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SMAQ Sabine M端ller Andreas Quednau

CHARTER OF DUBAI A Manifesto of Critical Urban Transformation


contents

Foreword : Philipp Misselwitz — Dismantling Refuge: Architectural Propositions for Unbound Spaces

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CHARTER OF DUBAI : INTRODUCTION

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11

FAR RANGE — CLOSE RANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   21 re : form — From spectacular image to urban figure FLOWS AND CYCLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   27

re : cover — From fortification to dynamic environments of wind and water re : source I — From exhaustive fossil fuel uptake to a solar urban morphology re : source II — From representational to productive landscapes NETWORKS

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   39

re : block — From dead ends to a permeable grid re : lock — From controlling barriers to sites of concentrated exchange SOCIAL EVERYDAY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   49

re : divide — From exclusion to cultural diversification re : gain — From property speculation to social appropriation IN VICINITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   59 re : plot — From grand estates to affordable dwelling aggregates re : use — From useless yards to inhabitable courtyards re : populate — From stand-alone villas to urban tissue EX-PALM — Application LAST PAGE — cool:pools  References 

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   86

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   89

APPENDIX : Kees Christiaanse : The Palm Dubai

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   93

Interview with hhcP: Palm Jumeirah — City as Product

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   94

Letter to Nakheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   101

Authors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   102 Image CREDITS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   103 Imprint 

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   104


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Dismantling Refuge: Architectural Propositions for Unbound Spaces Philipp Misselwitz

Derived from the Latin refugium, the Old French word “refuge” is commonly understood as a place or state of safety. Those “seeking refuge” wish to withdraw into a protected space or environment. Colloquially, the notion of refuge is used quite freely. It can refer to a holiday retreat, an ecological reserve, a place of hiding, a safe haven and so forth. Others instantly associate the notion of refuge with the refugee which, according to the narrow definition developed in the twentieth century for legal and humanitarian purposes includes only forcefully displaced persons who have escaped to safety across a national boundary. The imprecision with which the notion of refuge is used is both confusing and thought provoking. For the purpose of this short introduction, I will consider the notion of refuge in relation to a specific urban site—that of Dubai, best represented by the Palm Dubai as an extreme and iconic urbanism which has become a model for both proponents and opponents. Thus casting aside myriad alternative understandings, this definition will be based on the following three motifs: The constitutive moment for the emergence of a so-called space of refuge is an unresolved conflict. The nature and gravity of the conflict can vary tremendously, ranging from existentialist fear to dissatisfaction with a given situation: direct threat, physical danger, social or political pressure, persecution, exclusion, or eviction; but also perceived threats or simply discomfort with a social or cultural environment. In both cases, conflict triggers the act of seeking refuge, which can take the form of either involuntary displacement or more or less voluntary withdrawal. In either case, instead of addressing and potentially solving the conflict then and there, the individual or group chooses or is forced into displacement, an act of withdrawal or escape from the conflict’s origin. Unresolved, the conflict lingers on, as it were, and takes on the form of a repressed trauma. A second quality common to all forms of refuge relates to spatial characteristics. Spaces of refuge are above all defined by clear territorial boundaries. In most cases, these boundaries are physical and have been consciously placed to restrict access and cross-boundary movement—either from the outside to inside or in reverse). Architecture serves to protect and guard new boundaries, with the ambiguous function of either keeping intruders out or, containing and controlling those inside. This phenomenon can be described as encapsulation. While each space of refuge forms a disconnected island, these encapsulated spaces interlink with others, forming a matrix of parallel, simultaneous networks. A third shared indicator defining a space of refuge is the emergence of systems of control and new behavioural norms, which ultimately can be subsumed under the notion of governance. Following Giorgio Agamben’s concept of the “State of Exception,” one may argue that a unifying characteristic of these systems of governance is a full


