EPIC 2019: Accelerating Breakthrough Innovation in Clean Power Technologies

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Accelerating Breakthrough Innovation in Clean Power Technologies Solutions for Today | Options for Tomorrow

Presentation to the Electric Presentation to Power Industry Conference October 28,2019-

Pittsburgh, PA

Brian J. Anderson, Ph.D. Director

Fossil Energy Is Critical In All Sectors NATURAL GAS 30%

80% Fossil Energy



93% Fossil Energy


89% Fossil Energy


95% Fossil Energy


61% Fossil Energy

NUCLEAR 9% EIA, U.S. energy consumption by source and sector, EIA 2018– DOE/EIA-0035(2013/03)


Fossil Energy Priorities Advance the Coal Plants of the Future

Advancing small-scale modular coal plants of the future, which are highly efficient and flexible, with near-zero emissions

Modernize the Existing Coal Fleet

Improving the performance, reliability, and efficiency of the existing coal-fired fleet

Reduce the Cost of Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) Reducing the cost and risk of CCUS to enable wider commercial deployment

Expand the use of Big Data

Leveraging artificial intelligence to optimize the recovery of oil and gas resources with real-time analysis informed by machine learning

Address the Energy Water Nexus

Improving our efficient use of scarce water resources

Manage the Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Maintaining drawdown readiness while completing Life Extension II, carrying out mandated crude oil sales, and investigating new ways to monetize the asset


MISSION Discover, integrate and mature technology solutions to enhance the Nation’s energy foundation and protect the environment for future generations • Effective Resource Development • Efficient Energy Conversion • Environmental Sustainability

VISION Be the Nation’s renowned fossil-energy science and engineering resource, delivering world-class technology solutions today and tomorrow • Technology Convener • Knowledge and Technology Generation Center • Responsible Steward

NETL Snapshot By the Numbers

3 labs across U.S.

900+ R&D projects in 50 states $6.3B total award value $991M FY19 budget


1,226 70 109 54 40

Federal 458

Full Time Equivalent Employees (FTEs)


Joint Faculty


Postdoctoral Researchers Graduate Students Undergraduate Students

NETL possesses an array of authorities to manage & implement complex R&D programs • Program planning, development, and execution • Legal, Financial, Procurement and Head of Contracting Authority (HCA) • Project Management Expertise

Data updated June 30, 2019


Core Competencies & Technology Thrusts

Computational Science & Engineering Carbon Storage

Materials Engineering & Manufacturing Carbon Capture


Geological & 100 m Environmental Systems

Sensors & Controls

Energy Conversion Engineering Advanced Materials

Advanced Computing

Systems Engineering & Analysis Advanced Energy Systems

Program Execution & Integration Water Management

Rare Earth Elements



Enhanced Resource Production

Methane Hydrates

Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

Support to Other DOE Offices


Solid State Lighting



Office of Electricity (OE) Microgrid

Energy Storage

Natural Gas Infrastructure


Cybersecurity, Energy Security, and Emergency Response (CESER)

Energy Security & Restoration



Coal Technology Thrusts Advanced Energy Systems Developing & deploying advanced, more efficient, & robust coal-based power technologies to optimize the use of our abundant domestic fossil energy resources & leverage existing infrastructure.

Carbon Capture, Utilization, & Storage Advancing technologies & techniques to effectively capture, safely store, & economically utilize CO2 derived from power generation & other industrial processes.

Transformational Coal Pilots Developing pilot-scale transformational coal technologies aimed at enabling step-change improvements in coalpowered systems accelerating their readiness for the marketplace.

Crosscutting Research Accelerating science & engineeringbased solutions across multiple operational platforms to optimize plant performance, reduce O&M costs & water consumption, & develop the next-generation of structural & functional materials.

STEP (Supercritical CO2) Developing & modeling sCO2 power cycles with the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 50%, with broad applicability to fossil, nuclear, wasteheat, & concentrated solar energy power systems.

Rare Earth Elements Developing novel extraction, processing, & manufacturing technologies to produce a cost-competitive domestic supply of rare earth elements from U.S. coal & coal by-products to sustain our Nation’s robust economy.




