Pet Food Supplement 2020

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2020 Vol. 22

Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd Plas Y Coed Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 Web site: E-mail:

Editor: Andrew Mounsey

Contents Building Readiness and Agility for the Next Pandemic By David Primrose and Dr Paola Cane

Pets in Society


By Roger W Dean

Puppy Nutrition for Healthy Growth and Development The Future for Extruder Control


By Paul Girdham

Editorial assistant: Ryan Mounsey

By Adrian Martinez-Kawas

Fiona Mounsey


By Sarah-Jane Godfrey

New Generation Wenger Twin Screw Extrusion System for High Meat Pet Foods and Treats

Advertisement/Sales Manager:


Sustainability in the Supply Chain

16 18

By Alexandra Wester

Balance Immunity Using Nutrition


By Pauline Rovers-Paap

Developing Sustainable Solutions through Research and Development Subscription rates: Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit htm#register

ISSN 0950-771X Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publisher. Š Feed Compounder 2020


By Victoria Thornber

The Paraprobiotic Concept


By Francesca Susca, DVM, PhD

Overcoming Palatability Issues in Pet Medication


By Robert Naylor

Azelis Animal Nutrition Adds Natural Plant Based Roquette Range of Products to its Portfolio


Economic Replacement of Synthetic Antioxidants in Pet Foods


By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen

Solea Removes Metal Contaminants from Soya Powder Residue with a Magnet


Pet Subjects


Health from the Inside Out


By Oliver Caiger-Smith

Pet Food Supplement 2020

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“It is not a question of if but when” Building readiness and agility for the next pandemic or major crisis By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd and Dr Paola Cane, Mia Solution

The strong bond between pet owners and their pets and the positive

A crisis might exhibit some common features e.g.

role pets play in supporting mental and physical health are not new

• People (including business management) have limited or zero

phenomena. Pet owners therefore look to the petfood sector to

experience of similar events forcing them outside their “comfort

keep our pets fit and healthy through supply continuity of safe, legal,


nutritious petfood that meets their quality expectations e.g. palatability,

• Businesses are taken into the “unknown”, with dynamic,

digestibility, texture, authenticity, and price. However, our business

unfamiliar scenarios outside their control, making decision

and personal lives have been severely impacted by effects of the CV19 crisis and the petfood sector is not immune from this. As seen in the human food industry, its effects are causing disruption to petfood manufacturers, suppliers (ingredients, equipment, packaging, logistics, laboratories etc) and retailers.

making difficult based on incomplete data and unknown risks • Stakeholders like decision makers experience “high” stress that can affect mental health • Increased consumer concerns e.g. Is petfood safe during the pandemic? Will there be shortage of petfood due to supply chain

I am sorry to disappoint you but it is not a question of if we will face

constraints (e.g. illness resulting in staff shortages or raw material

a future major crisis or pandemic but a question of when and survival

availability problems)? Will the shops be open and have supplies

(commercial and personal) depends on complex, diverse factors both

of petfood due to panic buying?

under and outside our control. This requires us all to be prepared and agile to adapt to dynamic challenges. Strong leadership and coherent, clear authoritative communication are also required. In April 2020, “The Grocer” (UK) magazine reported in a survey that 64% of respondents believe that worker sickness is the biggest challenge to continuity of food supply during CV-19. This is evidenced in June 2020, with temporary closure of a major UK chicken processing plant due to CV-19 worker sickness and cases in other countries including France, Germany, and the US. In the petfood sector, how would you cope with unexpected high levels of absenteeism due to sickness? It is business critical therefore that we exert control in a way that is positive to help us survive and offers potential business efficiency improvement through new ways of working. We can better prepare for future crises by looking now at what we are doing to combat CV-19 and taking the positives from this catastrophic experience.

Anatomy of a crisis Typically, a crisis (or major emergency) is defined as: “an unusual, predicted or unpredicted event, creating an imminent or future significant threat to the business (infrastructure, employees, product supply including raw materials), its products e.g. petfood and its stakeholders (employees, customers, community)” Threats might be “natural” (e.g. earthquake, animal and human

• Increased anxiety of staff e.g. Will I be unemployed? Will I be safe to work with other operators? A crisis typically consists of linked phases, each with different operational challenges e.g. 1. Preparation (“Normality”) – “Normal” stress and anxiety levels exist. Business uses risk management and business continuity plan (BCP) to mitigate against crisis. Planning helps mitigate against future crises and develops the mindset required to adapt to complex, dynamic crisis scenarios. 2. “Crisis” – Abnormal event e.g. earthquake, arson, CV-19 increases stress and anxiety levels to crisis level. 3. Response (“Crisis Relief”) – BCP implementation, leadership and communication start to reduce stress and anxiety from “high” level. Effectiveness depends on BCP preparedness, strong leadership, and communication. Crisis is dynamic requiring agility and ability to act on limited data. 4. Resolution – Depending on BCP effectiveness, leadership, communication, agility, and staff training further reduce stress and anxiety. 5. Recovery – Business continuity is ensured through implementing policies, procedures, and ways of working. For future preparedness and agility, the recovery phase must include analysis of the current crisis, how the business responded and how things could have been done better.

The importance of communication

diseases, crop failure) or “man-made” (e.g. war, food adulteration,

Clear, effective stakeholder communication from a skilled business

arson, cyber-crime etc).

leader is a key factor in maintaining trust and in managing mental

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

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health e.g. anxiety. Communication throughout the crisis cycle from

during the crisis to ensure continuity of supply of our products.

“Normality” to “Recovery” should consider:

This means running the factory at reduced capacity to allow

• Preparation – Prepare communication plans (who; how; when)

social distancing and safe ways of working. We continually

through stakeholder engagement (internal – staff; external –

review risks and will implement any future changes

supply chain; retailers; pet owners). Transparency demonstrates


leadership, maintains trust, and avoids fear or rumours.

• Recovery – Thank stakeholders for their support in dealing

• Start of the crisis – To reduce anxiety and fear, communication

with the crisis and engage with them to get their feedback.

should show empathy and caring but must be balanced against

Acknowledge any mistakes and use quality management “Plan-

over-promising e.g. explain temporary product deletion, but

Do-Check-Act” cycle thinking to review the crisis preparedness,

do not promise date for full range availability. Demonstrate

what happened and how things can be improved for future crises.

leadership and competence through clear, transparent, open

To maintain trust and credibility ensure actions communicated


during the crisis are implemented or inform stakeholders that

• Response / Resolution phase – Expect that frustration and anxiety are likely to increase as a crisis goes on. Continue to

based on their feedback and reality, better ways of working have been identified and implemented.

manage expectations by showing empathy, giving good news and reassurance e.g. staff, retailer / pet owner concerns about

The importance of trust

product safety and continuity e.g.

Demonstrating trust should be a core part of BCP and crisis

o “Can Covid-19 be transferred through petfood?”

management. Research by the US based “Center for Food Integrity”

o “Although we have had ingredient supply challenges, we have

demonstrates that trust is driven by three factors:

worked to identify and approve new suppliers.” o “I wish we were able to supply all of our product lines. However, making temporary product deletions helps ensure supply continuity of trusted safe, legal petfood of the expected quality.” o “We are committed to ensure staff employment and safety

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

• Confidence – Shared values “Do I listen to what stakeholders are saying and share the same values? e.g. commitment to food safety; safe ways of working in the petfood plant” • Competence – Skills and abilities “Do we have the skills and ability to produce safe, legal, nutritious petfood of the quality expected by customers, especially if there are staff shortages?”

• Influential others – Other stakeholders e.g. consumer groups,

• No time wasting – In any crisis, information flow changes,

regulatory authorities, governmental institutions “Do we actively

requiring fast data collection and analysis enabling risk-based

engage with and listen to what stakeholders are telling us and

decision making on a dynamic basis e.g. temporary raw materials

act on this? e.g. emergency legislation / guidelines on social

shortage requiring formulation change might have long-term

distancing during CV-19”

impact e.g. switching raw material type / supplier might mean

Trusted petfood is demanded by stakeholders (customers and regulatory authorities). How do we ensure this if faced with staff shortages because of the crisis?

their “normal” supplier goes out of business. • Awareness of regulatory / government guidance and requirements – As the crisis evolves, it is likely that external

Although challenging during a crisis, we must recognise that trust

guidance might change e.g. worker safety, label declarations,

takes a long time to build but can be destroyed in a very short time. What

product testing etc. This requires a designated person to monitor

happens if consumers lose trust in your ability to supply safe petfood

and communicate this and as part of a team to implement new

but your competitor has been more proactive to reassure customers and maintain trust?

requirements e.g. use of PPE, social distancing etc. • Clear, lucid analysis – Role playing / situation analysis in the planning phase can model the impact of enforced changes

Practical experience from the Italian food industry on ensuring continuity of food supply during CV-19

e.g. what if your contract laboratory shuts due to illness? This

Dr Paola Cane (Product Compliance Specialist and Crisis Manager)

training etc); Product (raw materials e.g. critical raw materials

is Owner of Mia Solution in Italy and has guided the Italian food and

from a country without transport links; finished product); Plant

petfood industry on their response to CV-19, to ensure continuity of

(engineering spares e.g. critical extruder spares) and Processes

food and petfood supply during the crisis.

(procedures, food safety and quality management systems; ways

Survival in a crisis, like CV-19, requires positive reassurance

should cover all areas of manufacturing: People (absenteeism;

of working e.g. reduced workforce etc).

to maintain customer trust through pragmatic steps ensuring food

• Remote working – What opportunities are there for remote

safety, business reputation and productivity. This requires agility to

(home office) working? Is IT and communication infrastructure

act on limited, changing information, strong leadership, clear and

adequate for home working e.g. video conferencing? What

coherent communication. Key considerations from Dr Cane’s guidance

about potential negative HR impact on workers e.g. production


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safe at home? • Leadership and training – Leadership helps relieve anxiety through the crisis. Training on new ways of working and reasons for ensures compliance and reduces stress. • Update staff – Provide a designated person to receive feedback,

fail to meet “normal” standards. What are your raw material risk management systems and how can they operate on a remote basis? • Staff shortages – CV-19 illness has resulted in food supply chain staff shortages and vulnerabilities that affect ability to

give good news e.g. sales position and provide regular updates

supply petfood including:

to staff on new ways of working e.g. social distancing and shift

o Shortage of drivers in logistics supplier

pattern changes.

o Abattoir closes due to staff shortages

• Communicate, communicate, communicate – Regular, open, consistent, transparent internal and external communication to reassure stakeholders on how the business is dealing with the crisis but do not over-promise on what will be done as this can undermine trust.

o Training temporary labour to work safely and to the expected standard o Multiskilling within our workforce to enable flexibility in the jobs they do • Contract services – Our pre-requisite program might fail putting

• Re-evaluate company policies and working practices –

food safety at increased risk e.g. How do we ensure food safety

Engage with staff to get feedback on existing policies and help

and production if our contracted-out services e.g. maintenance,

shape new ways of working. Some UK food service businesses

laboratory, hygiene, and pest control etc are shut or working at

are enabling greater customer satisfaction and increased sales

reduced capacity?

through changed business models and business efficiencies from CV-19.

• Food fraud – Recent (May 2020) incidents of adulteration of human meats with horse meat highlights that fraud of all types

• Predict absenteeism – As seen in many countries, staff

increases during a crisis. Not all food fraud causes a food

shortages are one of the greatest risk factors in ensuring

safety issue but results in loss of consumer trust. Are our food

continuity of food supply. Reinforce the steps taken to ensure

fraud systems (VACCP) up to date and do we have appropriate

worker safety e.g. PPE, personal hygiene, social distancing and

controls in place?

that they are “key workers” ensuring supply of petfood.

“It will never happen here” kills people and businesses.

Taking positives from a crisis to increase preparedness for future crises Nobody wants a crisis, due to economic and societal costs but

Nobody likes talking about the tragic consequences of war but this

experience from crises like CV-19, earthquakes and Ebola helps us to

helps businesses develop preparedness and mindfulness against future

prepare for the next crisis. In general terms, survival is improved when

crises by teaching us about “complacency bias”.

we learn and develop these key attributes:

Failure to detect incoming threats e.g. enemy submarine torpedo attack, resulted in large loss of shipping and lives in World War 2

• Preparedness - including horizon scanning and vulnerability analysis

and highlighted the importance of detection systems. To reduce the

• Agility

risk WW2 warships were equipped with Asdic and radar detection

• Leadership

equipment. Imagine you are operating this equipment and do not detect

• Communication

any incoming threats, day after day.