FOREWORD

or partial suspension of the political order of the city. Spaces of refuge are unbound enclaves governed by regimes either self-determined—like the self-assigned “Covenants, Conventions, and Restrictions,” (CC&Rs) of a gated community—or imposed (like the special regulations for inhabitants of refugee camps set by armies or host governments which often limit freedom of movement or choice of employment). In the case of the latter, spaces of refuge become dehumanised environments in which civil rights are suspended. The regulatory framework of politics is thus replaced by often new and problematic external and internal power structures. With the suspension of the political order of the city, key mechanisms of mediation and conflict negotiation that could help to address and possibly solve the underlying trauma of refuge become defunct. Refuge City What happens when a series of unbound spaces accumulate across the city, or rather, the city itself dissolves into a series of unbound spaces? What, in other words, is the impact of refuge on the city at large? How do the three main characteristics of spaces of refuge—lingering trauma, spatial and societal encapsulation, and suspension of political order—operate in the urban domain? Dubai is a dynamic and fast-growing city that has become a laboratory of the extreme, which led to a proliferation of spaces and practices of refuge—from gated communities, tax-free zones, and lifestyle resorts to precarious zones of exclusion, such as the migrant worker camps and various niches in which squatters and urban poor survive. A general trend is exposed: the urban impact of these unbound spaces is the production of an increasingly fragmented and atomized urban tissue. Dubai is an exemplary proponent for a region in the process of the neoliberal transformation of closed, traditional, and heavily controlled societies—a process that generates winners in the form of new globally networked elites, as well as a mass of working poor. While this is by no means unique and is indeed characteristic of many urban environments across the globe, the specific mixture of comparative poverty, authoritarian rule, and often radically reduced possibilities of democratic participation, makes the urban and architectural impact of refuge harsher and therefore more readable. Possibilities of Engagement Spaces of refuge pose an ethical dilemma for architects: in a traditional modernist understanding, architects legitimise their involvement in planning and building projects based on the assumption that they can combine and direct the various forces and

‹ 8  9 ››


FOREWORD

stakeholder interests and steer them in the interest of the broader community. If the political framework in which projects are legitimised erodes, public control mechanisms are defunct, and sovereignty of the state is replaced by sovereignty of private, military, or supranational actors—then the parameters through which broader community interest can be formed and articulated also disappear. The logic of unresolved conflicts, encapsulation, and suspension result in spatial conditions, which seem antithetical to the ethics of modernist architecture and planning and tempting Saskia Sassen to pose the question: “Are cities losing the capacity to transform conflict into the civic?”1 Are spaces of refuge therefore spaces where architecture has no relevance or plays, at best a distractive role? The urban restructuring fuelled by the dynamics of refuge offers countless professional opportunities for architects, planners, and builders. Yet, when tempted by lucrative design commissions for exclusive gated communities or contested urban renewal schemes, architects are left to judge for themselves whether or not engagement in a project is morally justified. In many cases, complicity is hard to resist and many architects deny responsibility for political or social implications of their projects. An alternative approach, however, is possible, albeit infinitely more challenging. The fictitious scenario of collapse and reappropriation of the Palm of Dubai presented in this book demonstrates one possible approach: to subvert, transform, or transcend realities of refuge by opening spaces of refuge, reintegrating them into their social and political contexts, and invigorating urban complexity. It may be considered as activist research motivated by a political curiosity, which finds its logical format in the public space of printed media. Through the discourse that this book may generate, it could construct a virtual civic space, which creates a space of possibility within which the most essential skills of the profession of architecture can be acted out: the ability to mediate and negotiate among multiple, disconnected agencies and actors; the capacity to reach across seemingly unbridgeable social, economic, cultural, and political boundaries, forging unlikely connections and alliances; which finally may indeed allow the implementation of spatial and architectural propositions. The strength of the proposal is its playful and humorous, yet at the same time uncomfortable pragmatism, which escapes biased frames. Dubai may be the stage for this experiment but its significance goes way beyond it. It is a radical inquiry into the possibilities for action in glaringly disparate landscapes of the kind that we may inhabit ourselves in a very near future. 1 Saskia Sassen, "Re-Assembling the Urban—When Global Challenges Become Concrete in Cities" (paper presented at the Open City: Designing Coexistence conference, Zurich, March 2009).


