iel press. Browarzyc g win bre e th m Generally speaking, it is professionals fro iasts of sector and the enthus thanks to the cooler bottom the “golden brew”.

and fudgy. The liquor should be clear



english issue

and very dark, in fact, it can be so dark that it may resemble the opaque stout. Usually, however, it should be dark brown with ruby reflexes. A real Baltic Porter should take pride in its creamy, persistent beige foam, corresponding in colour with the brew.

To Brew a Porter In order to achieve a full body and the desired balance of flavours and aromas, we need to know the correct formula and we need to follow it strictly. It might sound like a “blindingly” obvious piece of advice, but these conditions are prerequisite if you want to brew a true porter. Reality shows that a technologically demanding drink can be also brewed by means of „cutting some corners”,

e-issue downloadable from:

which is extractively weaker but has

it is impossible to deceive consumers.

a strong taste of caramel, and then they

Let’s start with the recipe and the myth

sweaten it just before bottling and pasteu-

of the full-malt version. Recipes using

risation - such a „Low Gravity” solution.

malt itself as a source of fermentable

The effect of this procedure is disastrous,

sugars are respectable and can be an

as the beer ends up being artificially sweet

interesting proposition. They will also

and usually far too caramelly, and it is not

provide quite a challenge for the brewer,

matured in a balanced way.

and later on, quite possibly, for the

The best proof of the fact that such

consumer too. The more malt, the more

practices are indeed used, it is certain

dextrins and residual sugars, etc. As a

little experiment. A late addition of

result, the beer can be under-fermented

yeasts to some porters can reduce the

and have a very sweet, wort-reminiscent

content of the final extract by another

taste with too great a deal of caramel and

4-5OPlato (!). I’m not saying that when

cloying malt. In the case of such strong

the extract drops to 2 Plato, the drink

and full-bodied beers, you can surely

gets automatically better - God forbid!

add a certain amount of sucrose to the

But when we’re served a beer, which has

boiling vessel. You will be left with a lot

a further 6% of the extract by weight, then

of different flavour components anyway

it is rather easy to calculate that it gives us

and the sugar, when so easily accessible

30g of sugar in one bottle (more simply: it

to the yeasts, will get fermented to such

is equivalent to about 6 teaspoons).

a level of sweetness that will allow us

I could easily go on forever on how

later to enjoy all the qualities of the brew.

it is and how it should be. However,

The second crucial element are

it is worth noting in conclusion that

the specialty malts. Porter should be

Baltic Porter is one of the most difficult

malty with a hint of caramel, and not

beers to brew and certainly one of the

vice versa. Too many Cara specialty

most expensive ones. The brewers

malts may cause your beer to taste

should, however, stick to the correct

like a caramel candy. I fully covered

procedures in the hope that the beer

this problem when describing bock

will reward them back with its full flavour.

beers. Another significant aspect is

Even though the Poles themselves

fermentation. The yeasts stressed with

might call it the „Colonel” or the “Shelf

the osmotic pressure may not work

Warden”, the porter is appreciated by

properly with the brewer. Late start, poor

many beer drinkers from around the

fermentation or premature cessation

world and us Poles should be proud

of fermentation are the main threats

of it and further treat it as our cultural

to the brewer, who might have chosen

heritage. After all, we do not have too

the wrong strain of yeasts or applied an

many domestic beer styles.

inadequate amount of slurry.

stressing, but also shortens the beer’s maturation period. They brew a beer

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but just as you can not fool nature, so

We will publish a subjective ranking of the Baltic porters in the next issue.

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engineering for a better world

engineering for a better world e-issue downloadable from:

One Very Green brewing industry

Brewery in Elbląg

As a part of the Green Brewery Program, carbon dioxide emission testing is conducted at every stage of production, bottling and transportation of products. One of the tasks at hand is to regulate waste management, which is achieved mainly by reducing waste volumes and seeking new technologies, followed by cooperation with organisations actively involved with waste recovery and recycling processes

Roman Korzeniowski

Elbląg Brewery CEO: Knowing that, as a production company, we have a huge impact on the environment, in which we are operating, obliges us to treat environmental policy on a par with our business objectives and product quality policies. Since it is our duty to minimise the impact on the environment, our daily operations involve certain practices, which are specially tailored to meet this objective. In the field of environmental activities, the Elbląg Brewery is among the world´s best. We are one of the leaders among the 140 breweries under Heineken brand operating in 70 countries around the world.

The Green Brewery Program is based on

•     consistently reduce the volume of

the rule of 3 ”R”s (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle),

unsorted waste collected on the

which boils down to avoiding the purchase

municipal landfill;

of unnecessary materials and then reusing and recycling those already bought.

•     quantitative and qualitative monitoring of waste production;

Its main objective is to reduce the costs

•     train the employees and representati-

of unsorted waste disposal on municipal

ves of the companies cooperating with

landfills and the implementation of the

the brewery on their waste segregation

principles of waste recovery and disposal.


The main objectives of the program are to: •     minimise the waste volume at the

•     reduce the media consumption: electricity, heating and water.

Cheese inventors An unique on a national scale cheese project will soon start in Radzyń Podlaski. It will give a chance to taste products, which Polish market has never seen before. Construction of „Experimental cheese production line” – a new department of SM Spomlek, will be finished at any moment. Small cheese production line, also known as experimental or testing, will let create cheeses of unusual flavors, aromas and shapes. A space that previously was used as a “yoghurt line”, has been adapted for this purpose. Experimenting with cheese was much risky so far, which is why we were making such attempts rarely. The reason for this, was large capacity of our main cheese line. The minimum amount of cheese that we could produce, was one gyle – that is about 1200 kg - says Wojciech Styś, manager of cheese brewing unit of SM Spomlek. The new, small cheese line will give us completely new creative perspective. With the ability to produce a really small batch of even several kilograms, we will try to make the most daring flavor combination. – he added. Cheeses produced by a new, „experimental” cheese line, also create new marketing opportunities. Small batch production allows us to respond quickly to customer demands and signals coming from the market. What is more, this flexibility allows to experiment with various additives in search of those, that will strike a chord of connoisseurs – says Marta Tomaszewska, Brand Manager of SM Spomlek. Since Old Poland cheeses were released on the market, Spomlek is heavily engaged in intensive efforts to expand „cheese knowledge”. Due to the increasing popularity of serving “cheese boards” as a stylish accent on parties or business meetings, consumers are continuously looking for new and unusual variations. Discussions with them during trainings, trade shows and workshops were an inspiration to create the small cheese line. The added value of the products coming from the new department, is that from the very beginning, they are created only by manual work. These cheeses will set up a bridge between the cheeses produced in an industrial way and traditional ones. They are traditional, hand-made cheeses, and also the highest quality products, made with keeping all, even the strictest standards required by major manufacturers.

source of its formation and to recover as much waste as possible; •     segregate waste in accordance with the allotted code;


This program is implemented as a part of the Global Strategy for Sustainable Development entitled „Brewing a Better Future”,

•     selectively collect waste (whose

which aims at a continuous improvement

formation could not have been preven-

in the area of environmental protection and

ted) in especially isolated designated

the reduction of the impact the Heineken

areas in order to dispose of it safely;

breweries have on the natural environment.