In a famous quote attributed to Darwin,

This leads to “complacency bias” a belief that you will not be attacked. One day this “It will never happen here” behaviour results in

“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most

not detecting an incoming torpedo which sinks your ship killing many

intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.”

people. This complacency bias illustrates how we can fail in our future threats horizon scanning and are ill prepared when a crisis happens. To mitigate against this, we need to build vulnerability assessment into our crisis management planning (BCP). For example, CV-19 has identified many vulnerabilities including: • Raw materials supply and quality risk management –

The question is, “How well prepared are you for the next crisis?”

About the authors David Primrose, Managing Director of Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd, is a petfood industry technical consultant specialising in raw materials development and quality risk management to ensure compliance with legal, food safety, quality, and authenticity requirements.

Generally we benefit from “open borders” and freedom of trade

but CV-19 raised the threat of some countries banning food

Paola Cane, Ph.D., CEO of Mia Solution, is a regulatory and marketing

exports to protect their home market. Any resulting shortages

senior advisor and author, expert in compliance issues, product recalls

increase risks of quality failure and food fraud, where ingredients

and product safety crises.

Page 6

Pet Food Supplement 2020

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Page 7

Pets in Society By Roger W Dean

It has long been recognized that increasing economic prosperity

A truism, nevertheless, but the fact remains that, nationally and

is closely related to an increased propensity to pet ownership.

comparatively, pet ownership is, at least in part, linked to economic

Economic development in countries ranging from Brazil to China

development. This is readily comprehensible. As individuals’

has been characterized by a rising trend in pet populations. But

disposable incomes increase, decisions can be taken about how that

what other factors may be at work? Are cultural differences

disposable element can be spent and one decision may be to acquire

important? And how significant are national peculiarities,

a dog. Researchers have suggested a number of reasons which

leading to different choices by countries with broadly similar

may underlie to decision to acquire a canine and these include the

cultural traditions? Roger Dean has been looking at the available,

fact that dogs are loyal and they help to keep their owners heathy via

if sometimes, sparse, data, particularly the established benefits

the provision of regular walks and a general attribution of improved

of keeping a dog or a cat.

health via the provision of regular exercise. Dogs are also regarded as giving their owners a sense of purpose and increased confidence

A valuable source of information, available in a convenient format,

and are regarded as potential sources of loyalty in a world where, for

is data collected by the specialist pet insurer PetSecure, a company

whatever reason, loyalty may be in short supply.

based in Australia.

Dog owners regard their animals, perhaps idealistically as,

Although we all hope that our pets will never need the services

according to one source, ‘loyal, protective, and always happy to see

of a pet veterinarian or other pet professional for anything other than

you’. The same source points out that the dog has been ‘a human

routine care, all responsible pet owners will naturally take steps to

companion for more than 18,000 years, making it one of the first

ensure that qualified help is swiftly available if the unwelcome need

domesticated animals in history’. The journal ‘Society and Animals’

arises. In order to defray the cost of treatment, there is widespread

reported in a recent study that scientists have proof that ‘dogs make

agreement with the view that it is wise to insure pets against illness

us laugh more than cats, keep us more active than the average

or injury and this is the business in which PetSecure is involved.

human companion, and even reduce our chances of depression.’

As to pets, what is an appropriate definition? Cats and dogs are

This remarkable conclusion was reached after a research project

immediately in the frame. Dogs, in particular can establish a close

asked people who owned dogs, cats, both, or neither to record how

relationship with their human keepers, especially if they are involved

often they laughed over the course of a day. Those who owned just

in a working partnership. Cats keep a more distant relationship but,

dogs and both dogs and cats recorded laughing more than the other

as all cat keepers know (the author avers that one does not own a

two groups.

cat) felines are also capable of establishing a bond with their human

The origin of today’s domesticated house dog may be traced

keeper. But what about other species? Most sources of pet statistics

back to between 19,000 and 32,000 years ago, when they evolved

increasingly tend to include birds and fish, a tendency that the author

from wolves. Wolves are known for living in packs which fosters the

would accept as regards the avian population but which he would

development of strong bonds between pack members and it is this

regard as questionable as regards the piscatorial one!

pack behaviour that makes today’s dogs so loyal. A researcher at

As regards dogs and cats, the data is readily available and

the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, has

usefully ranked in ‘top twenty’ format. This immediately raises the

explained that dogs see their human owners as ‘fellow members

question of the relationship between the pet population and its

of their pack’ and, therefore, form the same close bond with their

human counterpart. As regards the human and dog population in the

owners as they would once have done with their canine brothers

United States, in 2019 there was a total of 328,200,000 people, as

and sisters.

against 69,929,000 dogs, equivalent to 4.69 humans per dog. This

Dog owners, it is claimed, are ‘more social’ than non-dog owners.

suggests that the US cannot really be described as a nation of dog

In the UK, a team of scientists at the Universities of Liverpool and

lovers, albeit that it is the country with the single largest population

Bristol found that UK residents with dogs were more likely to encounter

of canines. What about dog species? The Labrador Retriever is still

other dogs and dog owners than people who did not own a dog. This

the most popular dog breed in the US, according to the American

makes sense, in that dog owners are more likely to head out of the

Kennel Club, occupying top spot for the twenty-ninth year in a row. The

house on walks and run into other dog owners on their own strolls.

German Shepherd is second, followed by the Golden Retriever. The

Proponents of the canine species also argue that dogs

English Foxhound is the least popular breed on the list, coming in

may even ‘protect us from poor health’ in that children born into

at 193 of 193.

households with a dog ‘have a lower risk of developing asthma and

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

allergies’. However, before dismissing this apparently preposterous

also propositioned the idea that ‘just the simple act of making eye

claim, it should be pointed out that a study, recently published in

contact with your furry friend’ can release a chemical called oxytocin

the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showed that,

which is associated with what can be described as the feel-good

when exposed to dust from households where dogs were permitted

factor. In a study that measured oxytocin levels from two groups of

inside and outside, mice developed ‘an altered community’ of microbes

dog owners, the group that was instructed not to look directly at their

in their gut that protect them against allergens. It was reported that

dog had lower oxytocin levels than the other group that made regular

these microbes could be what’s protecting young children from

eye contact. Another study found that dog owners who relied on their

developing allergens in households with dogs.

dogs for social fulfillment reported that ‘they were less depressed,

With growing and major concern about obesity today, the medical profession stresses that it is vitally important to get regular exercise.

less lonely, had higher self-esteem, were happier, and tended to experience less perceived stress.’

Researchers at Michigan State University reported in 2011 that 60

Returning to the numbers game, it has been noted that, in terms

per cent of dog owners who took their pets for regular walks met

of world rankings, the US clearly leads the field with 69.93 million

federal government criteria for ‘regular moderate or vigorous exercise’.

canines. Brazil is reported to come second, followed by Russia with

Moreover, elderly people who walk their dogs had a more regular

a reported 12.52 million dogs. It may surprise some readers to learn

exercise routine and were ‘more physically fit’ than the elderly who

that the UK is well down the world pecking order with nine million

walk with other people, according to a study published in the Journal

dogs, less than Japan, the Philippines or India. As regards cats, the

of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services in 2010. In

UK has an estimated eight million compared with the US total of

addition, while dogs are great companions for anyone, they are

74 million and fewer than either France or Germany. What are the

especially so for the elderly. In a study published in the Journal of

reasons for keeping a cat? Busy people in this frenetic world may

Social Psychology, elderly people who owned a dog reported ‘feeling

feel that they have little or no time or energy to look after a pet but a

more satisfied’ with their social, physical, and emotional state than

cat could be an appropriate answer to the problem. As one observer

those without a dog.

has noted, taking care of a cat ‘requires less responsibility than some

The contention, that ‘dogs save lives’ is, perhaps, one of the

other animals’ in that cats are ‘low maintenance and independent’

most contentious of all the claims made by the canine lobby. Dogs

and can, for the most part, look after themselves while their keeper

can, so it is claimed, help humans by acting as an early warning

is busy. A further and associated benefit is the fact that cats keep

system for patients who suffer from seizures. Trained dogs can

themselves clean for most if not all the time, obviating the need to

reportedly sense the onset of a seizure up to fifteen minutes before

take time to perform the somewhat painstaking task of washing and

it occurs and will bark when this happens, which then warns the

grooming your cat.

patient to sit so to prevent injury from falling down, for example. The

A further benefit of cat ‘keepership’ is that cats will keep their

literature admits that how dogs know when a seizure is coming is still

keepers dwelling place free from a wide variety of rodents, albeit

unknown but it must be pointed out at this juncture that dogs have

that they may bring examples of the latter to show you. In a broader

been demonstrated to be able to detect diseases in asymptomatic

ecological sense, for those desiring to live a ‘green’ lifestyle can find it

patients. In the current context, the UK Government has awarded a

difficult, but a cat, it can be argued is ‘a great choice for potential pet

specialist team of researchers almost £500,000 to find out if specially

owners looking to stay eco-friendly’. Academic studies have shown

trained bio-detection dogs could be used as a new rapid testing

that the lifetime resources needed to feed and care for a cat have

measure for COVID-19.

a smaller carbon footprint than for other animals. It has also been

Medical detection dogs have a successful history catching the presence of malaria and certain types of cancers in humans. Their new

argued that most cats prefer fish to meat which is supposed to be better for the environment.

mission – to see if they can detect the odour of coronavirus in patients,

In addition, and in that modern living contributes frequently to

particularly those not showing any symptoms. The programme is a

becoming ‘stressed out’, people have many different ways of relieving

partnership between the government, the Medical Detection Dogs

their stress. Cat owners can reduce their tension by just stroking

charity and universities like London’s School of Hygiene and Tropical

their cats head. Petting a cat reportedly releases endorphins into

Medicine. Its head of disease control, Professor James Logan, said

the brain, which is the body’s way of improving mood, promoting a

that ‘there is a solid scientific basis for using dogs to sniff out the virus’.

sense of happiness.

He said that when one had a disease, whether a virus or a parasite, it changed the body’s odour so ‘you actually smell different’.

While the keeping of a dog or a cat has utilitarian benefits such as guarding a property or keeping the property free from other

Dogs are supposed to provide their owners with additional

unwelcome visitors such as rodent pests, it is important to keep in

confidence. In another study, the participants obtained a dog and

mind the benefit accruing to the keeper’s well-being. Dogs and cats

were assessed after ten months with their new canine companion.

may be seen as having advantages for their keeper’s property, there

In general, the participants reported ‘a higher sense of self-esteem,

are also advantages on a much more personal level which we do

improved exercise habits, and less fear of crime’. Researchers have

well to keep in mind.

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 9

Ensuring a Good Start Puppy nutrition for healthy growth and development By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products

nutrients, and the development of her nutritionally dependent puppies, pre and postnatally, she must be fed an appropriate amount of food according to the stage of pregnancy or lactation and pup numbers being reared. Nutritionally balanced, all-breed complete puppy diets, or all-life stage foods, rich in quality proteins and essential fats, plus essential minerals and vitamins are considered suitable for the breeding bitch. Feeding the bitch in late pregnancy a calcium supplement is contra indicated as the increased requirement will be met by increased food intakes required in late pregnancy and lactation. During the last third of gestation, the bitch’s energy requirements and proportionally the protein requirements, increase significantly, rising to 40-60% above maintenance. Practically this means increasing the food intake from those maintenance levels fed during weeks one to six The growing period for the puppy, as it is for all animals, is a delicate

of gestation up to 1.4 and eventually 1.6 times maintenance just before

stage of life. To grow up normally the puppy requires the correct

whelping, which is likely at the end of week 9. Often feeding twice per

intake of energy, amino acids, fats, macro and micro minerals and

day, or more, is helpful as stomach fill of the bitch may be limited with a

also vitamins right from the point of conception. Balanced and optimal

large litter. Through early and peak lactation the bitch will again benefit,

nutrition of the puppy with these key nutrients supports normal organ,

particularly with a large litter, from being be fed multiple times per day

skeletal, muscle, brain, eye and neural development, in addition to the

to allow her to take in the large volumes of food required to sustain the

development and function of the immune system. Nutritional support of

huge increase in nutrient demands during these critical time points (4).

the young gastrointestinal tract is also vital to help set up a balanced

The bitch’s energy requirements can be calculated using the equations

gut microflora, which is increasingly known to be essential for good

described in Table 1 (5). However, a simplified general rule of thumb

all-round health. The precise nutrition of the puppy at the start of their

during lactation is to feed maintenance levels of food plus 0.55 times

life is their foundation for a long and healthy life as an adult dog.

maintenance per puppy being reared.

