Hellenes composers of Thrace (5 από 7)

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as the Mixed Choir of the Philharmonic Union (19541957) and the mixed primary school choir (1955-1958).

During the period 1959-1967, he studied pedagogy at the University of Munich Ludwig Maximillian, as well as psychology and musicology. 283 His professor in musicology was the famous Hellenic musicologist Thrasyvoulos Georgiadis (1907-1977). There, he acquired further specialization on the theory and practice of disciplines of musical education, focusing on "The music practice on piano and the phenomenon of musicality”, as well as on the subject of “Physiological data for Music practice (practice - interpretation) on piano” with the professor V. Lanz. In 1960, he enrolled at the Trapp'Sches Konservatorium der Musik Musikerzieher in Munich. Having as teachers the composers Wilhelm Martin Keilmann (1908-1989) and Peter Jona Korn (1922-1998), he got a diploma in composition (1962). He also took diplomas in piano (1964) and in conducting (1966) with Alfred Zehelein (1902-1978) and Richard Bock. Additionally, he founded and directed the Hellenes students’ choir in Munich (1960-1964). In 1967, he returned to Xanthi continuing his artistic work of the past decade, by creating and directing the choirs of:

a) the National Girls’ Orphanage of Xanthi (19671975), b) the Association of Reservist and Warrant Officers of Xanthi (1967-1986), c) the male choir of the Telecommunications company, d) male and mixed of the Municipal Conservatory of Xanthi (1986-1992) and e) male vocal quartet of the Municipal Conservatory

283 With 2-year scholarship of the Munich University. The studying subject in musicology was the “Musical practice on instrumental ensemble”. Telemachοs Metallinos, “To fylakto” (The talisman), John Metallinos’s Archive.

(1992-99). He also created the string orchestra of the Educational Association of Xanthi and the female vocal quartet of Corfu (200106). Perhaps, one of his most important contributions was the establishment of the Municipal Conservatory of the city (1970), where he taught piano, theory and also founded and directed the string orchestra (1970-90). In the period from 1977 to 1990, he was its artistic director. In 1991 –when it was renamed Municipal Conservatory of Onassis Cultural Centre– he resigned from this post, but remai ned as a teacher until 1994. His music educational activity was extended to other institutions and bodies of Thrace -as a piano and music theory teacher- such as the National Conservatory of Xanthi, the Music School and the Thracian Conservatory of Komotini (19881994), the Polytechnic School of the Democritus University of Thrace (where he taught the lesson of music education) and also t o schools of primary and secondary education.

As a composer, he composed more than 200 works, many of which were performed by himself, either as piano soloist or as director of choirs and orchestras. Among them: the Concerto for two pianos and orchestra , the Mass in E flat Major for choir and orchestra, the piano works: Plaketa I-III ( Board I-III ), 18 Dimotikoi Choroi ( 18 Folk Dances ), Pliktra kai arithmoi ( Keys and Numbers ), Epta miniatures ( Seven miniatures ) (for younger students), Okto zografies ( Eight pictures ), I zerbera mou kai ta metaphysika gnorismata tou viou tis (My gerbera and the metaphysical attributes of her life ), Diaesthiseis ( Intuitions ), Stigmata se domes (Spots in structures ), Apeikoniseis ( Portraits ),284 Orchistriko nefeloma (Instrumental nebula ), Parallages se lyriko thema tou Ed. Grieg ( Variations on a lyrical theme of Ed. Grieg ) and Amalgamata ( Amalgams ) (from 1965 to 2000. Most of them with modern writing style, such as the total serialism), the Fylakto ( Talisman ) for tenor and piano in his poetry (1974), 43 choir songs 285 like Ellinopoula Xanthi mas ( Our Hellenic Xanthi ), Xaere Xanthi ( Hail Xanthi ), Ston iskio tis karydias ( Under the shade of the walnut tree ), To tragoudi tis agapis ( The Song of Love ), Chorfantasie Egia mola , Ego eimi to fos tou kosmou ( I am the light of the world ), Kyknos (Swan ), To paramythi tou nafti ( The tale of the sailor ), Mikro pouli ( Little Bird ), etc. Also, the church works: Kataxioson Kyrie ( Recognize, Lord ), Se ymnoumen ( In praise ), Se evlogoume ( In bless ) for voice and piano, and Christos Anesti (Christ is risen) in three parts for baritone or tenor and organ (1996), 286 the Fantasy for vocal quartet and organ (1993. Dedicated to Lorenzo Mavilis). He also harmonized -mainly for choir- works of other Hellenes and foreign composers, as well as folk melodies. His writing work, as musicologist and music educator, contains the: a ) Introduction to piano technique (Psychology of kinesiology) , b) Exercises in two parts: “The cultivation of the voice - theoretical approach”, and “Rhythmic and melodic exercises” (1993), c) The ethos of basic Hellenic tetrachord and d) Structural figures of the musical language . He published many articles with musical reviews in the local press of Corfu, Xanthi and Thessaloniki. Among his pupils were h is son, the composer John Metallinos (1959) and the current director of the Municipal Conservatory, Theodoros Manolis (1955). In 1995, he issued, in Corfu, his poetry collection Iridismata, kathe prosopo kai zografia ( Iridescence, every person is a picture ). He died in Xanthi on 23/03/2011.

284 Work dedicated to his parents.

285 For children, mixed, male and female choirs.

286 The cause for the composition of the work was the acquisition by the composer of his church organ which was made in Adrianople in 1909.


Dimitris Michaelides:287 Composer, conductor and a key member of the National Opera, almost from its inception (as pianist-accompanist and conductor). He was born in Constantinople on 27/04/1920 from Thracians parents. His mother was a piano student of Ege, student of Liszt.

He moved with his family to Athens, in 1922. He studied initially at the Hellenic Conservatory and then at the Conservatory of Athens [piano with Elly (18961968) and Spyros Farantatos (1895-1962) and theory with Philoctetes Economides (1889-1957)]. In 1938, he enrolled at the Law School of Athens University. In 1939, he composed his first work, the Two Preludes for piano, which showed to Manolis Kalomiris, who urged him to continue composing. In 1940, he was appointed pianist to the Lyric Department of National Theatre (it was converted into the National Opera in 1944) having interrupted his law studies because of the war. He also composed his second work, the Two small images for piano. In 1943, he was commissioned, for the first time, to teach the choir of Puccini’s Tosca and to conduct the operetta Das Land des Lächelns of Lehar (first presentation: 04/08/1943).

From 1944 onwards, he was a key partner and assistant to the conductor of the National Opera, Walter Pfeffer (1897-1970) and he was specialized in the Viennese operetta. In 1946, he composed the Song of freedom for choir in poetry by K. Moyssiadis. He was inspired by a previous event of the Hellenic National Opera, entitled "Celebration of Freedom" on 03/11/1944, on the occasion of the liberation from the German occupation, where he directed the choir during the First Act of the operetta Kritikopoula (Cretan girl) by Spyridon Samaras (1861-1917).

In 1946, he became deputy conductor of the National Opera’s orchestra. In 1947, he composed the Serenade for soprano and chamber orchestra (orchestration by Andreas Belik) in poetry by A. Hatziapostolou (First presentation: September 1953). During the 50s, he continued his musical studies at the National Conservatory (piano with Marios Laskaris and Eve Pana and theory with M. Vourtsis), graduating in 1959 with honors (in piano, harmony, counterpoint and fugue). In 1953, he composed the works: a) Spoude

287 The most important biographic information came from the oral testimonies of the composer, given to the writer during 1992-95, as well as from the following article: Tamvakos, “Hellenes composers. Dimitris Michaelides (1920-)”, New strungles of Epirus, Ioannina 19/09/1995, p. 6-7.

Dimitris Michaelides, TTA.

( Study ) for piano and b) stage music for "To oneiro tou Giannaki” (Giannakis's dream), a kids’ play by Antigone Metaxa. In 1954, he composed the -lost today- Hellenic Dances’ Suite for orchestra, with descriptive character, in two parts: "Skini tis epaithrou" (Scene of the countryside) and "Hares tou therismou" (Joys of the harvest). From 1950 to 1973, he conducted a wide repertoire of operettas and operas during all the theatrical seasons of the National Opera. Some of the operas were the: Traviata (1957), Un Ballo in Maschera (1960), Trovatore (1960) and Rigoletto (1967) of Verdi, La Serva Padrona of Pergolesi (20/03/1959), Madame Butterfly (1959) and Tosca (1963) of Puccini. Also the operettas: Giuditta (1957), Die lustige Witwe (1960) and Paganini (1964) of Lehar, Die Csárdásfürstin (1962), Gräfin Mariza (1963), Viktoria und ihr Husar of Paul Abraham (1966) and Das Hollandweibchen of Imre Kálmán, and the Hellenic: a) E gyneka tou dromou ( The Woman of the streets ) of Hatziapostolou (14.01.1950), b) Sta parapigmata ( In the sheds ) (1960), c) Christina (1961) and d) O Vaftistikos ( The Godson ) (1969) of Sakellaridis.288 From 1957 to 1991, he was teaching at the primary schools of singing and opera of the National Conservatory and at the Theatre School of his brother, the director Kostis Michael idis. That same year he composed the Vocalise Etude for mezzo-soprano and piano, which was actually a vocal excercise in order to highlight the voice of the lyric artists. In 1961, he returned to composition with the song Perpatontas ti nychta (Walking in the night ) for soprano and piano, in poetry by Miltiadis Malakasis. In 1962 he composed the Vradino (Evening ) for mezzosoprano or baritone and piano, in poetry by Michael Stassinopoulos (revised by the composer in 1983). In 1964, he became music coordinator at the National Opera (until 1967). From the 50s to 80s, he was cooperating with the foreign conductors on the opera’s performances, such as Ion. Perleas ( Idomeneo of Mozart, 01/09/1955), F. Capouana ( Oedipus Rex of Stravinsky, 06/09/1955), Tulio Serafin ( Norma of Bellini, in Epidauros with Maria Callas, 24/08/1960) and J. Horenstein ( Fidelio of Beethoven). From the 60s to 90s, he cooperated -as pianist- with the National Radio Foundation.

288 Michael A. Raptis, Epitome History of the Hellenic Melodrama and the National Opera - 1888-1988, Mortgage Bank, Athens 1989. Dimitris Michaelidis, “Chromatiki Spoudi”, TTA.

From 1966 to 1974 (during that period, he became a member of the Greek Composers’ Union), he also conducted the Symphony Orchestra of National Radio and Television Foundation in opera programs. In 1969, he became conductor of the National Opera and he graduated from the Law School. Also, remaining faithful to the composition of vocal music, he composed the: a) Ki otan ftasei he anexi ( When the spring arrives ) (1970. First performance with Dina Goudioti and himself on the piano, in a concert on 16/07/1985, at the University of Pavia in Italy. He was awarded, for the perfect presentation, with the medal of the choir Pietro Mascagni of Pavia) and b) Pare to monopati ( Take the path ) (1971) for soprano and piano, in poetry by Costas Hatzopoulos. In 1972, he conducted, at the National Opera, the opera Kassiani of G. Sklavos, directed by K. Michaelidis (premiere 17/11/1972). The next year, during the dictatorship, he was dismissed by the then administration of the National Opera , to return after the dictatorship as a member of the Board of (1974-1975). His ergography was supplemented with the Pentastecho Tenos ( Five-verse Tenos ) for voice and piano, in poetry by I. Akrivopoulos. 289

He also worked as teacher at: a) the Conservatory of Athens (1974-84) and b) the National Conservatory (1974-92). In 1979, he composed the songs: a) Nichtonei ( It’s getting dark ) for mezzo-soprano and piano, in poetry by Th. Voutsikakis and b) Tote pou s’ eida narhese ( When I saw you coming ) for soprano and piano, in poetry by Lambros Porfyras and also the Impromptu-Tribute for piano. In 1981, he became general secretary (and chairman since 1987) of the National Music Council of UNESCO (until 1991). In 1983, he composed the work Mnimes kae timi ( Memories and honour ) for choir, in poetry by Th. Voutsikakis, dedicated to the " Martyrs of Smyrna ". He also got, formally, (with Professor Dimitris Dragatakis [1914-2001]) the degrees in counterpoint and fugue. In 1984, he r eturned to National Opera as conductor, from which he resigned in 1986, due to the age limit. During the period from 1983 to 1986, he worked

289 In 1986 enriched the orchestration with a string quartet. It was first presented, in this form, on 19/04/1986 at the Hall of Zosimaea Pedagogic Academy of Ioannina, by the soprano Kiki Morfoniou, the Hellenic Quartet of Tatsis Apostolidis and the pianis Aris Garoufalis.

Dimitris Michaelidis, “Orizontes” (Horizons), TTA.

on the composition of piano works: To perasma ( The passage ), Schediasma ( Planning ), Prelude , Valse , Chromatiki spoudi ( Color study ) (published by the music house of Papagregoriou-Nakas) and Fantasia (first performance -along with the Impromptu-Tribute - by Vicky Stylianou for the Third Program of the ERA. Broadcast on 20/01/1986). In 1986, he composed the Toccata for piano (first performance by himself in 1988, in Liaskovits of Bulgaria) and conducted the operetta Apaches of Athens of Hatziapostolou. In 1988, he composed his last song, the Oneira ( Dreams ) for mezzo-soprano or baritone and piano, in poetry by Th. Voutsikakis. From 1989 to 1992, he turned to chamber music, composing perhaps the best work , Prelude and Scherzo for flute and piano (first performance on 21/04/1990 at the Conservatory ‘F. Nakas’ with the flutist, Dimitris Fotopoulos and the pianist, Dionysis Mallouchos).

The critic Perseus Athineos wrote inter alia: "... it was quite a surprise, this beautiful composition of this prestigious musician and conductor. The two artists gave all the wealth of their lyrical soul to perform successfully this remarkable work ".290 The work is subject for the diplomas' exams at several conservatories. In 1990, he composed the Intermezzo for oboe and piano and the Duo for trumpet and piano dedicated to trumpeter and composer Nikos Xanthoulis (b.1962) who recorded it (Motivo Records). It is a free dialogue with technical and melodic alternating elements and it is expressed in simple form and innovate harmony. It correlates, in a ve ry technical way, the trumpet with the piano, underscoring the role of the latter. In 1992, he finished the Sonata for clarinet and piano (first performance at the Conservatory of Athens on 07/05/1992 with Yannis Sabrovalakis and Manolis Papasifakis). During the period from 1993 to 1997, he returned to the writing of soloist works: a) Triptych for flute (published by the music house Papagregoriou-Nakas), b) Ena vrady ( One night ), c) Three preludes , d) Etude in Do for piano (it was first performed, in the hall of the Parnassos Literary Society on 07/06/1995, by Melina Ioannidou and published by the music house Papagregoriou-Nakas) and e) Small pieces for piano (1997). He also composed the Horizons for trumpet and piano (1995) and the Christmas song for female two-part choir, in his own poetry (1996). As a composer and fan of eclectic aesthetics, he followed a personal style, based on the harmonic-tonal system and the European music tradition.291 Most of his works are tonal. He considered himself as a classical composer. In his letter to the author, he emphasized, inter alia: “... there is a wide field, where the composer of our time can be expressed freely, without neglecting the sources, according to his aesthetic and the structure he wants to give to his works ... The atrocities in art, in general, without aesthetic excuse, are at least barren. But the search, during creation, for new ways of expression, is commendable ”.292 In 1993, he was awarded with the honorary pension of composer by the Ministry of Culture. Also, in the same year, the National Opera awarded him with an honorary diploma for his excellent services to the institution. He died in Athens, in 2002.

290 Perseus Athineos, Imerisia (Daily), 6/5/1990.

291 Symeonidou, “Dimitris Michaelides”, Dictionary Hellenes Composers , Philippos Nakas, Athens 1995, p. 275.

292 Letter from Dimitris Michaelides to the writer, Athens 15/3/1995.


K. N. Michaelidis: Mandolinist and guitarist with unknown biographical information. He was born in Constantinople at the late 19th century, where he created the Michaelidis’s Mandolin Orchestra which was active until 1922. He composed works for mandolin, gui tar and mandolin band.

Konstantinos Michakopoulos: Bandmaster and composer. He was born in Xanthi in 1907. He took music lessons with the conductor and composer Constantinos Spathis (1876-1940) at the “Orpheus” Musical and Athletic Association of Xanthi. Around 1920, he joined the orchestra of wind instruments of “Orpheus”. In 1922, he made his first public appearance with the orchestra (the subsequent Band) in which he remained until 1966, except for the period 1940-1947. 293 In 1928, he joined as a volunteer the Military Band of the Third Army Corps of Thessaloniki and he studied at the Annex of the National Conservatory. In 1947, he was appointed conductor of the newly established Band of Xanthi, with which he gave many concerts presenting his works. During the period from 1966 to 1973, he took over the Bands of: a) Krokees of Laconia (1966-1969), b) Lixouri of Cephalonia (1969-1971), c) Igoumenitsa and d) Filiata of Thesprotia (1971-1973) and then he got retired. He continued as a pens ioner at the Band of the Municipality of Myrina in Lemnos (1973-31/07/1976). He returned to the Band of Xanthi, where after some years -in 1980- he was replaced by the next conductor. In all these years of his artistic action he gained many compliments, i.e. by the Army General Staff, the Prefecture of Xanthi, the municipality of Xanthi, etc. He composed many works for: a) choirs ( The Hellenic Islands in his own lyrics and Hymn to the Hellenic Welfare in lyrics by K.N. Serametis), b) voice and piano [ To the emigrant barcarolle subtitled “Island song” and Ta niata (The youth ) tango, both in his own lyrics (1982)], c) piano ( Tango ) and d) wind band, dedicated to the Band

293 Period during which the Philharmonic was dissolved. It was rebuilt in 1947. Constantinos Michakopoulos directing the Philharmonic band of Xanthi (1964), Archive of K. Michakopoulos’s family.