Partner of

cheese technology forum

english issue

24th-26th October 2012 r. – Spa Nałęczów

You don´t just find bags of money lying in the street

Blue cheese from Skalmierzyce

Interview with Tadeusz Remiszewski, the CEO of OSM (Regional Dairy Cooperative) Siedlce with their government, which are then valid throughout the year and can adversely affect our situation in Poland. In addition, our country is characterised by the instability of both regulations and exchange rates. You are a supporter of a strong association of dairy cooperatives, aren´t you? Well, our substantial problem is that if we do not offer our products to a commercial network for next to nothing, someone else will do it in no time. I believe that – taking Finland for a role model here – at any given time there should be only one representative elected to talk to the buyers. Also, if we were to purchase all the extras and packaging together, we would stand a chance of negotiating some better conditions. Is the situation that bad? Nowhere else in the world have I seen such a solution that would have two Portuguese men owning 50% of all trade in one country. In order to develop viability of a production unit, you should avoid investing too much. And then you have all these shelf-space and newsletter fees. It can´t go on like that much longer. Have you considered concentration? Many a time. There have been several meetings on that subject held in Siedlce alone. But what is needed here badly is a healthy dose of self-preservation instinct, which we´re often running short of. During such meetings both parties should also lay all their cards on the table. Unless every part involved is honest in such a situation, the right decisions cannot and will not be taken. But not everything depends on a company policy, does it? Well, of course, we form a part of the global market. Once a year the farmers in Canada determine milk procurement prices

You and your company have gone through a period of transformations. What´s your take on today´s market? Back then, just as today, there were some anomalies on the market. Back then, however, the interaction between different cooperatives worked much better than it does nowadays. We would exchange products or milk for some equipment; we would lend each other pumps, steel and hydraulics. Today we´re facing other challenges. I am fully aware that I´m in no position to fix the entire world, but I´m seriously afraid that we´re in for a replay of a sugar and meat market crisis. The young players would like to quickly feast on prosperity, whereas meanwhile, you don´t just find bags with money lying in the street. Either you give it some good old elbow grease, or it all comes to nothing. So the city of Siedlce is definitely banking on cottage cheese production? Wherever you look in Poland, you see some cottage cheese plants. They´re everywhere! We ourselves produce over 2 000 tons of cottage cheese annually – and we want some more! Modern production lines allow us to supply the goods to the commercial networks. Ultra-filtered skim milk cottage cheese production seems to be holding a lot of promise too. What´s the most difficult aspect of managing a dairy cooperative? Managing a dairy cooperative means managing people. If you are a human being in your conduct towards others, they will pay you back with the same.

The ceremonial presentation of a state-of-the-art production line for LAZUR blue cheeses was organized at the end of August at the Lazur Dairy Cooperative in Nowe Skalmierzyce. The line’s design was based on the company’s in-house technology, which has been developed over many years.

Many prominent guests, friends and business partners attended the ceremony Today Lazur is a pioneer in sliced blue cheeses, and the only Polish producer of blue cheeses containing active cultures of probiotic bacteria. The pre-packing and packing process of Lazur’s cheeses is also innovative. ISSO 22000 and HACCP standards are strictly followed at the dairy plant. Innovation is the way of thinking Although the plant operates in a cooperative structure, members were convinced to produce blue cheeses. Next to the plant there is a small modern „Lazur” hotel, where chefs serve excellent dishes with the addition of tasty local blue cheeses. Małgorzata Gęsicka, deputy CEO of the cooperative, says that tasting is the best way to advertise local products. Superb chefs, able to make anything out of blue cheese, are employed at the cooperative. And this idea works. People come to the plant to buy their favourite ‘lazur’ cheese. The number of interesting concepts implemented at the Lazur Cooperative is truly surprising: hard cheese with mould, sliced blue cheeses, and the company’s own hotel with a special menu. Everywhere you look the place is clean and in order. Excellent management can be seen at once.

Partner of

Partner of

24th-26th October 2012 r. – Spa Nałęczów

24th-26th October 2012 r. – Spa Nałęczów

cheese technology forum

cheese technology forum

milk industry

media management The world’s water resources are constantly dwindling, while demand for water is increasing, particularly in industrialized countries, and doubles, on average, every 20 years or so. Water resources are continually shrinking. The causes are myriad: global climate warming, extensive pollution of seas and rivers with industrial and communal waste, as well as constantly growing consumption of goods and services, the production of which requires water.

Water footprinting in the dairy sector A ll over the world, the degree of

agriculture represents 70% of the total

became necessary to develop an indicator

water shortage varies depending on

water consumption worldwide.

for comparisons – so that we know, for

the geographic location. Water is most

Below, Table 1 shows the avera-

example, how much water is needed to

scarce in the countries of the global

ge water consumption on different

produce a glass of milk and 1 kg of beef

Jan Marjanowski

South. This problem is also pressing in

continents. One must also take a look

in the entire process of manufacturing the

CBW UNITEX Sp. z o.o.

European countries, including Poland,

at personal water use and ask oneself

product, from beginning to end (from the

which – next to Denmark – is in the

whether and how it influences global water

cradle to the grave). The situation beco-

most unfavourable situation. Problems

consumption. Do our efforts at household

mes more complicated when this water

with water in agriculture have also

water conservation really contribute to a

consumption depends on environmental

appeared in Spain and Portugal. Water

decrease in overall water consumption?

conditions, the geographic location and

is a part of every production process,

Table 2 presents the structure of

on many other factors. Thus, in 2003 John

especially in agriculture and in food

household water use as an inspiration

Allan developed the concept of virtual

Jarosław Ostrowski

processing. We need it for cattle

to seek water conservation measures

water, the so-called water footprint.

CBW UNITEX Sp. z o.o.

farming, for milk powder production,

when planning a personal reduction in

but also for cereal and fruit cultivation

water consumption.

The water footprint of a person, business, city or country is the sum

and for cotton production. The amount

of water used directly or indirectly to

of water required in every process

Water footprint definitions

Table 1.

depends on the location. Climate and

In order to compare the water con-

Average water consumption depending on the continent

cultivation methods are the two most

sumption associated with various products

•     use of local water resources,

important factors, and water used in

and processes, not just industrial ones, it

•     use of global water resources.

