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The Human Body

Introduction The human body is truly a wonderful structure, but have you ever wondered how you got to be what you are today? Your life began as two little microscopic cells, these two cells then joined together and started to develop within your mothers womb. It is here that your body started to form and take shape. During this time, your mother supplied your body with all the goodness and nutrients that your body required to ensure that you were born fit and healthy. From


The 4 main parts of the human 5 body are: 1/ Cerebrum: This is the largest part of the brain and accounts for about 85% of the brains weight. It controls mental activity as well as most physical activities. 2/ Cerebellum: This part of the brain coordinates the body’s muscle movement making sure that we move in a smooth and controlled way. It also controls the body’s balance. 3/ Diencephalon: This area of the brain controls our hunger and thirst. It also sorts out the different impulses that enter the brain and sends them

the moment your mother gives birth to you, your body starts to grow. As time goes on, you put on weight and develop skills such as learning to Communicate with other humans. Your muscles also start to get stronger and after a while you start to walk. Even though human beings vary greatly in size, all of us have a similar shape. We all have the same number of limbs, a head and a body. It is the strong framework of bones found inside you called the skeleton that stops us from sliding into a sloppy mess.


As well as the skeletons, there are 3 many other parts that go to form the sophisticated machines our bodies are today. There are a number of different organs in our bodies which carry out different functions which enable us to live full healthy lives. The human body can be divided into several major regions. These are the head, neck, trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs. The head consists of the skull and face. The face is the front of the head that includes the eyes, nose and mouth. The head also contains the brain which is the control system of

Entire human body. 4 The Brain Everything that happens in your body is controlled by the brain, you might say it is the body’s control centre. The brain is made up of millions and millions of nerve cells which send and receive information in the form of nerve impulses from organs and tissues all over the body. The nerve impulses travel along thick bundle of nerves in your spinal cord to the various destinations in your body.

to the relevant areas of the brain 6 for processing. 4/ The Brain Stem: The brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord and it is responsible for automatic controlling actions such as breathing and heartbeat. The brain is a pink-grey colour and it is contained in the skull which protects it from physical injuries. There are also three layers of tissue called “meninges” wrapped around it for further protection. These layers prevent bacteria from reaching the brain as well as containing fluid which help supply the brain with food and oxygen.

The brain makes up about 2% of 7 the body’s weight, in fact the average weight of the brain is approximately 1.3 kilograms. The Heart To drive blood around the body, a very powerful pump is required, this pump is called the heart. The heart is made of muscle and beats about 70 times a minute in adults. Every time the heart beats, it pumps about a cupful of blood around the body. The blood travels from the heart to different parts of the body through tubes called arteries. Eventually the arteries spread out into

tiny tubes called capillaries and it 8 is these capillaries that carry the blood to every tiny area of the body that requires blood. After the cells of the body have received the oxygen and food from the blood, the blood then makes its way back to the heart through larger tubes called veins. The way in which the blood travels around the body is known as the blood circulation. In a adult human being, the heart is roughly the size of the fist and weighs about 300 grams. The heart itself is actually made up of two pumps because of the fact that the body has two circulations.

The pump on the right pumps blood to the lungs were it picks up supplies of oxygen. The blood then returns to the left side of the heart were it is pumped out to the entire body to deliver the oxygen. This process continues throughout a human beings life. It can be said that the human heart is the most efficient pump in the world as no other pump can work for more than 80 years without stopping. The Kidneys: Our bodies produce a lot of waste chemicals which it has to get rid of, and in the same way that carbon

9 dioxide is removed by our lungs.

10 our kidneys, it is clean and pure.

11 frown! There are many different


Another type of muscle type found in the human body is the visceral muscle. This is also an involuntary muscle and can be found in the walls of many of the organs in the human body. Because it is an involuntary muscle, it works automatically and this is the case when moving food through your digestive system. The skeletal muscles in our bodies are attached to the skeleton by tougher bands of tissue called tendons.

