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kWh m2


LANDSCAPE AND ENERGY Designing Transition

Edited by Dirk Sijmons Jasper Hugtenburg, Fred Feddes and Anton van Hoorn

kWh/m2 is an initiative of Dirk Sijmons and H+N+S Landscape Architects

nai010 publishers


CONTENT 01 INTRODUCTION

04 HEAT

10 The Reciprocity of Energy and Space

192 Footprints 192 Geothermal Energy

02 Past, present and future 24 Past / A Brief History of High-Energy Life 50 Present / Introduction to the

Knowledge of Energy Use and Energy Chains

70 Future / Spatial Scenarios for

196 Residual Heat 200 Peat 204 Natural Gas 208 Shale Gas 212 Biomass 216 Survey 218 Case Study / Rotterdam

the Energy Transition

86 Case Study / Europe

Economic Transition 248 The Economic Transition

03 ELECTRICITY

250 Essay / The Economic Landscape

114 Footprints 114 Nuclear Power 118 Coal

05 FUEL

06 NETWORK AND STORAGE

APPENDIX

326 Footprints

420 Lexicon

326 Electricity Network 328 Heat Network 330 Gas Network 332 Electricity Storage 334 Thermal Energy Storage (TES) 336 Fuel Storage 338 Survey 340 Case Study / The Northern Netherlands

Technological Transition 366 The Technological Transition 368 Essay / The Technological Landscape

07 HUMAN SCALE

122 Lignite

266 Footprints

126 Waste Incineration

266 Petroleum

130 Hydropower

270 Tar Sands

134 Solar

274 Biofuel

138 Wind

278 Algae

142 Survey

282 Survey

398 The Emotional Transition

144 Case Study / Arnhem

284 Case Study / The ‘Green Metropolis’

400 Essay / The Emotional Landscape

Mobility Transition

Political Transition

170 The Mobility Transition

308 The Political Transition

172 Essay / The Mobility Landscape

310 Essay / The Political Landscape

424 Bibliography

384 Case Study / Household Consumption

Emotional Transition

08 EPILOGUE 414 Epilogue

CREDITS 430 Credits


01 INTRODUCTION


86

01 Past, present and future

CASE STUDY / EUROPE

CASE STUDY

EUROPE

↑↑Energy use and energy networks in Europe

87


116

03 ELECTRICITY

FOOTPRINTS

117

FOOTPRINT

Nuclear Power Nuclear power is energy that is generated by controlled nuclear reactions. The enormous amount of energy embedded in matter at the atomic level can be released ​​in two different ways: by splitting heavy nuclei (fission), and by fusing light atoms (fusion). This latter method, fusion (which actually mimics the processes that that occur in the sun), is still a long way from being commercially feasible. That means that in practice, nuclear fission is what we mean when we discuss nuclear power. The raw materials for this process are uranium and thorium, which are mined in various places, including Australia and Canada. Nuclear power is made available in the form of heat. This heat is converted into electricity at the power plant in a conventional way, using steam, turbines and generators. The Netherlands has one genuine nuclear power plant, in Borssele. Plans for a second nuclear power plant have been put on hold. The former nuclear power plant in Doodewaard, which was in operation from 1969 to 1997, is currently undergoing a long period of ‘safe inclusion’ and can be dismantled after 2045. There are small research reactors in Delft and Petten, and in Almelo uranium is enriched. Interestingly, there are also several reactors just over the Belgian and German borders; the NIMBY effect clearly also has an international version. Following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima (Japan), Germany has decided, however, to eventually close all of its nuclear power plants, an explicit choice against nuclear power and in favour of renewable energy. Nuclear power itself is a clean energy source. The problems are with the raw material and the waste products. During extraction, the leaching of uranium from the ore is a potential source of serious environmental pollution. But the heaviest burden of nuclear energy is the storage of its radioactive waste. Due to their long half-lives, the waste materials generated by nuclear power plants remain radioactive for an extremely long time, and therefore need to be safely ↑↑The spatial footprint that would be required to provide electricity for 1 million households by means of nuclear energy, superimposed onto the Wieringermeer polder.

stored for very long periods (thousands of years in the case of long-lived isotopes). Nuclear power therefore has a skewed distribution of benefits (now) and costs (many generations to follow). The spatial footprint of a nuclear power plant and the safety zone that surrounds it is comparable to a gas-fired power plant. The mining of uranium largely takes place in open-pit mines. Because a lot of energy is generated per unit of uranium, the space that these mines take up is relatively small. The amount of waste energy per volume is limited, but the repositories for radioactive waste do indeed take up a large amount of space. Moreover, they take up this space for a very long period of time. For underground storage, some ideas that have been considered include salt domes or other very stable formations in the deeper strata. A convincing solution to this problem has not yet been found. Potential disasters are not included in the calculations of nuclear power’s spatial footprint (which is also the case with oil). Disasters such as Chernobyl (Ukraine) and Fukushima have made it clear that calamities do, however, have a major spatial impact in both the short term and the long term.

↑↑Detail of the spatial footprint for nuclear energy, superimposed onto a part of the Wieringermeer polder.