Total average yearly Share in global water water consumption per consumption (%) person (m3)

produce the goods and services which we have consumed. It comprises:

Yearly average household water consumption (m3)


Percent of the world’s population (%)

Daily household water consumption (dm3)







South and Latin America






North America






Australia and Oceania


















Based on: na%20%B6wiecie%20(2002)



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Structure of household water consumption

Water consumption l/person/day

Water consumption l/person/month


Drinking and cooking




Washing dishes




Washing the body








Flushing the toilet




Washing clothes












According to statistics, the average

(river, drainage divide) influences the wa-

Dutchman uses 2.3 million litres of

ter footprint and to develop a strategy to

water a year, in other words – 6300 litres

reduce the negative influence of human

a day. He obtains just 11% of this huge

activity on natural (water) resources.

Table 2. Structure of water consumption for personal uses. Based on: http:// www.psm. techn_03.html

•     milk for coffee (the water footprint of milk). The water footprint for a portion of

amount of water in his own country; the

The empirical water footprint is

coffee depending on the specific loca-

rest arrives in the Netherlands in the

a multidimensional indicator that shows

tion (sum of partial uses) is calculated

form of products grown or manufactured

the amount of freshwater used and the

taking into account:

in other countries, where the water

amount of polluted water generated

•     coffee from Africa, Brazil, etc.,

necessary for their production had to

during the manufacture of a given

•     sea transport (water footprint of the

be expended.

product (milk, cheese, whey), defined

ship), land transport (water footprint

The empirical water footprint is

with regard to time and place during the

a multidimensional indicator which

entire production cycle of the product. For example, in the case of a cup

shows: •     the amount of water used in production,


of coffee, ready to drink, one needs to

•     tap water (e.g. Warsaw),

take into account:

•     sugar from Garbów Lublin (the water

•     the type of water used (rainwater

•     t he vegetation of coffee plants

– rain, snow, surface water, groun-

(water from the earth + rainwater,

dwater, and the amount of polluted

evaporation), •     harvesting coffee beans (agriculture),

water – wastewater),

of the lorry), •     coffee bean roasting plants (e.g.

footprint of Garbów sugar), •     m ilk from Mlekovita (the water footprint of Mlekovita milk). The water footprint for various

•     the place (location) of use,

•     drying, packaging, transport,

drainage basins depending on their

•     the time period of use.

•     s orting, packaging, distribution,

location is as follows:

The water footprint issue refers to the resources (in other words, the shortage) of water intended for human activity and is a basis for discussion about the distribution of available water

transport, •     cooking water (the water footprint of electric power), •     sugar for coffee (the water footprint of sugar),

•     blue water is natural water (rainfall, groundwater, etc.) used in industrial processes; •     green water is water used in agriculture – including evaporation into

resources with reference to specific uses and to balanced, fair and efficient water use. Furthermore, it is possible to show how producing goods and services on the level of a specific drainage basin

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The average person drinks from 2 to 4 litres of water a day, but producing enough food to satisfy the daily needs of one person consumes from 2000 to 5000 litres. 1500 litres of water are needed to produce 1 kilogram of wheat grain and 10x more to produce 1 kilogram of beef. Thus, in order to maintain an adequate water supply for today’s world population of 7 milliard people, not to mention the 9 milliards expected in 2050, FAO recommends, above all, water conservation practices in agriculture and limiting meat production.



milk industry

media management

The water footprint Figure 1. Green and Green blue water footprint and depending blue water footprint dep in dairy production on on the water the balancewater for the given drainage balance basin for the given dra Interplay between

The water footprint of 1 litre of



Water Evaporation, Production Evaporation, Production Production Water Water transport related contained to another in products to production to evaporation to production toin products evaporation to evaporation drainage basin

not related related not contained related related Precipitation Precipitation

Loss, difference Drainage Drainage basin area basin area

Reversed stream

Soil and vegetation Soil and vegetation Runoff on a local level

litresBLUE of water (as aWATER global

footprints average).Production Out of those 1000 litres of in the water Water contained drainage related equivalent water: in products to evaporation basin

•     green water represents 85%, i.e. 850 l,

Runoff from the drainage basin


Loss, difference


•     grey water represents 8%, i.e. 80 l,

•     blue water represents i.e. 70 l. level Runoff on a 7%, local

Calculating the water footprint GRE for different dairy products is very complicated. It requires determining water consumption on a local level, as

the atmosphere, capillary action in

Below are the water footprint values

the soil (natural – evaporation from

for selected food products, showing

the soil and from plants, flows from

how much equivalent water is needed

one drainage basin to another, and

to produce them:

well as taking into account direct and indirect water consumption. Indirect water consumption includes

artificial – e.g. the cooling towers of

•     1 cup of tea – 35 litres

e.g. production of electric power – water

power stations where electricity is

•     1 cup of coffee – 140 litres

condensation in the turbine. The blue


•     1 glass of orange juice – 170 litres

water footprint, in turn, will be water

•     1 tomato – 13 litres

evaporation in cooling towers.

•     grey water in the form of waste is irretrievably lost (dairy wastewater,

•     1 apple – 70 litres

cow dung).

•     1 potato – 25 litres

Indirect consumption of water from

•     1 egg – 135 litres

natural sources:

grey water irretrievably lost from one

•     1 glass of milk (0,2 l) – 200 litres

•     green water footprint – water evapo-

drainage basin will, after wastewater

•     1 slice of bread – 40 litres

treatment and return to another drainage

•     1 hamburger – 2400 litres!!

Various situations may occur here:

ration from the soil, •     grey water footprint – cow dung. Direct water consumption (local

basin (river), become blue water again.

Figure 2 shows the percent shares of

The interplay between partial water

partial water footprints in the total water

consumption – the dairy):

footprints for a drainage basin is shown

footprint in the process of producing

•     blue water – withdrawal of surface

in Figure 1.