208 of Xanthi, such as the marches: The liberation of Xanthi. October 4, 1919 (1957, Revised in 1972), Oi Evelpides (The Cadets ) (1958), The Great Feast (1962),294 Holy Cross and Walk in the canyons (triumphant marches for children's band). 295 He also harmonized, transcribed and arranged works of other composers ( Our Hellas march of M. Dalagiannopoulos). He arranged folk songs of the region, under the general title Xanthi’s folk songs , 296 for girls’ choir and wind orchestra. He wrote the musical essays: a) "Elementary music. Education and theory for primary schools” drills and children's songs in his own music and poetry and b) "Preliminary elementary music theory for Young Learners" (1975). Two of his students excelled as music teachers and five others in military bands. One of his students was also Ch. Spyridis.297 The archive includes also the song To the Youth for voice and piano in lyrics-poetry by Baltas, which is signed by G. Michakopoulos, younger brother of Constantinos, with no further information about his musical action. He died in X anthi after 1980.

Theodoros Mimikos: Composer, conductor and music teacher. He was born in Xanthi on 05/09/1935. His mother was Zaphiria Papadopoulou from Constantinople. From the late 40s onwards, he lived in Thessaloniki. He began his musical studies at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki with the composer and conductor Solon Michaelides (1903-1979). He graduated with degrees in Instrumentation (1958), Harmony (1959), Counterpoint (1961) and Fugue (1963), all with honors. In 1972, he went on a scholarship to Paris and attended classes of Orchestra Conducting with Pierre Dervaux (1917-1992) at the Ecole Normal de Paris. He was music teacher at the Experimental School of the University of Thessaloniki (1964-1989), teacher of theory at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki (1972-1988) and Director of the Mixed Municipal Choir of Thessaloniki (1993-1996). He was also involved with the organization and management of other choirs of the city, such as the one of Thermaikos, as well as the Mandolin band of Thessaloniki, musical ensembles with which he gave concerts in and outside Thessaloniki. He began composing from the early 60s.

294 Work written especially for the performance of the Philharmonic in a concert on 04/10/1962 with new musical instruments.

295 Archive of K. Michakopoulos family.

296 Performed with the choir of the Housekeeping School and the Philharmonic of Xanthi under his conducting at the square of the city on 04/10/1963, on the anniversary of its liberation.

297 Ch. Spyridis dedicated the essay Symmetry and Music to his teacher.

Theodoros Mimikos, TTA.

His works are inspired by the great Hellenes poets (Solomos, Elytis, Varnalis, etc.) and by heroic or religious themes with patriotic content, 298 while they are enriched with scales of Hellenic modes and rich -strong- orchestration, focusing on horns and strings. 299 He was based a lot on the change of rhythms and utilized many modulations, influenced by the Russian school (especially Tchaiko vsky and Rimsky-Korsakov). He was not interested in peace and creation of atmosphere, but in intensity and alertness. The plenty of choir parts in his works were considered as the “ voice of democracy ”.300 His few compositions were of great form and duration (cantatas, oratorios, orchestral and ballet suites), with great creativity in the 70s. However, only some parts of these works were presented to audience. He didn’t like their categorization (classic or modern), considering that the “ feeling is the foundation ”.301 After finishing a work, he was always looking for new elements to incorporate into his next one, avoiding the element of repeatability. He also advocated that his works were “folk” and as such they should be very close to the aesthetics of our people. 302 In addition, he wrote several arrangements of folk songs for the needs of music courses and of the choirs.

He composed, among others: a) the orchestral works: Two symphonic fantasies , Intermezzo and Four lyrical images (1962-1967), b) the oratorios for soloists, choir and orchestra: Kosmas of Aetolia in poetry by Takis Gkiosopoulos (1968-1970), Heroic and mourning song for the lost lieutenant of Albania in poetry by O.

298 Kalogeropoulos, “Theodoros Mimikos”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 4, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 129-130.

299 Aleka Symeonidou, “Theodoros Mimikos”, Dictionary Hellenes Composers, Philippos Nakas, Athens 1995, p. 274.

300 Composer’s autograph letter to the writter, Thessaloniki 27/03/1992.

301 Ibid.

302 Collective work for the lesson “New Hellenic Music” of Ioannis Kaimakis, Epicurus professor of the M.S.D. of AUTH, Thessaloniki, 1999.

Theodoros Mimikos conducts the chorus of State Conservatory of Thessaloniki, Archive of State Conservatory of Thessaloniki.

Elytis (1971. He believed this was his best work and revised it at least three times) 303 and Constantinos Paleologos in poetry by Alekos Dafnomilis and c) the cantatas for soloists, choir and symphony orchestra: Mythistorima ( Fiction ) in poetry by G. Seferis (1976), Peirasmos ( Temptation ) in poetry by Dionysios Solomos (1976), Stin gi ton Amorai ( In the land of Amorai ) and Proraia gorgona ( Stem mermaid ) in poetry by Avgeris (1977 and 1978 respectively), Sklavoi poliorkimenoi (Slaves besieged ) and Oi ponoi tis Panagias (The pains of the Virgin) in poetry by Varnalis (both in 1977), Kantata tis Eirinis (Cantata of peace ) in poetry by Sarantos Pavleas (1979), E kyra ton ampelion ( The lady of the vineyards ) in Poetry by Yannis Ritsos (1980?), Megalynarion in poetry by Nikiforos Vrettakos (1983), Gennisi (Birth) and Odi gia na thimomaste tous iroes (Ode to remember the heroes ) in poetry by George Themelis (1981 and 1984 respectively). He also composed two church cantatas for soloists, choir and orchestra: a) Megali Akolouthia Chairetismon kai Pathon (Great Service of Salutations and Passion) (1983) and Apocalypse of John in text by St. John (1986-1992), as well as purely ecclesiastical works: the Potirion Solomontos ( Cup of Solomon ), hymns, koinonika [such as Lytrosin apesteilen ( Redemption sent )], troparia, dismissal hymns ( Apolytikion of Cyril and Methodius )304, the Liturgy of John Chrysostom , one Doxology , etc. Finally, he worked with the National Theatre of Northern Hellas and composed stage music for four ancient tragedies, in archaic style, based on tetrachords and isocratis resulting in strange dissonances. These are: a) Agamemnon of Aeschylus (Ancient Theatre of Philippi, 19/07/1969), b) Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus (Herod Atticus Theatre, 24/07/1970), c) Phoenician Women by Euripides (Ancient Theatre of Philippi, 17/07/1971), d) Philoctetes of Sophocles (Ancient Theatre of Philippi, 10/08/1974). Also, for the Cretan comedy Koutsourmpos of Hortatzis (Castle of Platamon, 25/07/1976). He was a member of Greek Composers’ Union . Among his students, the composers Costas Siempis, George Em. Polychroniadis, George Kazantzis, the composer of theatrical-cinematographic music Thesia Panayiotou, the musicologist and choir director Anna-Maria Rentzeperi, the Director of the Choir of Thessaloniki, Mary Constantinidou,305 the pianist Letti Pappa-Lazaridou, etc. He died in Thessaloniki, in 1996, from a heart attack.

Georgios E. Misaelidis: Composer of Constantinople with incomplete biographical information, he was born in Phanar, in 1860, hailing from the known Phanariote family of Misaelidis, with great (commercial, artistic, literary) action. He studied literature and a lso music, Byzantine and European, at the Robert College in Constantinople and perhaps in Italy. He worked closely with his brother Christopher

303 Ibid.

304 Recorded by the Choir of the Academic Music Association of Thessaloniki (conducting: Christos Kottas).

305 During her interview to K. Marinos, Macedonia, Thessaloniki 03. 06.2007, she said: “He was my professor at the conservatory and once he made the mistake to let me conduct during a rehearsal . I loved this experience and Mimikos told me that I could also take, along with the piano, conducting lessons at the conservatory. Then I went abroad, to England and Hungary, cooperated with Dimitris Agrafiotis, found my way and I am always greatful to Mimikos for helping me”.


Misaelidis, scholar and poet (1853-1923), and set to music the comedy-idyll of: a) Protaprilia ( 1st of April , 1896), Melodrama in three acts and b) O gamvros tis tyrinis ( The bridegroom of Cheesefare , 1900).306

Both they were performed many times by various troupes in Constantinople and in cities of eastern Thrace. They were published in Constantinople, in 1896 and 1900 respectively, by the printing house that he owned along with his father Evangelinos Misaelidis, 307 He composed the choir song Moira kakia ( Bad Fate ) for three-part choir, in his poetry, which “ is distinguished for the sprightliness, speediness and gaily variety. Chanted by large choir and at the Orpheus Musical Association, under the direction of the composer, it made much of impression ",308 as well as others -with unknown titles and orchestration- which " are distinguished by a softness and are mostly influenced by the Italian School ".309 He used to write music even on the boat that carried him to his house. He also harmonized many hymns for four-part choir but it is unknown if they were ever performed. Maybe he is the first musician from Co nstantinople who attempted the four-part harmonization before Elisseos Gianidis (1865-1942). He was involved in the writing of poems and literary texts, some of which were published in the short-lived satirical magazine Koukourikos , around 1908. He wrote the historical essay Joachim the Third. The grand patriarch and all about the third patriarchate which was published in Constantinople (1901). He died in Neochorion (now Yeniköy) of Bosporus, in 1943.

Marietta Nikaki: Top violinist of the early 20th century. She was also a composer of works for violin and chamber music. She is mentioned here because she occasionally lived in Constantinople where she presented her ompositions for solo violin.

Anthimos Nikolaidis: Deacon and musician of the 19th century, one of the first who contributed to the introduction of the four-part harmony to the Hellenic Orthodox Church. He was born in Ganochora (now Gaziköy-Ho ş köy) of Propontis in the late 18th century (probably in 1795) and had the nickname "Ganochoritis”. He studied Byzantine music at the Third Patriarchal Music School with C onstantinos Byzantios (1777-1840), “idimelifthongon” (sweet tune in psaltic art) precentor of the Great Church, at least for a decade (1808-1818) learning both, the old and the new method of Byzantine music. After that, he probably moved to Odessa (perhaps in 1 818) invited by the Hellenic community, 310 where he taught church music at the newly established Mousic School of Odessa.311 In late 1821

306 There is a report on these in the edition, “The Historical Phanar of Constantinople” of Chariton Mishaelidis, Archive of the Thracian Folk and Linguistic Treasure, vol. 31, Athens 1965, p. 339. The writer wrote that Music is beautiful, highlighting that “I imagine that others, more music experts than me, some day will judge him”.

307 The printing house was specialized in the publishment of karamanlidika books.

308 Pachtikos, “Asmatologika”, Music, iss. 31-32 ,Constantinople 7-8/1914, p. 206.

309 Pachtikos, op. cit., p. 115.

310 P. E. Formozis, The choir editions of the ecclesiastical music in European music notation , V. Rigopoulos Publications, Thessaloniki 1967, p. 15.

311 Symeonidou, “Anthimos Nikolaidis”, Hellenic Composers Dictionary, Filippos Nakas, Athens 1995, p. 290-291.


or early 1822, he moved to Vienna where he studied theory of European music (especially the book “Gesanglehre” 312 with the Bohemiam music teacher August Swoboda (1787-1856).

In 1823, having already been ordained deacon by Bishop Meletius of Heraclea, he was appointed cantor to the Church of the Holy Trinity in Vienna, which belonged to the community of expatriate Austrian citizens (“Hellenes and Vlachs”).313 The church records (Supervisors’s Minutes of the Conference on August 28, 1823) gives us the information: “ The deacon Anthimos Nikolaidis accepted our proposal to be cantor on annual salary of nine hundred and sixty forints ”. He remained in this position at least until 1842. Along with his teacher, he harmonized the chants of the Holy Mass (he transferred the byzantine chant in European notation and Swoboda harmonized it for four male voices) without any reference though to the original version that was used with the Byzantine notation. The title of the work, from which two published copies are rescued (in the National Libraries of Athens and Vienna), is: “ Hymns of the divine and holy Mass toned by the Deacon Anthimos Nicolaidis the ganochoritis and accompanied by the rest three voices and the clavichord under the music teacher August Swoboda and published by the same with the help of the expatriates music lovers. In Vienna, Austria, 1844 ”.314 Actually, Swoboda just helped Nikolaidis in the four-part harmonization. But in order to make the issue of this four-part harmonization more authoritative, he made a prominent reference to his teacher. The 48 pages of the copies include: a) the “Amen”, “Kyrie Eleison” and “Si Kyrie”, b) the first antiphons “Doxa Patri ke Yio”, “Evlogei i psihi mou ton Kyrion” and the second antiphons “Kai Nyn kai Aei”, “O Monogenis Yios kai Logos”, c) the eisodiko “Defte Proskynisomen” d) the Apostle’s thrice “Agios o Theos, Agios Ischiros”, “Alleluia”, e) “Doxa Soi Kyrie” of the Gospel, f) the cherouviko “Oi ta Cherouveim”, g) the after the entry "Ton olon ypodexomenon", h) the liturgical "Patera, Yio kai Agio Pnevma", "Agios, Agios”, “Agios Kyrios Sabaoth", "Se

312 A. Swoboda’s study on voice practice.

313 Formozis, op. cit., p. 14.

314 Ibid.

Publication of the “Hymns” of Anthimos Nikolaidis, Archive of St. George’s Orthodox Community of Vienna.

Ymnoumen, Se Evlogoumen", "Axion Esti" and “Kai Panton kai Pason”, i) the pre-koinonika “Eis Agios, Eis Kyrios”, j) the koinoni ko “Aeneite ton Kyrion” and k) “Eidomen to Fos” and “Eie to Onoma”.

Although the community members wanted the European musical style, the attempt of Nikolaidis and Swoboda was not well accepted by the parish, because the expatriates were not prepared to abandon the traditional monophonic character of the Hellen ic church music. He wrote that the result was “ vacillating, given that this melody was accepted by some, while was disapproved by others ”.315 In 1842, he was appointed cantor to the Church of Saint George of the Hellenes with Turkish citizenship, in which John Haviaras (1802-1875) served previously, attempting also to introduce the four-part harmony.316

The community of St. George -although it had little financial ability- entrusted him, as well as Gottfried Preyer (1807-1901), Austrian composer, conductor and music teacher, clearly superior to Swoboda, with the work of the harmonization of the Divine L iturgy, in June of 1844. They worked together for three months. Their arrangement and harmonization for four-part choir was first pres ented on 24/10/1844 and it was attended by " almost all the top and official musicians of this imperial cathedral, who were thrilled by the modest spirit and the solemn character of our ecclesiastical four-part choral music, while many of them, successively, expressed t heir admiration and great praise through the newspapers ". Nikolaidis, being excited about this achievement with his collaborator, wrote that “... the feelings of my soul and the joy of my heart, being a humble collaborator in such national work, are wordless and indescriba ble ".317

Patriarchate though didn’t go along with this reformation, considering this effort " sinful mistake ".318 They even asked to cease the "... foreign melody of the four-part music .... it is obvious that the novel four-part music ... is unfamiliar to ecclesiastical dec ency and therefore its introduction to the Holy Liturgy is contrary to the sacred rules of the Church " considering that Nikolaidis misbehaved and had no respect for the Church. 319

The Community of St. George replied to the Patriarch "... we do not introduce ... foreigh music or foreign style; on the contrary we released it from these. Nowadays ...the arts and the sciences are progressing ... and seeing also that our Church is empty due to the unlikeable melodies, we were forced, in order to attract people in the church, to ask our own precentor to free our music from the foreign and weird voices, as well the foreign tererismata or nenerismata, which do not go along with the modesty of our holy church,

315 John Filopoulos, Introduction into the Hellenic polyphonic Music , Nefeli Publications, Athens 1990, p. 31.

316 On 18/5/1842, Chaviaras replaced A. Nikolaidis at St. Trinity and together with B. Randhartinger, composer and deputy manager of the palatial choir of Vienna, successfully performed, in 1844, their own version of Divine Liturgy in four-part harmony.

317 Formozis, op. cit., p. 24 and p. 28.

318 Formozis, op. cit., p. 30.

319 Formozis, op. cit., p. 25.


making this humble ...".320 As in the case of Swoboda, Nikolaidis "... set to music the hymns of the divine and sacred mass from the ancient melodies of our Eastern Orthodox Church according to the configuration of the community of St. George" and Preyer processed them "in four-part harmony... plus the arbitrary adding of a melody of clavichord, keeping the original melody unalterable ".