Puppy Growth

Table 1: Equations for the calculation of the energy requirement

Dogs are amazing! As altricial species, puppies are born blind, deaf,

for the reproducing bitch

helpless and completely dependent on their mother, yet by the time they have reached adulthood they have increased their body weight by 40 or 50 times that of their birth weight (1). After birth they go through

Energy Requirement of the Bitch (kcal/day) Gestation first 4 weeks of gestation

132 kcal/kg BW0.75 132 kcal/kg BW0.75 + 26 kcal/kg BW

their own nutritional challenges (2,3).

last 5 weeks of gestation

The nursing stage

1 to 4 puppies

145/kg BW0.75 + 24 n x kg BW x L

During their first few weeks of life puppies spend much of their time

5 to 8 puppies

145/kg BW0.75 + (96 + 12 n) x kg BW x L

sucking milk and sleeping. Once their eyes have opened, normally

n = number of puppies; L = 0.75 in week 1 of lactation; 0.95 in week 2; 1.1 in week 3 and 1.2 in week 4

3 critical stages of life in their first 12 months - the nursing stage, the weaning stage and post weaning stage. Each of these stages bring


between 12 to 14 days of age, and the ears by day 20, by day 21 they are well on their way to starting learning about their new world and how to socialise. For the first few weeks of life, puppies are entirely reliant on

The weaning stage

their mothers’ milk, the quantity and composition of which are affected

When it comes to the puppy, up to 3 to 4 weeks of age the bitch’s milk

by the quality of the nutrition that she received during late gestation,

is normally sufficient to sustain the nutrient needs for growth; thereafter

and of course, during the present lactation period.

this is not the case. While suckling even very young puppies will drink

To meet the bitch’s changing needs for energy and other key

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

water, so it is important that puppies have free access to fresh water

when suckling and during the weaning process to avoid dehydration, which is fatal. Puppies soon learn to drink it! To start a gradual weaning process, along with free access to fresh water, a softened gruel of a complete puppy food should therefore be introduced. As the gastrointestinal tract adapts from a milk based diet to a normal solid diet, the amount of water added to the gruel can be reduced so that by 6 weeks of age the puppies are fully transferred to a nutritionally dense puppy food. Healthy puppies will be eating well between 5-6 weeks of age and weaned by 6-7 weeks, but should not leave their mother for new homes until at least 8 weeks of age (2, 6).

The post weaning stage Once the puppy has completely left its mother, it enters the post weaning stage. It is very important not to coincide weaning and leaving the dam

addition to excessive energy intake, high calcium intake is well known to

with a change to the diet. Keeping the puppy on the same puppy food until

predispose the large breed puppy to DOD (12,13). Whilst only detected

they are established in their new homes is very important, to help manage

on x-ray, bone changes have been reported in smaller breed beagles

the risk of digestive disturbance. Proper feeding of the puppy according to

when fed excess dietary calcium, indicating other genetic predisposition

its adult size, breed and the age at which maturity is attained, is essential.

for DOD (14). Feeding a calcium supplement in addition to a correctly

Toy, small breeds and medium breeds reach adulthood between 9-12

formulated puppy diet is therefore not required and detrimental to any

months, whereas large and giant dog breeds are not considered mature

puppy’s long term skeletal health.

until 18 to 24 months of age (7). The energy requirements of puppies

In the case of insufficient calcium intake, and, or excessive dietary

can be calculated according to stage of growth versus their adult weight

phosphorous intake, nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism occurs

by using the equations described in Table 2 (5).

(15). This leads to poor mineralisation of the bones and softening as calcium is released. Vitamin D is also essential for normal calcium

Table 2. Determination of the energy requirement of a growing

and phosphorus homeostasis in the body, and therefore bone


mineralisation. Dogs have low levels of 7-dehydrocholesterol in their skin, which means their ability to convert the 7-dehydrocholesterol

Puppy Stage of Growth (% of adult weight)

Energy requirement kcal/kg BW 0.75

New Born

25 kcal/100 g BW

Up to 50%

210 kcal/kg 0.75

50 to 80 %

175 kcal/kg 0.75

80 to 100 %

140 kcal/kg 0.75

The daily food allowance of the puppy should be adjusted

that is present, to cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) is highly inefficient (16). Incidences of bone development issues and rickets are reported in the literature where puppies have been raised on unbalanced diets, with inappropriate mineral and inadequate vitamin D content (17). It therefore is clear that attaining the correct dietary calcium intake is essential, along with phosphorous and vitamin D to build strong joints and bones in the growing puppy.

accordingly so that the puppy follows a normal growth curve, according

It is however important to remember that many other nutrients

to its expected adult weight. Puppy weight can be plotted against

are also required for normal bone development. Zinc, along with

published growth charts to check it is progressing in the expected way.

phosphorus and magnesium form a complex with calcium in the

( (6)

bone matrix and is a co-factor in around 200 enzymes involved in cell replication, carbohydrate and protein metabolism. As a co-factor of the

Strong Skeletal Development

enzyme alkaline phosphatase, zinc is required for the mineralization

Diet, genetics and the environment are all factors that can impact on

bone (18). It is also known that diets containing excess calcium and

puppy skeletal development, and when issues occur, the condition

phytate reduce the bioavailability of dietary zinc. Supplementation of

known as developmental orthopaedic disease (DOD) (8) can arise,

puppy diets with a zinc chelate may therefore be of benefit in some

particularly in large breed puppies. This is a condition associated with

circumstances to ensure zinc bioavailability (19,20) along with zinc

irregular synthesis of the cartilage, improper bone-remodelling and

sulphate which has been shown to be a superior zinc source compared

growth of low density bone, resulting in bone deformity, joint swelling

with zinc oxide (21).

and pain. High protein intake, in itself, is not as previously believed

Copper supports normal collagen and elastin formation, through

a factor linked to DOD (9). Excess energy intake or over nutrition is

the copper dependent enzyme lysyl oxidase, with deficiency causing

the issue, as it exacerbates rapid early bone growth rate, increases

bone abnormalities in growing dogs (22,23). Manganese also supports

remodelling rates and consequently the development of low density

normal bone formation by acting as a co-enzyme in glycosyl transferases

bone, less able to support a heavy and very active puppy (10,11). In

in the metabolism of the ground substance for cartilage. Adequate

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 11

Antioxidants are well known to help support the immune system function. Ascorbic acid levels are high in phagocytic cells. Macrophages and neutrophils generate free radicals when stimulated as part of the normal immune response, this is called the oxidative burst and is used to kill bacterial pathogens. The immune response can deplete the body’s antioxidant levels without adequate dietary antioxidants. Free radicals, produced by the oxidative burst by macrophages, if unchecked can cause damage to the immune cells and reduce their functionality. Ascorbic acid can help protect these cells from oxidative damage (32), along with vitamin E. Neutrophils from vitamin E deficient animals have been shown to have increased amounts of peroxidized lipids in their membranes (33). Carotenoids also act as strong antioxidants, iodine intake is important for normal development of bone, in that it

with beta-carotene supplementation shown to stimulate both cellular

is required by the thyroid glands for production of thyroid hormones.

and humoral immune responses in young dogs (34). Taurine is also

The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) particularly and thyroxine

a nutrient which should be considered important for normal immune

(T4) supports normal cartilage maturation, capillary penetration and

function due to its antioxidant properties (35).

bone mineralisation (24). Vitamin A supports normal bone growth and

Effective immune support is about providing a complementary

metabolism, with deficiency leading to irregular remodelling of bone

balance of essential dietary antioxidants and associated other nutrients.

in the dog. Incidentally, excess vitamin A also negatively affects this

Dietary support may directly affect antioxidant availability, for example

process, so diets for reproduction and growth need to be appropriately

vitamin E, indirectly through a failure to support the maintenance of

supplemented (25).

antioxidant enzyme systems through selenium dependent glutathione peroxidase (36). Any shortfall in the maintenance of the antioxidant

Sharp Eyes and Sharp Brain Function

chain can result, for example in the failure of the reduction of the vitamin

There is much publicity and evidence regarding the importance of

E radical back to vitamin E, though vitamin C, thus leaving it as a pro-

omega 3’s for our health and wellbeing (26), particularly relating to the

oxidant. This is why there is a need for a cocktail of antioxidants, with

long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acid (LCPUFA-n3) called DHA

other essential nutrients, present in a system rather than any single

(docosahexaenoic acid) for human mothers and their babies due to its

supplemental antioxidant to excess. Supplementation with a cocktail

essential role in neural and eye development (27). Its essentiality is the

of antioxidants has been demonstrated to support a better immune

same for breeding bitches and growing puppies. Although DHA can be

response in puppies when vaccinated, confirmed by an increase the

obtained through an elongation process from the shorter chain omega

number of memory T cells (37).The AOX combination consisted of

3 ALA (alpha linolenic acid), it is inefficient, due to the presence of the

vitamin E at 500 IU/kg dry matter (DM), vitamin C at 70 mg/kg DM,

omega-6 fatty acids that are converted to their corresponding active

beta-carotene (0.4 mg/kg DM) and selenium (0.8 mg/kg DM). In addition

products via the same enzyme systems. Using ALA in the breeding

to antioxidants, other nutrients required for normal immune cell function

bitch diet does not therefore effectively support optimal milk quality

and modulation include vitamin D, vitamin A, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc,

in terms of its essential DHA content (28). Feeding pre-formed DHA

iron, copper, magnesium and also omega 3 fatty acids (38,39). There

to the bitch, and to the puppy post weaning is therefore the preferred

are clearly reported benefits of the use of beta glucan in puppy feeding

nutritional strategy when it comes to delivering the optimal nourishment

to enhance response to vaccination (40). Complementary antioxidants

required to ensure optimal retinal, visual and neural development, and

and other specific nutrients therefore have an important role to play in

is a nutrient linked to the improved trainability of puppies (29,30,31).

development and normal function of the immune system of the young puppy.

The Immune Gap The new-borns’ immune system is immature. They are initially reliant

Securing Digestive Stability

on the antibodies transmitted by the mother during gestation. After

Establishment of a healthy and stable gut microflora in early life is

about 4-8 weeks after birth the count of antibodies provided by the

important. The gut microflora is now known not just to affect the

mother falls below a protection threshold, whilst the immune system

nutritional status or gastro-intestinal (GI) tract health as is, but has

of the puppy is barely developed, resulting in an immunity gap. Within

wide reaching effects on developmental, immunological, and other

subsequent weeks young animals develop their own immune system

physiologic processes in animals, thereby contributing to the lifetime

in response to antigenic stress. In order to allow the immune system to

health of the host (41). Until a puppy has established a stable gut

optimally respond during the early weeks, appropriate nutrition for the

microflora and its immature gut and associated enzyme secretions

mother during gestation as well as the puppy during the early neonatal

have correspondingly adapted from the requirement to digest a milk

and growth period is essential.

protein, lactose based diet to a solid one, with new nutrient sources, a

Page 12

Pet Food Supplement 2020

puppy is at risk of digestive upset. The use of prebiotic fibres that can

parents want, please speak to your local DSM representative on how

be fermented and utilised as an energy source by the bacterial species

to “Support a Good Start”.

associated with good gut health, such as lactobacilli, is one way to help in the establishment of a more stable gut microflora and better immunity, leaving the host more able to resist infection by pathogenic species (42, 43, 44). In addition to this effect, the fermentation of prebiotics results in increased production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which can be used by the enterocytes as an energy supply (45). Commonly used prebiotics in pet nutrition include inulin, fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS), short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) and xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Mannan-oligosaccharides, derived from yeast cell walls are also widely used in pet food diets and have the ability to agglutinate and interfere with intestinal binding and colonization of harmful microbial species, promotion of the immune response and beneficial modulation of the microbial population in the gut (46). The use of FOS and MOS together has been demonstrated to give complementary benefits in terms of their effects on measures of gut and immune health (47). It therefore makes sense to use combination of complementary prebiotic sources in puppy diets to better support overall gut health and puppy wellbeing.