Vehicle Technologies

Advanced Grid R&D

Building Technologies


Advanced Manufacturing (Combined Heat & Power)

Infrastructure Security & Energy Restoration Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems

Geothermal Technologies

Helping to Implement DOE & Gov’t Programs for 25+ Years Technical, Admin., Project Management Support • • •

Office Construction Management Environmental Management Legacy Management

• •

Dept of Homeland Security Dept of Defense

• Documented Procedures and Policies • Disciplined Process w/Tracking

Implementation Mechanisms • Acquisition (contracts) • Financial Assistance (can only be awarded by Federal personnel)


Evolving Topics in Coal Upgrading the Existing Fleet

Advancing NextGen Power Plants

Pioneering New Markets for Coal

Reducing the Cost of Carbon Capture

Reducing Water Use in Energy Production

Improving the performance, reliability, & efficiency of the existing coalfired fleet

Advancing small-scale, modular coal plants that are highly efficient, flexible, & nearzero emissions

Enhancing the value of coal as a feedstock & deriving new value-added products from coal

Developing advanced computational & simulation tools, & transformational technologies to reduce the cost of CO2 capture

Addressing water quality, sustainability, & availability for power generation


The “bomb cyclone”

NOAA's GOES-16 (GOES-East) satellite caught a dramatic view of the bomb cyclone moving up the East Coast on January 4, 2018. 10

Retiring coal and nuclear units provided grid reliability during the Bomb Cyclone in 2018 On January 5th 2018, 59 different units slated for retirement with a combined capacity of 24.5 GW generated over 460,000 MWh at an average utilization of 78%

• •

To compensate for this generation loss, an additional 3.1 BCF of natural gas would have been required in the four RTO/ISO regions This is the equivalent of adding nearly thirty-one 630 MW NGCCs running at 100% capacity factor

RTO/ISO # Units


2 27 3 27

Generation on January 5, 2018 (MWh) 7,759 133,749 49,772 269,891

Combined Nameplate Capacity (MW) 1,065 7,004 2,613 13,815

Utilization (%)

30% 80% 79% 81%


Generation Resilience during the Bomb Cyclone, Six ISOs Daily Incremental Contribution, Dec 27, 2017-Jan 8 2018 Incremental Daily Avg. Generation During BC (GWh)


1,200 • 1,000

Coal, +764.0 •

800 600

• Oil/Dual Fuel, +300.7



Natural Gas, +245.2

Nuclear, +63.9


Other*, -13.2

Wind, -144.3 -200





Natural Gas

Oil/Dual Fuel

Hydro, -2.6 Coal

Coal provided 55% of the incremental daily generation needed Combined, fossil and nuclear energy plants provided 89% of electricity during peak demand In PJM, the largest of the ISOs, coal provided the most resilient form of generation, providing 3X the increment from natural gas and 12X nuclear Without all coal, PJM would have experienced shortfalls leading to interconnect-wide blackouts Due to natural gas pipeline and delivery constraints, fuel oil provided almost all the surge capacity in the Northeast Sharp increases in natural gas spot prices exceeded 300% across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic, reaching $140.25/MMBtu on January 5.

* 'Other' includes misc. categories, including other, refuse, solar, diesel, and multiple fuels


Pipeline utilization on January 5, 2018 • During the Bomb Cyclone, price spikes reflected pipeline utilization rates in excess of 100 percent in many areas of the Northeast and scattered throughout the Midwest • Higher pipeline utilization corresponds to locations with higher locational marginal prices (LMPs), especially in regions that: • are pipeline-constrained regions along the eastern coast • have little coal-fired generation • have a natural gas heavy generation resource mix

Source: ABB Velocity Suite


Gas and Power Price Spikes Regional natural gas spot prices, December 28, 2017– January 8, 2018 $160

Daily load weighted average marginal electricity price, December 28, 2017– January 8, 2018 $350 $300



$80 4x






$200 4x





3x 2x



$50 $0

$0 ISO-NE 12/28/2017 1/4/2018

PJM 12/29/2017 1/5/2018

NYISO 1/2/2018 1/8/2018

MISO 1/3/2018


ISO-NE 12/28/2017 1/1/2018

PJM 12/29/2017 1/2/2018



12/30/2017 1/3/2018

SPP 12/31/2017 1/4/2018


Upgrading the Existing Fleet NETL Focus Areas • Sensors, Diagnostics, and Controls to Improve Prediction, Performance, and Reliability • Power Plant Component Improvement • Data Analytics Driven Controls

Improving the performance, reliability, & efficiency of the existing coalfired fleet

Reduced Mode Sapphire Optical Fiber and Sensing System •

With sponsorship by NETL, Virginia Tech developed harsh environment sensing technology.

Researchers demonstrated in a industrial environment, advancing the technology from TRL 1 to TRL 7.

Sensor system will enable real-time, accurate and reliable monitoring of temperatures inside a power plant’s boiler system, lowering operating costs through better operational control.