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CHARTER OF DUBAI


‹ 20  21 ››


Far Range — Close Range


RE : form from spectacular image to urban figure

The resignified city considers form from the ground level to generate urban complexity.

Contemporary master planned communities move millions of dollars through an economy of flashy iconography. On the urban scale, these geoglyphic gestures lead to the simplicity of a single comic strip frame : pow ! However, this super symbolism is far from naïve : the Palm icon doubles the length of Dubai’s coastline and creates seventy-eight kilometres of profitable waterfront property.1 Furthermore, the form acts as an organisational device. Evaluated on street level, the figure of the palm tree is an extreme method for structurally controlling access for the elite.

To reform the refuge by engaging with the politics of iconography is to reconsider the long range message and its close-up organisational qualities and consequences at the same time. Which symbol can create a figure for what ? How logo can one go ? Superimposing the Palm’s dead-end structure with a cross mark is one approach to reformation from the air. On the level of the image, captured and projected back to the world via Google Earth, the physical change virtually updates as a provocative and yet ambiguous image—the Palm Jumeirah is either positively checked or it is crossed out in negation. Looking closer to the ground, this bold gesture produces difference and urban complexity by connecting the formerly disjoined fronds. It produces a centre and heterogeneous locations. The newly   created canals act as cross streets while diagonal avenues fast track travel times from the outer urban fringe to the borough’s core. The new motive operandi is not to create top-down marketing, but instead to create new usage possibilities from below. ( See re : source II, re : use, and re : populate for more on questioning symbolism and re : block for more on creating connections. )

1 “At the start of the millennium, Dubai had become the fastest growing tourist destination in the world. This placed huge demands on its beaches and the idea was proposed to build a circular island offshore. HH Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum then had the vision that an island in the shape of a palm leaf would maximise the beach area.” ( Nakheel, 15 9 2009 )

‹ 22  23 ››


far range - close range


RE : form

Check marked

Target

Pacifist

Restart

‹ 24  25 ››


‹ 26  27 ››


Flows and Cycles


flows and cycles


flows and cycles

The solarscrapers in relation to the world’s highest skyscrapers


flows and cycles


RE : source II

34,6 mil. cal 0,8 mil. liters 1,7 mil. cal 6,4 mil. liters

2,5 mil. cal 5,5 mil. cal

6,4 mil. liters

3,4 mil. cal

Drinking Water

Evaporation 44,3 mil. cal 17 mil. liters Meat 82 t

Dairy

6,6 mil. liters Salt Harvesting Solar Desalination

Cereals $

66 ha Seawater 22 mil. liters

22.500 Inhabitants 4.000 Villas à 4 pers 3.300 Apartments à 2 pers Grey Water 1,6 mil. l

Climate + Sea Fish 1089 ha Olives 48 ha Dates 51 ha Citrus Fruits 78 ha

3.000 Tourists Hotel Atlantis

Drinking Water 3,4 mil. liters Salt 82 ha

78 ha 51 ha 48 ha

82 ha

1089 ha Area distribution of productive land

‹ 36  37 ››


‹ 38  39 ››


Networks


RE : block From DEAD ENDS to a permeable grid

The reintegrated city actualises a multitude of linkages which promote choice and proximity.

A typical enclave is founded on limited connectivity. First, accessibility is dominated by a single means— the individual car—as distances are too long and too monotonous to be covered on foot. Second, the circulation scheme is marked by limited entrances: oneway toll roads, or, in the case of the Palm, a stem that supports cul-de-sac branches. A tree-like circulation system is inherent to the very figure of a palm, and this system is marked by the terminations at the dead-end of a branch as the ultimate method for discouraging passers-by.1

Street Comparison

1 “... strict hierarchies of 'laddered flow.' Albert Pope terms this the 'path to urban closure' 'which always terminates in an exclusive destination or end point' (Pope1996, 189)—the mall, the suburban cul-de-sac, the fortified house garage.“ (Graham and Marvin, 2001, 249)