His ardent desire, following the success and the impact of the introduction of the four-part harmony into St. George, was the publication of also other church hymns processed " in four-part harmony ", in five volumes (following the publication of the first volume of 118 pages, in April 1845, with a foreword by Preyer). Finally three volumes were publisheddedicated the King Otto -titled “Hymns of Divine and Sacred Liturgy set to music from the ancient melodies of our Orthodox Eastern Church”. The second volume of 150 pages was published on 30/01/1847, while the Patriarchate sent patriarchal and synodal letter demanding the abolition of the " foreign music of the four-part harmony ". The volume contains dismissal hymns (Apolytikio), kontakion, eisodika, the ceremony of the Cross, the Service of the great blessing, etc. The musical material is sorted by ecclesiastical chronological order: beginning in September and ending in August. The foreword though of this volume was not as festive and triumphant as the corresponding one of the first volume. The obvious difficulties such as locating proficient si ngers (soloists) and choristers with music sufficiency, as well as the economic scarcity of the community, together with the war tactic of the Patriarchate, made him (Preyer had already left) finance the publication. That's why the phrase “ according to the Community of St. George "

320 Anastasios Pallatidis, Historical Memorandum on the beginning and development and the present acme of the Hellenic community in Vienna, improvised upon the new reformation of our ecclesiastical Music in four-part harmony , Vienna 1845. Part from Anthimos Nikolaidis’s Liturgy.

(it was in the first volume) was removed from the titles of both of the volumes, the first and the third. He also signed " as a deacon and church canto r" instead of " cantor of the Hellenic Church of St. George in Vienna ".321

The third and final volume was published at the end of 1847 (date of foreword: 02/10/1847) and its 183 pages include: a) Weekly and Annual Koinonika, b) Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, c) Betrothal Service, d) Marriage Service, e) Heirmos of the ninth ode, and f) Funeral Service. Already from the first sentence of the foreword of Nikolaidis, his weariness is evident ("... I have already published in press the third and final part of the liturgy ").322 While both predating volumes contained also the part of each voice separately, the third contained only the overall musical text, with all the voices together, hoping that he would do so when condit ions would be favorable. Thus, we know from the foreword that the fourth volume would be larger than the first three, regarding the conten t. It would contain the Canon of the Virgin, the sequence of the Akathist Hymn, all sequences of the Holy Week, the sequence of the Resurrection, the order of the Easter Week, etc. The text of the hymns in all three volumes was written in Hellenic language and in Latin (to assist the choristers who didn’t know the Hellenic language). Regarding the indication of the rhythm, he put Hellenic words (ma kros, mesos, vrachys and vrachytatos) instead of the European ones: adagio, andante, allegro and prestissimo. 323

Whereas in the case of Nikolaidis-Swoboda the liturgy’s hymns were written for four male voices, in the next collaboration of Nicolaides with Preyer, the hymns -in all three volumes- was for mixed four-part choir.324 During this period -encouraged also by the harmonic richness of European music that he experienced in Vienna- he created choir and music school (apparently with children of his parish) where he taught vocal music, wanting to bring the harmonious expressive power of the European music into the church music.325 Unfortunately, for the last one and a half century, the four-part harmonization of Nicolaides-Preyer has not been used in the O rthodox churches. The reasons for this oblivion are explained adequately in Themistoclis Polycrates’s review (1862-1926): “ … the failure of the work lies in the success of the harmonization of the hymns. Because, on the one hand, Preyer, being ignorant of the meaning of the text and the rythmic division of the hymns, was using, most of the times, either rythm of 4/4, instead of the appropriate 5/4 or 2/4, or 5/4 instead of 2/4 or 2/2. On the other hand, Nikolaidis, ignoring probably the rules of the modern art, focused only on the precise yeld of the melody, something that he succeded somehow, but he paid no attention either to the meaning of the hymns or to their rhythmic division ”.326 After Vienna he came to Athens, unknown when, where he taught church music at Rizarios School (1857-1860) replacing Constantinos Kirikos. He died in Athens in 1865.

321 Formozis, op. cit., p. 31.

322 Formozis, op. cit., p. 32.

323 Formozis, op. cit., p. 30.

324 Filopoulos, Study on the musical bibliography of the Hellenic polyphonic Music , Nefeli, Athens, 1996.

325 Formozis, op. cit., p. 17.

326 Themistocles Polycrates, “The four-part harmony in the church, Forminx, iss. 5-6, Athens 15-30/09/1910, p. 3.


Georgios Pachtikos: Ethnomusicologist, composer and polyglot philologist (he knew, apart from the ancient Hellenic, also Latin, Turkish, French, German and Italian). He was born in Ortaköy (Mesochorio) of Bethany, in 1869. He studied at the Great School of Nation, in Varvakeio (Athens) and literature at the University of Athens. At the same time, he studied music at the Conservatory of Athens (singing, theory and composition with the composer Al. Katakouzinos (graduated in 1889 as an excellent graduate). He immediately began his rich social and musical activities as a member of the “Anatoli” (“East”) Asia Minor Hellenes Association , which he founded (he was elected special secretary in the first Board of Directors). As part of the association, he was offering his musical services by: a) setting to music the anthem of the Association (“Hymn of Asia Minor” for two-part choir [1892]), b) directing the choir during festivals and c) formingalong with the Doctor of Philosophy, Leonidas Papapavlou- a school of church music “ …which it worked brilliantly for as long as these two music teacher were living in Athens, it was dissolved though after their departure and the impossibility of finding replacers ” (1892-1895). He began composing in 1888. Among his first known works is the Katastrophi ton Psaron ( Destruction of Psara ) in poetry by D. Solomos (1892). In 1893, he composed the Ode to Christakis Zografos 327 in poetry by Anastasios Tagis (first performance on 19/09/1893 with the choir of the ‘Hermes’ Association) and the Two choruses of Sophocles’s Philoctetes for three-part choir (“ set to music in a three-part harmony ”', “ based on Hellenic musical principles and foundations ”). The choruses were performed “ by a twentymember choir of University students, on February 14th, in the Vaticte theatre ”. 328 He also issued the philological-historical essay “Olympic Games in Bithynia”. In 1894, he composed the Hymn to Apollo which was issued in Constantinople in simultaneous Byzantine and European notation. He also issued the textbook Archaeae Ellinikae Melodiae ( Ancient Hellenic melodies ). It contained seven surviving ancient melodies, transcribed in European notation (“Hymn to Apollo” in four-part choir, “New Hymn to Apollo”, “Hymn to Phoebus”, “Homeric Hymn to Deme-

327 Published in 1893 in Constantinople in both European and Byzantine notation.

328 Frontispiece of the musical work’s edition, Athens 1893.

Georgios Pachtikos, Forminx

ter”, “Hymn to Kassiopi” under Dionysius in four-part choir, “Hymn to Nemesis” under Mesomedes and “The beginning of the first Pythionikos of Pindar”).329

He spent the biggest part of his life in Constantinople, where he settled in 1895. He was involved with publications in various newspapers and magazines as well as with lectures on Hellenic music (mainly at the Hellenic Philological Association of Constantinople, of which he was a founding member) that were published in magazines in Athens and Constantinople.330 In 1895, he issued the First Volume of Apollo Mousigetis ( Apollo Music leader ) in Athens. It contained basic singing knowledge “… with one, two, three and four-part choral songs for use in Hellenic male or girls schools ” (his own musical melodies and 13 more of Hellenes or foreign composers, as well as ancient, ecclesiastical and folk melodies).331 He dealt in depth with the collection of folk songs (already since he was student, in 1888). This interest of his made him pioneer in the sense that the dealing with folk songs was until then purely literary. The collectors were more interested in the language content of the songs rather than the performance of their musical base and even less for their presentation to the public. Its starting point though was fu lly integrated in the climate of the time, as he was seeking to prove the clarity of the ancient Hellenic culture through the folk trad itions. 332

Georgios Pachtikos: “Aeschylus’s Persians”, Music.

329 In the Frontispiece of the musical work’s edition, Constantinople 1894.

330 Of great importance were the lectures: a) “Musical contests in the Hellenic antiquity” ( Xenofanis, iss. 5, Athens 1896, p. 4-6), b) “The medieval Hellenic Music” (Ecclesiastical Truth, iss. 2-6, Constantinople 1896, p. 51-52,), c) “The ancient Hellenic drama from musical aspect and the setting to music of the chorals” (Acropolis, Athens, 23/10/1901) and d) “Musical bas relief in Bithynia” ( Music, Constantinople 1913, iss. 14, p. 29-30).

331 At the front of a publication of the Musical collection, Athens 1895.

332 Unsigned article in the web site: http://asiaminor.ehw.gr/


Characteristic is that his work was defined by him as “ mousical excavations ”,333 a term which refers to a genealogical and “ archaeological ” examination of the popular culture. Their melodies were unedited (he considered them as the “ most ancient and the most authentic of the Hellenic people ”),334 while their poetic texts were unknown (in the issued collections of the time). From the 500 municipal songs he collected, the 80 were awarded in the Zografeios contest of the Hellenic Phi-lological Association (1895 and 1896).

In 1903, he started to include folk songs from his Collection in the concerts of the Erasimolpos Association (which was director). This action secured for him an anonymous donation of 200 Ottoman pounds, which allowed him to visit the villages of Thrace and Asia Minor and collect 60 more songs (19041905). In 1901, the Youth Group of music lovers of Vafeiochorio in Constantinople assigned him a composition of new polychronion for their countryman, the Patriarch Joachim the Third, which was presented on 04/06/1901. 335 In the period from 1900 to 1905, he set to music ancient chorals from: a) “Hecuba” (First stasimo), b) “Iphigenia in Tauris” (Second stasimo'- Second Verse) and c) the "Ajax the whip-bearer". For the setting to music of the chorals of “Iphigenia” and “Ajax”, he was awarded in international competitions that took place in Athens (in 1901, for “Iphigenia” and in 1904, for “Ajax”) by the Athenian Society for the Propagation of Ancient Drama. His award-winning music of 1901 was issued in the year in Athens (by the printing house of Athan. Deligiannis) entitled “Melopoiean ton chorikon kai ton kommon Ifigeneias en Tauris tou Euripidou” (The setting to music of the chorals and the mourning chants of Iphigenia in Tauris of Euripides). As stated in the preface, his music creation contained also instrumental accompaniment of string instruments which was not included in the edition. Then, he wrote music for seven other works of ancient theater: a) Medea (first performance on 23/03/1903. The Hellenic-speaking German musicologist, L. Bürchner, wrote about it, inter alia: “... I notice that the composition significantly attempts to shape an almost inaccessible road, for us Western Europeans, towards the music composition of melodramatic parts of the valuable ancient tragedy ... So, to-

333 Pachtikos, “Introduction” in 260 folk songs sung by the Hellenes of Asia Minor, Macedonia, Epirus and Albania, Hellas, Crete, Aegeon islands, Cyprus and Propontis shores, collected and labeled [1888-1904], vol. A΄, Maraslis’s Library, Athens 1905, p. 8.

334 Ibid., p. 22.

335 G. Pachtikos, “Asmatologika”, Music, iss. 2, Constantinople, 2/1912, p. 59.

Georgios Pachtikos, “Ode to Christakis Zografos” Constantinople 1893. CPL.

wards the end of the drama, the instrumental music has melodic shapes, as used by Palaistrinas and later by Bach, that are undoubtedly moving. ..”.336 It was performed also in London, in 1910, with great success), b) Prometheus Bound (the music consists of 16 choruses for female choir and orchestra which were first presented at an event in vaudeville theater on 05/04/1910),337 c) Philoctetes (first performance on 16/02/1912 in ‘Odeon’ theater with very positive reviews by the critic Armand Vitali 338 and the German critic Dr. Schrader),339 d) Oedipus Rex , e) Electra g) Antigone , h) Birds and i) Nefeles (Clouds). All were represented in Constantinople by the Erasimolpon Association, except from the Clouds thay it was represented in Munich by the association of German philologists (1910). 340

In 1905, he issued (in the publications’ series of Marasleio Library, with the sponsorship of Gregory Maraslis) the collection entitled 260 Hellenic folk songs sung by Hellenic people from Asia Minor, the islands of Hellas and Europe, collected and set in byzantine notation (1888-1904) with comprehensive extended prologue in which he wrote: “ ... the deep study of the songs of folk music is aiming to create for us a new possibility for a noble research and occupation, namely the music archeology, through which new horizons will be opened [...]. This collection, being the result of such principle and thought, is intended to ascertain that the ancient music is not dead, as commonly considered, but lives through the songs of the

336 Pachtikos, “Introduction”, op. cit., p. 74.

337 Nightingale of Byzantium, “Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus”, Music, iss. 1, Constantinople 1/1912, p. 26.

338 Armand Bitalis, “Philoctetes by Sophocles”, Music, iss. 2, Constantinople 2/1912, p. 42.

339 Pachtikos, “Philoctetes by Sophocles”, Music, iss. 4, Constantinople 04/09/1912, p. 105.

340 Pachtikos, op. cit., p. 106.

Georgios Pachtikos in Bithynia, Music

Hellenic people [...]”.341 The collection 342 was presented by the renowned music critic, Michael Kalvokoresis (1877-1940) in the International Music Conference in Basel (25-29/09/1906) causing favorable comments. 343 Also, the Tribuna newspaper of Rome published a review by the Hellenist Ettore Romagnoli, who praised his work, but he noted that his songs were monotonous(!) and he decided t hat they are not related to ancient music (unfortunately, only the first volume of his famous Collection was finally issued, contai ning: 34 folk songs of Cappadocia, 15 of the Black Sea, 86 of Bithynia, 35 of Thrace, 38 of Macedonia, 22 of Epirus and Albania, 10 of Crete, as well as 20 of the Aegean islands, Cyprus and Propontis. The unissued second volume would include a lot of foreign-speaking Hell enic songs, mainly Turkish-speaking and Armenian-speaking). Here, it should be noted that as a collector, is characterized for his s ystematic and accurate recording. He had no intention to "correct" the songs, but he yelded them just as they were, sometimes even aga inst the will of his informants themselves. His relative objectivity resulted in a second originality, the integration of non-Hellen ic-speaking but even of Turkish-speaking songs in his collection, at a time when there was almost no interest in Turkish-speaking monuments of speech, even within the book production of karamanlides. So he rightly called it “National asmatologion” 344

Meanwhile, his action had attracted the interest of the National Centre in the capital. Thus he was invited, along with Erasimo lpos Group, to give concerts in Athens, in 1904 (his concert, given on 29/03/1904, in the Royal Theatre, with a program of 22 folk songs for a 40-member orchestra and a 40-member choir, was attended by the royal family and their guest, great Duke of Hesse), as well as in 1906, upon the invitation of the Committee of the Intercalated Games (the concert was given in the Parnassos Literary Societ y, on 06.04.1906). However, the edition of his Collection caused also reactions (as to the accuracy and reliability of the recording) that were expressed gently, on the one hand, by the ethnomusicologist and chanter, Dimitrios Peristeris (1855-1951), inelegantly, on the other, by the also collector of folk songs, Th. Klironomos and the composer, conductor and director of the Athenian Mandolinatas, Nikolaos Lavdas (1879-1940). Among the rest of his workds, notable are the following: a) the choir song He lira tou Ermou ( The Lyre of Hermes ) in poetry by Chr. Chatzichristos (1895), b) the Ode to Paul Stefanovik Skylitsis who reconstructed the theological School of Halki for choir (1897), c) the Zappeion Hymn for voice and piano or organ in poetry by Christ. Samartzidis, based on folk songs from the birthplace of the benefactor Constantinos Zappas (1912), 345 d) the chant The evzones for voice and piano, in poetry by Kl. Triantaphyllidis (1913), e) the Hymn to Ioannis Trapantzis for two-part choir, in poetry by Athanasios Dafas (1913), g) the Hymn to Aphrodite for choir, in Sappho’s poetry (1914), h) the Hymn of the Hellenic-French School for children's choir, the Aionia he mnimi ( Eternal memory ) for three-part choir (in the memory of the martyr bishop of Grevena, Aimilianos), i) the four-part choir song 7th Ode of Olympians of Pindar (“Diagoras of Rhodes. Boxing”), j) the Vomoi s’ese for choir, in poetry by M. Takidelis, k) the choral march O paides Ellinon, ite (Oh

341 Pachtikos, “Introduction”, op. cit., p. 16.

342 Reprint by the Historical Studies Library, no. 51, Athens 1992.

343 Kalogeropoulos, “Pachtikos Georgios”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 5, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 32-33.

