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DHW realities

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Balancing energy efficiency and economics

INSIDE n B.C. aims to end code confusion

JAN/FEB 2015


n Teachers more supportive of trades, survey finds n Contractors launch ambitious museum HVAC upgrade n Managing taxes for both the business and employees

PHVAC_JanFeb2015.indd 1

2/5/15 11:19 AM

Q Contents

Hot Water Heating Issue

Departments Hot Seat .........................................5 Building big with wood

Industry News ..............................7 B.C. aims to end code confusion

People & Places ...........................42 Wolseley continues expansion

Coming Events ............................43 Quebec industry show returns

Shop Management .....................45 Managing your taxes

Products & Technologies Hot Water Heating ......................15 Heating ........................................23

Planning for contraction Installing mechanical systems in large wood structures


Refrigeration ...............................35 Pipes, Valves & Fittings ...............39 Tools & Instruments ....................41

DHW tank replacement


Best intentions versus hard economic realities

Cover: The new Halifax Central Library features

Boiler sizing complications

a state-of-the-art mechanical system. Please see our article on page 31.

Planning for new technologies and new lifestyles



Fueled by biomass


Wood-ďŹ red boilers gain ground in age of energy uncertainty January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Hot Seat

Janaury/February 2015 Volume 25, Number 1 ISSN 1919-0395

Publisher Mark Vreugdenhil (416) 614-5819 mark@plumbingandhvac.ca

Going big with wood There is a trend towards larger wood buildings in Canada. B.C. has allowed structures up to six storeys since 2009. Now Quebec and Ontario also allow large wood buildings, as does the City of Calgary. As well, the 2015 National Building Code is expected to include provisions for six-storey wood structures. If one drives around a large city like Toronto, even the four-storey wood buildings currently under construction seem much larger these days. Wood is being used for buildings that would previously have been built from steel and concrete. Why this seemingly sudden move to wood construction? Its proponents say it is a less expensive form of construction. Fifteen percent less is the generally accepted figure. Wood frame builders have been pushing to go higher than four storeys. The forestry industry has been struggling, so it likes the idea too. Of course, there are plenty of critics, not least of which are those from the steel and concrete construction industries which, a) could also use the work and b) question these buildings on a number of fronts including cost, longevity and fire risk. The fire risk is high. It’s a lot of lumber. Several have burned to the ground during construction. They must have fire sprinkler systems. This is an additional cost in many jurisdictions, although B.C. requires sprinklers in new buildings regardless of what they are made of. Large wood residential buildings have been receiving some negative feedback from the people that live in

them as well. Wood carries sound and this has become an issue. And anybody who has climbed from the basement to the top floor in a four-storey stacked townhome knows this is quite a hike. It’s difficult to imagine a six-storey town-home. From a mechanical standpoint, the main issue appears to be that wood buildings can shrink up to ¾” per floor as the wood dries out, so any vertical rigid piping needs expansion joints. Over the years European engineers have been highly critical of our “stick and hollow wall” construction. There is always a sense that wood buildings are not built to last. However, better materials and construction practices should help. Shrinkage can be reduced though the use of engineered wood products. Better sound deadening materials can be used. But these add cost. In my mind, I don’t expect large wood buildings will be a lasting trend. Ultimately, building owners and occupants will make the decision based on the longterm performance. In B.C., we now are seeing more hybrid buildings that combine steel, concrete and wood. We are still in a learning phase and that, I suspect, will continue for some time.

Editor Simon Blake (416) 614-5820 simon@plumbingandhvac.ca Design and Production Tim Norton production@plumbingandhvac.ca Production Manager Lilianna Kantor (416) 614-5815 lily@newcom.ca Circulation Manager Pat Glionna Corporate Services Anthony Evangelista

PLUMBING & HVAC Magazine is published eight times annually by NEWCOM Business Media Inc. and is written for individuals who purchase/ specify/approve the selection of plumbing, piping, hot water heating, fire protection, warm air heating, air conditioning, ventilation, refrigeration, controls and related systems and products throughout Canada.

NEWCOM Business Media Inc. 451 Attwell Drive, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9W 5C4 Tel: (416) 614-2200 • Fax (416) 614-8861

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POSTMASTER: Send all address changes and circulation inquiries to: Plumbing & HVAC Product News magazine, 451 Attwell Drive, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M9W 5C4. Canadian Publications Mail Sales Product Agreement No. 40063170. Postage paid at Toronto, ON. Annual Subscription Canada: $40.00 plus applicable taxes, single copy $5.00 plus applicable taxes. Annual Subscription United States: $60.00 U.S. Annual Subscription foreign: $90.00 U.S. Copyright 2015. The contents of this magazine may not be reproduced in any manner without the prior written permission of the Publisher.

We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Periodical Fund of the Department of Canadian Heritage. A member of: • Canadian Institute of Plumbing & Heating • Canadian Circulation Audit Board • Mechanical Contractors Assoc. of Canada • Ontario Plumbing Inspectors Association • American Society of Heating Refrigerating & Air Conditioning Engineers • Heating Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada • Refrigeration Service Engineers Society of Canada


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Q Industry News

In Brief Strong year end for wholesalers Canada’s plumbing and HVAC/R wholesalers closed out 2014 on a high note, reports the Canadian Institute of Plumbing & Heating (CIPH). Total product sales were up $50.6 million or 14.2 percent compared to December 2013. Total year-to-date product sales were up 3.9 percent, or $223 million, from 2013 for a total of $5,892.8 billion. For December, plumbing sales led the way followed by PVF, waterworks, HVAC/R and hydronics. These were up in much of the country compared to December, 2013. The Atlantic provinces saw a real surge in HVAC/R sales thanks to mini-split sales.

TSSA announces four-year fee freeze The Technical Standards and Safety Authority of Ontario (TSSA) has announced a four-year freeze on all fees except those for boilers and pressure vessels. The current fees were set on May 1, 2013 and will remain unchanged through April 30, 2017. TSSA charges fees for its public safety services on a cost-recovery basis. The fee freeze will be achieved through “ongoing operational efficiencies,” said TSSA president and CEO Michael Beard.

Certification program for chilled beams announced The U.S.-based Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has announced a new certification program for active chilled beams. AHRI Standards 1240 (I-P) and 1241 (SI), Performance Rating of Active Chilled Beams, will serve as rating standards. The program includes active beams that are defined as air induction and diffusion devices that introduce conditioned air to control temperature and/ or humidity and deliver primary air through a series of nozzles. The program will certify water flow rate, water pressure drop, water coil capacity, primary air flow rate, sound generation, and induced air flow rate.


B.C. bulletin aims to reduce code confusion


he B.C. government has listed minimum efficiencies for HVAC equipment for housing and small buildings in Section 9.36 of the B.C. Building Code (BCBC). The requirements were adopted in April 2013 and became effective Dec. 20. However, there may be some confusion because the new efficiency requirements don’t always correspond with those in the province’s Energy

Efficiency Standards Regulation (EESR), both of which contractors and engineers must comply with in HVAC system design. For example, the EESR requires a minimum energy factor of 0.70 for gas or propane storage type water heaters from 20 to 100 U.S. gallons (76-380 litres), while the building code requires 0.67, but with pipe insulation. Gas-fired forced air furnaces up to

Teachers supporting trades – survey A recent survey of educators by the Canadian Apprenticeship Forum found, in contrast to just a few years ago, that most teachers understand that skilled trades represent a viable career. In fact the survey of 715 teachers across Canada shows that 93 percent are encouraging students to consider a trade career. However, in previous surveys of parents and students, and only 13 percent of parents and 18 percent of students thought a trade was a good career choice. And all three groups agreed, however, that the skilled trades involve hard physical labour, something that new technologies mitigate in many trades, reports the CAF. And that’s a problem because educators often don’t understand what students need to know to be successful, reported Sarah Watts-Rynard, CAF executive director. “Many trades rely on strong math and science skills. More than ever before, tradespeople are using technology to address the physical nature of their jobs. Parent and educator perceptions about the trades may be misdirecting youth when it comes to the right skills for success in the trades,” she said. Educators also said they need better tools. They think there’s room for more field trips and hands-on opportunities, better-equipped trades classrooms and more integration of skilled trades content in high school curricula. “This tells us educators are thirsty to pass along insights to their students, particularly when it comes to connecting class work to employment opportunities. Empowering educators

to give timely and relevant advice to their students will make a big difference to how young people feel about a future in the skilled trades,” said Watts-Rynard. More information is available at www.caf-fca.org. 

220,000 Btu/h input must achieve 90 percent AFUE in the EESR and 92 AFUE in the building code. And the list goes on. However, in a bulletin issued Dec. 22, the Building and Safety Standards Branch stipulates that “the more stringent requirement should be used.” Where standards differ, “under no circumstances do differing standards in the EESR and the BCBC result in a lower standard being applied.” The B.C. government is currently working to harmonize the different requirements. The Ther mal Env ironmental Comfort Association of B.C. (TECA) has developed illustrated guides to help contractors understand and comply with the new building code requirements. Titled the Illustrated Guide – Energy Efficiency Requirements for Houses in British Columbia, they can be downloaded at www.teca.ca. There are separate guides for each climate zone – Zone 4, the Lower Mainland and Southern Vancouver Island; Zones 5 to 7A – North Vancouver Island and Interior and Climate Zones 7B and 8, the North. 