Addressing Advanced Material Challenges A joint research effort utilizing world-leading DOE National Lab resources: • • •

Materials design High performance computing power Advanced processing & manufacturing

• •

In-situ characterization Performance assessment at condition

High-Throughput Thermodynamic/ Kinetic Data Tools Ti


Component Design & Performance Requirements


Chemistry Composition

Processing Microstructure Modeling Tools

Solid-State Microstructure Evolution Modeling Tools

Mechanical Property Modeling Tools

Materials Solution

Research Goals

Pure Ni 200mm

Rene 88

Improving models to predict long-term materials performance

Improving lower-cost, heat-resist alloys


High-Throughput Mechanical/Physical Properties Tools

Physics-based modeling tools High-throughput screening tools

Data Analytics

Materials Solution


Advancing Next-Gen Power Plants NETL Focus Areas • Modular power plants • Stable power generation • Flexible and highly efficient operations • Accommodate ongoing transitions from simple arrangement to complex energy systems

Advancing small-scale, modular coal plants that are highly efficient, flexible, & nearzero emissions

Advanced Ultra-supercritical Technology AUSC superheater/ reheater assembly

AUSC ComTest Project: • Validating technology applicable to fossil, nuclear, and renewable power generation • Accelerating development of domestic supply chain

• Higher efficiency and lower emissions AUSC steam turbine nozzle carrier casting

• Minimizing risk for building AUSC plants • Designed world’s first integrated AUSC steam turbine at 760°C


Coal FIRST Initiative Providing secure, stable, and reliable power

The R&D under the Coal FIRST initiative will support future power plants

Flexible operations to meet the needs of the grid

Innovative and cutting-edge components

that improve efficiency and reduce emissions

Resilient power to Americans

Design criteria includes: • • • • •

• •

Small compared to today’s conventional utility-scale coal plants

Transform how coal technologies are designed and manufactured

• • •

High overall plant efficiency Unit sizes of ~50-350 MW Near-zero emissions High ramp rates and minimum loads Integration with thermal or other energy storage Minimized water consumption Reduced design, construction, and commissioning schedules from conventional norms Enhanced maintenance features Integration with coal upgrading, or other plant value streams Capable of natural gas co-firing


At CAISO’s deepest duck curve of 2019 (3/14), out of state fossil assets bore more than 50% of the ramp response with the balance provided by in-state fossil assets

45 40 35

Power (GW)

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5





CAISO Net Demand

12:00 Imports

Non-California Fossil





California Fossil

Aggregate fossil fleet response of 85 MW per minute required to meet the ramp. Average coal-fired and gas combined cycle units ramp at 2-3 MW/min (0.5%/min). Goal of FE’s CoalFIRST initiative is 4%/min (16-25 MW/min). California data from CAISO Today’s Outlook archive Non-California fossil generation data from EPA Air Markets Program Data (CEMS)


Reducing the Cost of Carbon Capture NETL Focus Areas

Developing advanced computational & simulation tools, & transformational technologies to reduce the cost of CO2 capture

Post-combustion: remove CO2 from the combustion flue gas.

Pre-combustion: capture CO2 prior to combustion.

Compression to increase the pressure and reduce the volume flow, enabling efficient transport.

Computational Tools to Rapidly Screening of Novel Carbon Capture Materials • NETL in-house researchers used high-throughput computational methodology to screen over 1 million possible mixed matrix membranes (MMMs).

Predicted properties for over a million possible MMMs

• NETL-developed polymers were found to enhance mechanical stability. • MMMs, with NETL developed polymer, were estimated to decrease the cost of carbon capture from $63 to $48 per metric ton of CO2 removed.


Additive Manufacturing Utilizing 3D Printing Advancing scale-up and commercialization of carbon capture technologies

ORNL Prints Intensified Devices with Heat exchanger integrated into pack

LLNL creates silicon-based gyroid structures with one micrometer resolution

ION uses 3D Printing to develop internal absorber mass transfer and heat exchange

• Intensify thermodynamic operations • Improve process performance • Reduce equipment size • Lowers capital and operating costs Complementary Efforts


Future Commercial-Scale Deployment Integrated R&D Approach 2035

Carbon Capture

Transformational Technologies Available for Deployment


Large Capture Pilots Initiated


R&D Completed for Carbon Capture 2nd Generation Technologies


Integrated CCS Projects Deployed

Carbon Storage


Initiate Storage Feasibility for Integrated CCS


Commercial-scale Storage Complexes Characterized


Reducing Water Use in Energy Production NETL Focus Areas

Addressing water quality, sustainability, & availability for power generation

Increasing water efficiency and reuse to reduce water intake and lower overall operating costs.