344 Pachtikos, “Introduction”, op. cit., p. 77.

345 Pachtikos, “Zappeios Hymn”, Music, iss. 14, Constantinople 2/1913, p. 40.


sons of the Hellenes, go) from the Persians of Aeschylus and l) the Anacreontea two-voice ode To Eros . Almost all of his works were inspired from the Hellenic musical tradition, throughout the centuries and only a few had some elements of the European musical romanticism of the 19th century He also composed polyphonic ecclesiastical music as Ti Ypermacho Stratigo ( To Thee, the Ch ampion Leader ), the Stavro ν charaxas , the Haire Nymphi Anymfefte (Rejoice, O Unwedded Bride) , the Anasta o Theos (Arise, O God ), and the Ton Nimfona sou vlepo (I Behold Thy Bridal Chamber ) with rhythmic and melodic variety, the apolytikio Tou Stavrou sou ton typon (1914), the 5 Liturgical Chants [“Patera Yion”, “Eleon Eirinis”, “Agios, Agios, Agios Kyrios Sabaoth”, “Amen” (for four-part choir), “Amen” (for three-part choir) and “Se evlogoumen, Se evlogoumen"), the apolytikion Efrenestho ta Ourania ( Let the heavens rejoice ) in third mode ("... the character of the melody is masculine, impressive and masculine [...] And the harmonic polyphony is well-suited for the enhancement of this distinguished sound ”),346 the Agapiso Se Kyrie ( I love you, Lord ) into grave tone and the megalynario Ton Ouranofantora tou Christou (He is Christ’s Revealer of Heavenly Things ) into tone b’ (1915) and five polychronia (among them “Polychronion to Patriarch German V'” in quadruple meter and plagal first tone).

As museologist, he had a wider range of interests, such as general folklore issues related to his homeland, according to reports from publications on the Armenian-speaking element of Ortaköy’s residents. 347 In 1910, he issued, in Constantinople, the second volume of the musical educational work Apollo Mousigetis whith 82 one-, two-, three- and four-voice school songs, of his own and of other Hellenes and foreign composers, and also folk, in two issues (the first contains the theoretical part with preliminary kn owledge of Singing and the second contains the songs. Update: 1912). He took part in Patriarchal Committees for the adoption of the “New M usic Theory” (1910-1915). In 1912, on the recommendation of abba Bourdon, he was elected member of the Academy of Rouen. From December 1912 (until the the double issue of June-July, 1915) he was issuing, in Constantinople, the monthly illustrated musicalphilological magazine Music incorporating therein musicological and literary texts of his, as well as compositions of his own and of other composers in Byzantine and European notation, as well as unpublished songs from his collection. Among his occasionally stude nts were also the composers Nikolaos Ap. Mavropoulos and Theocharis Constantinidis. While he was in Constantinople, he also worked as philologist in the Hellenic-French Lyceum of Chatzichristou. 348 He died in Constantinople on 23/07/1915.

346 Pachtikos, “Asmatologika”, Music, iss. 41, Constantinople 5/1915, p. 92.

347 Pachtikos, “Ortakoy of Bithynia”, Estia, Athens July-December 1892, p. 96.

348 During lyceum he took singing lessons. One of his student was (in 1899) Manolis Kalomiris (1883-1962). The later though criticized him very cruelly by writing bad things in his autobiography My life and art (Ministry of Culture & ‘Association M. Kalomiris, Athens 1983) which he disproved later. Among others, he wrote: “Pachtikos had the idea that the Hellenic xenomania made Constantinople’s audience admire only the foreign music ignoring his effort. So, he was often presenting his works as if they were of foreign composers, hoping they would be more noticeable and receive more applauds” . But he comes back, by writing: “Today, though, that I judge him, having gained more life experience through the time, I am much more lenient ” (p. 36-37).


Anthony Pantoleon (Pann Anton): Multifaceted artistic personality of Romania, known as Anton Pann, hailing from Hellas. Composer, musicologist, music teacher, lexicographer, editor, ethnologist, cantor, scholar, translator, painter and poet. He is considered the foremost musician who has been essentialy influencing – until today- the church music of Romania. He is called as “ regenerator of Romanian church music ” by many musicologists and historians.

He was born in Stenimachos (now Asenovgrad) of Eastern Rumelia, in 1796 or 1797.349 His mother was Thomaida Arseniou, Hellene from Stenimachos. His father, Peter Pantoleon, coppersmith by profession, was rather Vlach and he also had Hellenic origin from his grandfather. 350 Around 1806, due to the RussianTurkish war, his family (his mother and two brothers)351 went to Chisinau of Bessarabia (now Moldova). From the age of 12 he joined the Russian Harmonic Ordodox Choir of the city and he immediately began to stand out for the quality of his voice. In 1810 (or 1812), he went to Bucharest where he spent most of his life. He studied (from 1815 to 1820) with the great Hellenes masters of Byzantine music, Dionysius Fotinos from Patra (1777-1821) and Peter Ephesios (?-1840) 352 that were living in Bucharest. He learned the new method of Byzantine notation and was able to explain Fotinos’s melodies. In 1819, he printed his own Axion Estin (It is truly meet ) in Byzantine notation. His great talent was discovered by the Metropolitan Dionysius of Hungarovlachia. He appointed him member of the Committee, in order to deal with the translating of liturgical texts from Hellenic and Slavonic into Romanian. In 1821 -after the city's occupation by the forces of the revolutionary Tudor Vladimirescu- he went to Şcheii of Transylvania (under Austrian occupation) where he worked as a cantor in the Romanian Church of St. Nikolaos. There, he met the hymnographer Hieromonk Makarios (? -1836), also whith Hellenic origin, as well a s the writer-hymnographer and poet Ion Barac (1877-1848) with whon he took metric lessons.353

349 According to others, he was born in 1794.

350 It is speculated that the composer’s grandfather came to Stenimachus from Central Macedonia (maybe Thessaloniki, where he was known with the last name Pantoleon) before 1760. His father died around 1800. The information was sent to the writer during the period 2003-08, via e-mails, from Romanian musicologists and researchers.

351 Both took part as volunteers on the side of the Russians and were killed in fights (before 1810).

352 In his Psaltic School.

353 The literature critic Vasile Aaron was one of his basic influences on the style of his literature-poetic writing in the following years.

Anthony Pantoleon, TTA.

In 1827, he taught at the church music seminar of Râmnicu Vâlcea. In 1828, he returned to Bucharest where he worked in several Romanian churches as cantor, creating also choirs of polyphonic music. During the next decade, he wrote most of his musical and literary works, including “Noul Doxastar” (New Doxastarion) (1803) by D. Fotinos 354, in Byzantine notation as monophonic, but also in European notation for polyphonic choirs with several modifications and interventions by himself, as well as a long prologue. He published it –at his own cost- in three issues in Bucharest (1834. He republished it in 1854). The publication cost was too big for his economic potential and its lukewarm acceptance led him to bankruptcy.

From 1842 to 1851, he was teacher at the central seminary and cantor at the famous white church in Bucharest. With the support of the Archbishop of Hungarovlachia, Neophytos, he created and taught at many seminars of ecclesiastical music, highlighting the 'nationalism' by mixing many disparate elements. He also taught music and literature at many Romanian schools. In 1843, he returned as editor. He established a printing house within the Church of Olteni 355 and he printed several books of liturgical music, musicological and literary, his own and of other composers’ and writers’ (also several popular novels and low quality novels, mainly for financial reasons). There, he published his book Bazul teoretic ş i practic al muzicii biserice ş ti ( The theoretical and practical basis of ecclesiastical music or the melodic grammar ).356 This is the first theoretical treatise of music in Romania (1845) and it became the model for the subsequent writing of similar theoret ical works. Unfortunately, the printing house was destroyed almost completely during the great fire of 1847. In 1849, he returned to this a ctivity

354 Panagiotis Andriopoulos, “Dionysios Fotinos, scholar and musician, from Old Patras, 18th-19th century”. Reprint from the Minutes of the Emergency Achaean Intellectual Symposium of 2006, Athens 2009.

355 Consideres the first musical printing house in Balkan country.

356 Emmanuel Giannopoulos, The hospitable and fertile dissemination and culture of psaltic in the regions of the Black Sea , Catechetical Service, Thessaloniki 2003, p. 287-316.

Recording Cover, TTA.

with less means by setting up a printing house in his home. Through this, he issued some of his most important literary books, such as:

a) Nă zdră v ă niile lui Nastratin Hogea ( The mischief of Nasredin Hotza ), b) Pove ş ti ş i angdote versificate ( Stories and versatile verses ), c) Adiata ( Testament ), and d) Versuri musiceş ti ( Musical lyrics ).

As a composer he wrote many polyphonic works titled Liturgical and Typical 357 Among these, the: a) “M ă rire Ţ ie, Doamne” (Glory to Thee Lord), b) “Veni ţ i s ă ne închin ă m” (Come and kneel), c) “Crucii Tale” (Your Cross), d) “Câ ţ i în Hristos” (Those to Christ), e) “Robii Domnului” (Slaves to Lord), g) “De frumuseţ ea” (The beauty), the) “M ă rturisi ţ i-v ă Domnului” (Confess to the Lord), i) “Ziua Învierii” (Resurrection day ) j)

“V ă zut-am lumina” (Seen the light), and k) “Pre în ţ elepciunea” (The wisdom) for two-three-fourpart mixed choirs accompanied by instrumental ensembles.358 His musical work is considered by all Romanians musicologists to be of national and colossal importance and it is specially valued. 359 He composed also works of Byzantine music in Hellenic 360 and Romanian language [such as the Liturgy of Vasileios the Great , the CherouvikarionKoinonikarion in two volumes, the Heirmologion in two volumes, the Megalynarion , the Pistevo ( I Believe ), the 128 short Heirmoi , the Koinonika (eight compositions with direct reference to Gregory Protopsaltis) and the Te Deum ”,361 of unique musical beauty 362 with many influences from the European music, especially

357 Published in Bucharest in 1847 and in 1854.

358 As a starting point, he used the eminently ecclesiastical compositions in the Byzantine notation of Dionysios Fotinos, Grigorios Byzantios and Georgios Paraskiadis or Paraskevadis, which had already been published in Constantinople and studied them thoroughly, creating his own in polyphonic writting.

359 In confrontation to his almost equivalent “opponent”, the monk Makarios, who “Rumanized” the ecclesiastical music. However, the compositions of Pantoleon excel compared to those of Makarios’, according to the opinion of at least ten modern Rumanian musicologists and researchers.

360 Before 1825. Known is the “Axion Esti” (1822), which he revised, by adding Rumanian text (1854).

361 Almost all of his works are undated. They were written between 1815 and his death. Some, during his apprenticeship with D. Fotinos who was praising their musicality.

Antonios Pantoleon, “Axion Esti”, TTA.

that of Romance Levantines who lived in Romania, the Russian church music and of course the Byzantine music (mainly by using the first tone, as it was cnanted in Constantinople). His music has also a perfect mix of elements from folk tradition of Romania (mainly of doin ă ),363 Hellas and other Balkan countries, giving a spooky and seductive sound. His musical creation, due to folklore elements and while he was still alive, was accepted, from the beginning, by the working classes and the church congregation in Vallachia and Moldova, unlike the rest of Romania, although later it prevailed throughout the entire Romanian territory. Even today, it continues to influence and be a model for the compositional thinking of several Romanians church -and not only- composers. 364 However, there are many scholars who criticized the way of his compositional thinking. 365 Many of his musical manuscripts of Byzantine music lie in the Monastery of St. Paul, in the Skete of St. John the Baptist, on Mount Athos and in the archives of the Romanian Academy. Among other secular compositions, there are the following: a) Cu buze de foc ( With lips of fire ), b) Bordeias, bordei, bordei ( Little shack ), c) Lelita Saftita ( Lady Saftita ) d) Decat ruda si vecinul (Relatives and neighbors) , e) Pana cand nu te iubeam ( Until I loved you ), f) Urare ( Wish ), g) Si noi la Ilinga , all for mixed choir and instrumental ensemble (with classical and traditional instruments) in a mixed style. He is also, most likely, the composer of the hymn De ş teapt ă -te, române! (Awake, Romanian !) which is the new national anthem of Romania since 1990 onwards. Being a passionate collector, he collected and harmonized dozens of traditional songs and melodies of the wider region of Romania. His private life was hectic (married three times, while his second wife has been a student of his for 15 years in girls’ high school, where he taught music). His recording presence contains 26 discs, most in Romania. 366 He died in Bucharest on 02/11/1854 from typhoid fever and he was buried in the courtyard of the St. Luke Church, in Bucharest, where there is a monument and a mus eum in his honor. After his death, several biographies were published in Romanian language, which refer to his Hellenic origin. 367 Additionally, there are many articles in the volumes of the musicological conferences entitled Acta Musicae Byzantinae (1999-2003). His house, with his personal objects and works, became a museum. In 1955, on the 100th anniversary of his death, the Romanian post office issued a set of stamps. Also, in 1993, an ensemble and a Byzantine choir were created under his name. Here, unfortunately, there is full and outrageous indifference to this great creator.

362 As “Pater imon” (Our Father) for soprano and mixed choir, which was phonographed with the famous Rumanian soprano Angela Gheorgiou.

363 Style of the Rumanian folk music in minor scales.

364 The Rumanian professor of Music History George Onciul (1904–1981) who studied at the Music School Anton Pann, equates him with Grigorios, the introducer of the Gregorian chant in the western ecclesiastical music.

365 The Rumanian historian of music, Ian Petrescu (1818-1903) accused him that he sacrificed the musical tradition of Rumania in favor of the influence by the corresponding west-european (from Palestrina to Mozart) and that he couldn’t excel the music of his teacher D. Fotinos in simplicity, style and sweetness. Among his critisizers was also the Archbishop Melchisedek (1823-1892), student of P. Ephesios, for the accurate translation and the musical intonation of the Hellenic words that had as a result not to sound like Rumanian melodies (extreme jumps, unusual –unconventional, improper-- endings, and introduction of foreigh melodic elements).

366 Many of them are personal, only with his own compositions, as the recording “Zaharicale”.

367 As: a) the monography Drumurile Lui Anton Pann of Constantin Mateescu (Editura sport-turism, Bukharest 1981) and b) the Anton Pann: monografie of Ilie Dan (Albatros, Bukharest 1989).


Constantinos Papadimitriou: Music Teacher, Cantor, musicologist, theoretician of Byzantine music and composer. Also theologian and jurist. He was born in Dardanellia, in 1889. He studied Byzantine music in Halki (before 1908), theology in Jerusalem (as a scholar of the Holy Sepulchre, in the Theological School of the Cross), Byzantine music (from 1908 to 1911. He graduated in 1911 with a diploma and praise) and European music (1908-1912?) at the Conservatory of Athens (piano, flute and theory with George Nazos [1862-1934] and Armand Marsick [1877-1959]). He completed his musical studies at the Vienna Academy (since 1913). In 1910, he sang in the church of St. Anargyroi (dependency of the Holy Sepulchre). In 1912, he was appointed church and European music professor to the Rizarios School by royal decree and later, in Maraslio Teachers’ College. He was founder and director of the Music Lyceum of Athens (1918-1929) and teacher of history of Byzantine music at the Conservatory of Athens where he served also as its general secretary (1911-1920, 1938-1947). In 1916, he became a member (second flute) of the Symphony Orchestra of the Conservatory of Athens. He was also a member -as tenor- of the Voice Quartet with a sweet, sonorous and metallic voice that gave the tone to the whole quartet. During the decate of 1910, he recorded, on the spot, more than 100 folk songs of Arcadia, Achaia and Evia. He transcribed them -in collaboration with his teacher A. Marsick- for voice or choir and piano. Many of them (such as “Vaggelio”) -due to their exceptional harmonization- were included in the basic repertoire of the lyric singers of the era. In 1920, he took part in the controversy within the church, regarding the introduction of polyphony, with his musical treatise "The music issue in the Church o f Hellas". It was an essay of 72 pages containing valuable historical notes on the evolution of sacred music in the Orthodox Church. The i ssue also contained 27 musical examples of Byzantine and folk music in European notation 368. In 1930, he contributed -as a founding member- to the creation of the Association of Secondary Education Musicians and he was a member of the board as consultant. He was also a founding member of the Greek Composers and the Panhellenic Musical Association of which he was President. He was involve d in the establishment of choirs and the organization of regular evening concerts in Athens 369 .

From the 20s he began to give lectures on various musical themes, historical lectures due to their importance. Among them:

a) "The folk songs of Hellas and their relationship to the Byzantine and the ancient Hellenic music" (at the Society of Byzantine Studies [1928] and -in summary- at the international conference on folk art in Prague), b) "Schubert and the Hellenic Music” [at the He llenic368 Unsigned, “Music-philological editions”, Music Review, iss.

1, Athens 10/1921, p. 16. 369 Kalogeropoulos, “Constantinos Papadimitriou”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 4, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 581.
Constantinos Papadimitriou, Forminx

German Society for the centenary from the death of the great composer (1928)], c) "About the rescued, in the Ionian Islands, peculiar music, the so-called Cretan" [at the 3rd international Byzantinologists’ conference (1930)], d) "The Hellenic music and the Gypsies" (1930), e) "Th. Reinach and the Hellenic Music" (1930), f) “The folk songs of love” [at the Lyceum of Hellenic Women presenting transcripts for voice and piano (1932)], g) "Remains of Byzantine music in the West" [on behalf of the Christian Archaeological Soc iety (1932)]. It was combined with the presentation -at the church of Holy Trinity- of the early Christian hymn that was found in Oxyrhynchus of Egypt, in his own transcription for choir and orchestra), h) "The origin of Hellenic music" (at the School of Cadets [1934]) , i) "About the progress of Byzantine music paleography" (at the Byzantine Museum, 1938), and j) “Chrysanthos of Madytos” (at the Company o f Byzantine Studies, 1939). There were also been published his musical-musicological essays: a) Melodic exercises on Byzantine music. Practical Method. To be used by students of seminaries, academies and conservatories and by any friend of music (1928. It was the first book -Practical method with character of Byzantine solfez- which was transcribed in Braille system for the blinds by the blind student Dimitris Chrysafidis), b) Modes of Byzantine Music (1933), c) “I. Sakellaridis and our musical issue” (reprint from the ma gazine Church, 1939), d) John Sakellaridis as a scholar musician (1940), e) Essay on the history of Hellenic music and g) The Art of Chanting . His following essays though remained unpublished: " Folk songs of Hellas and their relationship with the Byzantine music " and " Pedagogical songs suitable for seminary ".