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q Industry News

Contractors help museum struggling with high utility costs By Simon Blake An Onar io industr y g roup has launched an ambitious project to help an Ontario museum upgrade its HVAC systems. “The utility costs were killing them,” remarked Ron Robinson of AtlasCare in Oakville, Ont. He is spearheading a technical committee created by the Golden Horseshoe Chapter of

the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI) to help the Erland Lee Home Museum in Stoney Creek, Ont., just south of Hamilton. In 1897 the home was the birthplace of the Women’s Institutes, which are now worldwide. Erland and Janet Lee were key figures in the group’s

Built in 1808, the Erland Lee Home Museum is in dire need of a comprehensive HVAC upgrade, something the non-profit group that runs it can ill afford. formation. The organization worked for women’s rights, the health of babies and improving child safety. Six generations of the Lee family lived in the home from 1808 to 1971. In 1972 the Federated Women’s Institutes of Ontario (FWIO) purchased the home to preserve it as a museum and a memorial to the birthplace of Women’s Institutes. The FWIO also has its headquarters there.

Because the museum is a Heritage Building, the contractors cannot do anything that would alter its appearance. As well, there is a carriage house built in 1873 that is used for special events and houses a display of farm equipment, tools, quilts and Stoney Creek history. “They told me about a year ago that ‘we have this old boiler in the


Plumbing & HVAC – January/February 2015

basement and it’s falling apart. We’ve had a flood in the basement,” said Robinson. During recent cold snaps, the old oil boiler running flat out could only heat the building to 56°F, reported FWIO president Margaret Byl. There is also electric heating in the office area. The Carriage House has electric wall units and an electric radiant floor. Because the museum is a Heritage Building, the contractors cannot do anything that would alter its appearance. And there is no gas to the property. The technical committee is looking at installing a propane boiler for the museum with radiant heating and convectors along with a forced air furnace with air conditioning for the offices and artifact storage area. Ductless heat pumps are being considered for the coach house. The group is seeking support from the industry to update the system with the goal of substantially reducing operating costs, said Robinson. “It’s quite a project and the Golden Horseshoe Chapter is going to be donating some funds to the project as well as organizing manpower.” For more information, call Ron Robinson at (905) 961-2295 or e-mail rrobinson@atlascare.ca. 


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Q Building with Wood B.C. has allowed six-storey wood buildings since 2009. As a result, engineers and contractors have gained considerable experience.

The new rules introduced in Ontario Jan. 1 are very similar to those proposed for the National Building Code. Six-storey buildings are allowed but with a number of fire protection measures including automatic sprinklers, sprinklering of balconies, non-combustible exterior cladding and roofing, compartmentalization of large sprinklered areas like attics and a 1.5-hour fire rating for exit stairwells.

Engineered structures




ne only has to drive around any major city today to see large wood structures under construction that would previously have been made from concrete and steel. Mechanical contractors are increasingly finding themselves installing plumbing and HVAC systems in these buildings. With pressure from the lumber industry and wood frame builders, along with housing shortages in many large cities, governments are looking to wood construction as a possible solution for mid-rise buildings, pointing to a cost savings of about 15 percent over other forms of construction. They also maintain that wood construction offers greater design flexibility, particularly for in-fill construction and other uses where the building has to be designed to fit the available space. As well, advances in wood technology with engineered wood products make it possible to build larger and better buildings than was possible with common dimensional lumber.

Building code changes B.C., perhaps not surprisingly given its forestry industry, was the first to allow six-storey wood structures beginning in April of 2009. Last year Quebec amended its building code to allow them. In the fall the City of Calgary also


Mechanical systems in tall wood structures present unique challenges By Simon Blake

announced that it would allow them through a building permit variance. And, effective Jan. 1 this year, Ontario allows six-storey wood structures as well. The 2015 version of the National Building Code is also expected to include mid-rise wood buildings. In 2011 the Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes created a joint committee to review existing requirements for combustible buildings and make recommendations. They looked at four specific areas – fire protection, emergency response, building and plumbing services and structural/earthquake design. The task group determined that height and area limits for buildings constructed of combustible materials (wood) could safely be increased to six storeys by either introducing new and/or modifying various protective measures. These included greater access for firefighters and mandatory sprinklers conforming to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 13 Standard. The changes would apply to residential, office and mixed use (residential and office) buildings.

There are several key issues that mechanical engineers and contractors need to keep in mind with six-storey wood buildings. Wood shrinks as it dries, the fire hazard is high, wood conducts sound and thermal bridging can affect heat loss/gain calculations. Wood structures don’t just shrink a little. “There is significant contraction,” noted Ron Wong, a mechanical engineer with Ron Wong and Associates, Richmond, B.C. Engineers design for ¾ inches of contraction per floor. Engineered wood products can reduce shrinkage somewhat, but nevertheless loops, offsets or expansion/ slip joints need to be used on any vertical rigid piping. “With the expansion and contraction of buildings along with the aggressive water we have (in B.C.), the use of plastic piping makes sense, but you have to make sure the fire ratings are achieved,” Wong added. Wood also conducts sound and that is increasingly becoming an issue. As result, owners and builders have been getting noise complaints from the occupants, remarked Cast iron DWV David Pope, former City of piping requires Vancouver chief building expansion joints, inspector and a consultant to like this one from the Canadian Copper & Brass Bibby Ste. Croix. Development Association. Engineers and architects have been trying to address the problem and, for DWV (drain, waste, vent) piping, there has been a trend towards cast iron. “We still recommend they use cast iron drain pipes because of sound issues,” said Wong. The introduction of slip joints in three and four-inch sizes has made this easier. Wong specifies them for both drains and vent stacks, typically installed at every second floor. Hot and cold water piping is typically done in plastic, so expansion joints are not required. Piping is installed according to manufacturer’s instructions, typically with an upper and lower riser clamp at every second floor.

Please see ‘Fire’ on page 13

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q Building with Wood

Fire risk high Continued from page 11 Flexible piping expands and contracts with the building, noted Uponor rep Bernie Hesmert, president of JSA Sales Inc. in Coquitlam, B.C. The pressure zones are similar for wood buildings as for concrete and steel, he added. Because of the ďŹ re risk, engineers are reluctant to specify any piping that requires soldering, brazing or welding. HVAC venting isn’t such a large issue because it would typically run though a joist space and be sidewall vented. The only vertical stacks would be for corridor ventilation. Breakaway joints wherever there’s a branch

wood structures must have heavy laminated studs and beams. When calculating heating loads, engineers need to take into account the thermal bridging through these heavy timbers, which reduces the insulation value. “I would think in Ontario you may have to have continuous insulation on the outside; in B.C. our temperatures don’t get as cold,� remarked Wong. One thing contractors need to keep in mind in these larger wood buildings is that job-site co-ordination with other trades becomes more critical than ever. “You can’t just go in and throw your system in without considering the other trades. In low rise it’s a little more forgiving. In mid-rise, because the structure is quite extensive, there’s a

lot more co-ordination in terms of installation,â€? said Wong. It remains to be seen how well large wood buildings will do in the long-term. Pope noted that in B.C. builders are ďŹ nding there is less cost savings than they had hoped. “By the time they come up with ways to help abate the noise transference, the costs rise and you’re not really saving that much money.â€? He added that there’s a move away from all wood structures to hybrid concrete, steel and wood buildings. In the long-term, building owners and occupants will decide. But for the time being, mechanical contractors and engineers need to adapt to this form of mid-rise construction. 

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Here in B.C., now they require some form of ďŹ re protection in place during construction. usually allow enough movement to compensate for contraction or expansion. Adequate compensation for expansion is one of the key things that building inspectors look for, noted Pope, who spoke to a number of other chief building inspectors for this article. “(Inspectors) look for proper use and installation of expansion joints. If the inspector on the site doesn’t think it’s covered adequately, he will asked the professional engineer of record to address it.â€?


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Fire protection As we mentioned, ďŹ re protection is a major issue. And wood buildings are particularly vulnerable during construction. “Here in B.C., now they require some form of ďŹ re protection in place during construction,â€? noted Wong. Among other things, where buildings require standpipes there must be at least one standpipe, placed adjacent to useable stairs, with ďŹ re hose connections, before the building reaches 40 feet above ďŹ re department access. B.C. also considers an underground parking garage as a separate building. It requires a two-hour FT (ďŹ re and temperature) rating between the parking garage and the building. “This FT rating is tricky with an all cast iron system,â€? noted Wong. He will often specify a cast iron system above and a PVC (IPEX System 15) system below to prevent heat transfer. However, he has found that some municipalities won’t allow the cast iron/PVC combination. “If you use cast iron all the way you end up having to install some fairly signiďŹ cant insulation to meet the temperature rating. It’s got to be stainless steel wrapped and have a reective jacket.â€?

Thermal bridging Thermal bridging through heavy wood beams can also be an issue. Because B.C. is in an earthquake zone, tall


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January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC




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Q Hot Water Heating The old DHW tanks were past their design lifespan and starting to leak.

Funny, the new tanks look just like the old tanks. Once installation and operating costs were calculated, that proved the most prudent way to proceed.