Opportunity arises if the branch lengths are regarded as a weave’s warp ; then only the weft is missing to complete the fabric. With relatively minimal effort, multidirectional city blocks can be grafted onto the Palm. Pedestrian networks ( based on a walkable length of 200 metres ) thread through the lots to allow for waterfront accessibility. Boat taxi routes are directed with the help of a few crossing canals, small bridges reach across points where the bays are narrow, and beach sands serve for camel or horse transportation. Additionally, multiple car to public boat transit hubs located on a ring road around the perimeter of the palm further serve the inter-connectivity of the borough. The introduction of transverse links results in a plethora of continuous crossings and a multiplicity of choice of modes and routes through the borough. After all—a city is not a tree, even less a palm tree. 2 ( See re :  form for more on creating connections .)

Warp and Weft

2 “The units of which an artificial city is made up are always organised to form a tree. So that we get a really clear understanding of what this means, and shall better see its implications, let us define a tree once again. Whenever we have a tree structure, it means that within this structure no piece of any unit is ever connected to other units, except through the medium of that unit as a whole. The enormity of this restriction is difficult to grasp. It is a little as though the members of a family were not free to make friends outside the family, except when the family as a whole made a friendship.” (Alexander, 1965, 122.2 58)

‹ 40  41 ››


‹ 48  49 ››


Social Everyday


social everyday

Karachi

Dhaka

London

Mecca

Distribution of religious spaces within cultural districts

Mumbai


social everyday


‹ 58  59 ››


In Vicinity


IN VICINIT Y

2

1

3

6 4

5

The single-family villa becomes split into six private apartments, linked by a communal access core


IN VICINIT Y


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EX - PALM APPLICATION


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architecture architecture urbanismurbanism research research

SMAQ – architecture SMAQ –urbanism architecture research urbanismKastanienallee research Kastanienallee 10 D-10435 10 BerlinD-10435 Berlin

Mr. Ali Rashid Mr. Ali Ahmad Rashid Ahmad Lootah (Executive Lootah (Executive Chairman) Chairman) NakheelNakheel PJSC PJSC P.O. Box:P.O. 17777 Box: 17777 Dubai Dubai United Arab United Emirates Arab Emirates

Berlin, June Berlin, 17, June 2012 17, 2012 The Future Theof Future Palm of Jumeirah, Palm Jumeirah, Dubai Dubai

Mr. Ali Rashid Mr. Ali Ahmad Rashid Ahmad Lootah, Lootah, We are writing We are writing to you because to you because we would welike would to introduce like to introduce you to our youproposal to our proposal of of how Palm how Jumeirah Palm Jumeirah could become could become a modelafor model sustainable for sustainable urbanization. urbanization. The proposal The proposal was developed was developed at our office at ourSMAQ officefor SMAQ architecture, for architecture, urbanism urbanism and and researchresearch in Berlin, in aBerlin, team of a team architects of architects and urban anddesigners urban designers with a strong with afocus strong onfocus on sustainable sustainable design. design. Having developed Having developed masterplans masterplans in Dubaiinourselves, Dubai ourselves, we havewe have always been always impressed been impressed with thewith Palmthe Jumeirah. Palm Jumeirah. We tookWe thetook freedom the freedom to think to it into think it into the future. the We future. developed We developed twelve paradigmatic twelve paradigmatic strategies strategies on how on to transform how to transform the the Palm Jumeirah Palm Jumeirah into an ecological into an ecological and social andmodel socialcity. model city. Please find Please attached find attached a collection a collection of the ten of mentioned the ten mentioned strategies. strategies. They aim They to aim to introduce introduce public space, publicenable space, outdoor enable outdoor social life, social to create life, tomore createintimate more intimate neighborhoods, neighborhoods, to diversify to diversify social life social to address life to address a broader a broader audience, audience, to improve to improve landscape landscape quality and quality biodiversity, and biodiversity, and to render and to the render Palmthe development Palm development more more sustainable sustainable in termsinofterms energy of use energy anduse environmental and environmental impact with impact thewith benefit the of benefit of cutting down cuttinghigh down electricity high electricity bills. bills. We are highly We areinterested highly interested to get into to get discussion into discussion with youwith andyou to receive and to feedback receive feedback on on our proposal our proposal from you, from as the you,executive as the executive chairman chairman of Nakheel, of Nakheel, the developer the developer of Palm of Palm Jumeirah Jumeirah and the and Palmthe Islands, Palm Islands, in termsinofterms feasibility of feasibility or even or in even termsinofterms the of the possibility possibility of a realization. of a realization. Please let Please us know let ushow know andhow withand whom withtowhom continue to continue this conversation this conversation in case you in case do you do not findnot the find timethe to discuss time to discuss the proposal the proposal with us with yourself. us yourself. Thank you Thank for your you for time! your Wetime! lookWe forward look forward to hearing to hearing from you. from you. Sincerely, Sincerely,