Pet owner needs for puppy diets A DSM survey (2015) found that American dog owners linked early life nutrition of their pets to the promotion of good health in later life (Figure 1). They also strongly agreed that puppies need a special diet to grow into healthy adult dogs, linking advanced nutrition to a long life. It therefore makes sense for pet food brand owners to invest in the latest nutritional science to increase their brands’ appeal to the new pet parent seeking the best food options for their new puppy, just as they would for their child. Pet owner lifetime brand loyalty starts with a pet food delivering its nutritional promises right from the start. Figure 1: Responses of US dog owners to a DSM survey examining pet parent attitudes to feeding puppies (% agreement with the statement)

Summary Combined with the correct training and socialisation in the early weeks and months of life, it is clear that the optimal supply of key nutrients is required to help the puppy to grow up into a healthy and happy member of the family. To check that your premix and puppy foods deliver the right nutrition that they should, along with the healthy benefits that pet

References 1. Wortinger, Ann, and Kara Burns. Nutrition and Disease management for veterinary technicians and nurses. John Wiley & Sons, 2015 p.113. 2. Debraekeleer, Jacques, Kathy L. Gross, and Steven C. Zicker. “Feeding Nursing and Orphaned Puppies from Birth to Weaning.” Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, ed 5 (2010): Chapter 16, p295 - 309. 3. Shaw, Julie, and Debbie Martin, eds. Canine and feline behavior for veterinary technicians and nurses. John Wiley & Sons, 2014 p.44 4. Greco, Deborah S. “Nutritional supplements for pregnant and lactating bitches.” Theriogenology 70.3 (2008): 393-396. 5. FEDIAF. Nutritional Guidelines for Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs. (Fédération Européenne de l’Industrie des Aliments pour Animaux Familiers, March, 2018). 6. 7. Linda P. Case, Leighann Daristotle, Michael G. Hayek, Melody Foess Raasch,Chapter 22 - Growth,Editor(s): Linda P. Case, Leighann Daristotle, Michael G. Hayek, Melody Foess Raasch, Canine and Feline Nutrition (Third Edition), Mosby, 2011, Pages 221-237 8. Larsen, Jennifer. “Feeding large-breed puppies.” Compend Cont Educ Vet 32 (2010): E1-E4. 9. Nap, Richard C., et al. “Growth and skeletal development in Great Dane pups fed different levels of protein intake.” The Journal of nutrition 121.suppl_11 (1991): S107-S113 10. Hedhammar, Ake, F. M. Wu, and L. Krook. “Overnutrition and skeletal disease: an experimental study in growing Great Dane dogs. X. Discussion.” Cornell veterinarian (1974). 11. Dämmrich K. Relationship between nutrition and bone growth in large and giant dogs. J Nutr. 1991;121(11 Suppl):S114-S121. 12. Lauten SD, Cox NR, Brawner WR Jr, et al. Influence of dietary calcium and phosphorus content in a fixed ratio on growth and development in Great Danes. Am J Vet Res. 2002;63(7):1036-1047. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2002.63.1036 13. Goedegebuure, S. A., and H. A. W. Hazewinkel. “Morphological findings in young dogs chronically fed a diet containing excess calcium.” Veterinary pathology 23.5 (1986): 594-605. 14. Dobenecker, B., et al. “Calcium-excess causes subclinical changes of bone growth in Beagles but not in Foxhound-crossbred dogs, as measured in X-rays.” Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition 90.9-10 (2006): 394-401. 15. Cline, Jill. “Calcium and vitamin d metabolism, deficiency, and excess.” Topics in companion animal medicine 27.4 (2012): 159-164. 16. Krook L, Whalen JP. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in the animal kingdom: report of two cases. Clin Imaging. 2010;34(6):458-461. 17. Tal M, Parr JM, MacKenzie S, Verbrugghe A. Dietary imbalances in a large breed puppy, leading to compression fractures, vitamin D deficiency, and suspected nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism. Can Vet J. 2018;59(1):36-42. 18. Rossi, Laura, et al. “Reduced growth and skeletal changes in zinc-deficient growing rats are due to impaired growth plate activity and inanition.” The Journal of nutrition 131.4 (2001): 1142-1146. 19. Wedekind, Karen J., and Stephen R. Lowry. “Are organic zinc sources efficacious in puppies?.” The Journal of nutrition 128.12 (1998): 2593S2595S. 20. Lowe, John A., Julian Wiseman, and D. J. A. Cole. “Zinc source influences zinc retention in hair and hair growth in the dog.” The Journal of nutrition 124. suppl_12 (1994): 2575S-2576S. 21. Wedekind, K. J., A. E. Hortin, and D. H. Baker. “Methodology for assessing zinc bioavailability: efficacy estimates for zinc-methionine, zinc sulfate, and zinc oxide.” Journal of animal science 70.1 (1992): 178-187. 22. BAXTER JH, VAN WYK JJ. A bone disorder associated with copper deficiency. I. Gross morphological, roentgenological, and chemical observations. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1953;93(1):1-23. 23. Zentek, Jürgen, and Helmut Meyer. “Investigations on copper deficiency in growing dogs.” The Journal of nutrition 121.suppl_11 (1991): S83-S84. 24. Richardson DC, Zentek J, Hazewinkel et al. Developmental orthopedic disease of dogs. In: Hand MS, Thatcher CD, Remillard RL, et al., eds. Small animal clinical nutrition. 5th ed. Topeka, Kan: Mark Morris Institute, 2010; 667-693. 25. National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2006. p 197 26. Shahidi, Fereidoon, and Priyatharini Ambigaipalan. “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and their health benefits.” Annual review of food science and technology 9 (2018): 345-381. 27. Mun, Jonathan G., et al. “Choline and DHA in Maternal and Infant Nutrition: Synergistic Implications in Brain and Eye Health.” Nutrients 11.5 (2019): 1125. 28. Bauer JE, Heinemann KM, Bigley KE, Lees GE, Waldron MK. (2004) Maternal Diet α-Linolenic Acid during Gestation and Lactation Does Not Increase Docosahexaenoic Acid in Canine Milk . J Nutr 134:2035S-2038S.

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29. Heinemann KM, Waldron MK, Bigley KE, Lees GE, Bauer JE. (2005) LongChain (n-3) Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Are More Efficient than α-Linolenic Acid in Improving Electroretinogram Responses of Puppies Exposed during Gestation, Lactation, and Weaning. J Nutr 135: 1960-1966. 30. Bauer JE, Heinemann KM, Lees GE, Waldron MK. (2006) Retinal Functions of Young Dogs Are Improved and Maternal Plasma Phospholipids Are Altered with Diets Containing Long-Chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids during Gestation, Lactation, and after Weaning. J Nutr 136:1991S-1994S. 31. Zicker SC. Jewell DE. Yamka RM. Milgram NW. (2012) Evaluation of cognitive learning, memory, psychomotor, immunologic, and retinal functions in healthy puppies fed foods fortified with docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil from 8 to 52 weeks of age. JAVMA 241:583-594. 32. McDowell, Lee Russell. Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. John Wiley & Sons, 2008. 33. Bendich, Adrianne. “Antioxidant micronutrients and immune responses.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 587.1 (1990): 168-180 34. Chew, Boon P., et al. “Dietary β-carotene stimulates cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs.” The journal of nutrition 130.8 (2000): 1910-1913. 35. Marcinkiewicz, Janusz, and Ewa Kontny. “Taurine, taurine derivatives and immune system.” Taurine in health and disease, Transworld Research Network (2011): 000-000. 36. Sharadamma, K. C., et al. “Role of selenium in pets health and nutrition: A review.” Asian Journal of Animal Sciences 5.1 (2011): 64-70. 37. Khoo, C., et al. “The role of supplementary dietary antioxidants on immune response in puppies.” Vet Ther 6.1 (2005): 43-56. 38. Gombart, Adrian F., Adeline Pierre, and Silvia Maggini. “A Review of Micronutrients and the Immune System–Working in Harmony to Reduce the Risk of Infection.” Nutrients 12.1 (2020): 236. 39. Kearns, Robert J., et al. “Effect of age, breed and dietary omega-6 (n-6): omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid ratio on immune function, eicosanoid production, and lipid peroxidation in young and aged dogs.” Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 69.2-4 (1999): 165-183. 40. Haladová, Eva, et al. “Immunomodulatory effect of glucan on specific and nonspecific immunity after vaccination in puppies.” Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 59.1 (2011): 77-86. 41. Hooda, Seema, et al. “Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.” Animal health research reviews 13.1 (2012): 78-88. 42. Buddington, Randal K. “Postnatal changes in bacterial populations in the gastrointestinal tract of dogs.” American journal of veterinary research 64.5 (2003): 646-651.

A d v a n c e d

c o n t r o l

s y s t e m s

43. Baffoni, Loredana. “Probiotics and Prebiotics for the Health of Companion Animals.” Probiotics and Prebiotics in Animal Health and Food Safety. Springer, Cham, 2018. 175-195. 44. Apanavicius, Carolyn J., et al. “Fructan supplementation and infection affect food intake, fever, and epithelial sloughing from Salmonella challenge in weanling puppies.” The Journal of nutrition 137.8 (2007): 1923-1930. 45. Barry, K. A., et al. “Low-level fructan supplementation of dogs enhances nutrient digestion and modifies stool metabolite concentrations, but does not alter fecal microbiota populations.” Journal of animal science 87.10 (2009): 3244-3252. 46. Swanson, KELLY S., and GEORGE C. FAHEY Jr. “The role of yeasts in companion animal nutrition.” Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries. Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th Annual Symposium: Re-imagining the Feed Industry. 2004. 47. Swanson, Kelly S., et al. “Supplemental fructooligosaccharides and mannanoligosaccharides influence immune function, ileal and total tract nutrient digestibilities, microbial populations and concentrations of protein catabolites in the large bowel of dogs.” The Journal of nutrition 132.5 (2002): 980-989.

Legal Disclaimer DSM has used diligent care to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate and up-to-date, however, DSM makes no representation or warranty, either expressly or implied, of the accuracy, reliability, or completeness thereof. The information provided herein contains scientific and product information for business to business use and does not constitute or provide scientific or medical advice, diagnosis or recommendation for treatment. Country or region-specific information should be considered when labelling or advertising to final consumer. In no event shall DSM be liable for any damages arising from or reliance upon, or use of, any information provided herein. The content of this document is subject to change without further notice. Please contact your local DSM representative for further details. All trademarks listed in this document are either (registered) trademarks of, or trademarks licensed by, the DSM group of companies in the Netherlands and/or other countries, unless explicitly stated otherwise.

© DSM Nutritional Products Ltd 2020. DSM Nutritional Products AG, Wurmisweg 576, CH-4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland

f o r

F e e d

a n d

G r a i n

p l a n t s

Mill efficiencies

through innovation DSL Systems has been automating feed mills since 1979 and is now recognised as the UK market leader. Over the years, the solutions have become increasingly comprehensive and sophisticated to improve mill efficiency. DSL’s latest AutoPilot4Feed system can control all areas of a mill and may also include production planning, lot traceability, maintenance, driver self-service, warehouse tracking and mill performance (OEE) options. Please contact us to arrange a demonstration and find out how we can improve your mill. DSL Systems Ltd, Adbolton Lane, West Bridgford, Nottingham NG2 5AS, England. T: +44 (0) 115 981 3700 I E:

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

Hassle-Free changeover

Excellent 24 hour support

For efficient innovation at your fingertips go to

Good return on investment

The Future for

Extruder Control By Paul Girdham, DSL Systems Ltd

A good control system will be able to store these values for many years and together with effective traceability allow you to check back in case of customer complaints. Having such a ‘helpful’ control system gives the operator more time to run other parts of the plant, additional extruder lines, operate a Fork Lift Truck and so on, knowing that the control system will call for help when parameters are drifting towards out-of-tolerance or when it’s time for a quality reading. OEE (Overall Equipment Efficiency) is the gold standard for working out how well your manufacturing process is utilised and, if built in, gives everyone actual evidence of ‘how things are going’. When it comes to production throughputs and waste, it’s really Controlling an extruder remains partly a manual process requiring operator input, especially during start-up, but the more automation the less work an operator has to do to look after it. Many extruders come with their own manufacturer’s control systems but there are significant benefits to having a complete integrated endto-end control system for the whole plant where the extruder is just one part, locking in operator knowledge and experience. The ideal system can be illustrated by an example of a brand-new pet food product about to be manufactured. The production manager together with the nutritionist, vet and marketeer can set up the complete formula, operating parameters and quality set-points, probably derived from a similar product. This would include all additions into the extruder conditioner and extruder parameters including speed, load, timings, and so on. Other settings such as throughput rates, temperatures, die parameters, knife settings can all be pre-set, even if the operator has to temporarily override some on start-up. It’s even better if you can copy a similar product’s settings and then adjust what’s required. After the run is complete, the system should remember the settings so that the next time the same product is run, the extruder can start producing saleable product faster, minimising waste and lost time. After a run has completed, all data can be analysed, everything from the initial batch parameters, hand additions, alarms, extruder and cooler parameters and downstream values, all in one place and therefore simple to adjust parameters for the next run. The operator

useful to have the complete picture including individual batches with actual material inclusion rates, to analyse and compare against different products and production runs. The ability to look at a complete run where individual batches provide the weights of raw materials and compare this to the finished product out, whether from packing or tote bags is invaluable in investigating efficiencies and waste. Expectations for full traceability includes all raw materials from the warehouse including tracking of individual lot numbers of every raw material, each IBC / bulk liquid into the extruder conditioner including reworked material and all the way to the final finished product pack. Whilst the actual control of an extruder and its ancillaries is often considered a lower level, the level of information and logged information details used to be called the mid-level and sometimes called MES (Manufacturing Execution System). Some companies are now calling this mid-level “Edge Computing”. And if you have many manufacturing plants around the country you may hear about Cloud Computing but the important thing to know is what information you want when. A complete end-to-end integrated control system means that there is only one support company to contact in case of problems or required modifications. The actual extruder control is not dependent on a separate computer and the choice of PLC can be the same as all the other PLCs already on site, reducing risk of failure, simplifying support, spares and technical knowledge. This all leads to improved efficiencies, giving you the edge.

doesn’t have to think about things which are automatically set up by the control system. The latest systems can prompt the operator to take quality readings at the appropriate time depending on the production run length,

Paul Girdham is a Senior Consultant with

entering readings into the control systems and highlighting values

DSL Systems Ltd who design and supply

which are drifting towards out-of-tolerance and making adjustments

Control Systems

in good time.