TANK REPLACEMENT Sometimes best intentions bump up against hard economic realities By Michael McCartney


erman Canadian Housing of Newmarket, Ont. is a complex of townhouses and residential towers with some geared-toincome as well as full-rate rentals and condominiums. The complex was built in 1999 to a very high standard of construction thanks to the presence of a

Due diligence The taller of the two towers has three 80-gallon tanks. The shorter one has two. When one tank in each tower failed it became apparent that their outright replacement had to happen. As is the case with most complexes governed by a management firm and a board of directors, it was deemed necessary to have a third party handle the specifications for the new tanks as well as the tendering and implementation processes. This was not a big-money project, but due diligence was called for in this instance just as it would for a major repair like a chiller change-out.

Analysis of the summer gas bills revealed that the high efficiency tanks would generate a payback that was very long-term compared to the savings offered immediately… regional building official on its board of directors. Subsequent to the project being turned over, a similarly high standard of maintenance has been met for all items of mechanical equipment. It was not surprising, therefore, that the domestic hot water tanks installed as original equipment outlasted their design lives by several years.


It was first thought that the use of high efficiency condensing type tanks could result in a payback on energy savings for the complex, so equipment of that type was called for in the project’s specifications. A site visit with five contractors whose capability

Please see ‘Quick’ on page 17

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC



Q Hot Water Heating

FASNSEAL® DOUBLE WALL, SINGLE WALL AND FLEXIBLE SPECIAL GAS VENT SYSTEM A leak-free installation that’s meant to last. Vent lengths and components feature patented built-in mechanical locking band and triple-lipped directional gaskets. All pipes and components are engineered with smooth clean welds located 90° from mechanical locking bands. Westaire’s Ed Vella and Derek Brown install the new tanks.

Construction allows for ease of installation.

Quick installation critical Continued from page 15 was unquestionable was set up, the two towers were reviewed and several days later the board received tenders.

systems operational as soon as possible. All in all, the job went extremely well and the client has been left with a domestic hot water system that will probably last another twenty years from the date of installation.

An alternate proposal

Quick quality installation critical

The low bidder proposed an alternate to the high efficiency DHW tanks, pointing out that the use of standard efficiency tanks offered a significant savings. Analysis of the summer gas bills revealed that the high efficiency tanks would generate a payback that was very long-term compared to the savings offered immediately, so the contractor’s recommendation was adopted. The day after tenders were received one of the two remaining tanks in the larger of the complex’s two towers failed, leaving the residents with only one of three functioning water heaters. The contractor, Westaire Air Conditioning & Heating Ltd., Mississauga, Ont., with the concurrence of the property manager, decided to replace the three tanks in the high tower first. Accordingly, signs were posted throughout the towers notifying the residents of the pending changeout. Forewarning the tenants that the hot water system would be down for up to two days prevented a flurry of complaints to the management when the work took place.

As was stated previously, this was not a huge project in terms of monies spent. However, as far as the tenants of the towers were concerned it was of critical importance and it had to be well executed. The contractors who quoted the project were made well aware of the situation: tanks were failing and the project had to be fast-tracked. Drawings and specifications were produced and a walk-though was conducted. Subsequent to issuance of the purchase order the contractor and his crew chief made several trips to the site, prior to the delivery of the new tanks, took measurements and got their equipment list in order. When the job got under way, all members of the installation crew were fully briefed on their roles and, as a result, the job went smoothly when executed. These principles, applied to any project regardless of size and scope, will ensure that the installation will be carried out in a timely and efficient manner and that all the involved parties will benefit. That, in my opinion, is the mark of a good business deal. 

Follow us on social media or for more information on our products, visit www.duravent.com

Working carefully in a cramped space Moving the tanks into the cramped space allotted in the taller of the towers was not made any easier by the presence of projections on the heating boilers, so they had to be slid into place on their sides with precautions taken to avoid injury to their exteriors. Carpets leading to the boiler rooms from the freight elevators were protected with several layers of thick boxboard. The work progressed well thanks to the contractor’s crew who worked the extra hours required to make the


Michael (Mike) McCartney is now working as an independent design engineer through M. E McCartney Engineering Ltd., a company he founded in 1992. He can be reached at MMcceng77 @aol.com.

800-835-4429 www.duravent.com ©2014

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q Hot Water Heating

Modern technology and lifestyles can make it complicated


By Roy Collver

reality is most people are city dwellers and spend their time in stop-and-go traffic. A great big motor just hates to be treated that way. It will punish you with high fuel bills and expensive maintenance costs and so will an oversized boiler. On the other hand, you do have to keep up with traffic, even if you only go out onto the highway occasionally. Over-sizing can be mitigated using outdoor reset combined with burner modulation, as well as other strategies. Multiple boilers result in a kind of modulation as well. Today’s burner and control technology can allow you to pick a boiler with enough kick to get the job done in the extreme conditions, but still behave well when it has to just idle. I will cover some of this in the next issue of this magazine.

Maximum input

Without a rating plate, you have some work to do to get the “number” on an old boiler.

A new boiler should have the information on the rating plate or specification sheet.


oiler selection is getting trickier. Choosing the type of boiler to fit into a given hydronic system is step one in the process; step two is determining the optimum size of that boiler. In the last two decades, choices in boiler type have expanded at a rate never seen before and sizing has become increasingly complex because of it. This article is focused mostly on residential and light commercial multi-load heating system requirements, as commercial and industrial applications have too many variables to deal with properly here In the “good old days,” only the maximum size (input) required by a hydronic system was of great concern when choosing a boiler – you never wanted to be caught short. In the “new age,” however, we have really started looking at the bottom end as being equally important. When you choose an automobile engine, having the horsepower to be able to merge onto the expressway with just a touch on the gas pedal feels great, but the


Plumbing & HVAC – January/February 2015

Deciding on the maximum input required is pretty easy. A hydronic system’s maximum load occurs when the maximum energy input required by the heating system is combined with the maximum energy input required by simultaneously operating auxiliary loads. Careful system design and control (like DHW priority) can help split up these energy input requirements so as to reduce boiler size, but such strategies are limited. For heating only, a system’s heat loss is at its maximum on the (almost) coldest day of the year as determined by ASHRAE (ASHRAE 90.1, Table 6.8). However, it is a bit more complicated than that and if you are a homeowner when the temperature drops below the “official” design outdoor temperature, you likely still expect it to keep up, despite ASHRAE’s determination. An accurate heat loss calculation will give you the design load, although in retrofit situations it is common for people to just pick a boiler with the same input as the old one. This can work reasonably well provided you dig deep to determine whether it was over or undersized. The owner or the former service contractor may have valuable information to share. If a retrofit is scheduled long enough in advance, you can try and get to the building on a design day and see how hard the boiler is working. If you know what to look for, this can actually be the most accurate way to determine the system’s design load – just remember that you have to calculate using boiler net output, not


input. If the old boiler no longer has a rating plate, you will likely have to do a combustion test and clock the gas meter to determine its actual net output.

Calculating efficiency For fuel-burning appliances, here is how to come up with the net boiler efficiency – if you already have the efficiency number, you can work the formula backwards to find the net output. We simply take the maximum Btu/h input (energy produced by fuel in), and then reduce that by how much heat is left over after the flue products get thrown out of the chimney (leaving energy input to water).

Net Boiler Efficiency (%) Boiler output Boiler input

Net boiler X 100 = efficiency (%)

Net output numbers do vary, based on how the ratings tests were done and under which testing standard. The boiler’s spec. sheet should give you an output number you can easily use, but beware – actual performance can vary. An AFUE rating means the output number was derived by testing the boiler under fixed load conditions

Please see ‘Car’ on page 21

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C.J. Smith establishes the company

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Q Hot Water Heating

“Car wash” showers Continued from page 19 with 140°F supply water out and 120°F return water back to the boiler. Any other operating conditions will skew the number up or down. A 100,000 Btu/h input condensing boiler might give you 95,000 Btu/h output under AFUE conditions, but when called on to deliver 180°F supply water, the number will drop to below 89,000 Btu/h. (See Fig. 1)

Deciphering the terminology When it comes to rating terminology, in addition to AFUE ratings, you might see the terms “DOE seasonal efficiency” (same as AFUE), CSA input (max and min), DOE heating capacity, net I=B=R

capacity auxiliary loads (hot tubs, pool heating, snow melting, etc.), you have to dig deeper to find the maximum energy input required at any given time. Look at your heat source and your system loads to figure out which ones will likely be running together. And don’t forget that pick-up load; it can be a huge factor in radiant heating and snow melting applications. Controls and piping strategies can be used to kajiggle things around in order to prioritize and split up simultaneous heating load calls – this can help to reduce boiler size. Be careful though, some loads may need to run more often and for longer than you account for. Come washday, priority DHW may leave a building too cold.

We get so hung up on avoiding over-sizing that we forget that under-sizing can have serious consequences as well. (IBR) ratings, combustion efficiency, thermal efficiency – it goes on and on. To keep it simple, use the CSA output or the DOE heating capacity, when listed, and then massage it for unusual water temperatures – it will get you close enough. Many boilers require a de-rating for altitudes over 2,000 feet, so make sure you check the boiler spec. sheet to see if that will apply to the model you are using. If you can’t find the answers you need on the specification sheets – don’t be shy, contact the manufacturer or their local rep. to get the right number. One important consideration that often gets ignored is the piping and pick-up factor. The old Net I=B=R Rating system took this into account when it automatically added 15 percent to a system heat loss to account for the extra heat required when a boiler is cycled through a wide operating differential, or recovers from night setback. Boilers for larger commercial systems often need to be sized for a generous pick-up factor – 15 percent may not be enough in some cases for timely space temperature recovery.