As a composer, he wrote the Polychronion: Church Hymn of the Royal Family for four-part male choir and piano or harmonium (1914). It is the first known composition which was presented at the Church of St. Constantinos on 30/10/1916. It is based on t he known polychronion of third tone and its melody is included -with various variations- in ecclesiastical musical texts. He wrote in the foreword: " It is issued for four-part choir, because the lack of such issue was noticeable, since the polychronion was established to be sung harmoniously, at the beginning only in the temple of the Palace, afterwards in the metropolitan church and during the Nati onal celebrations ... The accompaniment of the instrument intends only to help to the introduction of the anthem into schools and th e Hellenic families ". He also wrote many school and church songs with piano accompaniment and songs for voice and piano which were broadcast from the radio station (mainly in the 30s). His work Vulgata , based on Byzantine issues, was awarded by the Academy of Athens. He issued folk songs with piano accompaniment: a) in the Music Review, b) tin the he celebratory volume of Rizarios School, c) in the French magazine Menestrel and d) in the collections of pedagogical songs of Orestis Kontogiannis (1889-?) and Athanas ios Argyropoulos (1884 -1939). He also issued trancriptions of Byzantine melodies into European notation and translations of foreig n songs. He became a strong supporter of the theoretical dispute of the "minimum tone" (7 parts) and the "semitone" (6 parts), re cognizing of course that practically this difference was no longer noticeable. In 1939, however, he vehemently questioned its harmoni c idiom by accusing it from a different (aesthetic) point of view: “... this, based mostly in the simple diphony of thirds or sixths (based mostly on simple two-voice texture using parallel thirds or sixths), suitable rather for musically advanced schools and communities, does not present any artistic interest ”. Among his known disciples were also the following: Vasileios Katsifis, Andreas Levantis, Thomas I. Bairaktaris and Tasos Papadimos. He died in Athens, in 1947.


Christoforos Papadopoulos: Artistic personality -composer, conductor- of Alexandroupolis where he was born in 1911. His contribution was great, diverse and entirely selfless. He was a self-taught musician. He began his artistic route in 1927 when he joined the choir and the mandolin orchestra of the Mousikos Gymnastikos Syllogos Ethnikos Alexandroupolis (Ethnikos Alexandroupoli F.C.) and the city's Band which was the benchmark of the music activity. From 1933 to 1941 and from 1950 to 1958, he was conductor of the Band with which he gave many concerts presenting his own works. During the 30s, he created mandolinatas in the primary schools of the city. In 1948, he composed the music for the variety show Ethnikos Synagermos ( National Alarm ) of G. Varelas, with political / patriotic content (according to the climate of the time, in the midst of Civil war) which was performed in Alexandroupolis, on 28/08/1948. In 1949, he was conducting the military orchestra presenting a variety of programs in various Thraciancities. During the 50s, he was also conducting the choir and the symphony orchestra of the Alexandroupolis’ Amateur Association, with which he presented his composition about the Thracian refugees during the dark years of foreign occupation. Since 1955, along with the also Thracian music teacher, Theodoros Charalambidis, he was codirecting the mixed choir and the male church choir of the Mousikos Gymnastikos Syllogos Ethnikos Alexandroupolis . During the 70s and 80s, he was directing the choir of ‘Alexandroupolis’ Artistic Association’ 370 with impressive artistic effects for which he was awarded in 1984 the Golden Alexander prize.

Thanks to its conductor, the choir -as representative of Thrace- won the first prize in the international choir meeting ‘Choral '88’. He composed many choral works, such as Alexandroupolis in lyrics by him and K. Kandylaki (1942), the Mou ftanei pou zo kai s’ agapo (It’s enough for me to live and love you) in lyrics by K. Kandylakis (1976), the Hymn of Alexandroupolis (1978),371 the Hymn of Thrace (1982), songs and small works, as well as arrangements of works of other composers for brass band. He died in 1990, in Alexandroupolis.

370 The Association was the evolution of the ‘Ethnikos’ (National) Union.

371 Work-trademark of the choir which interpreted it in the event with a lecture of the writer on the deceased composers of Thrace and a small concert in Alexandroupolis on 17/03/2012. The first presentation of the work took place at the 1st Choir Festival of Athens (Hilton, Athens, 13/09/1979).

Christoforos Papadopoulos, Archive of the Artistic Association of Alexandroupolis.

Theodoros Papadopoulos: Composer, songwriter, violinist of light music, conductor and orchestras’ manager in nightclubs. He was born in Constantinople before 1890. There, he took his first music lessons (violin from a blind beggar with unknown name). Reportedly he also studied dance and music in France where he acquired solid musical knowledge (Paris and Lyon) 372 (19071915) where he lived also practicing various professions. Around 1915, he returned to Constantinople where he worked as a dance teacher. After the catastrophe of 1922, he settled in Athens and he opened the famous underground tavern “Strelna” and formed one of the first, apart from the theater, orchestras, with Nikos Platsaeos (in piano) and Michael Sougioul (in accordion), both composers of light music. Although he was not a good violinist, he had the gift of choosing excellent partners.

He is one of the composers who were going along with the the challenges of the current fashion and were taking into consideraion the preferences of the people by writing songs of any kind and style. 373 His songs kept the style of the Athenian serenade, with several folk-elements aiming to meet the market needs without degradating the quality. His compositions, despite the stylistic heterogeneity, " are so trully and spontaneously inspired, that have the consent of the people as ally "374

From the 20s to the 60s, he composed music and songs for several variety shows, mainly during the era between the wars. Among them: Papagalos ( Parrot ) (1934), To kati allo ( Something Else ) (1935), Ah, sy, cow-boy ( Oh, you, cow-boy ) (1937) and I sfaera gyrizei ( The sphere turns ) (1939). His main activity however was that of the composer of at least 200 light songs (based on the dances of the time: tango, waltz, foxtrot) as well as folk songs, but with quality orchestrations which reach the style of the art music. The sources for his inspiration and his muses were: a) the beautiful singer and actress Kitsa Korina from Rhodes (she was also song writer) and b) the singer Maya Melaya. He presented his songs with his band, at well known artistic places of Athens with distinguished singers of the op era and the theater, as the tenor P. Epitropakis and Sophia Vempo.

372 Unsigned notes of French newspapers about his per formances in a theater in Paris (1912) in the TTA.

373 Kalogeropoulos, “Theodoros Papadopoulos”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 4, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 592.

374 Mylonas Costas, “The thirty years period 1930-60”, History of the hellenic song, vol. 1, Kedros, Athens 1984, p. 169-71.

Theodoros Papadopoulos, “The Romance”, NLH.

Some of his known songs are: Ime mia tsachpina (I am a dapper ) in his own lyrics (1928), Thelo na se xehaso (I want to forget you ) tango in his own lyrics (1932), To krasi ( The wine ) in his own lyrics (1932), Agap i ( Love ) tango in his own lyrics (1933), Ki-ki-ki-kiki-Kitsa mou ( my Ki-ki-ki-ki-ki-Kitsa ) foxtrot in his own lyrics (1933), Ti eheis ki olo klais ( Why are you crying ) in lyrics by K. Kiousis – S. Petras (1934. Great hit of Paola and Danae), San metho ( As I am getting drunk ) in his own lyrics (1934), Skliri kardia ( Cruel Heart ) in lyrics by K. Korina (1934. His most popular song), Chameni agape ( Lost Love ) romantic serenade in lyrics by K. Kapetanakis (1935. Great commercial success of P. Epitropakis and his wife, the soprano Alice Vitsou), Giati trella na s’ agapiso ( Why did I have to fall madly in love with you ) (1935. Great commercial success of P. Epitropakis), Roza, my Roza, Rozita (1936. From the variety show Kazoura ), Addis Ababa and Vangelitsa foxtrot (1936. Recorded with the unforgettable, subsequent comic actor, Vasilis Avlonitis), Fani and Zacharoplastis itan o babas sou? ( Was your dad a confectioner? ) in lyrics by Al. Sakellarios (1937), Chaido Hellenic Tango [1938. From the variety show Ventalia (fan)], Aintes, aintes ( Let, let ) Cretan folk song (1938), Kristallo tango in lyrics by Kr. Papadopoulos (1938. Great success of Anna Kalouta), To teleftaio tango mi m’ arniesae ( Don’t deny me the last tango ) in lyrics by K. Kiousis (1938. From the variety show Mintinetta ), Poses fores den eklapsa agapi mou gia sena ( How many times have I cried for you my love ) in lyrics by P. Papadoukas [1940. From the variety show Pentamorfi ( Beauty )], Glika mou matia (My Sweet Eyes ) in lyrics by M. Laoutaris (1941. From the variety show Bella Grecia with the unforgettable Rena Vlachopoulou), Agapi dichos pismata ( Love without tantrums ) in lyrics by V. Spyropoulos (1944), Giati, giati ( Why, why ) in lyrics by P. Papadoukas [1944. From the variety show Bizeli ( Pea )], Panais (1944. From the variety show Have you seen Panais? ), I agapes telionoune ( The loves finish ) [1944. From the variety show Ellada mas ( Our Hellas ) with patriotic content], Ela, ela ( Come, come ) [1944. From the variety show Gelate elefthera (Laugh freely)], Tzemile in lyrics by Tsamas (1945), Mas chorizoune ( They are keeping us apart ) (1947), Tragoudi tis Athinas ( Song of Athens ) in lyrics by Em. Savvidis (1947), Pou na se (Where are you ) [1949. From the variety show Anthropoi tou 49 (People of '49)], Pote, ma pote ( When, but when ) waltz (1950. Great success of the Papadopoulos-Sogioul orchestra).

He worked again with Sougioul [1906-1958] during the 50s, until the death of the second. Together they composed known quality songs like Beba ( Babe ), Ai manoula m’ ( Oh, my mom ) in lyrics by K. Kiousis (1951), Pexe kithara ( Play guitar ) in lyrics by K. Kiousis [1951. Also popular song from the variety show Margarites ( Daisies ) which met great success in Lyrikon Theater], He gynaika einai zimia (The woman is dangerous ) (1951), Chastouki ( Slap ) (1952. From the variety show Star Hellas ), Kormi tis mygdalias ( Body of the almond tree ), Svino (I ‘m burned out ), Kroustallo , Mporei ta louloudia (Maybe the flowers ), Takou-takou (Chock-chock ), Otan theliso (When I want), etc. Almost all were issued by the musical houses of Andreadis, Gaitanos, Zacharias Makris and Starr. They were also published in the magazines of the time ( Hellenic Song, The Song, Theatrical Songs ) and recorded in 78 rpm recordings. In 1951, he wrote, together with the composer Costas Kapnisis (1920-2007), the music of the film A Night in Paradise . He died in Athens, in 1964.


Ourania Papamoschou: pianist, music teacher and probably composer, younger sister of Chariklia Papamoschou. She was born in Corfu, in 1880. She graduated from the Conservatory in Berlin and she is mentioned here because she worked as a music teacher at the Hellenic Association ‘Hermes’ in Pera of Constantinople where she created a choir. Presumably she composed works for piano. She was a member of the Greek Composers’ Union during the 50s.

Yioula (Julia) Papamoschou: 375 Pianist and probably composer of piano works. It is possible that she was the older sister of Chariklia Papamoschou, composer and pianist, wife of M. Kalomiris. If this is true, then she was born in Corfu, in 1874. She studied in T rieste (piano) and in Berlin (piano, theory and composition). Being ambitious, she went to Constantinople around 1900, in order to establish the Arts Academy, but she failed. She worked as piano teacher to children of wealthy Hellenic families until she retired from t he artistic activity being very disappointed. She died in Constantinople, unknown when.

Theseus Pindios: Pianist and piano teacher in Athens during the first decades of the 20th century He was born in Philippoupolis (now Plovdiv) in 1886. He took his first music lessons at the club 'Orpheus' with the Czech music teacher A. Teiner. He came to Athens after the dissolution of the association (before 1906). He studied at the Conservatory of Athens and graduated in 1911 with a gold medal (class L. Wassenhoven) having already performed in concerts as a pianist.376 Immediately he began his teaching career and taught: a) at the Conservatory of Athens (1911-1919) and b) at the Hellenic Conservatory (co-founder along with Avra Theodoropoulos (1880-1963) and other music teachers. He was director of studies, from 1926 until his death). Hardworking, humble, idealist and moral model (“... congratulated for his conscientious, low profile and therefore for his efficient pedagogy work ”377, he contributed greatly to the progress of the Athenian artistic activity by: a) giving a recital with demanding repertoire and with works of Hellenes and foreign composers, b) organizing musical events and c) teaching many students. In 1913, he accompanied his coeval mantolinist Dimitrios K. Dounis (1886-1954), at the Municipal Theatre of Athens, in a monumental concert for palm lyre (plucked instrument constructed by Dounis). In 1919, he was also pianist in the Standard Military Choir under G. Sklavos. The newspapers and magazines often praised his performances: " Mr. Th. Pindios proved his virtuosity during a concert given in the

375 Efi Agrafioti, The music is not female , Dromon, Athens 2004, p.126.

376 As the concert of the Byzantine Music School of the Athens Conservatory on 6/6/1910 during which he performed folk songs, harmonized by Ph. Economides.

377 The Chronicle, “Artistic Movement”, Musical Chronicles, iss. 39-40, Athens 3-4/1932, p. 124. Theseus Pindios

Hellenic Conservatory. The rather difficult performance satisfied even the most demanding... Mr. Pindios without seeking public ity, progressively walks on the road of art, being always well studied with an enviable stability”.378 Among his many students were the leading conductor-pianist-composer D. Mitropoulos (in the period 1911-1913) and also the excellent pianists Electra Goudi, Kula Zoe, Ro xanne Kaouri, Despina Karamaouna, Th. Kolassi, Kiki Konti, E. Danou, Zoe Tsakona and Despina Karamaouna-Helmi, the composer-pianist G. Platon, the famous mezzo-soprano Irma Kolasi, the lyrical soprano Alice Vitsou-Epitropaki, the cantor and choir director The odoros Chatzitheodorou etc. According to oral testimonies, registered in TTA, as well as to the activities report of the Hellenic Cons ervatory, 379 he composed at least 10 works for piano, four songs for voice and piano (dedicated to Irma Kolassi) and a Sonatina for violin (or mandolin) and piano which he never sought to present publicly. These works lie – at the best case – in an unknown file (perhaps in the Hellenic Conservatory) or they are considered lost. The Hellenic Conservatory introduced a special piano prize in his honor. His i nterpretation -as pianist- is recorded (his one and only presence) in a 78 rpm record with the Nychtiatiko of M. Kalomiris in the company His Masters Voice (1925). He died in Athens, in 1934.

Panagiotis Pipkov: 380 Multifaceted personality: composer, choir and orchestra director, actor, poet, publicist, music educator and playwright. He is considered one of the main founders of the Bulgarian National Music School. He was born in Philippoupolis on 21/11/1871, with Hellenic origin from Cretan mother named Euterpe. Both, his mother as well as her brother –children of immigra nts from Rethymno of Crete, with the surname Vasilakis, were musically educated. 381 Since he was 6 years old he was learning piano and violin and was writting poetry 382 At the age of 13, he wrote his first play, the “Boyko”. In the period from 1885 to 1894, he was soloist and member of the choir of G. Baintanov. Additionally, he took part as actor in several performances of theatre groups of the c ity (1887-1892). Thanks to his talent, he went to Milan, in 1894, for music studies with a scholarship and with the assistance of t he actors of the Salza Smia theatre. He enrolled in the conservatory and he studied piano, direction of choir and composition until 1897. In 1899, he began working as a scholl teacher of music in various cities in Bulgaria and Romania (Varna) and collaborated with orchestra s and choirs.

For many years (1897-1920) he was living in the town of Lovech. There, he created orchestra, band, three choirs and he composed more than 40 choral works [including Slavonic hymn, Eine zontani ( She is alive ), Oraeos prasinos kipos ( Beautiful green garden ), Chera ( Widow ), Douleia ( Slavery ), Tragoudi tou kalosorismatos ( The welcome song ), etc.], as well as orchestral, all influenced by the folk music of the region. He also made dozens of harmonizations and arrangements of folk songs [among them was the Macedoni -

378 Unsigned, “Concert”, Art Gallery, iss. 247-248, Athens 9-11/1921, p. 52.

379 Hellenic Conservatory, Sheet of Activities 1933-34 and 1935-36, Hellenic Conservatory Publications, Athens 1934.

380 The entry’s data are from the research material in the file of “P. PIPKOV” of the TTA.

381 Her brother, Vasileios Vasilakis (? - ?), was considered to be the best violinist of Philippoupolis.

382 In the TTA there are two of his autograph poems with Hellenic lyrics, written around 1890.


an He Leventia ( The bravery )]. While he was in Lovech, he composed the most known of his works, the choral Hymn of Cyril and Methodius in poetry by S. Michailovski (1901). He was also director of the G. Kirkov choir (1917-1920) and conductor of military and municipal bands (1924-1930).