13 The Bones:

14 The donated marrow needs to

15 Bones. Irregular Bones: These


Our kidneys help us to remove most of the other waste chemicals in our bodies. We are all born with two kidneys. Each of them is about 10 centimetres long and 6 centimetres wide and they act like a pair of filters for the body. They purify the blood, removing waste substances and ensuring that useful substances are kept in the body. They are positioned in the small of the back just in front of the backbone. Everyday the kidneys filter all the blood in our bodies up to 300 times, when the blood leaves

types of muscles in the human body which might be interesting to learn about. Firstly, there are voluntary muscles which are the muscles we can control, for example the muscles in our legs which enable us to walk. Secondly, there are muscles in our bodies that are used automatically, such as the ones that make our heart beat. These type of muscles are referred to as involuntary muscles. One type of involuntary muscle are the ones that make up most of the heart. Known as cardiac muscles, they are used when pushing the blood from the heart into your arteries.

Inside our bodies, there is a very large framework of bones called the skeleton. There are 206 bones in all and they give the body its shape. Even though the bones are hard on the outside, there is a jelly like substance on the inside called bone marrow and this helps to make your blood. When a person has a problem producing blood cells from the bone marrow, they may require a bone marrow transplant. This type of disease is known as “leukaemia” and the sufferer receives bone marrow from a donor.

match the original quite closely in order for the body not to reject it. The skeleton is also very important for protecting delicate parts of the body, for example, the skull protects the brain, the breast bone and ribs protect the heart and lungs. The bones in our bodies can be put into 4 main groups. Long Bones: These bones are usually long and curved to make them stronger just like the finger bones. Short Bones: These bones are usually as wide as they are long, just like the ankle or wrist

bones have un-usual shapes and can be found in the backbone. Flat Bones: Shoulder blades and ribs are known as flat bones. A new born baby’s skeleton has over 300 parts, however, most of these parts are not made of bone. They are comprised of a tough material called cartilage. As the baby’s body starts to grow, this cartilage turns to bone. This process is known as ossification.

the body’s cells. As your body uses 18 up oxygen, it creates a gas called carbon dioxide and as your body does not need this gas, the blood carries this carbon dioxide back to the lungs in order for you to breathe out. So all day long even when you are sleeping, you are breathing in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. The lungs themselves cannot take air in as they do not have muscles. The air therefore reaches the lungs when our chest expands. This happens when muscles move our ribs and also because a sheet of muscles under the ribs, called the diaphragm flattens.

When the chest then becomes bigger, air rushes down the windpipe 19 and fills up the lungs. When you start to breathe out, the chest starts to relax and becomes smaller again. Air is then forced out of the lungs and out of the body. The blood that we have in our bodies consist of a liquid called “Plasma”, which contain millions and millions of tiny cells. Most of these cells are red which gives it its red colour. Mixed in with these red cells are a small number of white cells. The blood has many jobs to do within the body. It carries useful materials around the body such as oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body.

They 4 main blood groups 20 are O, A, B, AB. The letters refer to the type of chemical found on the surface of the red blood cells.

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The Lungs: 17 Breathing is essential to the human body in order to stay alive. When we breathe, we suck in surrounding air which then travels down through our windpipe and into our lungs. In the air that surrounds us is a gas called oxygen. When we breathe in, we take this oxygen into our lungs. From here the air travels into a system of smaller air passages called bronchioles and finally reaches millions of air sacs called alveoli inside each of our lungs. The oxygen then passes through the thin walls of the alveoli to a network of very small blood vessels called capillaries and gets transported to all

The Muscles: The muscles are long stretchy tissue that can be found all over the body. The muscles are responsible for any movement that we make. Muscles are designed to get shorter or contract. When they contract, they pull on the bones that they are attached to and this causes movement. There are approximately 650 muscles in the human body which account for about 40% of its total weight. In your face alone, there are over 50 muscles and when you smile you use 17 of them, on the other hand it takes 40 to

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