Extra loads But it isn’t over yet. In this day and age of what I call “car wash” showers and high


Fixed fire boilers give you no wiggle room – maximum output all of the time. If you have a hydronic system with many small loads, you will need to include thermal mass to smooth things out. Choose a high mass boiler or look to add in a buffer tank. Multiple boilers and modulating boilers make life much easier. One last caution. We get so hung up on avoiding over-sizing that we forget that under-sizing can have serious consequences as well. Improper control of multiple boilers, or splitting loads up and prioritizing them, may result in a boiler running flat-out almost all of the time. Residential boilers are not designed for that. This is one of the reasons manufacturer’s boiler warranties have so many exclusions for commercial use. Hard-running boilers will not last very long unless they are specifically designed for continuous full-fire operation. Talk to your manufacturer. 

Roy Collver is an author and consultant on hydronic heating based in Parksville, B.C. He can be reached at hoth2o@shaw.ca

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January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Heating



Wood-fired boilers gain ground amidst energy uncertainty By Bruce Nagy About 400,000 years ago, lightning hit a rotten tree somewhere and it burst into flames as it sometimes did; but this time it was different. While all the cave people ran in fear from the blaze, one enterprising individual did not. She stared at the fire, came a little closer, felt its warmth, tasted the meat of an unfortunate rabbit that had been roasted by the flames. It was a fateful day. After that humans learned to control fire, burning wood and grasses to cook, keep warm, ward off insects and dangerous animals, and reduce their fear of the nighttime hours.

What’s old is new We still burn wood and grass products today, but we call it biomass. It is the quiet workhorse of the energy supply. The International Energy Agency estimates that by 2035, use of bioenergy (including liquid fuels) for heating could grow by more than 60 percent. In North America, the wood products part of the market is projected to grow from 17 million dry tonnes to 37 million between 2012 and 2017, a 117 percent increase. In Canada biomass is even more of a workhorse, given that we lead the world in biomass resources, exports, forest management, plant genetics research, fibre processing, supply-chain expertise, and wood heat technology development.

Sharing the heat Maintenance and capital investment were key issues for a biomass project in the Okanagan Valley town of Enderby, B.C. The customers are mostly private sector businesses on or near the town’s main street. They are all connected to the same boiler, housed by Fink Machine Inc. “We actually had to register as an energy utility,” said Fink sales rep Stephen Bearss. In 2011 the company installed a Viessmann Pyrot KRT-540 wood-fired boiler rated at 540 kW, with a plan to share the heat with a few nearby businesses. Before they knew it they had eight clients.

How it works The boiler is the primary source of space heating, domestic hot water and pool heating. It uses a modern monitoring system, advanced combustion technology, a triple-


The Enderby boiler plant was built with future expansion in mind. pass heat exchanger and modulating output control to reach 85 to 90 percent efficiency and to limit emissions. Sensors send continuous data to the control panel, which automatically adjusts values within pre-set ranges. It can burn several kinds of biomass including wood chips and pellets. At full capacity, the system consumes about 800 tonnes of locally sourced wood fuel each year and helps mitigate about 400 tonnes of greenhouse gas. A Viessmann Vitocrossal 200 gas-fired, condensing boiler rated at 326 kW provides backup and additional capacity during peak loads. (It hasn’t been needed yet.) The heating system feeds two buffer tanks with a combined 7800 litre capacity. The heated water is distributed through a manifold into 640 metres of two and three-inch insulated PEX lines, supplying transfer stations and customers. The boiler house includes a 50 tonne fuel bunker designed to allow two 53-foot trailers to unload simultaneously, and to provide a month’s fuel in winter. An automated walking floor delivers wood chips from the bunker to the boiler’s feed auger. When fuel gasification and combustion are complete, an automated de-ashing system transfers ashes to a cooling bin. Later an auger extracts the ashes into a large external container. The system is now operating in the 250 kW range or at about 50 percent capacity. It will soon be at about 70

percent. The system is designed to be easily upgraded to a 720 kW boiler if needed.

Systems updated and combined There were a number of different heating systems in the Enderby buildings, including older forced air systems, baseboard heating and so on that were costly to operate or maintain. The new hot water is used for radiant floors or fan coils. “Customers are seeing 10-15 percent savings in their heating bills and are no longer dedicating operational expenses to repair and maintain existing gas units, or capital to replace them,” says Bearss. “This system was built in the heart of natural gas fed communities. This was another ‘cannot be done’ belief that was myth-busted.” Each client is connected to the energy centre through heat transfer stations fitted with a Schneid control unit that communicates with the main system. Schneid controls are made in Austria and are specifically designed for district heating systems. Three new customers are coming on line in the near future and at least one of them will not even install a backup system, relying completely on Fink’s redundancy. Getting local politicians on board was critical in getting the system installed quickly. “The mayor and councillors

See ‘P.E.I.’ on page 25

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Heating

P.E.I. project expands Continued from page 23

is using biomass heat to help stabilize its lumber industry in the face of weaker North American demand for potatoes. The province has begun installing biomass boilers in hospitals, prisons and schools, saving a little money compared with oil, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and very importantly, creating local forestry and HVAC jobs.

How it works

Insulated PEX piping carries heated water throughout the downtown. were fully on board and they helped expedite rights of way and easements,” said Bearss. The company broke ground in spring and flipped the switch in December. They are now working on similar projects in other towns.

Institutional applications Prince Edward Island was known for its forests long before it was known for its potatoes. Today the P.E.I. government


One of the companies involved is Wood4Heating, P.E.I. Inc. It finances, installs and operates the boiler, charging institutions only for the heat itself, on a 20-year contract, reported company principal Detlev Elsner. Existing oil boilers are retained as backup and new, separate buildings are constructed to contain locally sourced wood chips, hoppers, augers, buffer tanks and biomass boilers. For hospitals, a 650 kW boiler is generally needed. For schools a 300-500 kW model is more likely to be installed. Since 2012, the company has hooked up seven schools, four medical facilities and one prison. In the next six months it will add nine more installations. It also hopes to do similar installations in other provinces by partnering with local contractors. The company is now using Austrian Herz boilers. They include a special flue gas probe that controls primary and secondary airflows, optimizing energy efficiency and maintaining emission levels within regulations.

Today’s wood fired boiler plants, like this design used in P.E.I., are fully automated. Its control system manages heat, domestic hot water, return flow, and solar add-ons. Both the integrated heat exchanger and the combustion grate are continuously and automatically cleaned during operation, further adding to efficiency and reducing operational maintenance. It typically takes about a week to install the boiler. “Our first installation took almost two months while we were training local trades. We provide a technical specialist on site to help with every install,” said Elsner. Dealing with today’s energy uncertainty by burning wood has become a growing trend around the world.  Bruce Nagy is a Toronto-based freelance writer that reports on green technologies and solutions. He can be reached at bruce.nagy@rogers.com.

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Heating

A little plumbing knowledge will go a long way for the HVAC tech

Dealing with


Excessive vent length exposed to the elements will freeze up in winter.

By Bob Bettles and Brian Guttormson

This condensate drain didn’t work due to the tube being too long in the pump. Gas fired furnaces have changed quite a bit over the years and, as we push on into the future, we will see many alternatives to monitor condensate or the flow of water through and out of the product. Manufacturers are always trying better ways to control the water while making a safe product. Engineers struggle with this day-to-day because of the push-back from the servicing trades as furnaces become more complicated.

Forced air evolution Perhaps we should go back to the basics with a quick review of the history of gas-fired products and some of the changes: First generation products were rated at 80 percent steady state efficiency. The annual fuel usage (AFUE) was, at best, in the 60 percent range. The products of combustion were carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), a trace of carbon monoxide (CO) and a large amount of excess air due to the open heat exchanger and free flowing draft hood design. Stack temperatures were up to 450ºF. Second generation product with the addition of a secondary heat exchanger came up to a nominal 90 percent steady state efficiency. AFUE ratings were not published but did improve to the mid 70 percent levels,


but with the open combustion chambers excess air volume was still up there. Stack temperatures dropped immensely, allowing the use of PVC vent materials. With the lower stack temperatures, condensate produced in the vent system had to be controlled. Third generation products were redesigned to achieve a 90 percent AFUE with each manufacturer using specialized controls that were not interchangeable with other units in the field. Stack temperature has dropped again with the resulting increase in condensate. Today’s products are now all in excess of the 90 percent values with some reaching 95 percent plus. Unlike first and second-generation products, none of the controls interchange, installation and vent procedures and lengths are critical and manufacturer’s installation instructions must be followed to the letter. In your travels have a look at the exhaust plumes of various products, power vented water tanks will have a very heavy plume, older 90 percent products a smaller plume and current 95 percent products less again. Where is the condensate?

Servicing today’s furnaces

themselves that the original products were easier to service and that today’s product is getting harder and harder to work on. We tend to disagree, given all of the controls, safeties, idiot lights, flash coding and the tools available to help service the product. When a problem arises it seems that the pressure switch is the first thing to be changed out. When that fails to fix the problem, the parts really start to come out. The technician needs to go back and follow the basic sequence of product operation until the failure occurs. One of the common missed problems is the set up, gas pressure and temperature rise; consult the manufacturer’s manuals and rating plates for the set-up procedures. Complete the start-up sheets provided in every manual for future reference. A harsh winter last year really put systems to the test. Condensate water was trying to leave the product in a hurry, but there were numerous problems due to things like products on the edge of a pressure switch fault due to insufficient vent slope, excessive vent lengths and missing vent hangers. Improper rises and colder operating primaries create condensation in the end loops of the primary

We get to sit and listen to contractor groups from time to time and the contractors seem to agree among

Please see ‘Homeowner’ on page 29

Condensate drains need to be vented to prevent air bubbles and double traps.