In 1920, he became director of the choir of the Bulgarian National Opera, in Sophia. There, he wrote the operas Ruska (now lost) and Zagkorka (or Zagoritissa ) with subjects from the daily life of the peasants (1927). He also composed the music for the former national anthem of Bulgaria. Additionally, he composed some piano works (1900-25), using themes from the traditional music of the region, in style reminiscent of Liszt. Some of these are: mazurka Mary (1902), Thavmastos Choros ( Wonderful Dancing ) (1906), Xoros ton Nymfon tou dasous ( Dance of the Nymphs of the forest ), Santina Ntimka , Ratsenitsa (1908) and Bulgarian Rhapsody (1918). 383 Since the 30s, he developed a new romantic idiom with main work Paraphrases on a folk theme for violin and piano (1936). As music teacher at primary schools, he influenced hundreds of children, some of which became later composers and musicians. He composed more than 200 children's songs [like the 10 songs Cycle “Glykolalitos tsalapetinos” (sweet-voice hoopoe) in lyrics by him and others’ (1901-1904)], and children operettas: a) Paedia kai poulia ( Children and birds ) (1909) and b) To trizoni kai ta mirmigkia ( The cricket and the ants ) (1910). He wrote several music critics, articles and novels. The Bulgarian post offices released stamps on the anniversaries of his birth and death. There was never any reference to his Hellenic origin from the neighboring country, a fact that perhaps had to do also with the absolute indifference of the Hellenic State to the children of diaspora. He died in Sophia, on 25/08/1942. The funeral was held at public expense. Several roads in Sophia, in now Plovdiv and in Lovech, were named after him, as well as five Bulgarian schools.

383 First performed, in Hellas, by Athanasios Trikoupis, during the event of the writer for the deceased composers of Thrace (16.03.2012). Published by the Bulgarian house Mantzarov. Panagiotis Pipkov, TTA.

Themistocles Polycrates: Composer, musician and scholar. He was born in Philippoupolis, in 1862 (there is another reference that his birth year was 1863). He was three year old when his father, Georgios Kazantzis or Perdikis (hailing from Epirus) died (1865) and he came to Athens with his mother, who married (second marriage) Constantinos Polycrates who adopted Themistocles and gave him his surname. He studied music at the Conservatory of Athens with the composer Al. Katakouzinos and literature at the University of Athens (he graduated in 1884). He acquired sufficient classical education, as well as musical and literary. Katakouzinos also taught him the polyphonic ecclesiastical music and hired him in the Choir of the Royal Palace. He was principal of schools in Koropi (1885-1888) and Maroussi (for 10 years). He also taught music and literature at various boarding schools, private schools, the Hill Girls’ School and the Arsakio of Athens. He was curator and music teacher at the School for Poor Children of the Parnassos Literary Society (for 20 years). In 1897, he founded the choir of St. George Karykes, which he was directing until 1913. He then took over the choir of the Church of St. Dionysius the Areopagite (1913-1920) and finally of the Harmonic Choir of the Cathedral (the then name of the polyphonic choir, unlike the monophonic Byzantine choir) from 1920 until his death.

Furthermore, since 1911, he was teaching European music at the newlyfounded Byzantine Music School of Piraeus. As a composer, he particularly dealt with the ecclesiastical music. Specifically, in most of his works, the text was distributed to the three upper voices (tenor, baritone and secondo), while the fourth (bass) was used as isokratema during the Byzantine chant. He was the first who introduced the four-part chanting, without instrumental accompaniment, into the temples of Athens. His serious, modest and gentle character was appreciated not only by the faithful fans of the four-part harmony, but also by hi s musical rivals, mostly the cantors of Byzantine music. His relevant compositions, such as: Simeron sotiria to kosmo gegone ( Today, salvation has come to the world ) and Epi Si Haeri Keharitomeni ( Joy be on Thee, full of grace ) (both in recitativo form) or his Cheruviko (in E major and E flat) for four-part choir, and the Te Deum in F were distinguished for their solemn melody and their harmonic background. Sometimes, indeed, he used purely contrapuntal techniques in some parts of his works. The " sweet music " of the set to mucic Troparion of Kassiani (the only one of his works that was published [1908]) was attracting, every Holy Tuesday, thousands of believers to hear it, although it had nothing to do with the Byzantine chant. As John Filopoulos wrote "... having deep knowledge of the harmonious art

Themistocles Polycrates, MOTS.

and a source compositional talent, he acted within entirely personal musical fields, showing the proper respect to the ecclesiastical compositions, combining it with the delicacy and the sweetness of the style ".384

He has rarely harmonized Byzantine melodies, something that has been systematically attempted by other musicians, such as John Sakellaridis (1853-1938) or Elisseos Gianidis (1865-1942). He believed that " Byzantine music cannot be subject to the rules of polyphonic music, because the one has totally different scale’s division from the other ”.385 Most of his musical creations date back to the time of his collaboration with the Church of St. George Karykes. He composed the following, mainly for his four-part choir: a) Services of the Holy Week , b) Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom , c) Three Apolytikia of Resurrection , d) To pnevma sou ( Your spirit ), e) O aggelos evoa ( The angel was crying ) and f) Theotoke i elpis (Mother of God, the hope ) that were recorded . Also, the: a) Se ymnoumen (in F minor), b) Axion Estin (in F major), c) Simeron cremate epi xylou ( Today, He is hung on a piece of Wood ), d) Marriage Service , and e) Funeral Service. His ecclesiastical musical creation was very much influenced by his teacher, Al. Katakouzinos. 386 He was also influenced by the Russian ecclesiastical music, but in a fertile and creative way. It is doubtful whether there is any functional part, which he hasn't set to music and without additions of Byzantine melodies. He is therefore considered the most important composer of polyphonic ecclesiastical music. “ His musical work, although a great part of it remains unpublished, was spread very quickly beyond the borders of Hellas (America, Munich, London, Paris, Budapest, etc.) competing the dissemination of the work of I. Sakellaridis” 387 His compositions are still being sung today since they are consideres the cornerstone of the repertoire of polyphonic Hellenic Orthodox church choirs.

Themistocles Polycrates, Essay on the ecclesiastical organ, Athens, 1910, TTA.

384 Filopoulos, “Themistocles Polycrates”, Introduction to the hellenic polyphonic ecclesiastical Music, Nefeli, Athens 1990, p. 134.

385 Musical Chronicles, vol. B’, p. 340.

386 Kalogeropoulos, “Themistocles Polycrates”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 5, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 136-137.

387 Kalogeropoulos, op. cit., p. 135.


Being prolific, he also composed the Paraponon ( Complaint ) for piano (1891. Dedicated to princess Alexandra), the Hymn to Apollo for soprano or mezzo-soprano and piano (1894), the Autumn night dream for piano (1894) the Hymn of Parnassus for four-part choir or voice and piano, in poetry by A. Ragavis (1895), the Maro, i vlachopoula ( Maro, the vlach girl ), a melodramatic romance for three girls’ voices and choir, in his own poetry (1911. Presented at Hill School for Girls) and Eothinon for voice and piano in poetry by Ar. Provelengios (1916). He also wrote music for three operas: a) The Agroikogiannis in three acts (based on the homonymous comedy by Al. Ragavis),388 b) Nerios, doux of Athens and c) Ypsilantis in one action (the plot was taken from the homonymous drama of Spyridon Vassiliadis, edited by the composer), 389 on unknown dates (in any case before 1905). 390 He also composed: a) school songs [(in his own lyrics. Among these: “Eothinon chant”, “Epenos” (Praise), “Ti paidi dilo” (What a coward child) and “Empros” (Forward). He published them in 1907, under the tittle "Eklogi Asmaton: dia ta Parthenagogia kai ta Scholeia ton Arrenon” (Chant Collectio n: for Girls' and Boys’ Schools)], b) stage music for plays. He set to music at least two ancient tragedies: a) Electra by Sophocles (1898) 391 and b) Medea by Euripides, parts of which were often performed at literary gatherings and schools. He also arranged, for two and three-part children's choir, several works of European composers (Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Rossini, etc.).

He also wrote songs for the first Hellenic variety show Ligo ap’ ola ( A little bit of everything ) of Lampros Mikios (1894). He dealt successfully with the Athenian serenade, by composing songs, such as: a) “Ine stigmes” (There are moments), 392 for voice and piano or three-part choir (1892. Popular Song of the old Athens, based on the poem Eis korin ( To a daughter ) of Stefanos Martzokis. Large phonographic success of P. Epitropakis), b) “To ear” (The Spring) for baritone and piano, in his own lyrics (1893), c) “Apo ta hili sou to rodo” (A rose from your lips) (1894), d) “Ena fili sti mana mou” (A kiss to my mother), for voice and piano, in lyrics b y I. Damvergis (1894), e) “To oneiro tis koris” (The girl’s dream) for voice and piano, in poetry by L. Asteris, g) “Tyrtaeus” marti al march, in lyrics by Tyrtaeus, translated by Spyridon Trikoupis 393, h) “Min koitazeis ton kathrepti” (Don’t look in the mirror), in lyrics by Th. Politis, i)" Rina, Katerina "etc. His love for serenades was incident to his love for wine (“... he was also, rather excessively, devotee of Bac-

388 In the newpaper Empros was written that Polycrates had composed long time ago the melodrama “Agroikogiannis” and was about to be taught, Athens (Athens 1897, sheet 23/11, p. 3).

389 According to the newspaper Scrip, a part from his melodrama “Ypsilantis”, which is considered national, was performed in the hall of Parnassos Literary Society. The newpaper refers to his musical work as “... rich in harmony and melody. And the harmony makes the work magnificent, while the melody, the very much Hellenic, excites and moves” . (Athens 1912, sheet 28/3, p. 3).

390 “We hope he will revive, soon enough, on stage, the three Hellenic melodramas of Th. Polycrates, which have been composed many years ago and which, without a doubt, want to obtain the approbation of the public” . “Newspaper”, National Muse, no.1-2, Athens 3-4/1909, p. 32.

391 At the Parnassos Literary Society, the choruses from “Electra” were successfully performed, as written in the newspaper Empros (Athens 1899, April 12). The set to music of the Stasimon A’ for voice and piano was published by the Alex. Kavvadis publications.

392 In the manuscript, but also in the 3-times printed score the tittle is “Eine stigmes” (“There are moments”).

393 Published by the musical house of Z. Veloudios.


chus, thus his friends called him, paraphrasing his name, Methystoklis Polycrases ”.394 Several of these were recorded in 78 rpm, during the period 1920-1930. He wrote musicological writings and studies: a) "I mousiki par’ Omiro” (The music according to Homer", b) “Theoritikon tis mousikis” (Theoretical of music) (1894. Dedicated to the memory of Al. Katakouzinos), c) “Harmonic” (1908),395 d) “The fourpart music in Church”, e) “Treatise on the Ecclesiastical Organ from the ancient times up to nowadays” (published by the printi ng house of Spyridon Kousoulinos in 1910. It was first published in series in the magazine Forminx), g) “Solutions to the exercises included in the Harmonic” (1910), h) “The notation in the ancient music”, i) “Music in ancient Hellas and the Hymn to Apollo, found in Delfi” (published by Al. Constantinidis editions),396 etc. He published studies (especially musicological, mainly out of his many lectures) 397 in Forminx and Evdomas tis Athinas (Week of Athens ) . He was also musician associate of various newspapers, such as Athena , The Athens (of Pop) etc. 398 He also wrote treatises of literary and archaeological interest [“Oi en Koropio archaiotites” (The antiquities in Koropi) in 1 889]. He died in Athens, on 24/02/1926.

Georges Poniridy:399 A prominent figure in the field of Hellenic literary musical creation with a great number of varying compositional works. He is known for his symphonic works, as well as his works for piano and his songs for voice and piano. Born in Chalcedon of Constantinople in April of 1887 (several biographies refer to the year 1892, as his birth year, but incorrectly, even though it was promoted by the composer himself. But according to the TTA research, as well as the reliable oral testimony of Maria Francescou, p ianist and life partner of his, 1887 is the correct year). He had his first musical education in his fatherland, studying violin and w ind instruments as a member of the Band of the Faure Hellenic-French Lyceum. He also came in touch with the orthodox ecclesiastical melod y at the historic church of St. Euphemia. As a student of the Church’s Byzantine music faculty and a member of the choir later (19021910), he acquired considerable practical experience on chanting. He loved the Byzantine music, discovering, through it, an imp ortant

394 Demetris Sarantakos, A visit to Mani, autobiographical novel in the web site: http://sarantakos.wordpress.com/2013/07/23/7kalokairia-40/

395 Published in 16 issues during 1909-10. For the release of the first two issues, the following comment was published: “The Work, besides the apparent nice publication, is written in perfect language, while the musi cal terms used in it are quite successful and completely Hellen ized. At the beginning of the work there is an introduction about intervals, mode and scale, harmony, rhythm and melody, followed by the first book of Harmonic related to cords and the first part is about consistent chords for ten consecutive chapters” . Unsigned, “The Newpaper”, National Muse, iss. 2, Athens 4/1909, p. 32.

396 As written in the Newspaper of Conversations , the composer presented his essay on 10/03/1894 to Parnassos Literary Society with the interpretation of the “Hymn” by “a well trained choir and an orchestra of fourteen well adjusted organs” (Athens 1894, no. 126).

397 As the lecture “On the musical writing of various nations from the ancient years until our times” to the Parnassos Literary So ciety (Athens 1/1912).

398 The magazine Musical Chronicles published his study The Music in Hellas on the 5th anniversary from his death (iss. 6-7, Athens 1931, p. 129-133).

399 The most important biographical information are taken from: a) the oral testimonies of the composer ‘s wife, the pianist and basic interpreter of his pianistic works, Maria Fratzeskou, which were given to the writer during the period 1992-94, b) the scores of his works and c) the following articles and entries:

-Tamvakos, “Hellenes Composers. Georges Poniridy (1887-1982)”, New Struggles of Epirus, Ioannina 03.01.1995, p. 6-7 and 11.

- Dounias Minos, “Poniridy, Georges”, Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart , B. 10, Bärenreiter, Kassel 1949 (reissue with additions, 1989).

- Leotsakos, “Georges Poniridy” Global Biographical Dictionary, vol. 8, Athens Publishing house, Athens 1991, p. 336-337.

- Kalogeropoulos, “Georges Poniridy”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 5, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 146-148.


source of compositional inspiration (detected in more than 40 musical works of his) that adapted it to new compositional genres and techniques.

In 1910, he moved to Brussels, where he enrolled at the city's conservatory. There, he studied: a) violin (1910-12) with Alfred Marchot (graduated with diploma in violin), b) harmony (1912-1913) with Paul Gilson (1865-1942) and c) theory / composition (1913 -18) with Michel Brusselmans (1886-1960). According to oral testimony of Maria Francescou to the writer, Brusselmans composed the opera of Hellenic interest “The Queen of Sparta” (1914), influenced by the performance of his Hellenic student. He developed multifaceted musical activity in Brussels as: a) violinist in Belgian orchestras (such as: a) Théâtre Royal de la Monnaie and b) Tournoi), b) member of string quartets, c) conductor of chamber orchestras, d) orchestrator and e) music associate in ballet and theater performances. His first formal compositions (approximately 20 works or sketches of works, during 1910-1915, were destroyed by him) date back to 1915. They are the Six Hellenic folk melodies for voice and piano (1915).

Among these, the recorded "Papadia" (Priest’s wife) and “Anevika st’ Agrafa” (I went to Agrapha mountains), published by Gaitanos editions and the "Two Preludes" for piano (1916, dedicated to the composer A. Sauraly-Thivet). The second prelude is based on the hymn Kyrie ton dinameon meth’ imon genou (Lord of powers, be with us.. .). In 1919, he moved to Paris where he enrolled at the Schola Cantorum, in the classes of the famous French composers Albert Roussel (orchestration) and Vincent D'Indy (theory / composition). The last said that Poniridy was one of his best students. He studied also Gregorian chant with the composer, musicologist and organist Amedéé Gastoue (1873-1943), driven by his thirst for knowledge, having already the knowledge and experience of Byzantine music. As in Belgium, he intensified his occupation also in France, being: a) violinist in French symphonic orchestras (such as the Orchestre des Concerts Pasd eloup and the Orchestre Philharmonique de Nice), b) choir director (as the choir of the church Saint-Leu and the University’s Student Choir), c) member of quartets and chamber ensembles and d) music critic in several magazines.

Georges Poniridy (1920), TTA.