1 litre of milk.

water and groundwater,

Rys. 2. The percent shares of partial water footprints in the total water footprint in the process of producing 1 litre of milk

8% 7%


1000 litres of water



1 litre of milk

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Instead of turning off the tap, we can save more water by reducing our meat consumption, e.g. from 7 to 3 times a week, and by implementing new energy- and water-saving technologies

litres. 1500 litres of water are needed to produce 1 kilogram of wheat grain and 10x more to produce 1 kilogram of beef. Thus, in order to maintain an adequate water supply for today’s world population of 7 milliard people, not to mention the 9 milliards expected in 2050, FAO recommends, above all, water conservation practices in agriculture and limiting meat production. In order to maintain sufficient water resources for the next generations, we need knowledge about the quantities of water used to produce different goods and services (familiarity with the water footprint) and awareness of the need to introduce water-saving measures in production processes, either by cutting down on water use or by implementing multiple use water systems. One exam-

•     blue water footprint – water evapo-

ple may be the UNISHER technology

buted. Since technologies for seawater

implemented by the UNITEX company

desalination and purification of polluted

ration in cooling facilities, •     blue water footprint – water in the

from Gdańsk in the production of milk

water are costly, humanity has no

or whey powder.

choice: prudent water management is

milk and other products, •     g rey water footprint – polluted

slowly becoming our “to be or not to be”.

water (wastewater that ends up in a

According to FAO (the UN agency

Mahatma Gandhi, who, as a political leader, made do with a single basin of water for his bath, used to say: “be the

responsible for food and agriculture), the

wastewater treatment plant).

change you wish to see in the world”.

average person drinks from 2 to 4 litres

Things to remember

The change may be small and gradual,

of water a day, but producing enough

The world’s water resources are

food to satisfy the daily needs of one

limited and unevenly or unfairly distri-

person consumes from 2000 to 5000

Item Total

Blue water consumption

Water footprint

104 l/kg

15.8 l of H2O equivalents/kg

Contribution (% of total): Inputs to farming



Water use on farm



Milk collection

< 1%

< 1%

Dairy product manufacturing




< 1%


Transport to destination

< 1%

< 1%

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suited to our means, but it should also be carefully thought out and based on a broader view of the situation. Thus, the Table 3. Blue water consumption and water footprint for skim milk powder produced in Australia, and transported to the destination port in Japan

authors postulate that instead of turning off the tap, we can save more water e.g. by reducing meat consumption, say, from 7 to 3 times a week, and by implementing new energy- and water-saving technologies.

(after: R. Ridoutt, J Dairy Sci 2010).



dairy industry

relations They say “three times lucky”. However, in the case of Professor Budny this proverb simply doesn´t apply, as he has just “taken off” for the 31st time! Our editors were pleased and honoured to take over the patronage of this meeting.

At “Budny´s” T

The conference on „Problems of Energy Management and Environmental Care in the Dairy Industry” is a league of its own. The Professor´s personality combined with the unique atmosphere of these meetings make it impossible to skip any edition.

his year´s edition was held in the charming interiors of the Mierzęcin Palace. Just as every year, the discussions tackled the issues of energy management, together with water treatment and conditioning systems. A new item on the agenda this year was the issue of dairy industry sustainability and an invitation to participate in the deliberations of pork producers.An interesting

lecture was given by Andrzej Jarmasz, who tackled the subject of systems of raw materials supply by producer groups which are in operation within the dairy industry. Professor Janusz Budny emphasised the sociological aspects of sustainable energy management. For the first time in history, the meeting was attended by Piotr Hajewski of Nalco, who gave a lecture on modern sewage treatment systems.

Once a year in Elgiszewo


or several years now the Karbówko Centre in Elgiszewo has been a generous host for all the clients of the CSK Company invited here every year for festive celebrations. The clients love coming here: thatched cottages, a wealth of accompanying attractions, sumptuous food and a perfect ambience are a thank-you on behalf of the CSK Company for a year of a fruitful cooperation. This year the following companies presented their offers as well: Instytut Innowacji Przemysłu Mleczarskiego (Dairy Industry Innovations Institute), Ecolab, Culinar oraz PAK.

Next year´s edition of the conference will be held under the auspices of „Jana” Dairy Cooperative

CSK specialists shared their expert knowledge in the field of cheese production technology, anti-phages solutions, protein stabilizers and yogurt market trends. Quite as usual, Niko Kloosterman gave a very interesting presentation on the technological differences between a typical yogurt and the “vla” product which has been enjoying a great popularity in the Dutch market. Making sure that everything was running smoothly was Piotr Zgórzyński, smiling as ever, DirectorGeneral of CSK in Poland. The event also served as an official farewell do for Paul Visschedijk, Director-General of CSK, who is soon to retire.

The CSK Conference is attended each year by a handsome number of the Company´s clients



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media management

Production of non-alcoholic beverages in an economical-ecological system In this article, the author wishes to present actions on the microscale which will allow a company to manage energetic media in a frugal manner. Such economical management will also provide leverage to improve the company’s negative impact on the environment. The author presents the most important steps which enable a producer to save various forms of energy on the example of a company which produces non-alcoholic beverages of the CSD (carbonated soft drinks) and NCSD (non-carbonated soft drinks) type.

Methods of saving energy forms

technology with liquid filling – that

•     Production and storage of CO2. In

have a hybrid action [3]: they not only

is, packaging the beverage. On

the most sophisticated production

represent a way to save money and

a strictly technological plane we can

plants, CO 2 is produced on-site,

improve the economic balance of the


using CHP/QUAD (Combined Heat

company, but also help reduce GHG

•     Water withdrawal and purification.

and Power/QUAD) technology [6].

In the process of manufacturing

After production in this manner, the

non-alcoholic beverages, water

gas is stored in liquid form. In the

(greenhouse gases) emission, and thus contribute to environment protection.

Lech Maryniak

represents over 90% of the product

Production of non-alcoholic beverages – an overview of the technology

traditional system, CO2 (food-grade)

weight, counting the raw materials.

is delivered from a certified supplier

In other words, in quantitative terms

and, similarly, stored in liquid form in

it is the most important raw material.

warehouse containers.

In an era of ever-stricter quality requ-

Before water withdrawn from wells

•     As regards mixing and liquid filling,

irements, a growing pressure to reduce

(or acquired from another source)

the main stages are as follows:

production costs, as well as changing client

can be directly used in production,

•     Mixing: combining purified water

tastes, production of non-alcoholic bevera-

it has to be purified. Each company

with final-stage syrup and, in the

ges, including carbonated soft drinks, has

from this sector has its own requ-

case of carbonated beverages, ad-

little in common with the production of onc

irements and technologies for water

ding CO2. After mixing, which takes


place in apparatuses commonly

-popular orangeade or lemonade many years ago. The above-mentioned factors

•     Preparation of final-stage syrups.

known as mixers, the final beverage

have led to significant technological and

In this stage, purified water, drink

is ready for liquid filling and further

organizational progress in the production

bases and sugars, simple syrups


of these consumer goods.

(sugars dissolved in purified water)

•     Liquid filling is preceded by prepara-

In practice, we can split up the ma-

or, optionally, artificial sweeteners

tion of the packaging. The packaging

nufacture of non-alcoholic beverages

are mixed together. The phase of

may be returnable, which must

into three key production blocks.

preparing these syrups is often

be cleaned, or single-use, which

preceded by the process of storing

must be produced. The beverage

sweeteners (silos, containers for

is distributed into the containers,

simple syrups).

which are then sealed shut.