We see the other end of the bubble at the floor drain termination.

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC



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Q Heating

Homeowner changes can compromise the installation Continued from page 27

eventually cause the air switch to flutter. You may notice a flood back of some of this puddle when the vent blower stops.

heat exchanger. This will eventually cause a primary failure due to rust. And with water being where it should not be, some panels might show signs of Condensate drain routing water weeping out of unconventional places, causing Forced air furnaces have evolved to become smaller, further rusting. shorter, more compact and electrically more erratic Service technicians, with the use of a manometer, a and challenging, but they are operating seasonally with piece of tubing and a tee to hook in series with the air fewer failures and less cost for the homeowner. switch, should know what to look for. Most switches at Some manufacturers are updating their product peak performance at temperature rise will operate at 5/8 guides based on field experience, adding instructions to 1”water column (wc) above such as the furnace needs to be the open setting on the switch. level side to side but lifted ¼” to If the switch is not consistent, a ½” in the back to help the water failure will occur. run in the furnace secondary heat Remember that exchanger and drain more rapidly Troublesome venting to the collector boxes. several ounces of stagnant “It worked last year but not The first rule of plumbing is now!” Explain that to the water not moving within the to vent every drain! When exiting homeowner. The blank stare will furnace with a drain tube exhaust system is enough the go right through you. The best it is required to have, in most place to begin troubleshooting a to stop the furnace on its cases, an open tee at the side of condensate problem is with the the cabinet. This is to prevent a basics. Water does not run up safety switch. second trap downstream from hill; the venting must flow at a the appliance. Always make consistent ¼-inch or more perthis a dedicated drain point; foot back to the furnace. use a second drain for the air Crossing of a closed ceiling often sees venting conditioning coil. Twinning the furnace and A/C installed with inadequate slope. Also, it should drains together may create a positive pressure on the be noted that checking the product vent tables is furnace trap outlet. critical. Running outside of the tables supplied by If your floor drain connection is more than five feet manufacturer will create water bogging within the from the cabinet, unless you can maintain a slope to the piping, stopping the system on its high-pressure drain, use a condensate pump. If you must locate the switch at or around five to 10 minutes of operation. pump behind the furnace, be sure to have an open tee Remember that several ounces of stagnant water not above the pump. moving within the exhaust system is enough to trigger What worked in the past may still work, but read the the safety switch. manuals and do your due diligence. If you save an extra In your original installation, you did your due $15 or $30 in your original install; is that a good savings diligence to insure the vent system was installed as per at 2:00 a.m. when your cold customer is calling, because the manufacturer’s manual with the proper slope and you saved a buck?  supports. On arrival for a service call you find your new homeowner has created in the basement a man Bob Bettles cave, playroom or whatever with a finished ceiling. It HVAC author and trainer Robert hopefully is a lay-in tile system to allow inspection of (Bob) Bettles is technical service the vent system and see if they have disturbed your adviser and product trainer for original venting. B&B Trade Distribution Centre. If it is a hard ceiling without access, how will you He can be reached at bbettles@ prove they have disturbed your system? In the past, bandbtrade.com. we would suggest a golf ball dropped in the exhaust to verify slope back to the furnace. Anyone who has chased Brian Guttormson one of these balls around a pasture will realize they will HVAC author and trainer Brian roll through a puddle. Guttormson is technical service Alternately, a ping-pong ball will roll through advisor for Trent Metals Ltd. a properly, sloped system, but if a droop exists, it (Supply). He can be reached at will float in the puddle and stop! The puddle in the techsupport@tmlsupply.com. system will try to flow with the airflow of the exhaust to the outdoors; the weight of this wave of water will


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Q Building Green The new Halifax Central Library has drawn worldwide attention for its innovative design.

State-of-the-art mechanical systems contribute to energy efficiency By Art Irwin

Halifax builds

showcase library The existing Halifax Central Library on Spring Garden Road, one of the most attractive locations in Halifax, was opened in 1951. In 1987 an assessment indicated the spaces were cramped and overcrowded. In the mid 1990s, Halifax, Dartmouth, Bedford and Halifax County amalgamated and a new library board was created. It was again realized the 3,594 square metres (38,690 square feet) building was too small. At this point there were also a number of other problems including leaks, an undersized elevator and no sprinkler system. In 2007, the regional council approved a new library to be located at the corner of Queen Street and Spring Garden Road. The estimated cost of the project was 57.6 million.

Design competition Solar gain from the windows and the skylight in the central atrium is absorbed by the structure and reduces the need for heat at night.


An international competition for a design contract was established. The winning team consisted of a joint venture by Danish firm Schmidt Hammer Lassen and Fowler Bauld & Mitchell of Halifax. Construction of the library was carried out by EllisDon and the mechanical and electrical, energy, LEED and audiovisual design was administered by engineering firm CBCL Limited of Halifax. CBCL has been around for over 55 years and has won a number of engineering awards. Tom Watson is their senior mechanical engineer and was very helpful to me in preparing this article. Atlantica Mechanical was responsible for the underground mechanical. They have in excess of 300

employees and carry out sheet metal fabrication and installation and have carried out a number of the larger HVAC installations in the area including the Dalhousie Life Sciences Building, DND Submarine Shed and additions to the Halifax Stanfield Airport, just to mention a few. Doug Holstead, vice president of construction, reported that the new Halifax Library was a very good project with no major problems

“Eye-popping” structure The new library is a five-storey structure comprising of 11,000 square metres (120,000 sq. ft.). A sky-lighted atrium crisscrossed by stairs and walkways spans the interior height of the structure. The design has garnered international attention and was featured by CNN as one of ten “eye popping” new buildings of 2014. Patrons of

The building will take advantage of the generous rainfall by harvesting rainwater for use in the flush fixtures within the structure. the upper cafe will have access to a rooftop patio area as well as the “Halifax Living Room” housed in the large cantilevered portion of the building overlooking Spring Garden Road. The ground floor houses a 300seat auditorium, which will also serve as a reading space when not used for performances. There is also a cafe on the first floor.

Please see ‘State’ on page 33

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Building Green

State-of-the-art heat recovery returns. Levels 2,3 and 4 have large open public areas and enclosed “program rooms” organized around a large central atrium with a skylight above. The facade system is a state of the art pre-manufactured curtain wall with exemplary air tightness. Vision glass is maximized on the north and south facades to optimize passive solar heat gain and daylight penetration into the building. Curtain wall sections have been designed with large individual panels and the mullion system within the heated envelope to minimize thermal bridging. Opaque sections of curtain wall also have spray foam insulation and back panels to further maximize the thermal performance of the facade.

with waterside economizers provide central cooling. Two state-of-the-art heat recovery dedicated outside air systems provide conditioned ventilation air throughout the building. Inside the library, a combination of four-pipe chilled heated beams, fan coil units and heated/chilled floors provide the necessary heating and cooling to each thermal zone. The variable speed fan and pumping system is somewhat unique. The cooling system has a radiative component to help maintain surface temperature in the summer to improve comfort conditions. The new library will be a regional resource, an active information place and a reflection of the communities within the Halifax Regional Municipality. It will enhance the ability of the Halifax Public Libraries to provide services and reach out to and attract more people. 

Central cooling Mechanical rooms don’t get much cleaner than this. Piping and heat exchangers are well insulated. Continued from page 31 The building will take advantage of the generous rainfall by harvesting rainwater for use in the flush fixtures within the structure. Plants used in the landscape and green roof design do not require irrigation. Most roof surfaces are vegetated or covered with patio stones to enhance views of the building from above, particularly from Citadel Hill.

District heating The concrete frame and floors provide inherent thermal mass, meaning that heat generated during the day by solar gain, equipment or people is absorbed

The cooling pump system is located in the penthouse mechanical room.


and emitted, reducing the need for active heating at night. A district heating system from Dalhousie University heats the building. It is shut down during the summer, but if needed the library has a back-up system capable of heating the entire structure. In fact the structure actually has three types of heating. There is an electric boiler for dehumidification in summer and there are three Cleaver Brooks Clearfire-C natural gas condensing boilers sized for the full demand of the structure as a secondary or back up heating source. Two of them have a capacity of 1,800 kBtu/hr and one has a capacity of 1,500 kBtu/hr. There are two B&G plate and frame district heat hot water heat exchangers; each with a heat exchange capacity of 2,150 kBtu/hr. The chillers are air cooled packaged machines; Trane RTAC, 185 tons each, complete with airside economiser on both machines. Lighting systems take advantage of the abundant natural light from the large windows and a skylight, which minimizes the energy demand by the building lighting systems. The building has a large underground parking area and exterior plazas on the north and south sides. On Level 1, mechanical and electrical systems interface with an automated conveyer system for transporting and sorting book

Basically the mechanical system consists of a new connection into the district heating system owned and operated by Dalhousie University, as previously mentioned. Two rooftop water chillers

Arthur A. Irwin operates Irwin Energy Consulting Services in Halifax. He can be reached at irwin.a@ ns.sympatico.ca.