Identifying and treating alternative sources of water address energy-water system challenges.

Analyzing energy-water system behavior to better inform decision-makers and scientists.

2018 Water Brief • Identifies regions of water scarcity with expected growth in thermoelectric power generation. • Recommends R&D to curb thermoelectric water use in areas of concern.

• Predicts locations that would benefit from R&D deployment.

Six potential geographic Areas of Concern that require an R&D plan are shown on a graphic of total available water (2010) overlaid with thermoelectric power generation (2018).


Computational Science Investments High Performance Computing With a speed of 3.608 PFLOPS, Joule 2.0 ranks:

55th in the World 21st in the United States •

More CPU cores (73,240 vs. 24,192)

More memory (271 TB vs. 73 TB)

Faster (3.608 PFLOPS vs. 0.5 PFLOPS)

Newer Technology (40 cores per node vs. 16)

Data Analytics & Machine Learning Phase I – B94: 128 GPU Units 19 Petabytes of Storage Phase II – B83: 768 GPU Units 60 Petabytes of Storage 66 GB/s write and 122 GB/s read capability

Integrated GPU and CPU will enhance machine learning and data analytic capabilities at all three research locations 24

NETL’s Complementary Computational Tools IDAES + MFiX: Working together to increase confidence systems modeling realism and fidelity


• Process design and optimization • Advanced process control


MFiX Devices

• Reactor scale up and optimization • Troubleshooting existing reactors

COMPUTATIONAL TOOLS WORKING TOGETHER IDAES is a process systems engineering framework for the design and optimization of innovative steady state and dynamic processes MFiX is a suite of multiphase flow simulation software for designing and troubleshooting devices such as gasifiers and combustors


Molecular clusters

• Computational screening of novel materials such as catalysts, sorbents and membranes

Atoms & Molecules Time


Machine Learning in Energy Conversion Process Control & Fault Diagnostics

Process Synthesis, Optimization, & Intensification

Materials Discovery

Design Manufacture Performance

Microbeam Technologies, Inc.

Develop real-time health monitoring for gas turbines and predictive maintenance techniques

Using machine learning to identify data as input for models and accelerating innovation, prioritize R&D at low TRLs, multi-scale

Using machine learning to enable advanced materials and tools to predict alloy behavior


Optimize Part-Load Operation of Plants Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Machine Learning Plant Data for CFD Model Validation

Data from validated CFD Models

Artificial Neural Network → High Fidelity Digital Proxy Model (HiFiM)

HiFiM in the hands of plant operators/engineers


Artificial Intelligence & Data Analytics Science-based Machine Learning to Accelerate Real-Time (SMART) Decision Making

Optimized operations • Lower cost • More efficient • Improved risk management Autonomous Monitoring Big Data Management

Reduced Order Models with Machine Learning

Virtual Learning Rapid Prediction

Rapid Data to Knowledge

Real-Time Decision Making Data & Sensors

Monitoring & Fore-

Real-Time Visualization “CT” for the Subsurface

Science-based Prediction

Real-Time Forecasting “Advanced Control Room”



Artificial Intelligence & Data Analytics Extramural Efforts & Collaborations OPERATIONS-BASED ASSESSMENT


(Microbeam Technologies)

(Siemens Corporation)

Improve boiler performance and reliability through the integrated use of condition based monitoring and AI predictions of the impacts of coal quality

AI-based techniques for component life estimation and enabling design improvements


(SparkCognition) Unsupervised techniques for understanding operational conditions and flagging anomalies


(Colorado School of Mines) AI-enabled robots for automated inspection and repair of boiler furnace walls


(Southern Company) Protect power systems by melding IT/OT sensor and platform information, data analytics, & AI

Advanced Turbines Focused Research in Key Technology Areas

Advanced Combustion Turbines

Pressure Gain Combustion Supercritical CO2 Turbomachinery Modular Turbine Based Hybrid Heat Engines Steam Turbines

• CC efficiency -65% (LHV, NG benchmark, turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of 3,100°F • Syngas, NG, H2 Fuels (IGCC, NGCC)

• Alternate pathway to high efficiency • TRL 2~3 (higher risk, long term, high pay back)

• sCO2 turbines for indirect and direct applications • Oxy-combustion

• Supporting modular coal systems and stranded gas assets

• Additive manufacturing technologies for maintenance, repair, and upgrading


Energy Conversion Technologies Advanced Turbines Steady Thermal Aero Research Turbine (START) Facility One of the world’s leading gas turbine test facilities for aerodynamics and heat transfer. • Operates under full-scale engine conditions • Steady-state, long-duration facility • Experiments with additive manufacturing are advancing gas turbine design and development