BLOCK No. 1. The first block combines beverage production



english issue

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•     The end phase consists of labelling, Production and supply of energy media PRODUCTION OF ENERGETIC MEDIA

coding (printing the expiration date and producer’s information), pac-


kaging single containers into bulk containers and their palletization. Before the packaged product reaches the consumer, it is subjected Water purification

to further complex logistic processes. Water withdrawal WELLS


such as hot water and steam, essential for the presented production processes.

Sugar and/or imple syrup storage

Syrup preparation



CO2 Production

CO2 storage



•     Production of compressed air, both low-pressure and high-pressure, which is necessary for the functioning of the entire plant (steering) and for the production of packaging


•     Boiler house, which provides media

Beverage production

main installations and systems:

MIXER (syrup + water + CO 2)

getic media. It consists of the following

Liquid filling and packaging the beverage

BLOCK No. 2. This is the block associated with the production of ener-


(when such technology is used). •     Production of technological cooling, necessary in the production of beverages and packaging.


•     Systems which transport the above-

No. 3

Additional installations

-mentioned media directly to the


recipients. •     In the most sophisticated soft drink production plants, equipped with

The presented technology of soft

CHP/QUAD technology, production

drink production has been depicted in

media in the shape of electrical ener-

Figure 1 in the form of a block diagram.

gy, thermal energy, technological

In the further sections of this article,

cooling and CO2 are all supplied by

the block diagram will help show the

this technology.

Figure 1.

Step one: awareness of energy

Block diagram of the technology of soft drink production

issues and environment protection in the company Since the prices of energetic media are constantly rising, energy costs co-

possibilities of reducing the consump-

unt among the key operating expenses

tion of energetic media and limiting the

of a company. Thus, they merit special

BLOCK No. 3. It is composed

company’s impact on the environment.

attention in the management process.

of auxiliary installations, such as a

The author also wishes to present the

However, before investing in any tangi-

wastewater treatment plant, facilities

organizational and investment steps

ble assets in this area, it is necessary

for cleaning equipment without disas-

which will enable a soft drink production

to introduce a broad awareness of the

sembly (so-called Cleaning in Place or

company to move towards an economy

CIP technology) and others.

of sustainable development [7].

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consumption of energetic media and Source: Own cncept

water, but also of other production




media management

List of acronyms:

CHP/QUAD Combined Heat and Power/QUAD, simultaneous generation of four media: electrical energy, thermal energy, technological cooling and CO2. CIP Cleaning in Place, cleaning installations, apparatuses etc. without dissassembly. CSD carbonated soft drinks, non-alcoholic beverages containing dissolved CO2. CO2 carbon dioxide.

media. The company directors ought

the beginning, the implementation of

to emphasize the importance of frugal

a M&T system can be based on simple

management of energetic media and

measurements, such as readings of

awareness of this fact should be

energetic media meters, and further

promoted further on the executive levels

analysis of those data with conclusions

of the enterprise.

being drawn. In the next step, gradual

To begin with, it is necessary to

or full automation of such a system

explain the significance which energe-

can be carried out. Once sufficient

tic media, together with comprehensive

information has been gathered about

environment protection, have for the

the consumption of energetic media

company. The key point is mostly the

and water, one can set goals, as well as

microeconomic situation – in other

identify the company’s weak points and

words, the impact of these issues on

needs. After implementing M&T and

the operating expenses of the enter-

its advanced utilization, the available

prise, but also on the environment,

organizational resources usually no

which nowadays frequently affects

longer suffice and it is necessary

the share value of the company.

to take further steps in the form of

Such a presentation should precede

providing new information, but also

the implementation of a professional

making investments.

management system. Introducing a

Once an advanced system of

monitoring and targeting system (M&T)

media measurement and goal setting

is a process of analysing historical data

is available, the company needs to take

and setting future goals. Two important

the next step and identify higher-order

issues are: parameter measurement, in

needs. Some companies might not be

EAC Energy Account Centre, cost centre for energetic media.

this case – measuring the consumption

able to accomplish such a task on their

of energetic media and water, and thus

own. This is often due to a lack of time,

also of GHG emission, and setting

especially when the staff’s attention

EU ETS European Union Emissions Trading System, trading scheme designed to combat greenhouse gas emissions in the EU.

ambitious but achievable goals for

is fully concentrated on carrying out

the future. M&T is also conducive to

routine tasks. This situation can and

detecting operational anomalies and in-

should be solved by commissioning an

correct procedures (e.g. excessive and

internal or external auditor to perform

unjustified consumption of energetic

an audit of media consumption. The

media and water) which – temporarily

aim of such an audit is to identify areas

but significantly – disturb this process.

which need improvement. It is crucial

An important point is that every instal-

to choose an auditor (a person or firm)

lation, whether it produces energetic

who knows the specific character

media or consumes them, should be

of the issue, since this will help the

assigned to a defined Energy Account

company save significant amounts of

Centre (EAC). If proper technical and

valuable time. Once a comprehensive

financial control is exerted over such

report from the audit is available,

centres, directly linked to the M&T

the company can prepare a plan of

plan, one can expect appropriate

subsequent actions, including capital

economic and ecological effects. At


GHG greenhouse gases, gases which contribute to the greenhouse effect, e.g. CO2, CH4 (methane), NOx. M&T Monitoring & Targeting.



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At this point, the author wishes

of 7.0 bar causes a 3.5 kW power loss

Step two: Investments that lead to

to share his own experience and

in this installation, translating into


emphasize the purposefulness of such

calculable losses of over 2000 EUR

an audit. For example, one of the key

per year”.

its own rules because of its unique

elements is a thorough inspection

Having introduced a broad awa-

characteristics. In the case of the

of the compressed air installation.

reness of energetic media and water

soft drink production sector, it is

Compressed air is the most expensive

consumption in the company, it is

important to have a good knowledge

medium in a soft drink production plant.

possible to fully integrate this issue

of production technologies and to

Its consumption and effectiveness of

with environment protection. The author

analyse the apparatuses that use up

use should be monitored with particular

proposes a comprehensive approach:

large quantities of energetic media

attention. A key part of an energy

implementing an integrated system of

and water. Pasteurizers and packaging

consumption audit should be leak

total energy and environmental mana-

systems together with packaging pro-

measurement and sealing any leaks in

gement (TEEM). Such a system should

duction are particularly important here.

the compressed air installation (both

holistically support the management of

Packaging production (manufacturing

low- and high-pressure).

energetic media and water consumption

preforms and finished single-use

Let us consider an instructive quote

by the company. In particular, it should

PET bottles), if carried out in the

from the firm Danfoss Solutions [1]: “a

facilitate reducing the costs of energetic

enterprise, should be under especially

hole with a 3 mm diameter in a com-

media and water, as well as contribute

close surveillance as regards energy

pressed air installation with a pressure

to environment protection.

consumption. Economical systems of

Tab. 1.1. Table



Examples of Przykłady obszarów areas in a w soft przedsiębiorstwie drink production produkcji napojów company where bezalkoholowych investments can z inwestycjami be made in order oszczędności to save energetic mediów energemedia tycznych

Every line of business follows



Management of energetic media. Amounts of energetic media and water saved. BLOCK 1, 2 and 3 Implementing a system of control and management of energetic media and water use.