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January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


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Q Refrigeration



Large supermarket chains push energy efficiency forward like never before By Greg Scrivener Refrigeration often accounts for 50 percent of the energy used in a supermarket and, consequently, supermarket refrigeration has been the target of many energy reduction strategies. Some of the energy reductions are accomplished using methods that the industry has been aware of for many years but are only possible now because of relatively new technology and others have been used only occasionally and are becoming more common. We are going to delve into a few of the refrigeration system energy reduction strategies that supermarkets can employ. As we’ve discussed in previous articles, there are two ways to reduce the energy use of a refrigeration system. Make the system more efficient or reduce how much cooling it has to do.

A condenser designed for a 15°F TD at 95°F ambient running at peak load in 40°F ambient conditions can achieve a condensing temperature of roughly 60°F. Using R404a, that’s a drop in the discharge pressure from 285 psia to 130 psia. For a typical freezer, this change would reduce the compression ratio from 9.5 to 4.3 and increase the refrigerating effect to result in approximately a 50 percent decrease in compressor energy usage. Figure 1 shows the two cycles on a pressure-enthalpy diagram. Notice that there is a substantial increase in refrigeration when the head pressure is lowered and the condenser TD has to increase slightly to ensure liquid. So why don’t we do this all the time? While the lower temperatures can cause problems with hot gas defrost, the biggest reason is control. In order for any kind of a

Maximizing compressor efficiency We’ve talked at length about reducing the load so the strategies we are focussing on here are all about making the refrigeration system itself more efficient. Since compressors are by far the biggest energy users in a refrigeration system, it makes sense to take a look at how we can reduce the work they do. The main variable that determines the work required by a compressor is the pressure difference it’s required to maintain (often called ‘lift’). The larger the pressure difference, the more energy it will take to accomplish compression for any given amount of refrigerant. Additionally, the volumetric efficiency decreases as we increase the compression ratio so the compressor actually pumps less gas. If we can raise suction pressure or lower the discharge pressure, we reduce work. The limits are fixed: a suction temperature has to be lower than the space it is cooling and the condensing temperature cannot be lower than the temperature that’s being used to condense the refrigerant. And we all know there must always be a temperature difference for heat transfer to occur. So keeping this in mind, let’s look at some ways that new and retrofit store installations can reduce their energy use.


flow control valve to function there has to be a pressure difference across it. Most TX valves need a pressure difference across them of at least 75 psi and they are not very adaptable to change. If you sized a conventional TX valve for 110°F condensing it would be grossly undersized for 60°F condensing and wouldn’t function properly. Some development in balanced port valves helped with this issue but electronic expansion valves are what has really made floating head work because they have a large range of acceptable operating parameters. Because condensers are doing more heat transfer with floating head systems, there is an energy penalty for the fans running more frequently and if the control system is not set up carefully, this penalty can actually offset a lot of the savings. Current stores are often maintained at a minimum of 60°F condensing, but in cold climates companies will likely soon try pushing the temperature lower.

Suction pressure and energy use Refrigeration contractors are busy as supermarkets upgrade equipment.

Floating head pressure Most of us have heard of floating head pressure. The concept is fairly simple. A condenser is generally sized for peak load and peak ambient conditions. As the ambient temperature drops, the condenser’s capacity increases. By lowering the condensing pressure, we take advantage of this added capacity.

Large supermarket chains are pushing energy efficient refrigeration technology rapidly forward.

Fig. 1: This pressure enthalpy diagram shows two refrigeration cycles. Red is at 110ºF condensing and blue is at 55ºF condensing.

If you recall the rule of thumb that’s often taught – a 1°F rise in the saturated suction temperature is a two percent increase in efficiency. While this is not always the case, the point is to remember that suction pressure has a huge impact on energy usage. Floating the suction pressure is one method we can use to help keep the suction pressure as high as possible. Floating suction pressure in supermarkets usually employs electronic evaporator pressure regulating (EPR) valves on each evaporator. These EPRs are wired to send a signal that indicates their position back to the compressor/rack controller. The controller then adjusts the suction settings based on these valve positions. For example, if none of the valves are open 100 percent, then the suction pressure set point can be increased. With proper control, the suction pressure is as high as possible all of the time. In warehouse and walk-in boxes, variable airflow evaporators can be

Please see ‘Finding’ on page 37

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q Refrigeration

Finding efficiencies Continued from page 35 installed to take advantage of the savings when fan speeds are decreased. If the system is running in a part-load situation, the evaporator doesn’t need to remove as much energy and so the suction pressure can be floated up and the fan speed decreased. It is critical that these types of systems are controlled properly in order to gain the significant energy savings that is available.

Heat recovery For a while at least, it seemed that heat recovery was a dirty word in supermarket refrigeration. From leaks to poor system operation, it certainly wasn’t always a desired feature for many supermarket owners. It might seem ridiculous that we wouldn’t take advantage of the heat available but, even today, it’s more common than not to see heat reclaim systems operating incorrectly, inefficiently or not at all.

Since compressors are by far the biggest energy users in a refrigeration system, it makes sense to take a look at how we can reduce the work they do. One of the challenges with heat reclaim is the temperature of heat available. If you want to ensure that only vapour is in the piping to the condenser or you need higher grade heat, desuperheating the discharge gas is the only option, this usually means that you get 20 percent of the available heat. While desuperheating is certainly better than nothing, heat reclaim systems that take advantage of the refrigerant condensing can recover substantially more heat, theoretically up to 100 percent. Of course this heat is at a temperature slightly lower than the condensing temperature. Sometimes it’s used to

Greg Scrivener is president of Cold Dynamics, Meadow Lake, Sask. He is a journeyman refrigeration mechanic, holds RSES CMS designation in commercial refrigeration and is a mechanical engineer in training. He can be reached at greg.scrivener@colddynamics.com


preheat water or radiant heating systems, heat under freezer floors or dumped in a storage area with a fan coil. In some cases it’s even worth using a high temperature heat pump to increase the temperature to something more useful. You may have noticed that heat recovery becomes substantially more complicated when we also incorporate floating head pressure. With CO2 refrigeration systems in particular, the lowest discharge pressure is not always the best or most efficient.

Fine-tuning the controls There are many ways that we are trying to reduce

energy use in supermarkets and, as we do that, proper understanding of the control systems and refrigeration cycle become more imperative. Small changes to set points can drastically affect system energy use. The days of simply meeting set point are quickly passing behind us. New refrigeration systems will be even more complicated. Large corporate chains are driving very quick changes in supermarket refrigeration technology. Between new refrigerants, advanced controls, control strategies and energy monitoring, those of us who work with these systems are going to have our hands full. 

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January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Stainless steel grinder blade

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QPipes, Valves & Fittings Anti-scale water treatment The new Navien PeakFlow is a chemicalfree anti-scale water treatment accessory. Critical for system longevity, it provides an environmentally friendly effective alternative to water softeners to provide protection from scale formation on plumbing surfaces in appliances and hot water systems. The preinstalled inlet ball valve on the 15 lb. (6.8kg) single cartridge provides easy isolation shut-off and filter changes. Navien ‹www.Navien.com

Affordable solenoid valves

New technical website

ODE Valve Canada has introduced an extensive series of two and threeway solenoid valves, manifolds and pressure transducers that have been designed for a wide variety of industrial and OEM applications. Multiple AC and DC coil voltages are available and housed in a NEMA 4 enclosure with brass or 316 stainless steel valve bodies. Pressure ratings are from 0 to 1450 psi with maximum temperatures up to 360°F. ODE Valve Canada ‹www.odevalve.com.

Rehau’s newly updated website, na.rehau. com, is designed to offer quicker access to multiple resources and automatic responsiveness to multiple types of mobile devices. The site provides detailed information on the many hydronic heating and piping products produced by the company. REHAU ‹ na.rehau.com

Universal retrofit linkage

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Sanitary gauge updated The Winters PSQ 2.5-inch sanitary gauge is now available with a ¾-inch fractional seal and the company’s Tri-Clamp connection, bottom or back mount. PSQ gauges have a 304 stainless steel electro-polished case while the wetted parts are made from 316L steel. The 2.5” dial has an accuracy of ±1.5 percent while the four-inch has an accuracy of ±1 percent. The gauge comes standard with a food grade glycerin fill and an industrial grade polycarbonate lens. It is designed for clean-in-place and steam-in place installations. Winters Instruments ‹www.winters.com







Efficient toilet carrier The new Zurn High Efficiency Toilet and Carrier System is designed to deliver high water sav savings and line carrier performance. It combines the performance company’s EZCarry EZC carrier system with its EcoVantage ZTR Sensor Wall Bowl System. Optimized from water supply to waste line, it minimizes the chance m of clog clogging, even for lowflow 1.1 gpf systems. Zurn Industries ‹www.Zurn.com

Plumbing Solutions


The universal Flanged Globe Valve Linkage (FGVL) from Belimo will allow users to retrofit their existing 2.5 to sixinch globe valves and restore their systems quickly. It utilizes EV, RV and AVK series actuators with forces (up to 1011 lb./ft.), which provides the close-offs needed for large globe valves. The linkage boasts a rugged steel and aluminum clamp design with selectable fail-safe position switch on the actuators. It adjusts to fit most flanged globe valves regardless of make and model. Belimo ‹www.belimo.us

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B811-8 - 32" x 18.5" x 8" Deep $115.00

Quality • Service • Price BRISTOL STAINLESS STEEL SINKS AND FAUCETS CELEBRATING 10 YEARS IN BUSINESS - Bristol Sinks and Faucets is a family owned business based out of London, Ontario since 2004. All Bristol sinks and faucets are approved for and comply with building and plumbing codes, certified by the Canadian Uniform Plumbing Code (cUPC). Bristol guarantees against product ct defects, providing lifetime warranties on all of our sinks & faucets. BRISTOL SOLID STAINLESS STEEL FAUCETS - Due to the overwhelming demand for style, yle, sustainability & pure value, stainless steel has risen to the forefront in the kitchen & bath market. ket. Constructed from 304 Stainless steel, their durability provides resistance against scratching, denting or chipping as well as being stain resistant, non-corrosive, low maintenance, lead-free, ee, affordable, versatile & 100% recyclable, thus reducing waste in the environment -an excellentt solution for sustainable development.