118

↑↑Slag heaps

03 ELECTRICITY

FOOTPRINTS

119


126

↑↑Household waste

03 ELECTRICITY

FOOTPRINTS

127


270

05 FUEL

↑↑Mining of tar sands

FOOTPRINTS

271


200

↑↑Peat extraction

04 HEAT

FOOTPRINTS

201


CREDITS


CREDITS

kWh/m2 The kWh/m2 project, of which this book is a result, is an initiative of Dirk Sijmons and H+N+S Landscape Architects. The following people have made ​​important contributions to the project’s implementation:

Advisory board for regional case studies

This publication was made possible through support from and contributions by:

Credits

Arnhem

The northern Netherlands

The northern Netherlands

Idea and supervision

Image editing

Rogier van Aken The Province of Gelderland (NL)

Emiel Adema The Province of Groningen (NL)

Melanie Koning Wageningen UR

Dirk Sijmons Delft University of Technology

Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects

Hans van Ammers The City of Arnhem (NL)

Arnout Garrelts The Province of Groningen (NL)

Erik Smits Wageningen UR

Coordination

Dirk Sijmons Delft University of Technology

Albert Anijs (coordinator) The City of Arnhem (NL)

Willem Huizing The Province of Drenthe (NL)

Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects

Joppe Veul H+N+S Landscape Architects

Lydia Dijkshoorn NL Agency

Peter van den Broek The Province of Gelderland (NL)

Editors

Translation Dutch – English

Andy van den Dobbelsteen Delft University of Technology

Gijs Frencken The City of Arnhem (NL)

Klaas Jan Noorman (coordinator) ProDo Consult

Fred Feddes

Michiel Hekkenberg Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN)

William Hartman Alliander

Douglas Heingartner Introduction, texts ‘Energy Use and Energy Chains’ and ‘Getting to Work on the New Energy Landscape’, footprints

Consulted specialists

Albert Jansen Innovatief Denkschap BV Ruud van den Wijngaard Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Coordination of graduate studios Adrian Hill Delft University of Technology Fransje Hooimeijer Delft University of Technology Sven Stremke Wageningen University Set up of case studies Conny Bakker Delft University of Technology

Pieter van der Ploeg Alliander Rudy Rooth DNV-KEMA Hans Schneider Alliander Jos Verweij The City of Arnhem (NL) Marion Visser The City of Arnhem (NL) Rotterdam Sebastian Carney Carbon Captured Ltd Manchester Roland van der Heijden The City of Rotterdam (NL) Robbert Bastiaan Schuijff The City of Rotterdam (NL) Nico Tillie (coordinator) The City of Rotterdam (NL) / Delft University of Technology

Alex van Oost The Province of Drenthe (NL) Boris Pents Natuur- en Milieu Federatie (NMF) Groningen Desmond de Vries The Province of Groningen (NL) Students – Delft University of Technology / Wageningen UR graduate studios Arnhem Jaime Gómez de la Fuente Wageningen UR Tong Li Delft University of Technology Taícia Marques Wageningen UR Willem Minderhout Delft University of Technology

The Green Metropolis

Rotterdam

Nikol Dietz H+N+S Landscape Architects

Peter Bertholet The Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg (NL)

Leah Kim Delft University of Technology

Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects

Mareike Buttstädt The StädteRegion Aachen (DE)

Willem Minderhout Delft University of Technology

Véronique Claessens The City of Genk (NL)

Joppe Veul H+N+S Landscape Architects

Volmar Delheij The Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg (NL)

Melvin Creemers H+N+S Landscape Architects

Philippe Gelders The City of Genk (NL) Leo Gommans Zuyd University of Applied Sciences Thierry Goossens (coordinator) The Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg (NL) Paul Ramsak NL Agency Isabelle Vanderheyden The City of Genk (NL) Uwe Zink The StädteRegion Aachen (DE)

Darius Reznek Wageningen UR Laura Spenkelink Delft University of Technology Matthijs Wentink Delft University of Technology Neil Zandstra Delft University of Technology The Green Metropolis Roxana Florescu Wageningen UR Irene Jialling Delft University of Technology Gillian McKellar Delft University of Technology Lucia Pro Wageningen UR Yasemin Sünbül Delft University of Technology Anyi Zhou Delft University of Technology

Tim Snippert Wageningen UR Supervising faculty – Delft University of Technology / Wageningen UR graduate studios Thijs Asselbergs Delft University of Technology Conny Bakker Delft University of Technology Inge Bobbink Delft University of Technology Andy van den Dobbelsteen Delft University of Technology Jan Engels Delft University of Technology Robbert Nottrot Delft University of Technology Sven Stremke Wageningen UR John Westrik Delft University of Technology

Anton van Hoorn Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects Dirk Sijmons Delft University of Technology Authors Conny Bakker Delft University of Technology Michiel Hekkenberg Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) Adrian Hill Anton van Hoorn Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) Jasper Hugtenburg H+N+S Landscape Architects Nikol Dietz H+N+S Landscape Architects

Beverley Jackson Case studies, Epilogue

Frans Rooijers CE Delft Dirk Sijmons Delft University of Technology Jan Paul van Soest De Gemeynt Dominic Stead Delft University of Technology Copy editing D’Laine Camp

NL Agency The City of Arnhem (NL) The City of Genk (BE) The Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (NL) The Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds The Province of Drenthe (NL) The Province of Groningen (NL) The Stadsregio Parkstad Limburg (NL) The StädteRegion Aachen (DE)

Lithography and printing NPN Drukkers

N

Production Mehgan Bakhuizen nai010 publishers, Rotterdam

Marcel Witvoet nai010 publishers, Rotterdam

Karel Mulder Delft University of Technology

EU INTERREG IVB project MUSIC

Catalogtree

Dirk Sijmons Delft University of Technology

Adrian Hill Delft University of Technology

Edgar Doncker Fund

Design

Publisher

Machiel van Dorst Delft University of Technology

Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands

Laura Vroomen Essays ‘The Economic Landscape’, ‘The Political Landscape’, ‘The Technological Landscape’ ‘The Emotional Landscape’

Fred Feddes

Essayists

Creative Industries Fund NL

H

S

Landschapsarchitecten

430


Landscape and Energy. Designing transition