Thermal power media: 6 [MW] Electric power media: 10 [MW] Water purification plant: 300 [m3/h]

5 - 30%

100 - 500

0.5 - 4.5 years

15 - 30

1.5 – 3.0 years

Boiler/boiler house efficiency. Amounts of gas saved. BLOCK 2 Regulation of air surplus ratio - λ.

Boiler heat output: 5 [MWc]

1 - 2%

Economizer – waste heat recovery from flue gases.

Boiler heat output: 3 [MWc]

2 - 5%

Using biogas from wastewater treatment plant – anaerobic process, in on-site boiler house.

Boiler heat output: 5 [MWc]


1.8 – 4.0 years 100 - 250

2.0 – 3.0 years


0.5 – 1.5 years

Distribution and use of thermal energy. Amounts of heat saved. BLOCK 1 i 2 Improving the heat insulation of pipelines, apparatuses, machinery. Saving heat.

CIP installation, 3-track

80 - 90%*

Utilizing external cooling in beverage and packaging production - „free cooling”. Amounts of electrical energy saved. BLOCK 1 and 2 Cooling the compressor system with +12oC groundwater.

Water flow: 40 [m3/h] Power: 750 [kW]

5 - 10%

60 - 100

1.5 - 3.0 years

Cooling with air, +1oC or colder.

Power: up to 600 [kW]

5 - 10%

50 - 100

1.5 - 3.0 years

Utilizing waste heat flows and optimizing the compressed air system to save energy. BLOCK 2 Utilizing waste heat from high-pressure compressor (35-40 bar) cooling system to heat the workshop.

Heat output: 60 [kW]

7 - 15

15 - 20

2.0 - 3.0 years

Compressed air system, high air pressure: 35-40 bar. Reduction of working pressure to 35 bar, installation of equalizing line, compressor steering.

Installed compressor power: 2 [MW]

50 - 70

60 - 100

1.5 - 2.0 years

New technological solutions in the production of non-alcoholic beverages. Amounts of electrical energy saved. BLOCK 1

* % traconego *strumienia % of the wasted energii stream of thermal cieplnej energy

Directly heating the shrink wrap packaging process using gas combustion.

Heat output: 120 [kW]

25 - 50

50 - 125

Use of „blow-fill” production block.

Liquid filling line, efficiency: ca. 30 000 [bottles/h] as compared to the classic solution.


8 000 - 10 000 (line cost)

e-issue downloadable from:


2.0 - 4.5 years



media management drying PET granulate, as well as means for compressed air and heat recovery during the manufacture of PET bottles (BLOCK 2 – LIQUID FILLING LINE, PACKAGING PREPARATION) are worth recommending here. If returnable packaging is used, energy-saving

Primary energy source Bituminous coal Lignite Methane-rich natural gas Natural gas, high nitrogen content Liquefied petroleum gas Wood fuel Coke

ter, should be utilized. In the technology of beverage production on the basis of simple syrups (BLOCK 2 – SYRUP MANUFACTURING PLANT) a possibility worth considering is to give up pasteurization. Of key importance here will be microbiological evaluations permitting such a solution. One can also consider using UV light – this technology is more energy-efficient than thermal techno-

MJ/kg MJ/kg MJ/m3 MJ/m3 MJ/kg MJ/m3 MJ/kg


6.69 2.56 10.02 7.39 13.14 2638.89 7.70















Designations: HV – heating value, EV – emission value.


CO2 EV [kg/GJ] 0.34 0.39 0.19 0.20 0.23 0.40 0.39

Diesel fuel

CO2 emission values depending on the fuel used to generate thermal energy.


kWh/kg kWh/kg kWh/m3 kWh/m3 kWh/kg kWh/m3 kWh/kg

CO2 EV [kg/GJ] 93.59 107.96 53.45 54.73 63.10 112.00 109.40

Gasolines, engine-grade

Table. 2.




water in further processes should also

one’s own hands perform calculations

be mentioned. It is recommended to

regarding the company’s carbon foot-

revert water from rinsing the water

print or its reduction.

purification plant and put it to further Step three: implementing CHP/

use. In Table 1, the author presents

QUAD technology

practical examples of saving energe-

Possessing an implemented and ful-

tic media in a soft drink production

ly functional system of energetic media


and water consumption management,

logies. Inverters should also be used

Payback periods have been calcu-

integrated with a module of environment

whenever possible. Integrated with

lated without taking discount rates into

protection management (the TEEM

machines that contain rotating parts

account. These examples will, hopefully,

system proposed by the author), one

(pumps, drives, compressors, cooling

help other companies in the same line of

can take the next step towards on-site

aggregates, other), they can improve

business identify their needs. The aim

production of energetic media. Such

performance while simultaneously

is to show areas worth analysing and,

a step appears fully justified. The

reducing electricity consumption, and

later, changing.

introduction of ETS EU (European Union

thus also GHG emission.

Table 2 shows emission values for

Emissions Trading System) emission

As regards the optimization of

different energetic media most frequ-

charges will cause electricity and

water consumption during manufac-

ently used in the soft drink production

thermal energy prices to soar, since the

turing operations, implementation of

sector, but also in the food processing

Polish power industry relies mostly on bi-

economical production technologies

industry in general.

tuminous coal and lignite. Furthermore,

should be considered. For example,

It should also be added that the pro-

investments in new productive powers

integrating and blocking a device

duction of 1 kWhe of electrical energy by

and their transmission (44% of electric

that produces packaging (blowing

the Polish power industry generates ca.