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Q Tools & Instruments Efficient plunger Calgary plumber Michael Scheuerman was busy showing people his latest invention at the CIPHEX West show in the Stampede City last fall. The Clog Boss is a new style of toilet plunger with a “universal toilet tip” that fits into the drain, beyond the siphon jet. This isolates the trap. Pressure can then be applied, moving the clog and breaking it up. The clog then passes over the weir, down through the outlet and into the sewer. Clog Boss ‹www.clogboss.ca

Powerful cordless saw

Flux for lead-free fittings

The new DeWalt 20V MAX Lithium Ion DCS387 reciprocating saw is ideal for cutting through a variety of materials including wood, PVC and various types of metal including studs, conduit, and steel pipe. The compact configuration allows controlled overhead cuts and cuts in tight spaces such as in between studs, under sinks, and in corners. And the keyless four-position blade clamp means the tool can be oriented according to the type of cut. DeWalt ‹www.dewalt.com

A new Masters tinning flux from G. F. Thompson Co. Ltd. is designed specifically for lead-free ball valves and fittings. New materials used in these products to meet lead-free requirements require extra care in soldering which, along with purpose designed flux, will help prevent voids in joints. More lead-free tips are available on the G.F. Thompson website. G.F. Thompson ‹www.gfthompson.com

Ford Transit upfit With the launch of the 2015 Ford Transit van, Adrian Steel Company has launched a new line of upfit packages specifically designed for plumbing and HVAC professionals, taking into consideration the organizational needs within the trade. These include a partition to separate the cab from the cargo area and shelving and drawers to maximize the space and provide organized storage. Adrian Steel ‹www.adriansteel.com

Universal groove gauge The Pace Model 4044 Universal Groove Gauge from Mag Tool is designed to check groove depth on pipe from two to eight inches in diameter. Grooves can even be checked while the grooving process is happening because of the very hard, heat-treated wear surface and the spring loaded size bar. Mag Tool ‹www.magtool.com

A trusted brand.



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Water heaters built by Canadians for Canadians! January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q People & Places The


Effective March 21, Dobbin Sales Ltd., Toronto, will act as the exclusive master distributor for all Elkay and Halsey Taylor branded products in Canada. Both brands are part of Elkay Plumbing Products, a family owned company based in Chicago. HeatLink Group Inc., Calgary, has appointed the Edmonton sales team of Allan Forrest Sales, Calgary, to represent its products in Northern Alberta. The company has represented HeatLink in southern Alberta for the past four years. Darrell Hannon moved from HeatLink to Allan Forrest Sales on Jan. 1 as part of the transition.

Wolseley Plumbing and HVAC/R, Ontario and Atlantic, Burlington, Ont., has announced the opening of its newest Express Plumbing Branch at 4325 Harvester Rd., Unit 9, in Burlington. This is one of several new branches Wolseley will open in 2015 and is located a few blocks from Wolseley’s HVAC/R branch on the North Service Road. Matthew Nykamp has been named branch supervisor; Carolina Bergles is on counter sales.

Armstrong Fluid Technology, Toronto, recently hosted a series of “Design Envelope Open House” events for engineering personnel in the Greater Toronto Area. The sessions included an introduction to the theory behind the company’s Design Envelope solutions, a factory tour and a demonstration of design envelope and parallel sensorless pump control technology. More than 50 engineers attended the events, which concluded in December. Eric Canton, CAD technician with Smith & Andersen, centre, won the $500 raffle. Presenting the cheque were Bruce Sunley, Armstrong regional sales manager, left, and Kevin Laidler, sales manager.

Fairview Fittings & Manufacturing Ltd. has moved its Canadian headquarters and Canadian distribution centre from Toronto to Oakville, Ont. The new facility at 1170 Invicta Drive provides increased capacity and more efficient stock replenishment to its eight Canadian warehouse locations. Operations at the Toronto distribution centre ceased Feb. 1. Hollinrake Communications, Mississauga, Ont., has been selected public relations agency of record for insulation manufacturer CertainTeed, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.


Plumbing & HVAC – January/February 2015

Acudor Acorn Ltd., Pickering, Ont., has named Roland Lajoie Inc., 6221 Rue Marivaux, SaintLéonard, Que., as the new representative for Acorn products in Quebec. ECCO Manufacturing, Langley, B.C., has announced the expansion of its Kent, Washington sheet metal manufacturing and distribution facility. The additional space will include commercial sheet metal manufacturing as well as increased room for storage of raw materials and finished products. Viega, Wichita, Kansas, is inviting customers to share their experiences with Viega products. Customers are invited to write out their stories and submit them to yourstory@viega.us by June 1. The best ones will be reprinted in the Viega Voice magazine and/or shared in an informational video. LIXIL Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, announces the creation of LIXIL Water Technology Group on April 1, which will integrate the worldwide sanitary ware business of Lixil, including the Grohe Group and American Standard Brands. Watts Water Technologies Inc., North Andover, Massachusetts, has signed an agreement to acquire Aerco International, Blauvelt, N.Y., a manufacturer of high efficiency commercial boilers and water heaters.


People John Hazen White, Jr., right, president and CEO of Taco Inc., Cranston, Rhode Island, has introduced Wil VandeWiel as the company’s new president and CO O. VendeWiel will run the day-to-day operations and help White steer the company into the future. Navien, Inc., Irvine, California, has appointed Scott Lee as the new CEO of the company. He has been with KD Navien in Korea for four years as an overseas team leader. Harrison Kim has been promoted to the position of vice-chairman for Scott Lee Navien’s American operations. Dettson Industries, Sherbrooke, Que., has named Jonathan Williams to the position of director, client development. SAIT Polytechnic, Calgary, has appointed Brad Donaldson as vice president, academic. He was previously vice president, academic at Red Deer College and, prior to that, Jonathan dean of the School of Manufacturing Williams and Automation at SAIT. Danfoss, Baltimore, Maryland, has appointed Joseph Rich as senior direct of sales and marketing for its North American VLT drives business. 


Q Coming Events

Quebec’s industry show returns Wide range of mechanical technologies, seminars on tap at MCEE 2015

The opportunity to speak directly to manufacturers is always a key benefit of attending a trade show. Roth’s Michel Beaulieu, right, chats with a contractor at MCEE 2013. Quebec’s largest show for the mechanical and electrical industries returns this spring. Scheduled for April 22-23 at Place Bonaventure in downtown Montreal, MCEE 2015 (Mécanex, Climatex, Expolectriq, Éclairage) is expected to feature more than 350 exhibitors. On the mechanical side, this will include manufacturers from all over North America displaying the latest technology in plumbing, heating, hydronic heating, ventilation, air conditioning, refrigeration, water treatment, tools, faucets and fixtures, fire prevention, PVF and software. Manufacturers will vie for top honours in the New



Product Showcase in which they enter their latest technologies to be judged by a panel of industry experts. Products have to be new within the last 12 months and manufacturers must demonstrate that they are innovative and provide a minimum of three new benefits. The winners will be announced at the show. This year MCEE features an expanded seminar program with 26 free sessions on a wide range of topics including combo systems, unleaded drinking water

systems, DHW and space heating, storm water/flooding solutions, new refrigerants, chilled beam technology (in English), air distribution systems pitfalls and many more. Most of the seminars will be in French. MCEE is produced by the Corporation of Master Pipe Mechanics of Quebec (CMMTQ), the Canadian Institute of Plumbing & Heating (CIPH), Corporation of Master Electricians of Quebec (CMEQ), and the Corporation des entreprises en traitement de l’air et du froid (CETAF), with support from EFC Quebec and IES Montreal. Admission to the trade show and all seminars is free for visitors who register at www.mcee.ca before April 21. 

Does your business need a

LIFELINE? Success Group International is a North American organization dedicated to providing the tools necessary to help mechanical contractors succeed. Tools include:

Financial Control Systems • Employee Hiring & Retention Turn Key Marketing • Financial Guidance


Before I called Success Group International in 1999,

World Plumbing Day, worldwide Visit www.worldplumbingday.org. For Canadian activities, visit www.ciph.com and www.mcac.ca.

I was $250,000 in debt. I didn’t know how I was going

MARCH 22-26: Canadian Construction Association 97th Annual Conference, Hyatt Regency Hill Country Resort and Spa, San Antonio, Texas. Call (613) 236-9455 or visit www. cca-acc.com.

APRIL 22-23: MCEE 2015 Trade Show, Place Bonaventure, Montreal. Visit www.mcee.ca or call Elizabeth McCullough at 1-800-639-2474.