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 15

New Generation Wenger Twin Screw Extrusion System for High Meat Pet Foods and Treats By Adrian Martinez-Kawas, Ph.D.

Image 1 (left). Wenger Thermal Twin® Extrusion System coupled with surge and live bins, High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP), Back Pressure Valve (BPV), and Overhead Rail System Table 1. Energy input and operating cost comparison between Wenger single screw, twin screw, and thermal twin screw extrusion systems Extrusion Systems

New generation Wenger twin screw extrusion systems are built with flexibility in mind. These systems, known as Thermal Twin® extrusion systems, are tailored for pet food manufacturers, so they can develop a wider range of products using an extensive choice of ingredients while preserving ingredient and product identity. This flexibility is possible given these systems are engineered with a specialized screw profile design to deliver higher volumetric capacity and the capability to operate using a wide range of thermal and mechanical energy cooking conditions. The shift from mechanical to thermal energy utilization optimizes the process by decreasing energy consumption, allowing a wider range of fresh ingredient utilization, reducing ingredient degradation, and improving product digestibility. This is how a Thermal Twin® extrusion system excels in comparison to standard single screw and traditional twin screw extrusion systems. Thermal and mechanical energy are the main energy sources

Single Screw

Twin Screw

Thermal Twin Screw

Specific Thermal Energy (STE, kWhr/mt)




Specific Mechanical Energy (SME, kWhr/mt)




Total Energy (kWhr/mt)




Energy Cost ($/mt)




Wear Cost ($/mt)




Total Cost ($/mt)




ratio, and shift to the most favorable energy sources from a cost standpoint, brings increased flexibility to the cost of operating the system. Wenger Thermal Twin® extruders are engineered to operate in thermal to mechanical energy ratios from 1:1 to as much as 14:1. This is achieved with a twin screw profile that allows up to 4-6 times more steam injection into the extruder barrel compared to standard extrusion systems. Additionally, these systems are coupled with a high intensity preconditioner (HIP) which provides less product moisture variation and increases the starch gelatinization compared to other steam conditioning designs (Table 2). As a result of a wider energy utilization ratio and a specialized

utilized in the extrusion process. A review of current extrusion processes in the industry indicates the ratio of consumed thermal to mechanical

Table 2. Percent of Coefficient of Variation of Moisture Content

energy ranges from 1:1 to 2:1. This ratio determines utility costs as well

and Cook using different steam conditioner designs

as maintenance costs, specifically the costs to replace worn rotating elements. A recent study compared energy input and operating cost for

Steam Conditioner Design

three extrusion systems (Table 1). It was observed that even though the total energy input (thermal + mechanical) was higher for a thermal

Coefficient of Variation of Moisture Content, %

Cook, %

twin screw extrusion system, it was less expensive to operate over

HIP – High Intensity Preconditioner



time compared to a standard single screw and traditional twin screw

DDC – Differential Diameter Cylinder



extrusion system.

DC – Double Cylinder



SC – Single Cylinder



An extrusion system with the ability to vary this energy utilization

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

Image 2. Semi-moist long pet treats with high meat inclusion (up to 85%) produced in a Wenger Thermal Twin® Extrusion System coupled with a High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP), Back Pressure Valve (BPV), ambient cooling conveyors, and a guillotine cutter

twin screw profile, coupled with a preconditioner which delivers less

significant higher retention rate of important ingredients when thermal

product moisture variation and increased cook, the flexibility of the

energy inputs are emphasized (Table 3).

Thermal Twin® extrusion systems becomes key to increase product

As a result of the new generation twin screw extruder design and

offerings. Thermal energy is considered a more natural way of cooking

thermal cooking, which allows for a wider ingredient utilization such

when compared to mechanical energy. This translates to less shear

as novel animal and vegetable protein sources, the Thermal Twin®

and more gentle kneading to continuously develop the visco-elastic

extrusion system becomes the ultimate system. One in which high-

dough product matrix. With a Thermal Twin® extrusion system, pet food

quality pet treats (short and long) can be produced with the appropriate

manufacturers can go beyond the traditional dry expanded and offer

system layout and ancillary equipment. Soft/semi-moist short pet treats

high-carb, baked, soft moist, vegetable bit inclusion, and high meat pet

and semi-moist long pet treats with high meat inclusion (image 2) can

food. Furthermore, specialty treats (short and long), retort-stable wet

be produced in a Wenger Thermal Twin® Extrusion System coupled

food, engineered ingredients (up to 200% wet meat slurry content),

with a High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP) and a Back Pressure Valve

and textured vegetable/meat protein products can be manufactured

(BPV) such as the one shown in image 1. Short pet treats dimension

with this type of system.

ranges from 6 to 26 mm and are typically cut at the die. Long pet treats

New generation twin screw extruder design and thermal cooking

are those that are longer than 26 mm and need additional cooling before

allow for a wider ingredient utilization such as novel animal and

the product is cut with a guillotine or a rotary cutter. The downstream

vegetable protein sources. Not only is there a wider ingredient selection

gentle air-drying process aids in preserving product identity, especially

to work with, inclusion levels of ingredients such as fresh meat and

in high meat strips, sticks, and bar shape pet treats.

slurries are two-fold in new generation Wenger twin screw extruders when compared to single screw and traditional twin screw extrusion

Table 3. Percent of ingredient retention using a standard single

systems. Higher inclusion levels suggest all animal protein could be

screw vs a thermal twin screw process

supplied in the form of fresh meat instead of rendered meals, which

Vitamin A, %

Vitamin D3, %

Betacarotene, %

Selenium, %

Standard Single Screw Process





Thermal Twin Screw Process





translates to premium, clean label products. Additionally, product appearance (smoother surface), palatability, digestibility, and ingredient retention rates are enhanced when quality fresh ingredients are processed using a new generation twin screw extrusion system. A recent case study in pet food palatability showed higher consumption ratio and first choice preference with pet food manufactured with a new generation extrusion system compared to traditional extrusion platforms. Nutritional studies in Brazil, Europe,

Overall, the Thermal Twin® extrusion system simply outperforms

and the United States indicate that there is less protein degradation

the single screw and traditional twin screw systems. The flexibility

and lower fat rancidity levels when thermal energy is emphasized over

that has been engineered into these extrusion systems supplies pet

mechanical energy during the extrusion process. Protein digestibility

food manufacturers the precise tool to maximize their investment and

of up to 95% was observed for product produced on a Thermal Twin


optimize cost of operation. Moreover, it can help achieve premiumization

extrusion system using fresh meat compared to 80-85% protein

and clean label products by allowing a wider range and higher inclusion

digestibility of a product using rendered meat meals. Additionally,

level of fresh ingredient utilization.

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Sustainability in the supply chain Alexandra Wester, Pet Customer Technical Adviser at Trouw Nutrition GB, explains how they view sustainability. We live in an information age where pet parents have access to media that liberally supplies information and opinion about brands, pet foods and ingredients. Novel ingredients such as insect protein enter the market, partly driven by novelty, but mostly by sustainability. A growing awareness of the pressure we put on our planet’s resources increases the consumers’ interest in feeding their pet a sustainable, ethical and traceable food. As a supplier in the pet food industry it is our task to manufacture nutritionally sound and legally compliant materials, but also answer to customer demands. As part of Nutreco, Trouw Nutrition’s mission is to ‘Feed the future’ – feed our growing population in a sustainable way for generations to come.

Responsible sourcing Being SEDEX certified shows part of our commitment to continuous improvement of the ethical performance in our supply chain. We source our raw materials from suppliers who share our commitment to sustainability through the adoption of our Supplier Code of Conduct. As a minimum, suppliers must be compliant with relevant environmental laws and regulations, but are strongly encouraged to go further. Our suppliers must use environmental resources in an efficient and sustainable way and strive to minimise their impact on biodiversity, climate change and water scarcity. Alongside the environmental considerations, our raw materials must supply also considers the people sourcing it. Employees must at least receive their human rights and include equal opportunities, health and safety standards and working times in line with the country’s legislation. This way we ensure our blends are free from slavery, child-labour and mental and physical coercion.

Traceability Following the horsemeat scandal of five years ago and kangaroo burgers containing 100% beef in September of this year, traceability continues

to be high on the agenda of pet parents. We implement a bidirectional audit trail for our pet premixes, covering the materials coming in and the premixes going out. You can rely on us to govern that chain for you. Each of our raw materials and suppliers are separately risk assessed before we assign an audit and testing programme. This allows us to identify and minimise sustainability issues throughout our supply chain and guarantee material quality.

Sustainable partnerships We actively involve employees and stakeholders in our mission to feed the future. We welcome open dialogue with our suppliers and raise the standard within the industry by working towards a culture of continuous improvement. Locally, we have control programmes in place to protect the surrounding environment and are COMAH accredited. In consultation with customer we actively seek to concentrate pet premixes as part of a project to reduce volume and transport. On site employees are encouraged to recycle, reuse glass milk bottles and cycle to work.

Nuterra® programme Raw material sourcing forms and sustainable partnerships form part of the pillars of our Nuterra® programme, which are aligned with the international goals of the United Nations. We take pride in driving a more sustainable industry and in fact, our mother company Nutreco was named one of ten finalists for the UK Sustainability Leaders Awards 2019. So you know that our supply of superfoods, plant-based proteins and feed additives raises the sustainability standard in the industry. That way, we can fulfil our mission of feeding the future.

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BALANCE IMMUNITY USING NUTRITION By Pauline Rovers-Paap, Orffa Additives

The immune system has evolved during millions and millions of years

It might become clear that the immune system is not always

as an extremely potent and efficient defence mechanism directed

working well enough. Immune suppression by, for example, stress,

towards a single goal; to keep us healthy. The primary function

ageing or medication can make animals more susceptible to infectious

of the immune system is to protect the body against infections by

diseases or other immune related problems. Imbalances can result in

pathogenic viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. It also plays a

allergic reactions, (chronic) inflammations or auto-immune diseases.

key role in removing dead body cells and repairing damage caused

Optimisation of the immune response can be beneficial in the case

by environmental factors like strong light, irradiation and toxins.

of many health issues.

Occasionally, the immune system may over-react or be brought out of balance. Such imbalances can result in immune disorders like arthritis, allergies or other health conditions. The immune system can be suppressed, resulting in reduced overall resistance to infections. Therefore a properly functioning immune system is essential for good health in pets. For many years, researchers have tried to find substances which induce a controllable procedure that alerts the innate immune defences to respond quickly and effectively to infections without causing inflammation or the negative side effects associated with an infectious disease. An activated immune system is extremely effective, enhancing resistance to infections by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. A natural carbohydrate structure from bakery yeast, the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan, is recognised by immune cells as a non-self or foreign molecule and can initiate a particular immune response.