SMAQ SMAQ architecturearchitecture urbanism research urbanism research Dipl.-Ing. Sabine Dipl.-Ing. Müller Sabine MSc Müller MSc Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Prof.Andreas Dipl.-Ing. Quednau Andreas MSc Quednau MSc VAT-ID DE VAT-ID 251654815 DE 251654815 Tax no. 34/449/60885 Tax no. 34/449/60885

Sabine Müller Sabine Müller

Prof. Andreas Prof. Andreas QuednauQuednau

Attachment: Attachment: 12 propositions 12 propositions for Palmfor Jumeirah Palm Jumeirah

Bank Berliner BankSparkasse Berliner Sparkasse Account no.Account 6603039506 no. 6603039506 Bank no. 10050000 Bank no. 10050000 Kastanienallee Kastanienallee 10 10 D-10435 Berlin D-10435 Berlin tel. +49.[0]30. tel. 9560.9420 +49.[0]30. 9560.9420 fax +49.[0]30. fax 9560.9419 +49.[0]30. 9560.9419 mail@smaq.net mail@smaq.net www.smaq.net www.smaq.net


AUTHORS Kees Christiaanse studied architecture and urban planning at Delft University of Technology. From 1980 to 1989, he worked for the Office for Metropolitan Architecture in Rotterdam and became a partner in 1983. In 1989, he started his own firm, KCAP, in Rotterdam. KCAP founded branch offices in Zurich in 2003 and in Shanghai in 2010. He has been a professor in Urban Design since 1996: first at the Berlin University of Technology and starting in 2003, also at the ETH in Zurich. He became the Program Leader of the ETH Future Cities Lab in Singapore in 2010. He was curator of the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (IABR) in 2009 with the title “Open City. Designing Coexistence.”

PHILIPP MISSELWITZ is an architect and curator based in Berlin and currently a professor of International Urbanism at Stuttgart University. He has worked as a consultant, researcher, and curator for a number of organisations including German Development Cooperation (GIZ) and the United Nations. His curatorial work includes Space Time Dignity Rights (DAZ Berlin, 2012) which will be shown at the World Urban Forum in Naples in September 2012. His curatorial work also includes Refuge (2009), commissioned by the International Architecture Biennale Rotterdam (2009); Open City Istanbul (2010), Cultural Agencies, Istanbul (2010); City of Collision, Jerusalem (2008); European Kunsthalle, Cologne (2007); and Liminal Spaces, Jerusalem/ Ramallah (2007).

SMAQ is a collaborative studio for architecture, urbanism, and research founded in 2001 by Sabine Müller and Andreas Quednau in Rotterdam, and now based in Berlin and Stuttgart. SMAQ’s projects include a masterplans for the urban regeneration of the harbour area in Magdeburg, Germany as science quarter, for the regeneration of the suburban centre Grorud in Oslo, Norway, as well as for a sustainable development for 7 000 inhabitants in Dubai. SMAQ’s work has been presented at the International Architecture Biennials in Miami, Rotterdam and Venice and has received, among other awards, the prestigious AR Award and the Holcim Award for Sustainable Construction.

Sabine Müller received a Diploma in Architecture from Kassel University and a Masters in Advanced Architectural Design from Columbia University, Graduate School for Architecture Planning and Preservation in New York. She worked for West 8 (Rotterdam) and Asymptote (New York) before establishing SMAQ. She taught at Delft University of Technology and at Cornell University, and was Assistant Professor at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Chair of Urban Design.