His list of compositions was enriched with the famous -due to several performances- Prelude and Fugue for string orchestra (1919). It was issued in 1958 by the Greek Composers’ Union. It is distinguished by its strong melodic line. The strings, with their expressive power, enrich yet more its sonic volume. The slow “Prelude” (Adagio) was obviously influenced by the byzantine music. It consists of continuous advancements (although its form is schematically tripartite) and variations of the central melodic idea. The joyful four-voice “Fugue” (Allegro), with 10 minutes duration, is triumphant and festive in its development. 400 Additionally, during the period 1920-1924, he composed: a) 6 Hellenic Folk Songs for voice and piano (including the “Lullaby” that became known by I. Kolassi as the key work in her concert appearances. It was recorded -in 1954- with her and the pianist Andre Collard in seven inch disk. It was the first recording presence of the composer), b) Little Suite , c) Sonata , d) Hellenic rhythms (the “Thessaly” was included in 1929, in Salabert’s edition with 19 piano works of various famous composers of the time: Debussy, Ravel, etc.) and e) Two Hellenic dances (dedicated to A. Choremi with the suggestion: "for small hands". It was issued in London by Oxford University Press), all four toned for piano.

In 1924, he also completed the best work of this period, the Three Byzantine melodies , no. 1 for three-part female choir and orchestra [in the “Idou o Amnos tou Theou” (“Behold the Lamb of God”) there is also a solo soprano part]. Here, there is a part of critical review from the first Hellenic presentation of the work "...it is remarkable and very indicative for the genius of the Hellene composer, the fact that doesn’t use any of the known Byzantine themes in the three Byzantine melodies . He creates his melodies himself, wrapping them up with a strictly Byzantine atmosphere that he manages to create with simple and wisely studied musical means. T he

400 Papaioannou, “Georges Poniridy” in Georges Poniridy’s Prelude and Fugue for string orchestra, Hellenes Composers Union. Publications of Hellenic Compositions, Athens 1958, p. 3-4. Autograph from the “Symphonic triptych”, TTA.

harmonization and orchestration of these pure melodies are simple and transparent. It seems that during his long stay in Brusse ls and Paris, he learned all the new musical styles - heretics and orthodox. That is why he chose the simpler and lighter way of art that is always the most appropriate for a Hellene composer who knows how to seek for inspirations in the rich mines of our national traditions ”.401

In 1925, he graduated from the Schola Cantorum and he composed the following: a) Two songs in Krystallis’s poetry for voice, flute, clarinet and piano and b) Two septets for voice, piano and strings (although it was issued by the French music house Maurice Senart, it could not be found). The same house also issued, in 1924, the Three Hellenic melodies for voice and piano on M. Malakasis’s poems.402 In 1926, he was awarded the medal of the French Knights’ Palmes Academique for his artistic offer. By the end of the 20s, his ergography was completed with the: a) Symphonic Triptych for large orchestra, subtitled “Three Odes: Epic, Lyric, Dionysian” inspired by the poetry of Angelos Sikelianos [premiered by the Symphony Orchestra of Conservatory of Athens, under the direction of D. Mitropoulos (1937) and it was published in the series "Music Editions" of the Ministry of Education (1966). “... This is a really excellent work and it is worth to be included in the most typical and representative ones of the contemporary Hellenic music creation ...”],403 b) Song for violin and piano and c) Scherzo for piano. In the 30s -due to his many artistic occupations- he composed very few works: a) the –lost today- ballet Dodekameron , b) Three songs on Cavafy’s poems for voice and piano (both in 1934) and c) Symphony No. 1 (1935).

In 1938, burned with national desire, he decided to return to Hellas, leaving behind a brilliant career full of excellent reviews (“ superb sonic decorator ”, etc.). This return was marked by the composing of the Three Byzantine melodies, no. 2 for choir and orchestra, the cantata Kassiani for mezzo soprano, choir and orchestra (subtitled “Byzantine troparion”. It is dedicated to his brother, Menelaus. It was issued by the Ministry of Culture and Science, 1977). A. Theodoropoulou wrote inter alia: “... we have been eagerly waited for Poniridy’s work, knowing how scrupulous he was with the religious ecclesiastical chants. These two series of Byzantine melodies , no. 1 and no. 2, along with the cantata “Kassiani”, consist a Byzantine trilogy where Poniridy uses church hymns as a base, pla cing them into a symphonic framework in accordance with the current requirements of art, without changing the solemn character of th ese nice chants. “no. 2” consists of three choral and three symphonic parts. Poniridy, being delicate and musically sensitive, used technical means matched with the spirit and the style of the chants, choral polyphony in some parts and Byzantine Ison in others. Of course, the combination of the Byzantine melody with the modern musical systems entails many risks. But when it comes to Poniridy, no such danger exists, because, besides his special talent of knowing and understanding our ecclesiastical music, he is favoured by his cl ose con-

401 Theodoropoulou,“The Music”, New Estia, vol. 13, iss. 150, Athens 15/3/1933, p. 334.

402 A reprint of the publication, which bears autograph dedication of the composer to the Russian singer Maria Olenina (1869-1970), lies in the collection of Sophie Dupré (web site: http://www.sophiedupre.com/stock_detail.php?stockid=54524).

403 D. A. Chamoudopoulos, “The Music”, New Estia, vol. 23, iss. 266, Athens 15/1/1938, p. 130.


tact with the ecclesiastical chants of the Latin Church during his studies in 'Scola Cantoroum' of Paris, where the study of old Gregorian method was systematically cultivated ...”.404 During the same year, he also completed the Three Symphonic Preludes for large orchestra. It is a tripartite suite with interrelated parts. It is characterized by spontaneous inspiration, genuine Hellenic charact er, original rhythmic findings and rich exploitation of orchestral timbres. Its first presentation took place at the Herodes Atticus Odeon, with the State Orchestra of Athens on 25/08/1944. It was published by the French Institute of Athens, in 1949, in a polished version by the philhellene Octave Merlier who wrote that this work was inspired by the “... simple and luminous beauty of the Attica earth ”.405

In 1939, a year after his return to Hellas, he published a fiery article in Nea Estia on the future of the Hellenic music, entitled “The Hellenic polyphonic music”. Through this -having the excitement of the young composer who returned home full of ideas and being eager to share his experiences and his talent with the Hellenic communities- he expressed his opinion for the misuse of th e pluralism and the separation between the Byzantine melody and the monophonic Byzantine art, writing that “... it is time to eliminate every clumsy quadrophony from the church, but it is also time to stop the botched interpretations of the Byzantine melodies which are characterized by the allegedly 'traditional' nasal singing and yodeling, these meaningless and arbitrary vocal improvisations ... T he capacity therefore lies on the side of the Hellenic musical pluralism, the only true and live musical evolution of the Byzantine melody " and that "... the monophonic Byzantine art ... is no longer sufficient in our today's musical perception of flowering, the full blossoming of a new era of Hellenic music ...”. And he concluded: “... our Hellas is eternal, thanks to the immortal Hellenic spirit that is characterized by a true superiority, to capture all the spiritual trends presented, to reconstruct and create them, in favor of this eternal and u nrivaled superiority ”.406

Although he was already known, having presented many works with positive reviews from fans and critics, nevertheless, during the periods of dictatorship of Metaxas and the German Occupation (1939-1941), he composed stage music for some performances of the Royal Theatre (now National), for a livelihood, directed by himself. His music for ten performances is preserved in the Municipal Museum and Study Centre of the Hellenic Theatre of Athens (unfortunately closed nowdays) and the digitized Archive of the Natio nal Theatre. Among them: "The Bonds of Interest" of Benavente, “Volpone” by Johnson, “The Fan” by Goldoni, “The moods of Marianne” of Musset, “Snow White Queen” by Andersen and “Antigone” by Sophocles (there is a preserved copy of the score. The original orches tral score and the spartito have not been found). His music for "Antigone" is the most remarkable. Aura Theodoropoulou wrote on this : “... he treated both the rhythmic and the melodic element as background. His music, simple and graceful, highlighted some parts of t he work. Sometimes, as background to the choirs’ recitation, he covered the voices, but this relates more to the performance. The nice

404 Theodoropoulou, “The Music”, New Estia, vol. 35, iss. 398, Athens 1/1/1944, p. 124.

405 Merliet Octave, “George Poniridy. Trois Préludes Symphoniques», Prologue, Collection de l’Institut Français d’Athènes, Série Musicale 4, Athens 1949, p. 5.

406 Poniridy Georges, “The Hellenic polyphonic Music”, New Estia, vol. 26, iss. 301, Athens 01/07/1939, p. 925-927.


background to the lament of Antigone stands out as a musical sigh from a flute. And this time the problem was solved thanks to the choir’s unanimous recitation that doesn’t stifle the text ... We watch with respect and interest every sincere effort on music in ancient drama and one of the most successful is the Antigone's music by Poniridy ….”.407

In 1940, he returned to chamber music with the Song for cello and piano and the Sonata No. 1 for violin and piano. The second is considered one of the best chamber music works of Hellenic art music. It was introduced in 1941 by the couple, George and Alice Lykoudis and phographed with Byron Kolasis and George Papadopoulos on piano (1961). The melodic themes of the Sonata were taken from Chalcedon (a dance with two persons facing each other, in the first part) and Eastern Rumelia (syrtos dance from Bana, in the second slow part and dances from that place, in the third part), unfolding memories and a sense of deprivation of his native land from where he left since 1910. During the Occupation, he composed the Symphony no. 2 for large orchestra with subtitle “The song of spring”. It was first presented with the Athens State Orchestra under the direction of Th. Vavagiannis on 01/02/1948. Other works of this period are the: Lyric Suite for string orchestra (first performed by the Athens State Orchestra under the direction of G. Lykoudis on 10/11/1945) and Trio for violin, cello and piano. Also the songs Panagia tis Spartis ( Holy Lady of Sparta ), Anoixi ( Spring ) and Anadyomeni ( Emerging ) in poetry by A. Sikelianos, strongly influenced by Debussy and mainly by Ravel, but with smart findings and fine adaptation of the music to the style of A. Sikelianos’s poetry and its bright spring rural atmosphere. In 1943, he was appointed head of the music department of the Ministry of Education, position he held until 1959. Furthermore, in recognition of his artistic offer, he was appointed member of the Supreme Administrative Music Council (end of the 40s). In the 50s, he composed the following works: a) Suite for cello and piano (1953), b) Two musical narratives (“Epikaleo ton Theon” and “Agianapa B’”) for voice and strings or piano, on G. Seferis’s poems, c) Sonata for flute and piano (1956), d) I chora pou den pethaenei (The country that doesn’t die) for large orchestra based on the poetry of K. Palamas (20 minute duration. First presented with the State Orchestra of Athens on 22/03/1971), e) Little Symphony for strings and percussion based on G. Seferis’s poem Oneiro ( Dream ) (1958). Also, the remarkable String quartets no. 1 (“Christmas”) and no. 2 (“Epiphany”) (1959. It is his first approach to twelve-note music).

407 Theodoropoulou, “The Music”, New Estia, vol. 28, iss. 333, Athens 01/11/1940, p. 1360. Concert program (1952), TTA.

It was already clear that he turned to chamber music which he followed until the end of his life. During the particularly fruitful 60s, some of his works, close to the modern musical trends with interesting and original orchestration, came to the light. These were: a) Sonata no. 3 for piano (numbered with the number 3 by the composer, although Sonata no. 2 was never found), b) Sonata for clarinet and piano , c) Concerto for horn and strings , d) Trio for woodwind and e) Quartet for oboe, clarinet, bassoon and xylophone (1962). The Trio is an interesting “ sonic tricolor ” because of the excellent expressive quality of the instruments. It is littered with melodic and rhythmic elements from our folk songs, featuring its authenticity and provenance 408 . Other works of this decade are the following: a) Sonata no. 2 for violin and piano, b) Quartet for violin, flute, oboe and bassoon , c) Trio no. 2 for woodwind, d) Three song cycles for voice and piano or clarinet (no.1), piano (no. 2) and viola (no. 3) in poetry by Pantelis Prevelakis (1963), e) Sonata for oboe and piano (1964), f) String Quartet no. 3 (1965) and g) String Quartet no. 4 (1966), h) Trio for violin, cello and piano no. 3 , i) Trio for violin, cello and piano no. 4 (1967), j) Sonata for cello and piano (1968), k) String Quartet no. 5 (1970 ). He also completed two concertos for: a) piano and strings (1965) and b) violin and string orchestra with percussion (1969). Also, the pianistic series in atonal script: a) Evmolpies 1-4 and b) Trilogy 1-4 (1968). Most of these were first performed by Maria Francescou, in February of 1980, in the presence of the composer, while D. Chamoudopoulos wrote: “ The structure and the expression, the technique and the emotion lie together, showing that the gap, which seems to separate the tonality from the non-tonality, is bridgeable ”.409

In the 70s, being already regular fan of pioneering music concerts, he used the expression "absolute dissonant" for the style of his next works. The Music for tuba and piano (1971), with piano accompaniment which is somewhat reminiscent of Messiaen, the Concerto for cello and string orchestra and percussion and finally, the Concerto for flute and strings (1972) is perhaps the most interesting

408 Papaioannou, Programm of the 1st Hellenic Week of Modern Music, Athens 1966. 409 D. A. Chamoudopoulos, “The Music”, New Estia, vol. 107, iss. 1264, Athens 1/3/1980, p. 483. Georges Poniridy, Cassiane, TTA.

works of that decade and they were followed by: the Eurhythmy 1-5 for piano (1956-71. Influenced by E. Satie, just like Evmolpies), the Three lyric pieces for clarinet and piano, the four-act musical tragedy Lazarus in the form of voice-piano in text by P. Prevelakis, the Synergeia for violin, cello and percussion and the Music for three trombones and piano (1973) and the Moto Perpetuo for piano, the last known dated work (1976). There are also some undated works, such as: a) Offertoire (Offer) for organ (before 1930. Issued by the French music house Herelle), b) the Quintet for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn and bassoon (the composer mentioned, in the score, the first presentation in the Athens Festival of Athens Brass Quintet on 27/07/1967), c) the Lyric letter a cycle of seven songs for voice, flute and string orchestra, in poetry by M. Francescou and e) the songs Vespers and Death for voice and piano on the poems of Lambros Porfyras (before 1940).

While the presentations of the first works (before '50) were exceptionally performed and won rave reviews, the few work s presented during the following decades did not have the same fate. He also left a trilogy, titled Three Folk Songs [“To karavi” (The Boat), “To Moirologi” (The Mourn) and the “Nanourisma” (Lullaby)] for orchestra (they are likely to be part of stage works) and some unfinished works such as "Thourio" for voice, trumpet and drum, in lyrics by unknown poet (written on 28/03/1943, apparently for patriotic reasons). The flowing melodic line was dominant in his musical style. The effect from the folk music and especially the Byzanti ne tradition is evident in the tonal, melodic and rhythmic elements of his works (A. Theodoropoulou characterized him as “ byzantinoplikton” , meaning he was obsessed with the byzantine music, perhaps correctly, since he was a profound scholar of it). His aim -according to D. Chamoudopoulos- was to make his music creation (this is shown mainly in his pianistic and vocal works) a reflection of the style and the musical language of his homeland, both the medieval and modern one. 410 According to the musicologist, Y.G. Papaioannou, the shaping of the musical style aimed generally at a neoclassical simplicity of expression with transparent orchestrations. Furthe rmore, he was very interested in the modern compositional trends and the unusual instrumental combinations, especially in the last twenty years of his life, while his practical knowledge of violin and several other instruments 411 contributed in the clarity of his writing. According to the musicologist-researcher, George Leotsakos, his style –as it is perceived by the listener- consists of a flowing traditional melody and extensive fields of chromaticism, often harmonized with parallel intervals 412. His artistic activities expanded beyond the musical composition. He wrote a poetic collection of erotic and romantic poems: “Soliloques Pathétiques d 'un Pèlerin-Pasionné”, written in French (1930. It was published in 1951 in Brussels by the editing house Lettres et Sciences. Although it was signed as G.J.P., there i s no doubt that it is Georges Poniridy). As a music critic, he wrote dozens of articles which were published in the Hellenic and Eur opean press.413 He died in Athens, in 1982.

410 Chamoudopoulos, “Georges Poniridy”, New Estia, vol. 111, iss. 1316, Athens 1/5/1982, p. 616.

411 Papaioannou, “Georges Poniridy” in Georges Poniridy’s Prelude and Fugue for string orchestra, Greek Composers’ Union. Publications of Hellenic Compositions, Athens 1958, p. 3-4.

412 Leotsakos, “Georgios Poniridy” Global Biographical Dictionary, vol. 8, Athens Publishing house, Athens 1991, p. 336-337.

413 In the series “Folk University” of Vradyni newspaper, the Revue musicale of Paris and the Rassegna Musicale of Turin.