The immune system Three major principles of immunity are common to all living creatures; recognition, processing and elimination of threats. The immune system needs to recognise the invading danger (by distinguishing between self and non-self), process this information and eliminate the threat. All animals should stay healthy by employing these ‘simple’ principles. An organism that can cause disease is called a pathogen. The virulence of a pathogen varies greatly and depends on their ability

What is a beta-1,3/1,6-glucan?

to evade the body defences. The body’s defences includes physical

A glucan is a carbohydrate polymer containing glucose as the only

barriers (e.g. skin, intestinal wall, mucous) that exclude invaders,

building block. The glucose molecules can be linked together via a so-

innate immunity (a-specific) that provides rapid initial protection

called alpha- or beta-linkages; the two main types of glucan molecules.

and adaptive (specific) immunity that provides prolonged effective

Figure 1 shows a glucose molecule with a beta-orientated binding.

immunity. A properly functioning immune system can distinguish

The numbers refer to the location where one glucose molecule can be

between pathogens and their own healthy tissue.

linked to the next glucose molecule. This combination between type

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 19

of linkage (alpha- or beta linkages) and the location of the linkages

(attached to the end points of the side branches in the intact cell wall)

(the number) provide the exact structure of the complete glucan

without damaging the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan molecule.

chain. Well known examples of glucans are starch and cellulose.

It is clear that not all glucans can enhance the immune system

The glucose molecules of starch and cellulose are linked together in

(like cellulose and starch). The specific structure (length of the chains

so-called alpha- and beta-1,4-linkages, respectively. It is obvious that

and branching frequency) of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans determines if the

cellulose (cell walls of e.g. grass) and starch do not have a particular

molecule can be recognised by the immune cells and stimulate a

effect in the immune system.


How can beta-1,3/1,6-glucans be recognised? Figure 1: Glucose molecule, showing the carbon numbering notation and beta-orientated binding.

White blood cells (e.g. macrophages, dendritic cells) are immune cells in the front-line of the defences of the body. The white blood cells have receptors on their surface, these receptors can recognise invading pathogens (e.g. bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites) but also beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. A highly specific ‘key-in-lock’ type of interaction between the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan and the receptors on the cell surface triggers the immune cell to release anti-microbial substances and alarm signals (or cytokines) into the bloodstream. To match perfectly into the receptors of white blood cells the specific structure of the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan (length of the chain and branching frequency) is for this reason, very important. The majority of the immune cells (approximately 75%) are found in the body surfaces, particularly in gut endothelia, the largest immunological organ in the body. The activated immune cells in the gut

Yeast cell walls from the commonly used strain Saccharomyces

endothelia release the alarm signals or cytokines into the bloodstream.

cerevisiae contain beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. Figure 2 shows the molecular

This will not only stimulate the a-specific immune system but also the

structure of a beta-1,3/1,6-glucan. The main chain or backbone of the

immune status of the whole body (specific immune response) will be

molecule contains glucose molecules linked together via a beta-1,3-

activated by orally ingested beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. This leads to an

linkage. The backbone of the molecule also has side ‘branches’ of

enhanced phagocytosis by macrophages, activation of the production

glucose molecules via beta-1,6-binding. Years of research indicate

of specific immunoglobulins and the counteraction of harmful side

that the length of the backbone, the branching frequency and length

effects of the immune system. Activation of immune cells in the gut

of the branches determine the efficacy of stimulating the immune

by beta-1,3/1,6-glucans do not only have a positive influence on gut


health, scientific evidence supports that it can also reduce immune

Not every yeast cell wall product has the ability to influence

disorders in the rest of the body.

the immune system. The major challenge is to remove the other

Does an activated immune cell always provide the same immune

components of the yeast cell wall, such as manno-proteins and lipids

responses? No, immune cells are equipped with several surface

Figure 2: structure of the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan molecule. A main chain of beta-1,3-linked glucose molecules, with side branches of glucose molecules via a beta-1 ,6-binding.

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Pet Food Supplement 2020


Best documented beta-1,3/1,6-glucan

Bala natura nce the l de systemfense

Sam Phelps Technical Commercial Manager +44 7761 758284

Engineering your feed solutions - Follow us on

receptors that discriminate between different substances. Beta-

vitro work shows that it is very important to have the correct type

1,3/1,6-glucans stimulate anti-microbial activity, cellular defence and

and structure of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan. Commonly used yeasts,

an anti-inflammatory response. Bacteria and other pathogens bind

yeast cultures or complete yeast cell wall products do not have this

to other receptors on the same immune cells and stimulate other

particular ability to stimulate immune response. MacroGard is the most

immune responses; bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for example

researched beta-1,3/1,6-glucan. The product has been investigated

interact with another receptor on the macrophages which induce

intensively and has proven to be very efficient in both in vitro trials

inflammation and fever.

and animal trials in pets, horses, livestock and aquatic species.

MacroGard, the most researched betaglucan The product MacroGard (produced by Biorigin and distributed in major European markets by Orffa Additives) is the most well known beta1,3/1,6-glucan product for animal nutrition. There is a large scientific dossier available that shows the beneficial effects of MacroGard.

Speciality Ingredients for Pet Foods

Both in vitro trials and in vivo research with several animal species has shown the beneficial effects on immune parameters and animal health. In vitro trials show that the source and type of beta-glucan is extremely important for efficacy. Several Universities worldwide, including the University of Ghent, carried out extensive in vitro research where different sources and types of betaglucans were evaluated for their capacity to modulate several different immune cells. Research showed the high efficacy of MacroGard on immune cells. In vivo research by several universities and research institutes show that MacroGard has beneficial effects on the health status of animals during pathogenic pressure as well as during (chronic) inflammatory situations. For example, in pet animals it is shown that dietary MacroGard reduces the clinical signs of arthritic disorders and atopic dermatitis. It supports the natural defences and protection in young puppies. Latest research has shown beneficial effects of MacroGard on the metabolism and appetite control in obese dogs with insulin resistance.

Conclusion Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans have several beneficial properties and many

Inovitec Ltd Unit 4, Castle Farm Cholmondeley Malpas SY14 8AQ

useful applications. Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans, found in the cell wall of yeast, are known for their ability to optimise immune response. In


T:+44 (0)1829 730407

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 21

Developing Sustainable Solutions through Research and Development By Victoria Thornber, Companion Animal Manager, Devenish Prior to the Covid-19 pandemic, consumers had increasingly been seeking out sustainable products in many food categories including pet food. For many consumers, their experiences during the pandemic have increased their awareness of the impact of human behaviour and consumption on the environment. Consequently, as we emerge out of the lockdown phases, the demand for a sustainable supply chain and products will grow. At Devenish, we recognise that sustainability is of paramount importance to our business, our industry and mankind as it is calculated we must produce more food in the next 30 years than we have done in the past 10,000 to satisfy global demand. It is accepted that this food must be produced in a sustainable manner to protect the planet and resources for future generations.

Why the Focus on Sustainability? Every year, Devenish invests significantly in research and development. Our R&D strategy is underpinned by delivering improvements in environmental, animal and human health. Over the last decade, there has been increasing focus on sustainable solutions to help reduce carbon emissions from farming. In turn, this helps mitigate the of impact of food production for both animals and humans alike. In 2019, Devenish commenced a 4-year project in partnership with Wageningen University Research, University College Dublin, University of Gloucester, Bord Bia and EUFIC, assessing the impact of different grazing swards on soil, plant, animal, human and environmental health and maximising value throughout the supply chain. This research is taking place on our livestock research farm in Co. Meath in Ireland and is designated as one of Wageningen’s international Lighthouse farms. A lighthouse farm is defined as an existing, commercially viable farm that is “already in the year 2050” in terms of providing sustainably produced food and ecosystem services. Devenish completed a world first on this farm, undertaking a whole farm-above-ground Lidar technology scan, assessing the farms capability to sequester carbon. Devenish has since developed a carbon balance sheet with the primary objective being to create carbon neutral beef and lamb production by 2025. Animal proteins are a major component pet food. Consequently, if we can reduce the carbon effect of meat production, we can in turn reduce the environmental impact of pet food.

Further Research Areas There are many ways in which a business can improve their sustainability credentials. In the pet food industry, production efficiencies to reduce energy consumption, water and air quality and treatment and pet food packaging are often considered. With the ongoing demand from consumers for high quality pet food whose ingredients may compete with human food ingredient supply chains and ancestral diets with high animal protein inclusions, it is important to monitor the pet food formulations themselves for their sustainability. When reviewing formulations, consideration should be given to sustainable ingredient options Consider also nutrient supply - are

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

nutrients being over supplied in the formulation and hence wasted and are there ingredients that can be included to improve nutrient utilization and have a positive impact on the pet?

Sustainable Ingredients The benefits of dietary omega 3 fatty acids for both humans and companion animals are well established. These essential fatty acids are known to benefit brain function, heart and eye health as well as having anti-inflammatory properties. The three main omega-3 essential fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6). Whilst ALA can be converted to EPA and DHA, the conversion is so poor that NRC publish levels for EPA and DHA for both cats and dogs. EPA and DHA Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) are primarily found in marine sources such as oily fish. Unfortunately, over recent years, as a result of dietary changes in farmed fish, the level of omega-3 fatty acids in these fish have started to decline. To offer alternative effective sources of omega-3 PUFA’s in the diet, Devenish alongside the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) embarked on a detailed scientific study to measure the impacts on human health of consuming chicken meat naturally enriched with omega-3 PUFA (via the chicken’s feed). This resulted in the launch of the world’s first poultry meat products with on pack claims of improved heart, brain and vision health. Key to this research was the use of a sustainable source of omega-3 DHA from algae rather than fish. Devenish can now provide a sustainable source of omega-3 PUFA’s from algae that is concentrated and highly bioavailable for use in many products including pet food.

Nutrient Efficiency To preserve the resources we have and minimise waste, the importance of precision nutrition is key to improvements in sustainability whether that be for food or companion animal diets. With this in mind, Devenish evaluates the use of ingredients that improve animal performance through improved health. Recent research has focused on developing the gut microbiome and improving gut health thereby improving nutrient utilisation, health and wellbeing and reducing inputs. Devenish studies, using specific blends of encapsulated short and medium chained fatty acids, have demonstrated a positive impact on the gut microbiome in the animal through favouring the development of lactic flora and suppression of enteropathogenic bacteria. The action of the encapsulated fats throughout the digestive tract and in the microbiota improved nutrient utilisation and animal health, reduced waste and improved efficiency. In pets this blend of fats (UltraGuard- P) supports a healthy microbiome and reduces faecal output and odour. As the focus on sustainability intensifies, our research and focus will continue to look at developing management practices, ingredients and formulations for the future that meet the nutritional requirements of our pets while meeting sustainable environmental objectives If your business is looking to increase its sustainability credentials, please contact the Devenish team to find out how our multi-species R&D programme can help you.

SUSTAINABLE NUTRITION SOLUTIONS At Devenish, we are committed to delivering sustainable nutrition solutions to add value to your business

For more information, contact: T: +44 (0)2890 755566

The paraprobiotic concept By Francesca Susca, DVM, PhD, Lallemand Animal Nutrition

Pet humanization – anthropomorphism – is a strong trend within the pet industry. As pets live longer and are considered as family members, more and more pet owners want to provide their pets with human-like products and experiences. This has seen many pet product retailers and manufacturers expanding their shelves and drawing inspiration from human lifestyle to provide pet owners with products that make them feel even more connected to their companion. Increasingly, consumers and brand owners are looking for natural and functional ingredients, with a clear mode of action. From this, come many demands and challenges for manufacturers such as viability through processing, shelf life and labelling claims. Among the functional foods available to consumers, probiotics are

The benefits of paraprobiotics

well recognized for their benefits on gut health, immunity, and overall

Several reviews of research studies on inactivated probiotics have

wellbeing whilst boasting a sound scientific foundation. However, today

shown beneficial responses in digestive care, immune modulation as

there is growing evidence suggesting that supplementation of certain

well as a potential role in allergy management, with their non-invasive

inactivated probiotics may also confer health benefits: these have been

nature being ideal for immunocompromised or vulnerable animals.

called paraprobiotics (Taverniti & Guglielmetti, 2011).

Digestive health potential Paraprobiotics, what are they?

The ability of paraprobiotics to adhere to different epithelial cell lines

The term ‘paraprobiotic’ was coined by Taverniti & Guglielmetti in 2011

has been proven in vitro and is dependent on the species and the

to define inactivated probiotics as ‘non-viable microbial cells (intact or

strain (Table 1). Strains capable of adhering to the surface of host

broken) or crude cell extracts (i.e. with complex chemical composition),

epithelial cells offer a competitive advantage by reducing the amount

which, when administered (orally or topically) in adequate amounts,

of attachment sites available for potential pathogens. This mechanism

confer a benefit on the human or animal consumer’.

is defined as competitive exclusion.

From probiotics to paraprobiotics

Table 1: Adhesion capacity of different paraprobiotic strains of

Microbial cell inactivation may be achieved in many different ways.

the Lactobacilli species

Live probiotic cells can be disrupted either physically or chemically, using for example heat treatment, UV light deactivation, enzymatic or mechanical disruption, pressure, lyophilisation, or acid deactivation. The optimal deactivation method is strain specific and is often heat treatment as it seems most effective and has the least damaging effect on the structure of the cells components, which in turn is linked to their effects within the host. Lallemand, a global leader in microbial strain selection, characterisation and production, has an inactivation method, tyndallization, adapted for each of its paraprobiotic strains.