Andreas Quednau received a Diploma in Architecture from Berlin University of Technology and a Masters in Advanced Architectural Design with honors from Columbia University, Graduate School for Architecture Planning and Preservation in New York. He worked for Diller Scofidio + Renfro (New York), KCAP (Rotterdam), and Arata Isozaki (Berlin) before establishing SMAQ. He is Professor of Architecture and Urban Design at the Stuttgart State Academy for Art and Design, School of Architecture.

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IMAGE CREDITS all illustrations by SMAQ except: P. 15: image © Google Earth P. 17: image adapted by SMAQ, sourced from Google Earth P. 24: images adapted by SMAQ, sourced from Google Earth P. 25: image adapted by SMAQ, source unknown P. 32: image source unknown P. 34: Broadacre City. Frank Lloyd Wright, 1950–1955 © VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2012 P. 35 and P. 37: initial drawings by Nicola Gnes and Cecilia Fossati, Berlin University of Technology, re-editing by SMAQ P. 40: image left, Congress for New Urbanism; image right, unknown P. 44: painting, Pieter Jacobsz van der Laer (1582–1642) P. 52: dough image by Milia Abou-Rjeili and Violeta Burckhardt, Berlin University of Technology P. 53: images sourced from Google Maps P. 54: image left, 23 de Enero Caracas, Venezuela, 1957 by Paolo Gasparini P. 60,61: image source unknown Every effort has been made to obtain proper credit information and permission. However, we have used a small number of images for which copyright holders could not be identified. In these cases, it has been our assumption that such images belong to the public domain. If you claim ownership of any of the images presented here, and have not been properly identified, please notify jovis and we will be happy to make a formal acknowledgement in a reprint of this publication.


Imprint Charter of Dubai A Manifesto of Critical Urban Transformation © 2012 by jovis Verlag GmbH and SMAQ Texts by kind permission of the authors. Pictures by kind permission of the photographers/holders of the picture rights. All rights reserved. Editors: SMAQ, Sabine Müller, Andreas Quednau SMAQ Kastanienallee 10 D-10435 Berlin mail@smaq.net www.smaq.net Authors: SMAQ, Sabine Müller, Andreas Quednau, Kees Christiaanse, Philipp Misselwitz Production: SMAQ (Sabine Müller, Andreas Quednau with Robert Gorny, Laura Saether, Tanner Chapham, Nathan Friedman, Timothy J. Moore, Matthias Titze, Anna Kostreva, Marie-Louise Raue) Research: SMAQ in cooperation with Berlin University of Technology (Milia Abou-Rjeili, Violeta Burckhardt, Hao Chen, Jianyi Du, Cecilia Fossati, Nicola Gnes, Pascal Hentschel, Yue Ren, Bruno Schnellrath, Alon Shikar, Maciej Sokolnicki, Jesus Villanueva Salcedo; Tutor: Andreas Quednau) and Stuttgart State Academy of Art and Design (Chloé Arduin, Andrès Casares, Sarah Fruit, Martin Häckl, Fabrice Henninger, Hyunki Shin, Miaomiao Wang; Tutor: Daniel Schönle) Acknowledgements: Can Altay, Kees Christiaanse, Phillip Misselwitz, Daniel Schönle, Alex Wall, Klaus Zillich Graphic Design: SMAQ Copy Editing: Anna Kostreva, Timothy Moore Proofreading: Inez Templeton Typeface: Aktiv (Dalton&Maag) Paper: ENVIRO TOP, recycling paper made from 100 % recycled paper. Produced without optical brightening agents, without chlorine bleach. Printing and binding: DZA Druckerei Altenburg GmbH Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available on the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de jovis Verlag GmbH Kurfürstenstraße 15/16 10785 Berlin www.jovis.de ISBN 978-3-86859-165-1

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Charter of Dubai. A Manifesto of Critical Urban Transformation  

The man-made peninsular Palm Jumeirah on the coast of Dubai is a superlative project and an exemplary model for the Gated Communities and Re...

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