MAY 21-23: RSES Canada Conference, Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT), Calgary. For more information, visit www. rsescanada.com.


to pay the bills. Darrel met with me and helped me transform my business and my life. By 2005, I had no debt, a thriving business, and the systems that Darrel helped me put in place have transformed me from working 6 days a week, 12 hours a day to 4 days a week, 8 hours a day. Calling Success Group International was the best business decision I ever made.” – Jack Devetten, Ace Plumbing, Calgary, AB Call us today to book a no obligation presentation of how we can help you take control of your business!

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January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Coming Soon!

Q Shop Management this with you. For more information, search for ‘SR&ED’ on the Revenue Canada website. E I PREMIUM REDUCTION PROGRAM

Companies that provide certain shortterm illness or benefits to employees can apply to have the employer’s portion of EI premiums reduced from 1.4 times to 1.163 times of the employees’ premium. For 2013 this would equate to a maximum savings of $211.20 per employee. For full details go to www.servicecanada.gc.ca and search the above title. You need to renew your application each year. Most union benefits programs and many open shop programs would likely comply with the requirements but if you are in doubt, do make the application.

Manage your

For the employee There are a variety of deductions available to employees and their families. Many of them are ones you already know, so let’s focus on the more obscure ones. Childcare expenses are deductible if one spouse is working. However, did you know that the deduction is also available if that spouse is in an education program, even if not working? DECLARATION OF CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYMENT (T2200): This is an

Ensure you get all the credits, refunds and write-offs you are entitled to By Ron Coleman Contractors and their employees want to keep as much of their hardearned money as they can. One way to do that is to ensure you get all the tax credits, refunds and write-offs that you are entitled to. We work hard for our money; let’s keep as much as possible. There are a variety of tax savings, tax deferrals and incentives that the federal and provincial governments provide. Some are available against federal taxes, some against provincial and some against both.

For the company TAX DEFERRAL: Your net holdbacks

(holdbacks on receivables less holdbacks on payables) is a tax deferral (Schedule13 - Continuity of Reserves) on the corporate tax return. Apart from helping cash flow by deferring taxes, it makes your financial statements look stronger. Your accountants will do the


calculations provided you give them the information. APPRENTICESHIP JOB CREATION TAX CREDIT: For employers that hire

apprentices in Red Seal trades, the Apprenticeship Job Creation Tax Credit is a non-refundable tax credit equal to 10 percent of the eligible salaries and wages payable for eligible apprentices in respect of employment after May 1, 2006. The maximum credit is $2,000 per year for each eligible apprentice. For more information, visit www.cra-arc. gc.ca and search for the above title. There are also provincial programs and they often cover non-Red Seal trades. So check with your provincial government website for details.

program, administered by the Canada Revenue Agency (CRA). You will need professional assistance to prepare your claim. Ask your accountants or use one of the numerous firms that do this work on a contingent fee basis. They usually charge around 25 percent of whatever they get you back. The program gives claimants cash refunds and/or tax credits for their expenditures on eligible R&D work done in Canada. If you are developing any procedures or fabrication processes you should have your accountants review

excellent opportunity for employees to claim business expenses they incur. There are numerous ways of using this process. Review this form in detail to see if there is eligibility for each employee. Sometimes T4 income can be split between spouses. This is also a much more realistic and safer approach for both the employer and the employee than having so called “subcontractors”. If CRA determines that someone should have been treated as an employee instead of a subcontractor, the employer

Please see ‘Share’ on page 46



pay corporate income tax you could get a nice chunk of change back under this

January/February 2015 – Plumbing & HVAC


Q Shop Management


QUALITY AND DEPENDABILITY Manufactured from AL29-4C, a super ferritic stainless steel designed for extreme resistance to chloride ion pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, as well as general corrosion in oxidizing and moderately reducing environments. STRINGENT STANDARDS FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE 1KCQ=N=JPAA=LANBA?PłPARANUPEIA=J@PK avoid built-in stress points or weak areas, tube ends are formed under stringent guidelines and held to exacting standards. BUILT TO LAST Secure Seal features a smooth weld seam inside and out, which is completely shielded during the welding process. Follow us on social media or for more information on our products, visit securitychimneys.com

Share your tax knowledge with employees

arc.gc.ca and search for gifts and awards. You will also find information on non-taxable meal allowances to employees under certain circumstances. EI PREMIUM EXEMPTIONS: Check with Service Canada to determine exactly which family members should and should not be paying EI premiums. Many family members may not be eligible to claim EI benefits and if so, then why should they pay the premiums?

Continued from page 45

General tax tips

could be open to some very serious penalties and interest. Review this form as an alternative. There is no cost to the company in providing a T2200 provided it is justifiable. See www.cra-arc.gc.ca and search for T2200. APPRENTICESHIP INCENTIVE GRANT (AIG) – a $1,000 taxable cash grant is available to apprentices registered in one of the designated Red Seal trades who complete their first or second year/level of an apprenticeship program in a designated Red Seal trade, to a maximum of $2,000. APPRENTICESHIP COMPLETION GRANT (ACG) – a $2,000 taxable cash grant available to apprentices who complete their apprenticeship program and receive their journeyperson certification in a designated Red Seal trade. Information on these two programs can be found on the website www.canada.ca/apprentice. Also on this website is information on tax-free loans of up to $4,000 for Red Seal apprentices who may also be eligible for EI while unemployed and attending courses when pursuing an apprenticeship. TRADESPERSON’S TOOLS DEDUCTION: This provides employed tradespersons with an annual deduction of up to $500 to help cover the cost of new tools. It applies to the total cost of eligible tools that exceeds $1,000.

For the employee and company GIFTS AND AWARDS: You may provide gifts and

awards (not cash or near cash) of up to $500 per employee per year without it being a taxable benefit to them. A second amount of up to $500 can be given for long service awards. For the full details, go to www.cra-



securitychimneys.com securitychi 800-361-4909 US 800-667-3387 Canada Security Chimneys © 2014


Plumbing & HVAC – January/February 2015

A.O. Smith ...................................................... 20 Aztec Washer ................................................... 7 Bradford White ............................................... 19 Brant Radiant .................................................... 8 Bristol Sinks .................................................... 40 Cash Acme ..................................................... 39 Dettson........................................................... 13 Duravent......................................................... 17 FasTest ............................................................ 42 Fieldpiece........................................................ 29 Franke Kindred Canada................................... 37 General Pipe Cleaners ..................................... 10 Giant Factories ................................................ 41 HBX Control Systems Inc. .................................. 2 Hilmor ............................................................ 12 IBC Boilers ........................................................ 4 IPEX ................................................................ 24

Disability Tax Credit Certificate (T2201): This is an allowance to be claimed on a personal tax return. If you or a family member is disabled for 12 months or more, there is a non-refundable tax credit available. In 2013 the federal amount was $7,697. Each province has a provincial amount also. You can make retroactive claims back as long as 10 years. Recently I got back some $30,000 (tax-free) for one client. I have used this for clients where a parent, who had been ill, died during the year. The form has to be completed by a medical practitioner. Ontario Trillium Benefit and Ontario Senior Homeowners’ Property Tax Grant: Ontario has a Senior’s Homeowners’ Property Tax Grant which you have to apply for each year. See the following website for details: http://www.cra-arc.gc.ca/E/pbg/tf/5006-tg/. The B.C. Seniors’ Renovation tax credit was available in 2012 and 2013. It’s not too late to file a T1 adjustment to get 10 percent, up to $1,000 back, on $10,000 of renovations for each of those years. Before implementing these strategies review them with your accountants. We take no responsibility for your use of the items raised in this article as we are not aware of your specific circumstances. Make sure you seek your own professional advice.  Ronald Coleman is a Vancouverbased accountant, management consultant, author and educator specializing in the construction industry. He can be reached by e-mail at ronald@ronaldcoleman.ca.

John Wood ....................................................... 6 Liberty Pumps ................................................. 34 Lochinvar ........................................................ 30 MAG Tool ....................................................... 21 McCartney Engineering................................... 45 Mitsubishi Electric ........................................... 47 Mobilio ............................................................. 5 Napoleon ........................................................ 28 Navien .............................................................. 9 NTI.................................................................. 44 Noritz ............................................................. 14 Redmond Williams* .................................. 16, 36 RIDGID............................................................ 48 Saniflo ............................................................ 38 Security Chimneys........................................... 46 Success Group ................................................ 43 Uponor ........................................................... 22 Viega .............................................................. 32 Viessmann ...................................................... 26 Zoeller ............................................................ 25 Zurn Industries ................................................ 33 *Ontario only + Outside Ontario only


Our new 3D i-see Sensor gives you


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*When installed by an Authorized HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning) Installer.


THERE ARE NO WRONG ANSWERS. RIDGID® offers a variety of inspection monitors and reels purpose-built for real-world applications. Every RIDGID monitor integrates seamlessly with our SeeSnake® reels and features a daylight readable LCD screen. Choose the solution that’s right for you. REQUEST A FREE ONSITE DEMO OR LEARN MORE AT 800.769.7743 | RIDGID.COM/INSPECT

©2015, RIDGID, Inc. The Emerson logo and RIDGID logo are registered trademarks of Emerson Electric Co. or RIDGID, Inc. in the U.S. and other countries. All other trademarks belong to their respective holders.


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January/February 2015  

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January/February 2015  

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