Strain L. acidophilus HA-122

Colon cell line (HT29 & Caco2)

Small intestine cell line (FHs74)



L. casei HA-108



L. plantarum HA-119



Legend: ++++ Strong adhesion (X≥40M); +++ Good adhesion (10M≤X<40M); ++ Average adhesion (0,1M≤X<10M) (M=106CFU). (in vitro studies, Lallemand internal data)

Tyndallisation, a specific gentle heat treatment process, preserves the

Competitive exclusion potential of paraprobiotics is linked to

molecular membrane and cell structure of the bacteria whilst inhibiting

the composition of the cell surface proteins and glycoproteins. For

their capacity to reproduce. Such a strain specific inactivation process

example, the S layer-proteins (Slp) present in several genus and

ensures the production of microbiologically non-viable, yet functionally

species of bacteria is determinant of adhesion capacity. In humans,

active microbial cells, which are shelf stable and still able to positively

the competition for adhesion sites at gastrointestinal level has been

influence human and animal health.

described between heat-treated Lactobacilli and certain common

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

(Piqué et al., 2019). In a Salmonella infected mouse model, the

Three good reasons for adding paraprobiotics into pet food

combination of tyndallised lactic acid bacteria has shown to be

With increasing scientific support, paraprobiotics represent a new

able to reduce Salmonella invasion and the induced inflammation

generation of ingredients for innovative pet food formulation. They

(Chen et al., 2013). Furthermore heat-treated L. plantarum has been

combine benefits in digestive care and immune support, with regulatory

demonstrated to protect against Salmonella infection in mice and to

and technological advantages:

gastrointestinal pathogens (i.e.: E. coli, Campylobacter, H. pylori)

reduce the translocation of this pathogen into different organs, such as spleen or liver, mainly by inhibiting pathogen adhesion and invasion (Ishikawa et al., 2010). Some strains of heat-treated L. acidophilus have also shown to be involved in the maintenance of the gut barrier integrity and prevention of chronic diarrhoea (Pique et al. 2019; De Almada et al. 2016).

Immune support and potential role in allergies After inactivation of bacteria, tyndallised cells can release bacterial components with key immunomodulating effects. Specific bacterial components can be recognised by epithelial cells, which help modulate the immune response. Exopolysaccharides (EPS), surface carbohydrate polymers,

1. Functional: • Adhesion capacity and potential competition with undesirable bacteria • Immunomodulatory properties • Release of active molecules able to stimulate gut epithelial cells • No risk of translocation and/or interference with gut microbiota (inactivated cells) 2. Technological: • Heat-stable ingredients, compatible with many technological processes • Easy to standardise, transport and store at room temperature

are present at the surface of most bacteria. They act as a protective

• Stable throughout the shelf-life of the finished product

surface layer but they also interact with the surrounding environment.

• Can be incorporated in various pet food forms; dry or wet

Several in vivo and in vitro studies report immunomodulating effects

food, food supplements or snacks and treats, even with harsh

of EPS from strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus suggesting

production processes.

they are involved in the cross-talk between the bacteria and host immune system, potentially playing a role in intestinal homeostasis via interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. In recent years, the beneficial effects of probiotics on immunemediated diseases, such as allergies and asthma, have been documented and explained by the inhibition of the production of IgE (Di Giacinto et al. 2005). Furthermore, many studies have speculated that inactivated probiotics are able to turn a Th2 response into a Th1 or Th0/ Treg response (Treg cells prevent immune responses). This indicates

3. Regulatory: • Classified as feed materials In conclusion, tyndallised microbes are compliant in all species of animal within Europe, North America and many other countries, meaning they can be easily added into manufacturing processes for pet food chains. Due to their many potential benefits within digestive care, immunity and overall well-being, their use within manufactured feed is promising; especially when intestinal microbiota equilibrium is altered in times of stress.

a potential role for paraprobiotics in allergy management (Figure 1). In particular, Slp A from L. acidophilus has been associated with the

References available upon request.

ability of binding to dendritic cells to induce an immunoregulatory Treg

Francesca Susca, DVM, PhD

response and to promote mucosal homeostasis (Pique et al., 2019)

Pet Development Manager, Lallemand Animal Nutrition

Figure 1: The TH1-TH2 immune balance essential to homeostasis and role of L. acidophilus surface cell proteins.

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Overcoming palatability issues in pet medication By Robert Naylor, Inroads International Ltd

This look will be familiar to any cat owner. It’s the one that says: ‘There is no way you are getting me to swallow that tablet’!

Over £4.8 billion was spent on veterinary and other services in the UK in 2019. For cats, the most common medical conditions often demand the use of medication in either tablet or liquid form. However they are well known for their lack of compliance in the administration of medication.

Whilst a good number of owners try to trick their pet with tablets buried in tasty snacks and goodies, can the pet food industry do more to help? After all, the ease of administering medication is a major aspect of owner compliance and a quick return to full health for the animal.

Recent advances ‘Pill pocket’ treats and ‘pet putty’ have been huge steps forward to help struggling pet owners to administer tablets easily, and their success is based on choosing the appropriate flavour palatant to work with the active ingredient; this is one of the core skills provided by Inroads International. Natural flavours can ‘sweeten the pill’, but the combination of sweet and savoury is particularly desirable for cats and dogs

Table 1: Most common general problems in cats Dental




Skin problems


Digestive problems


Parasitic infestation


O’Neill DG, Church DB, McGreevy PD, Thomson PC, Brodbelt DC. Prevalence of disorders recorded in cats attending primary-care veterinary practices in England. The Veterinary Journal, 2014.

sector too, especially as a flavour base for medication. The application of synthetic meat flavours into pet food, treats, wormers and medication is now commonplace and a leading flavour request to Inroads from the pet industry.

In summary Palatability is determined by smell, taste and feel in the mouth. A synergistic approach is critical to future success and animal acceptance.

Meat and yeast-based flavourings added to the formulation

Our knowledge of the flavour profiles that are most successful in all

during the manufacturing process are the most popular in achieving a

species diets, together with technologies that can mask the profile of

willingness to ingest. However, the trend in plant-based meat options

unpalatable ingredients, is a great first step to aid your development

from the human food sector is encouraging a rising demand in the pet

in this area.

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Pet Food Supplement 2020

Azelis Animal Nutrition Adds Natural Plant Based Roquette Range of Products to its Portfolio UFAS-accredited supplier Azelis Animal Nutrition has added the

glucose syrups all help to create a softer texture by controlling water

Roquette range of natural, plant-based products to its portfolio of


responsibly sourced ingredients for Petfood, Premix, Aquafeed & Animal Feed manufacturers based in the UK and Ireland.

The soluble and fermentable fibres available come from pea, potato, maize and wheat. These have a beneficial prebiotic effect in the gut, whereas non fermentable fibre sources are helpful for calorie

The Azelis portfolio now includes solutions to meet the growing demand for natural, gluten free and grain free alternatives for Petfood. Nutritional ingredients include highly digestible, concentrated proteins and alternative fibre sources for wet and dry petfood made from

reduction and stool quality. Many of the Roquette ingredients are ideal for nutritious pet treats – with innovative solutions available for soft/hard textures, shiny coatings, soft-centres, sugar-free and reduced calorie presentations.

hydrolysed wheat gluten, maize gluten, peas and potato. High protein

Azelis Animal Nutrition is also able to supply natural antioxidants

alternatives to fishmeal can also be supplied, as well as functional

and vitamins for petfoods and Aquafeed. These products are derived

ingredients to improve the texture of extruded feed.

from non-GMO vegetable oil and provide an excellent replacement for

The range also includes efficient energy sources such as starches,

synthetic or other tocopherol-based antioxidants.

maltodextrins, dextrose, sorbitol and glucose syrup. Roquette starches

We can also offer laboratory testing of finished products and advice

are highly digestible when cooked, have a superb effect on kibble

on the best antioxidant for the ingredients and requirements of the feed

density and texture, and reduce potential anti-nutritional compounds

product. The natural vitamin E range offers a highly bioavailable natural

and mycotoxin risks. In wet food, precooked and cook up starches help

source of vitamin E in different concentrations and powders/liquids.

enhance the texture and appearance of gravy. Grain-free starch options and ingredients for hypo-allergenic diets can also be supplied. In addition, the company’s sorbitol, polyol, glycerol blends and

Interested nutritionists working for premix houses, petfood companies and animal feed/aquafeed manufacturers should contact Azelis Animal Nutrition on 01928 793000 for further information.

Natural and nutritional solutions for health and vitality The Azelis pet food portfolio includes core ingredients and an increasing natural range of solutions such as: protein and ďŹ ber enrichment, grain free products, weight management, antioxidants, and more. Azelis UK T: +44 1928 793 000 E:


Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 27

Economic replacement of synthetic antioxidants in pet foods By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen, Barentz Animal Nutrition The addition of antioxidants in feed can prevent, or delay, lipid oxidation

given to synergy between naturals and “more acceptable” synthetics used

thus prolonging shelf life, improving palatability and assuring nutritional

successfully in food systems with proven long-standing safety, such as

composition. However, the acceptance of certain synthetic antioxidants,

infant nutrition. Ascorbates (Vitamin C and its derivatives), gallates and

currently widely used in pet foods, is becoming more restricted due to

chelates work well with natural antioxidants and, with a lower cost base,

potential health effects. The good news is, natural antioxidants can

are cost-effective. The drivers are how these compounds are used, work

provide cost effective options.

together and where in the pet food process they are used.

Cost-effective options in fats Antioxidants used in pet foods, such as BHA and BHT, are typically fatsoluble. Non-oil-soluble polar antioxidants work efficiently in fat systems as coating fats for kibbles, due to the ‘polar-paradox’.

Cost-effective options in meal Studies based on factory produced turkey meal, high in polyunsaturated fats, show the efficacy of such an approach whilst still avoiding the use of both BHA and BHT. The turkey meal was produced using proprietary antioxidants containing BHA and BHT, naturals and the Vitablend product PET-safe (excluding BHA and BHT). Antioxidant capacity was measured by the induction point (hrs) to oxidation under accelerated conditions

Forces of change A concern for naturalness in human foods has extended to a greater

using the Mikrolab Oxipres. Relative performance is shown compared to the standard control of no antioxidant.

by a slow, but ever increasing rate at which synthetic antioxidants are being re-evaluated for safety in feed. This re-evaluation has extended to the antioxidants BHA (Butylated hydroxyanisole) and BHT (Butylated hydroxytoluene). Most current concerns are expressed over BHA and, in particular, its re-authorisation for use in cat foods. In changing from synthetics such as BHA and BHT to only naturals we might see that naturalness comes at a price, both in cost and the stability of the pet food.


awareness about additives in pet foods. This has been accompanied        

 

   

  

  


Natural options Natural mixed tocopherols (mixed Homologues of Vitamin E) and Vitamin

Figure 1: Turkey meal oxidative stability with antioxidant additives

E itself, are the only class listed as natural antioxidants for feed. The

compared to control.

definition of naturalness in feed has no clear definition and remains subject to interpretation. As such compounds for feed i.e. flavours and

The study showed that PET-safe, without BHA and BHT, extends

botanical extracts offering antioxidant capacity are utilised, for example

the shelf life of the turkey meal by a factor of 25 compared to a control

Rosemary extracts.

with no antioxidant addition. Matching the performance of standard combinations of BHA and BHT is achieved and without the on-cost often

Understanding options

seen using natural antioxidants.

An alternative to the use of synthetic antioxidants

Vitablend, part of Barentz, places emphasis on formulation and

may be considering only natural options with

application work to help manufacturers decide on the most appropriate

additional cost and a less effective response. This

antioxidant for protection to substantiate any change. Our advice for

need not be so. Closer consideration should be

selecting the right antioxidant would be to consider where in the process it is to be employed and whether to use natural or semi-natural options in replacing synthetic antioxidants.