Advanced Cooling for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Turbine Blades Improving fuel efficiency and reducing emissions from turbine engines used for power generation and transportation. • Rapid Manufacturing Method (RMM) of tooling combined with a process to cast/sinter powdered metal • Reduced the time and cost to design by 60%, prototype, and produce new high-temperature turbine components

Collaboration between DOE/NETL, Penn State, and Pratt & Whitney. Working with NASA, DOD, OEMs

Mikro Systems

Technology Development Pathway An Active Portfolio from Concept to Market Readiness Scale Technology Confidence Investment Private Sector Cost Share


Technology component validated/integrated


Concept identified/proven at laboratory-scale

TRL 6-7

System performance confirmed at pilot-scale

TRL 4-5


Tools KNOWLEDGE-BASED DECISION MAKING • Systems Engineering and Integration

• Engineering analysis • Pre-FEED/FEED studies • NEPA

• Decision Science and Analysis

TRL 1-3

System demonstrated in operational environment




Technology available for wide-scale market use



Fundamental Studies

• Screening studies • Techno-economic analysis • Technology Readiness Assessments


Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells Accomplishments 50 MWe Utility-Scale Demo (planned)


MWe-Class Demo (planned)

10 MWe Demo (planned)

1 MW SOFC System

(courtesy LG Fuel Cell Systems)

10 kWe-class Stack Tests


- Improved efficiency, 35 – 41% - Reduced degradation, <2%/1000 hr - Cost target at high volume achieved (extrapolated)

400 kWe Prototype Field Test (in-progress)

Performance Improvement

50 kWe POC

(courtesy FuelCell Energy)

Technology Validation Proof-of-Concept Systems

- Two POC systems, 50kW & 200 kW - Efficiency improvements to >55% - Increased cell area by 5X - Increased cell power by 10X - Degradation reduced to 0.5%/1,000 hrs

Single Cell and Small Stack Tests



- < 1 kWe - Low efficiency - High degradation rate - Limited operating hrs, <<1,000 hrs

TRL 5–7

TRL 2–4 2000

200 kWe POC

(courtesy LG Fuel Cell Systems)


TRL 7–9 2020



Increasing Efficiency with Magnetized Metals Permeability Engineering Through Strain Annealing Manufacturing Process Full Scale Filter Inductors • 3-Phase output filter inductor core for 1 MW-scale motor drive • Stacked toroidal core shape • ‘Gapless’ inductor technology • 30kgs core weight

Permeability Engineered Cores • ~25% reduction in total core losses as compared to constant permeability core • Significant reduction in peak temperature (~20°C)

Design and Prototyping Activities Power Inductors For 1 MW-Scale Next Generation Electrical Machinery Engineered Permeability Cores Through Advanced Magnetics Manufacturing Three-Port High Frequency Transformers For SuNLaMP Program

High Speed, High Efficient Motor Project Using High Frequency Design

Permeability Engineering Through Strain Annealing Team

Successful Experimental Demonstration • Concept of Flux / Core Temperature Smoothing • Metglas, Inc. successfully demonstrated casting and processing with results consistent with laboratory results showing no barriers to potential commercialization Michael McHenry, CMU ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Paul Ohodnicki, NETL Kevin Byerly, NETL

Patent: US10168392B2 Byerly, K., Ohodnicki, P.R., Moon, S.R. et al. JOM (2018) 70: 879. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-018-2857-5


Established & Expanding Partnerships An Active Portfolio from Concept to Market Readiness

SMALL BUSINESS PARTNERSHIPS 600+ partnerships with industry, academia & govt organizations 900+ research and development projects nationwide


How to work with NETL The TOOLBO • • •

Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) Contributed Funds-In Agreement (CFA) Memorandums of Understanding (MOU)/ Memorandums of Agreement (MOA)

Available Technologies

• Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs • Unsolicited Proposals (USP) • Non-disclosure Agreement (NDA) • Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)

Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA)

• Technologies and IP available for licensing on NETL’s website.

• NETL uses FedConnect.net, Grants.gov and FedBizOpps.gov to post FOAs • Proposals and applications are only accepted electronically through FedConnect.net or Grants.gov

Available Technologies: https://www.netl.doe.gov/business/tech-

Funding Opportunities:



• NETL's technology portfolio contains a broad range of innovations that have resulted from research



@NETL_DOE @NETL_DOE @NationalEnergyTechnologyLaboratory

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