power plants are older than 30 years,

machine) with liquid filling is becoming

0,96 kg of CO2. In contrast, an on-site

transmission lines are old as well) are

a standard solution nowadays. This

energetic media production facility that

necessary and will raise energy prices

applies to technologies of producing

utilizes CHP (Combined Heat and

still further. At this point, the author

all kinds of non-alcoholic beverages,

Power) and burns natural gas causes

suggests implementing the CHP/QUAD

particularly in cases where aseptic

the emission of 0,58 kg CO2 for every

polygeneration technology [6] – on-site

techniques are used. Such a solution

1 kWHe. Possessing such data, as well

simultaneous generation of four media:

as data regarding the consumption of

•     electrical energy (electric current),

primary energy carriers and secondary

•     t hermal energy (hot water and

means that no container rinsing is necessary, which helps eliminate water use. The possibility of reusing


24.08 9.21 36.06 26.60 47.30 9500.00 27.71


Fuel oil

cleaning devices, which require less thermal energy and technological wa-



Source: Own elaboration based on: KASHUE, Warsaw, January 2007.

energy, one can confidently and with

english issue


e-issue downloadable from:

•     technological cooling (cooling wa-

a fashion is not only more environ-

By presenting the issue, the author

ter, generated through absorption

ment-friendly and cheaper, but also

wishes to promote an emphasis


creates the possibility of generating

on sustainable development in the

•     food-grade carbon dioxide (genera-

additional income in the form of green

management of food production

ted in a purification process involving

certificates (green energy – renewa-


absorption and desorption).

ble, produced from biogas).

To sum up, one may quote Holger Rogall on the characteristics of su-

Investments in CHP/QUAD techno-

Step five: management and

stainable development [7]: “the aim of

logy [5] will reduce GHG emission by

conscious improvement of the

sustainable development is to ensure

around 40% and lower primary energy


sufficiently high ecological, economic

consumption by a similar value, as

After implementing the steps pre-

and sociocultural standards for all

well as reduce the costs associated

sented above, one must always bear

currently living people, as well as for

with energy transmission. CHP/QUAD

in mind the necessity of constantly

future generations, within the limits

will be directly integrated with the

improving energy systems. This step

of the Earth’s natural endurance, in

production plant and will work chiefly

should include the company’s innova-

accordance with a principle of intra-

to satisfy the plant’s needs.

tive approach to the issues presented

generational and intergenerational

above, as well as continual, conscious


List of acronyms: NCSD non-carbonated soft drinks, non-alcoholic beverages without CO2. RES renewable energy sources. ppm parts per milion, 1/1 000 000. PET polyethylene terephthalate.

Step four: introducing renewable

risk-taking in order to improve results

As we strive to promote the deve-

energy sources, or RES

on the economic-ecological plane.

lopment of our enterprises, we should heed the wisdom in these words.

PV Photovoltaic.


TEEM Total Energy and Environmental Management, an integrated system of managing energy and the environment.

As a result of constantly rising

Such an approach to management

energy prices, as mentioned above, it

creates significant possibilities of

may soon become profitable to invest

increasing the company’s competiti-

in electricity production by means of

veness, both on the local level and

photovoltaic cells (PV). According

on the European market.

to the author’s research, the price of electrical energy generated by


means of PV technology in Poland

The presented five-step program

falls somewhere around 0,35 EUR/

of improving energetic media and

kWHe. Such a price does not appear

water consumption shows ways of

to merit risking an investment in this

reducing costs and limiting GHG

technology – yet.

emission. This program also makes

An equally promising possibility

it possible to increase a compa-

might, in time, be on-site generation

ny’s competitiveness on today’s

of biogas, or, more precisely, utilizing

extremely demanding market. The

biogas produced during anaerobic

presented examples are only the

treatment of industrial wastewater.

tip of the iceberg; with their help,

Such solutions are already being

the author attempts to stimulate

implemented in the soft drink industry

the reader’s innovative thinking.

(Table 1), but also in the brewing indu-

Each company, even in the same

stry. Biogas produced in this way may

line of business, has its own unique

subsequently be utilized by the CHP/

characteristics, which need to be

QUAD technology (partially fulfilling its

approached in an individual, but

needs). The energy produced in such

also creative manner.

e-issue downloadable from:

[1] Danfoss Solutions, EnSave Innovati­ve Energy Saving Solutions, materials from energy seminar, Warka 2002. [2] KASHUE, Warsaw, January 2007, link: downlo­ad/WE_i_WO_2008_do_SHE_w_2011.pdf [3] Kasiewicz S., Rogowski W., Inwestycje Hybrydowe - nowe ujęcie oceny efek­ tywności; Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warsaw 2009. [4] Maryniak L., Proces inwestycyjny tech­n ologii CHP/QUAD w przedsiębiorstwie produkcji spożywczej, Agro-Industry 4/2011. [5] Maryniak L., Kogeneracja w przedsię­ biorst wie 3x40%, Agro-Industr y 2/2011. [6] Maryniak L., Kryteria wyboru technologii CHP dla przedsiębiorstwa produkcji spożywczej, Agro-Industry 3/2011. [7] Rogall H., Ekonomia Zrównoważonego Rozwoju. Teoria i Praktyka, Zysk i S-ka Wydawnictwo, Poznań 2010. [8] Stern N., STERN REVIEW: The Eco­ nomics of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press 2006., link: http:// INTINDONESIA/Resource/ - 18 May 2012.


EU European Union. UV ultraviolet light. UV lamps are used to sterilize water and, increasingly, syrups as well..



adulterated products


adulterated food Testimonies are to be weighed, not counted, a wise man once said. Faults are different, but the ‘heaviest’ found by the JHARS Inspection are those classified as adulteration.

Companies marketing agricultural and food products that do not comply with

Urszula Wieteska

requirements established in regulations


or a declaration by the producer are marketing defective goods. Consumers

Faults and type of adulteration include: •     content of foreign (non-dairy) fat in a dairy product, which is against the existing regulations, •     lower content of the main ingredient than that declared by the producer, e.g. lower

who buy such products buy goods that

fish weight,

do not satisfy their expectations and

•     groundless extension of shelf life up to 13 days, or best before end date up to 2 months,

thus they suffer certain financial loss.

•     failure to provide a full list of ingredients, e.g. allergens, stabilizers, preservatives or

Adulterated bread

•     product name containing phrases such as:

flavour enhancers not listed among ingredients,

Between 22 May 2009 and 18 July

“…with rose filling”, when in fact the product contains only rose flavour,

2012 bodies representing the JHARS In-

“…with cheese”, when a cheese substitute was used in product manufacture,

spection published information contained

“…natural” to label a product which was manufactured using a preservative

in 384 decisions on adulterated agricultu-

and colourant

ral and food products manufactured by 199 companies. The highest number of adulterations were found in agricultural and food products from the following commodity groups: bakery and cereal products – 108 (from 45 companies), raw and processed meat – 79 (from 37 companies). Of all published decisions 14 concerned adulterated dairy products manufactured by 11 companies.