Extracts offering antioxidant capacity, from plants such as Rosemary, may utilised in pet food

Page 28

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Further information:

Solea removes metal contaminants from soya powder residue with a magnet Solea Belgium N.V., a Dupont company, recently introduced a new type of magnetic separator in their powder line; the Easy cleanflow magnet from Goudsmit Magnetics of Waalre, Netherlands. This magnet checks soya powder for metal contaminants, such as stainless steel wear particles. The metal particles get into the product as a result of friction at the dryer drum and are absolutely undesirable. Solea’s design requirements for the magnetic separator were that no operator would be required and that cleaning of the unit could be performed safely and efficiently. The unit also had to be dust-tight, food-proof and fitted with food-safe EC1935 seals. The magnetic separator placed under the vibrating sieve meets all the requirements and removes minuscule metal particles and weakly magnetic stainless steel particles as small as 30 μm from powders. Stainless steel particles Solae is a food producer and, among other things, they process a residue of soya powder into an ingredient for the animal feed and pet food industries. The residue contains minuscule metal particles approximately 30 μm in size and stainless steel wear particles, which the Easy cleanflow magnet removes. Grade 316 stainless steel, in particular, is difficult to extract. This magnet is suitable for large production flows, and its distinguishing characteristic is the very high magnetic flux density of over 12,000 gauss at the contact surface of the bars. The presence of a deflector ensures that the product comes into direct contact with the bars, and the magnet captures no less than 60% of the difficult-to-filter grade 316 stainless steel

Pictures show the Easy cleanflow magnet which has been installed at

particles. The magnet has a deep magnetic field and

Solae in Belgium and checks a residue of soya powder for metal contaminants.

is dust-tight to an overpressure of 0.5 bar. It has a simple electric/pneumatic control for user-friendly cleaning. Magnetic separators Found in most food processing companies,

For more information please contact:

magnetic separators are important filters for very fine metal separation.

Hélène Freriks – Sales Manager

They even capture metal particles that a metal detector would miss.

Magnetic separators, such as the Easy cleanflow magnet, ensure

Goudsmit Magnetic Systems BV

optimum quality of the end product. They also prevent product recalls

Waalre - The Netherlands

and costly damage claims, as well as – in some cases – machine

Tel.: +31 (0)40-2213283


Pet Food Supplement 2020

Page 29


The PFMA Welcomes New Chairman… At its AGM on 11 June, the Pet Food Manufacturers’

Being able to share our work and experiences of the UK raw pet food

Association (PFMA) welcomed in its new

sector with our colleagues in Europe, is a fantastic new opportunity. Tony

Chairman, Greg Van Praagh, Managing Director

will be a tough act to follow but we have a strong Chair team and we will

of Benyfit Natural, part of RPFC UK producing

continue to work together.”

commercial raw pet food for dogs. Greg has taken over from Tony Parkinson,

… and Celebrates its 50th Birthday

Managing Director of Town & Country Pet Foods.

The PFMA was founded in 1970 by four pioneering pet food companies

Tony will continue to play a role as PFMA Past Chairman and Nicola

who saw the need for a single body to act as an industry voice, provide

Fox, Spectrum Brands General Manager Pet UK & Ireland, joins the

guidance to smaller companies and to join important discussions on

team as PFMA Vice Chair.

legislation and animal welfare.

PFMA continues to play a strong role in FEDIAF, the European

Fast forward fifty years and the world is a very different place,

Pet Food Federation. In addition to his role as PFMA Chairman, Greg

however PFMA’s guiding principal to ‘place pets at the heart of everything

Van Praagh will also take a seat on the FEDIAF Executive Committee.

they do’ is as relevant today as it was then.

FEDIAF represents national pet food associations from 18 European countries. Nicole Paley of PFMA continues her role as Co-Chair of the FEDIAF Communications Working Group.

PFMA’s member companies feed over 90% of the UK pet population across almost half of UK households. Nicole Paley, PFMA’s Deputy Chief Executive commented: “The

On his new appointments Mr Van Praagh said “I have represented

plans for celebrating our 50th birthday this year were quite different but

the commercial raw pet food sector within PFMA membership at the

given the challenges we have faced I have never been prouder of the

Executive Committee for a number of years now. I am excited and

Association and our members. Throughout turbulent times we have

honoured to take up this role shaping the way forward for the industry.

continued to supply the nation’s pets with their favourite foods.”

MiAlgae Secures £1 Million to Drive Commercialisation and Scale Up Edinburgh-based biotech startup MiAlgae has received an investment of £1 million to focus on the commercialisation of its revolutionary microalgae product, targeting the rapidly growing global aquaculture and pet food industries. The biotech business uses co-products from the whisky distillation process to produce microalgae, which is high in omega 3 and other nutrients. The algae can be used to sustainably feed fish and create animal food. MiAlgae estimates that one tonne of its algae saves up to 30 tonnes of wild fish. MiAlgae will use the investment to double the size of its business premises, commission a demonstrator plant in East Lothian and make five new appointments in the next 12 months. The investment comes from previous investors in MiAlgae – Equity Gap, Scottish Investment Bank and Old College Capital, alongside Hillhouse Group, a new investor in the business. Andrew Vernon of Hillhouse Group said: “MiAlgae has essentially taken a by-product from one industry and turned it into a solution for another industry. Through the application of biotechnology, MiAlgae is finding solutions to feed the world’s population, and with the global aquaculture industry set to double in size in the next ten years, this is a very promising business indeed.” According to Fraser Lusty, Investment Director at Equity Gap: “Since our last investment in MiAlgae 18 months ago, the business has achieved a great deal, designing and building its pilot plant, making its first sales to a premium dog food company, and beginning production with its first large scale tank. “The business now turns its focus to commercialisation and scaling up. The global pet food market is worth $100 billion and growing at around 5%. MiAlgae plans to supply customers in both the pet food market and the aquacultural industry in the next 12 months. This is an exciting business, and one to watch over the next couple of years.” MiAlgae was founded by Douglas Martin in 2016 while studying Biotechnology at the University of Edinburgh. He is supported by Edinburgh Innovations, the University’s commercialisation service, which also manages Old College Capital, the University’s venture fund. Douglas said: “I am really pleased that with this investment we can turn our attention to growing the business. We plan to target the pet food and aquaculture industries with our sustainable, ocean-friendly, algae-derived omega 3. “I am proud that we operate as part of the circular economy where, by using a low value co-product from the whisky industry, we are creating a valuable supply of nutrients for the animal and fish food industries, thereby using the planet’s resources more efficiently. There is no doubt we will see a rapidly growing market for our product.” The global aquaculture market is valued at $70 billion and set to increase by 100% by 2030.

Page 30

Pet Food Supplement 2020

Digital Moisture Sensors for Animal Feed

Game Engineering is a designer, manufacturer and installer of process systems for the animal feeds, grain and food industries. We also modify existing systems to provide greater performance and handle servicing and maintenance programmes. GAME Engineering Ltd Camp Road Witham St Hughs Business Park Witham St Hughs, Lincoln LN6 9TW Telephone: +44 (0)1522 868 021 Email: www.

game 11.indd 1

Hydro-Mix HT High Temperature

Hydro-Mix XT

Installing a Hydronix digital moisture sensor into your process is a simple and cost effective way to accurately control your dryer DQG WR LPSURYH WKH TXDOLW\ RI \RXU ¿QDO SURGXFW

• • • • • •

Each sensor is a single unit incorporating all functionality Digital technology with precise linear output Install in silos, conveyors or the Hydronix Ducting System Wide moisture measurement range Not affected by dust or colour Temperature stable

12/12/2017 16:34:14 Feed Compounder quarter page vertical 86 x 124.indd 1

23/12/2019 12:43:22



Insect protein


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2020 Pet Food Supplement

Page 31

Health from the inside out with innovative yeast strain – Kluyveromyces fragilis

Healthy young pets require tasty as well as highly digestible feed ingredients for their vitality.

By Oliver Caiger-Smith, Biochem

Development of a healthy adult pet is often grounded in the development

While specialized hydrolysed yeast products can help to improve

of vital functions such as the digestive and immune systems early on.

the development of gut enterocytes, integrity of the gut is also the

This can be challenging as young mammals must transition from highly

responsibility of the tight junctions. The trace mineral zinc is a critical

digestible liquid milk, onto more complex solid feed which requires

element required for intact tight junctions. Creating gut balance requires

greater digestive capacity. Meanwhile the new nutritional substrates

both the cells and their adjoining junctions to both retain their integrity.

entering the gut are responsible for a change in the relative populations

Therefore, one should explore multiple avenues to create nutritional

of different microbial species that make up the gut microbiome. At the

concepts rather than simply focusing on a single additive. Moreover,

same time the immune system begins to develop.

correct trace mineral nutrition is important for an adequate hemoglobin

The development of the young animal at this stage is dependent on several factors, including the presence of immune-stimulating factors and

level in the first weeks of life, as well as a healthy development of the skeletal system, hair, skin and nails.

meeting the needs for proper development of body tissues. The epithelial

E.C.O.Trace glycine chelates offer higher bioavailable forms of

tissues are of highest relevance for barrier and immune function, such

zinc, copper, manganese and iron compared to inorganic sources.

as the gut wall or outer skin. This means of course providing the right

As well as being more available, E.C.O.Trace improves the stability

ingredients and nutrients in a palatable and highly-bioavailable form, but

of vitamin and vitamin-like substances in premix, giving higher quality

also supporting nutrient absorbability via high gut functionality.

food in the bag and on the label to create a visible point of difference.

Palatability and hence feed acceptance can be enhanced by

Health and vitality of our pets comes from the inside out, so it is

several means including the addition of yeast. TechnoYeast is a

important to look at healthy older pets being the healthy young pets

hydrolysed Kluyveromyces fragilis strain of yeast with a specific umami

of previous years.

flavor and contains nucleotides, which also help to intensify the positive


taste response via working synergistically at the taste receptor. This results in better tasting food, better feed intake and in turn better gut building material for the proliferation of rapidly growing tissues, or supporting tissues which are frequently turning over, like the gut. Another important active component of TechnoYeast are the β-1.3-1.6glucans from the yeast cell wall, which are known to have stimulating effects on the unspecific immune system by activating macrophages and increasing the production of cytokines, which are the initiator of the immune response. Thus, TechnoYeast can reinforce the natural defence against bacteria, viruses and parasites. High levels of essential amino acids, as well as non-essential but helpful amino acids, like natural glutamic acid, are found in TechnoYeast in a highly available form, as the protein is “predigested” due to a gentle

 

development. Nucleotides, which make up DNA, also provide more

     


hydrolysis process. This high digestibility prevents undigested protein

Figure 1: Effect of zinc source on zinc concentration of skin,

from entering the hind gut where it may cause digestive disturbance.

*significant difference P <0.05 (Hildebrand and Männer, 2013)

Page 32

Pet Food Supplement 2020

With you all the way!












Oliver Caiger-Smith Technical Sales Manager Mobile: +447722 019727 E-mail:

Feed Safety for Food Safety®

What are you doing differently to stay ahead?

In the fast-changing world of FMCG, if you’re not innovating, you’re standing still… and that’s when your competitors can overtake you. Trouw Nutrition leads the world in developing the kind of product innovations that differentiate our partners’ brands, keeping them way ahead of the rest of the marketplace. Isn’t it time you gave your NPD the ‘Trouw innovation’ difference?

Contact Katarzyna Świrkowicz or Roderick Prince on: +44 (0)1335 341121






Articles inside

The Future for Extruder Control article cover image

The Future for Extruder Control

page 17
Health from the Inside Out article cover image

Health from the Inside Out

pages 34-36
Balance Immunity Using Nutrition article cover image

Balance Immunity Using Nutrition

pages 21-23
Building Readiness and Agility for the Next Pandemic article cover image

Building Readiness and Agility for the Next Pandemic

pages 4-9
Overcoming Palatability Issues in Pet Medication article cover image

Overcoming Palatability Issues in Pet Medication

page 28
The Paraprobiotic Concept article cover image

The Paraprobiotic Concept

pages 26-27
Pet Subjects article cover image

Pet Subjects

pages 32-33
Sustainability in the Supply Chain article cover image

Sustainability in the Supply Chain

page 20
Puppy Nutrition for Healthy Growth and Development article cover image

Puppy Nutrition for Healthy Growth and Development

pages 12-16
Solea Removes Metal Contaminants from Soya Powder Residue with a Magnet article cover image

Solea Removes Metal Contaminants from Soya Powder Residue with a Magnet

page 31
Developing Sustainable Solutions through Research and Development article cover image

Developing Sustainable Solutions through Research and Development

pages 24-25
Economic Replacement of Synthetic Antioxidants in Pet Foods article cover image

Economic Replacement of Synthetic Antioxidants in Pet Foods

page 30
Azelis Animal Nutrition Adds Natural Plant Based Roquette Range of Products to its Portfolio article cover image

Azelis Animal Nutrition Adds Natural Plant Based Roquette Range of Products to its Portfolio

page 29
Pets in Society article cover image

Pets in Society

pages 10-11