Phaedon Priftis : Composer, guitarist, soloist and artist. He was born in Constantinople in 1913 and he was the son of Diamantis Priftis who was guitarist and headmaster of the Hellenic Gymnasium of Constantinople. He began to study music with with his father (1920-25) and took private lessons on piano (1925-29). In 1929, he came to Athens where he continued his musical studies at the Hellenic Conservatory in piano with K. Kotorou, in song with Kim. Triantafyllou and in theory with Spyros Demarias and Al. Kontis, alongside with studies at the dental school of the University. He also studied at the School of Fine Arts, creating a rich painting work. He had nice bass voice and he was member of the Hellenic Chorus of Panagiotis (Takis) Glykofridis (1893-1944) and of the Athens’ Choir of Ph. Economides. In 1931, he participated -as choir member- in five performances of the Offenbach’s opera Les Contes d' Hoffmann under the direction of D. Mitropoulos. He composed many songs for voice and piano. 48 of them, from the period 1963-1991 were issued in album by his wife Kleopatra, novelist and poet, under the tittle “F. Priftis: his songs”, including, among others: “Hamenos pelargos” (Lost stork) in poetry by T. Koutsocheras, “Pethymia” (Desire) in poetry by N. Vokovits, “O ponos apopse” (Pain tonight) in poetry by C. Manousakis, “Apologismos” (Account) in poetry by Markos Avgeris, “Marigo” in poetry by Zacharias Papantoniou, “Vietnam” in poetry by Elias Simopoulos, “Palio gramophono” (Old gramophone) in poetry by D. Vlachogianni, “Pote” (When) in poetry by B. Theodorou, “Oneiropolima” (Daydreaming) in poetry by Kl. Prifti, “Souroupo” (Dusk) in poetry by T. Vellios, “O archaios tragoudistis” (The ancient singer) in poetry by C. Mainaliotis etc. He composed also an introduction for orchestra, four string quartets, works for violin and piano, 10 choiral worls (such as “Ymnos tis folias Elefsinas” [Hymn of Elefsinas’s nest] in poetry by M. Kesisis, “Oi promachoi” [The champions] in poetry by Av. Darakis, “Anazitisi epafis” [Searching for contact] in poetry by C. Manousakis, etc.) and stage music for thea trical performances of Vergis theater, unknown when they were writing. His works were rarely performed before the public: a) on 18/09/200 4, on the occasion of the placement of a commemorative plaque at the home of the great Cretan writer, Nikos Kazantzakis, in Aegina, the International Company of Nikos Kazantzakis’ Friends organized an event during which the tenor Dimitris Sigalos and the pianist Hermione Nastou interpreted parts ("Lenin" and "Moses”) of poems, set to music by the composer, from the collection “Tertsines” and b) on 09-10/02/2009, during the two-day tribute to Chania (Room of the Philological Association ‘Chrysostomos’) for the poet George Manousakis, the soprano Mary Kleinaki and the pianist Dora Manitaki interpreted poems, set to music by the composer (1970), fro m

Phaedon Priftis, TTA.

the collection" The body of silence". His works were also performed during concerts at the Great Hall of the Athens University , the Leontio lyceum and the Municipality of Chalandri. He was founding member of the Society of Scientists Artists and member of the M anaging Committee of the International Society of Nikos Kazantzakis’s Friends (along with his wife, who also served as chairman). He was honored for his social action with medal by the Hellenic state and he was awarded by various bodies (such as the Cretan Estia). He collaborated with various magazines as columnist of musical themes 414. He was involved with the satirical poetry and issued a small book with his poems. He died in Athens, in 1999.

Constantinos Psachos: A world-known personality of Byzantine church music and not only, who acted and influenced the musical culture of Asia Minor: composer, musicologist, musician, cantor, Byzantinologist and scholar. He is considered by subsequent musicologists and musicians, great pioneer of Byzantine music.

He was born in Mega Revma, near Constantinople, most likely in 1866. The date of his birth remains unknown; in fact it is quite difficult to be determined 415. He learned the basics at the School of Mega Revma. A few years later he forced his introduction, as a supernumerary, in the Central Seminary of Constantinople insisting to meet the Patriarch Joaceim the Third. He completed his circular education at this school and he learned chanting from the responsible teacher and housekeeper of the School, Archimandrite Theodore Mantzouranis. In May of 1887, he was hired as first domestikos at the Patriarchal Church of the Savior’s Transfiguration in Galata, where G. Sarantaekklisiotis (1841/43 - 1891) was head cantor. He served there until 1891. Then, he became first domestikos of the head cantor, Efstratios Papadopoulos (1847-1909) at the Church of Mother Mary in Pera. In 1892, he became head cantor at the Church of Saint Charalambos of the Hellenic Hospital in Smyrna.

414 “For the secret things of our place” Research, iss. 72, Athens 1981.

415 The same, in his autographic note, mentions the 19th of May 1876 as this day. However, there are strong evidences that lead one of his most importants biographers and publishers, George Chatzitheodorou, to believe that 1866 is his birth year.

Constantinos Psachos, Georgios I. Chatzitheodorou, Constantinos A. Psachos’ biography.

He returned to Constantinople and he was hired, in 1895, as cantor of the Holy Sepulchre. There, he was given the opportunity to study and acquire numerous manuscripts in the library of the Metochion. He also taught Hellenic language and religious at various schools (such as the Girls’ school of the Holy Sepulchre in Constantinople, where he was appointed in 1896) 416. In 1898, he led on the establishment of the Ecclesiastical Music Association of Constantinople where he was Special Secretary, offering his services until 1902, when he definitively resigned. He also participated in committees of the Association and raised the issue of rythm with his study "Peri tou rithmou en tois asmasi tis Ekklisias” (About the rhythm in the chants of Church) (1900).417 He was also cantor at the Churches of St. Theodore Vlaga (1901-03) and St. Nikolaos, in Galata (1903-1904); that was his last chanting activity. In the early 20th century, the then archbishop of Athens, Theoklitos, along with the director of the Conservatory of Athens, C. Nazos, decided to establish the School of Byzantine Music. In order to staff the post of Director, they addressed to the Patriarchate. With the suggestion of Patriarch Anthimos the seventh, Psachos was chosen in 1903, as the right person for the position. In September of 1904, he moved to Athens and the School began its operation on 23/09/1904. The first official appearance of the School (concert and lecture) took place on 22/03/1906. This was followed by dozens of events “… which, due to their perfection, the prestige of the School was increased at the utmost and it was, as well as its director, at the center of the musical interest ”.418 In 1908, he published his essay "Asian Lyre" (Athens 1908) in which he analyzed the Makam 419 as an excellent connoisseur of Asian music. The book also contained songs of foreign rhythmic music and many more that were published in the minutes of the Ecclesiastical Music Association of Constantinople and i n the Ecclesiastical Truth, the Ecumenical Patriarchate’s newspaper. Currently, it is used as teaching book by many private Hellenic conservatories. In 1911, he was honored with the office of “Archon honorable music teacher and cleric of the Great Church of Chris t” by Joachim the Third and in 1912, the Patriarch of Jerusalem, Damianos the first, named him “ keeper and Knight of the Holy Sepulchre ”. In 1919, he participated in a large committee of Byzantine music which was created for the 100 years of the National Rebirth (P alingenesis). He also had a conflict with the management of the Conservatory of Athens from which he left with M. Kalomiris. He fou nded then (on 20/10/1919), the National Music Conservatory, which he directed until 1922. In March of 1921, he began to publish his musical

416 Kalogeropoulos, “Constantinos Psachos”, The Dictionary of the Hellenic Music, vol. 6, Giallelis, Athens 1998, p. 647-650.

417 Works of the Musical Association of Constantinople, iss. A’, Constantinople 01/01/1900, p. 54-65.

418 Georgios I. Chatzitheodorou, Constantinos A. Psachos ‘s Biography, Reprint from the Second edition of the “parasimantiki” (setting in byzantine notation), Athens 1978, p. 26.

419 Persian word that defines the chants of the Ottoman Music in general as well as the tones (modes) according to which are being set to music.

Litourgiko, CPL.

and literary magazine New Forminx , together with the philologist Em. A. Pezopoulos (1880-1947), which was released until the quadruple issue of the last four months of 1922.

Along with St. Vrachamis, he invented the “Eveio Panarmonio”,420 keyboard instrument, in order to be used for the faithful performance of Byzantine music (1921). He attended the inauguration ceremony in Oettingen of Bavaria on 29/06/1924 -which was hugely successful- and gave several lectures on “parasimantiki” (setting in byzantine notation) and small intervals, 421 during his stay in Germany. Due to his death, the instrument didn’t come to Hellas. It was at the museum of the German factory, in which it was constructed, until 2008. Its material value currently stands at more than 200,000 euros. Its intellectual value though is incalculable, because it is unique in the world, regarding the idea and the construction. The American University of Michigan tried to obtain it without success. It was maintained as a relic, while its annual maintenance exceeded the 2,000 euros. 422 With the ability to produce all sounds, the Germans consider it as a precursor of today's synthesizer and as the greatest invention in the musical history, after the ancient hydraulic organ that was operating with water, while the panarmonio is traditional and operates with air and pipes. The particular design of the pipes (tubes) was made in such way that each can generate the appropriate frequency. A copy of panarmonio exists in the Estia of Nea Smyrni in Athens. In fact, there is an association named ‘C. Psachos’s Panarmonio Cultural Center’ aiming to bring the panarmonio in Hellas.

From 1927 to 1930, he worked with Sikelianos couple on their effort to revive the ancient Hellenic tragedy at the Ancient Theatre of Delphi. From 1930 to 1932, he taught at the Athenian Mandolinata. In 1932, the then Education Minister, George Papandreou appointed him “ Music Supervisor at the Temples of the Orthodox Church of Hellas ” (as First Secretary). But he remained stagnant for several years, without any honorary promotion that he deserved, either to be hired as a professor in the University, at a statutory eth-

420 The Panarmonio [pan (in Hellenic means All) + harmony, meaning it can perform “all the harmonies”], looks like the harmonium and ecclesiastical organ, but is a musical instrument that produces all the notes of both, the European and the Byzantine music, by using only one keyboard. It is 6 meters high and consists of 660 pipes. Ordered by Psachos, it was constructed in Germany by the German factory of instruments G. F. Steinmeyer.

421 Subjucts of some of his lectures: “The Hellenic music and its Organ” (01/07/1922) and “Evolution of the Hellenic Music” (26/01/1922).

422 Cleaning and protecting of pipes from the destroying dust and moisture.

C. Psachos with the panarmonio, HLHA.

nomusicology 423 seat, or to be elected academician, as a minimum moral reward for his national offer. He wrote -during his teaching years at the School of Byzantine Music- many musical books for the interpretation and the support of Byzantine and Hellenic mus ic, such as: a) “Liturgic” (1905),424 b) "Liturgy" (1909),425 c) “Liturgy Hymns” (1912), d) “Notation of Byzantine music” (1917), 426 etc. Also he gave dozens of lectures. He was recognized internationally as an authority on issues of “parasimantiki” (setting in byzantine n otation). He also published more than 500 studies and music-philologic articles [mainly in the Forminx of the cantor and composer, I.Th.Tsoklis [?-1915)] among which some acute attacks against the four-part harmony and its supporters. His last article was written for the Encyclopedia of the Sun. 427 He composed the Pythian Law for harp or guitar and flute (1927),428 the Hymn to the East for three-part choir, the On the river of Babylon for church organ,429 the Dance of Zaloggo , song for voice and piano, music for ancient tragedies, as the choruses and lyrics for Prometheus (1927),430 Prometheus Bound (1930),431 the Suppliants (1930),432 the Phoenician Women (1934), 433 the Oedipus , etc. He also composed works for orchestra and choir, such as: a) Agrypnia kai panigiri sto Metsovo ( Vigil and festival in Metsovo ), b) M. Prokeimenon (M. Subject ) c) Apokreo (Meatfare ), d) Byzantini fantasia ( Byzantine fantasy ), e) Smyrneiki Serenata ( Serenade of Smyrna ), f) I kleftouria ( The klephts ), g) Anastasis ( Resurrection ),434 etc. He focused on imposing the tonal rhythm of Byzantine music 435 and he set to music sacred chants of the Church by proposing a kind of harmonization of Byzantine music by using

423 Despite the persistent efforts of M. Kalomiris.

424 "Containing hymns chanted by deacons, priests and cantors during the holy and sacred Liturgy psallomena in the style of the Great Church of Christ" (subtitle of the adoption from the Musical Annex of 'Forminx', Year A’, Period B’).

425 Psachos was the first to issue the Divine Lityrgy printed with resonant line "in the style and tradition of the Great Church of Christ" (subtitle of the issue) and “synthesized based on the symphonic harmony of our music and the unwritten and traditionally saved ison ” (prologue, Sp. Kousoulinos’ printing shop, Athens 1909, p. 10).

426 “In which he hoards the wise findings of the polychrons on the ancient writing system of Byzantine Music and the development of this research ”. Issued sponsored by Eva Palmer-Sikelianos. George I. Chatzitheodorou, op. cit., p. 31 '.

427 “About ancient Hellenic Music”, volume “Hellas”, Athens 1948, p. 1016-23.

428 Written for the athletic competitions of the First Delphic Festivals of Sikelianos couple “according to the ancient Pythian Law”. First performed at the Ancient Stadium of Delphi by Vassos Kanellos and his American wife.

429 It is an arrangement of the work, under the same title, of Chourmouzios Chartofylakas. First performance: Odeon Theatre Munich, 23/11/1924.

430 Performd during the Delphic Celebretions of 1927 by the Delphic Celebretions Troupe and at Panathenean Stadium in 1931.

431 Delphic Celebretions of 1930 by the National Theatre.

432 Delphic Celebretions of 1930 by the Delhpic Celebretions Troupe. “ His music is warmly accepted by the spectators who chant along with the chorus the lovely melody King of Kings ”

433 It was presented by the Themelic Troupe at the Panathenean Stadium of Athens in August 1934. Also in 1938, 1941, 1948, 1961 and 1965 by the Themelic Troupe.

434 Chatzitheodorou, op. cit., p. 57.

435 He was the first to notice it.


two or three resonant lines.436 He spread, around the Hellenic chanting world, the style of the Great Church of Christ of Constantinople and the rhythmic performance of the psalms. Some of his great compositions, of this kind, are: a) Doxastika and Apolytikia of Archbishop Peter of Argos (1908), b) Praise of the March 25th (1938), c) Vigil’s Vesper , the Axion Esti in harmonic mode and d) Apostolic Cut in second chromatic mode. The most important of his theoretical works is the Octoechos system of Byzantine music, ecclesiastical and vernacular and the one of the harmonic resonance r (1941).437 He was described as “ the musical counterweight ” to the effort of “Europeanists” to introduce the four-part harmony into the Orthodox churches. However, during his fight against his musical rivals, he often crossed the lines using not only scientific arguments, but personal insults, sarcasm and slander, as happened in his controvers y with Elisseos Gianidis,438 or in his opposition to G. Nazos whom, although once he repeatedly defended and praised, he had no difficulty then to write about him in the New Forminx : " He is not, in any way, related to music" . In this way “ ... the hard, rough, strict, and quite contentious ”,439 he created enemies, even among his fans and comrades. The fact that he had no longer the proper voice to chant and thus to undertake a lectern of some central church, increased the criticism against him I. Sakellaridis 440 was forced to name him “... teacher of nose singing that instead of chanters it presents amane singers ”441 . Having purchased the best phonograph of the era, he collected folk songs from almost all around Hellas, which he recorded in Byzantine and European notation. Many of these were published in special collections (such as “Gortyniako”, 442 “of Peloponnese”, “Folk songs of Skyros”, “of Crete” and the Collection of the Conservatory of Athens) as well as in various music magazines. His ability to list these folk songs (in Byzantine and in Europe an notation) immediately after hearing once or twice their original performers,443 surprised A. Marschick who saw and heard him for himself at several cases. The latter, after listening to the recordings and checking the respective scores of the folk songs that were col lected in Crete,444 noted: “ La notation des chansons de Cr`ete par M. Psachos est la plus fid`ele qu 'il me semble possible de re aliser, et elle donne bien le caract`ere de la couleur locale ”445 . He used to sign his texts as C.A. Psachos or with the abbreviation K.A.PS., rarely with his full name and in many cases with various nicknames, such as: An Orthodox, Sionitis Jeremiah, Musical Tilefilos, Terpandros, Kostaras, Elder amateur, Sojourner, Peculiar, Mathematician, Enslaved redeemed, etc. He bequeathed a valuable library of approx i-

436 He was the first to deliver the opinion that the ancient Dorian way corresponded to the Heirmologion fourth tone of Byzantine music. He standardised the type of the harmonic resonance of the Byzantine chants by introducing written (single or double) resonant line (multiple isocrates).

437 Published much later, in 1978, edited and introducted by Georgios I. Chatzitheodorou.

438 Filopoulos, “Constantinos Psachos”. Introduction to the Hellenic polyphonic church music, Nefeli, Athens 1990, p. 146-151.

439 Ap. Vallindras, City of Athens, Athens 1984.

440 “The terribly attacked and eminently cursed by Psachos”.

441 I. Th. Sakellaridis, Hellenic Future, iss. 5221, Athens 23/11/1938.

442 Issued in Piraeus, in 1923, at the expense of Gortyniakos Association of Piraeus. It contained 67 folk songs in European and Byzantine notation.

443 They were simple villagers without musical knowledge.

444 During a journey, in which he was unable to participate.

445 “The national capture of the Cretan songs from mr. Psachos seems to be the most accurate that can be recorded and it also successfully performs the character of the local color, of the local tradition ”. George I.Chatzitheodorou, op. cit., p. 28


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