Adulterated cheese Faults detected in cottage and rennet cheese include excessive water content,



english issue

e-issue downloadable from:

fat content different from that declared

are tested for microbiological properties

(e.g. underestimated fat content in dried

(characteristic microbial flora).

substance), excessive salt content, incorrect mouthfeel, flavour, colour, consistency, and faults in hole formation. Some of the listed faults concerned single

Adulterated premium products

Increasing the water content and reducing dairy fat content in cheese is evidence of product adulteration

Inspection of premium products carried out in 2011 revealed faults both

lots of inspected cheeses. Faults in physicochemical and

with respect to declared physicochemi-

organoleptic properties of dairy pro-

cal parameters and product labelling.

ducts can result from malfunctions in

Laboratory tests demonstrated faults

processing. However, increasing the

in only about 5% of processed poultry

water content and reducing dairy fat

products and in about 15% of processed

content in cheese is evidence of product

red meat and fish products from the


premium segment.

Adulterated dairy products

No faults were found during the

Inspections focus on the three

inspection of physicochemical pa-

major areas of commercial quality,

rameters in premium products from

i.e. organoleptic properties, physico-

commodity groups like processed

chemical parameters and package

fruit and vegetables, chocolate, and

labelling. Inspections carried out in

olive oil. However, mislabelling was

2010-2012 revealed that with respect to

found significantly more frequently for

organoleptic properties (appearance,

premium products. Labelling of about

mouthfeel, flavour, colour and product

6% of inspected lots of processed fruit

consistency, moisture, etc.) the highest

and vegetable products, and 57% lots

number of faults were in the following

of processed red meat did not comply

the value of material profit, gained

commodity groups: butter (8.6% of faulty

with regulations. In the group of premium

or potential, for the marketing of

lots), rennet cheeses and sour cream

dairy products, mislabelling concerned

the product, but not less than

(4.1% of faulty lots). In consideration

26% of inspected lots, while faults in

PLN 500, plus the amount of fines

of physicochemical properties, e.g.

physicochemical properties were found

imposed within 24 months before

fat, water and salt content, foreign fat

in 13% of lots.

the inspection start date, •     for adulterated products – not more

content, the highest number of faulty lots were found for cream (26.3%), cottage

What is an adulterated product?

Eight habitual offenders

than 10% of income gained in the

cheeses (25.5%) and flavoured cream

Bodies of the JHARS Inspection are

accounting year preceding the year

cheeses (20.7%). Incorrect labelling

authorized to impose fines, based on an

in which the fine was imposed, but

was found mainly for milk (25.5%

administrative decision, for repeated

not less than PLN 1 000, plus the

of inspected lots), cream (25.0% of

marketing of the same type of product

amount of fines imposed within

inspected lots), rennet cheeses (23.6%

with the same fault, which is a habitual

24 months before the inspection

of inspected lots), flavoured cream

offense. The fine level depends on the

start date.

cheeses (21.4% of inspected lots) and

type of detected fault:

cottage cheeses (21.2% of inspected

•     for a product of unsuitable com-

lots). In addition, fermented dairy drinks

mercial quality - up to five times

e-issue downloadable from:

In 2011 eight such decisions were issued.


According to the definition provided in the act on the commercial quality of agricultural and food products “an adulterated agricultural and food product is a product whose ingredients fail to comply with regulations on the commercial quality of individual agricultural and food products, or any other product, which has been previously modified in terms of labelling to provide misleading information on real ingredients or other properties, if such modifications or misinformation significantly violate consumer interests”.





Invests in the Environment

This innovative investment worth 2 million Euros, equipped with cutting-edge oxygen and anaerobic industrial wastewater treatment technologies meets the world´s highest environmental safety standards. But that´s not all – the biogas formed as a result of the pre-treatment process will be used for the needs of the pre-treatment facility and its surplus will serve as a source of energy for the entire plant – said Marcin Szymanski, the Managing Director of the Banino plant.

Janusz Zakręta AGROindustry


stage of the Unilever´s „Living a Balan-

ice cream. Few of us, however, realise

ced and Sustainable Life” plan, which

that they are produced on the outskirts

entails a significant reduction in the

of Gdańsk, in Banino, in the cutting

company´s impact on the environment.

edge Unilever-owned subsidiary fac-

The new pretreatment plant will also

tory. Even fewer of us know that the

serve to neutralise the organic waste

local ice cream come to life in a plant

formed in the process of ice cream

where a great deal of attention is paid

production. The main task for the pre-

to environmental issues. Also because

treatment facility is to lower the level of

investments in infrastructure reduce

pollution in the wastewater discharged

operating costs. And, of course, out

from the plant. The COD (chemical

of concern for the welfare of future

oxygen demand for the oxidation of


the organic and inorganic compounds contained in the effluent) value is used

In 2011, in relation to the level of 2010, Unilever managed to reduce its water consumption (per ton of production): by 10%, in the Katowice plant and by almost 6% in the Bydgoszcz plant. The Banino factory increased the 3 consumption of water up to 240 m Installation Capacity: per day used in production by 26%, and in Poznan Number of treatment stages: 5 by 36%. This is a direct Volume of biogas produced 500-900 m3 effect of an increase in per day (forecast): the scale of production and of the investments Pollution reduction: -97% made. Each of the plants in Poland is Surface of the facility: 400 m2 expected to reduce technology its water consumption hall and throughout 2012 by Structure 4 tanks with a minimum of 2% of the treatment plant a height compared to the level of 7-11m in 2011. Table 1. The pretreatment plant in figures


We all know the Algida and Magnum

New Sewage Pretreatment Plant

as an indicator for measuring the level

September 7 saw the official ope-

of sewage pollution. The aim of the

ning of a new modern bio-chemical

pre-treatment facility is to minimise the

sewage pretreatment plant at the

value of COD pollution in waste water.

Unilever ice cream factory in Banino

The installation allows for the tre-

near Gdansk. This investment worth

atment of up to 240 m3 of wastewater

€2 million is the next implementation

per day.

english issue

e-issue downloadable from:



Katedra Inżynierii i Aparatury Procesowej UWM

forum technologii


Katedra Mleczarstwa i Zarządzania Jakością UWM


24-26 października 2012 Spa Nałęczów





Marian Wesołowski Rektor Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego w Lublinie


23 stycznia 2013 r.





Zarządzanie mediami Kogeneracja, trigeneracja Woda w przemyśle spożywczym Ścieki: kłopot czy źródło przychodów? Produkcja zrównoważona Remonty i Utrzymanie ruchu Nowoczesne linie produkcyjne Bezpieczny zakład produkcyjny

więcej informacji na:

AGRO industry 2012/4 EN  

Skład publikacji dla Agencji Promocji Biznesu

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