Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 1


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2019 Vol. 21

Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd Plas Y Coed Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 Web site: E-mail:

Editor: Andrew Mounsey

Editorial assistant: Ryan Mounsey

Contents Pet Topics


By Roger W Dean

Seaweed Blends Enhance Digestion for Pets


By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen

Supporting Pet Health With Functional Treats and Dietary Supplements


By Sarah-Jane Godfrey

Taking Advantage From the Use of Special Yeast Products


By Antonia Schulte and Dr Bastian Hildebrand

Thermal Extrusion Baked Pet Foods


By Galen Rokey

Advertisement/Sales Manager:

Pets Love Yeast!

Fiona Mounsey

By Francesca Suska PhD, DVM


On Trend Solutions Through Premix


By Alexandra Wesker

Pet Owner Trust in Pet Food


By David Primrose

Subscription rates: Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit htm#register

ISSN 0950-771X Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the

Sustainability From Livestock to Petfood


By Gill Gallagher

Good Gut, Good Coat, Good Dog


By Alexia LĂŠpine

Aromatic Attractiveness of Insects to Dogs


By Matthew Wedzerai MSc

Dinnissen Helps GA Pet Food Ingredients Kitchen to Achieve Premium Production Standards


Warehouse Management for Pet Food


By Paul Girdham

Bringing a New Scientific Product to Market



By Professor John Hunter

Š Feed Compounder 2019

An Interview With Tom Neish, Founder of Yora


Pet Subjects

40 Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 1

PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean

Pet Numbers

4.7 million dogs and 4.1 million cats in UK households. A decade later in

Each year the Pet Foods Manufacturers Association (PFMA) commissions

1985, the respective numbers were 6.3 million dogs and 6.1 million cats;

the authoritative and well-regarded Pet Population Report, which looks in

there were also 1.8 million budgerigars, a figure that was to reach 1.9

detail at pet ownership trends in the UK. In 2019 it is estimated that 12

million ten years later, a year that was a high point in the UK budgerigar

million UK households – 40 per cent of the total – have pets.

population. In 1995, marked by a move to a second digit after the decimal

As one might reasonably expect, dogs and cats dominate the pet

point, the dog population of the UK numbered 6.65 million and cats

register. On a rolling total for 2018-19, the UK dog population numbered

numbered 7.23 million where it appeared, according to the available

nine million with 25 per cent of all households in possession of a dog.

data, to have plateaued for both dogs and cats. The data does appear

Cats numbered 7.5 million with 17 per cent of all households with a cat

to confirm that further development of the UK market for pet foods will

in residence. There following what one may call the minor pets ranging

depend on qualitative rather than quantitative factors.

from rabbits down to frogs and toads. Rabbits numbered an estimated 600,000 with just 1 per cent of UK households owing a rabbit. Other minor

Is your cat satisfied?

pets ranged from lizards and snakes to gerbils and ferrets.

Cats are notoriously fussy creatures, a fact to which the present author

Are pet numbers growing? PFMA statistics suggest that the number of dogs in 2010-11 was 7.6 million; in 2018-19, it amounted to 9 million.

can personally attest. But how do we measure their appreciation of the food we provide for them?

The cat population in 2010-11 was estimated at 7.9 million; by 2018-19 it

Before embarking on a discussion of this complex topic, there is

had fallen to 7.5 million. These figures suggests that the dog population

another question that must be addressed. At the recent Petfood Forum

is increasing while the cat population is in decline, albeit slowly. It might

2019 gathering held in Kansas City, a paper by Dr Susan Jojola, manager

be possible to explain the relative trends by saying that while it is possible

of applied behaviour research at AFB International (an American

to establish a working relationship with a dog, catsend to be more aloof.

company that manufactures a full range of liquid and dry palatability

As the number of households increase, new householders considering a

enhancers) made frequent reference to ‘pet parents’, rather than pet

pet may opt for the closer relationship that seems potentially realisable

owner or, referring to the pet, ‘companion animal’. On mature reflection,

with a dog rather than with a cat.

the author has concluded that ‘pet parent’ is, in fact, an appropriate

PFMA also produce interesting statistics on the regional distribution

description of the pet owner’s role, in that ‘parent’ implies the degree

of the respective pet species, defined as the percentage of households

of care and nurture that should characterise the relationship between a

in each region who own at least one of the major pet species. The data

parent and a human child, except that in the case of a pet parent, a pet

is expressed as the average of the last three years.

is substituted for the child.

While nationally more households include a dog than a cats, the

Dr Jojola introduced her presentation by observing that ‘because pet

regional data suggests that the relative percentages for London are

parents see feeding as a time to enrich the bond with their cats, measuring

reversed, at 14 per cent and 9 per cent respectively. This is intuitively

a cat’s enjoyment of food and treats can enhance that bond’. She said

acceptable; London is arguably less dog-friendly in terms of the wide-

that a pet parent’s perception of the cat’s enjoyment of a meal was very

open spaces desirable for the dog’s daily walk while cats are better suited

important, as this perception was likely to influence the pet parent either

to exploiting the nooks and crannies of the capital. Looking at the data

to continue purchasing the same type of food that they were currently

in an overall context, the region with the largest proportion of dogs is the

offering their cat or, maybe, to make a switch to something different.

north east, with 36 per cent of households with a canine in residence,

Critically, however, this could also help pet food and treat

with Northern Ireland having 31 per cent. As previously mentioned, the

manufacturers figure out what products cats find most and least

smallest proportion of households with a dog in residence is London with


just 9 per cent. Where cats are concerned, the south west has the largest

Dr Jojola said that measuring cats’ enjoyment could offer insight

proportion of households with a cat – 21 per cent – with households in

into product performance that went beyond the simple amount of cat

the south-east at 20 per cent. London is the only part of the UK with a

food consumed and was ‘a possible indicator of the in-home feeding

higher proportion of households housing a cat than a dog but the region

experience’. She said that there was a shift from cats being simply

with a lower proportion of households owning a cat is Northern Ireland

‘a pest control agent’ to being members of the family and sharing the

at just 12 per cent.

family home. This development underpinned the need to look at the

Do the available data cast any light upon the development of pet ownership in the UK in earlier years?

cat’s enjoyment of its food. Dr Jojola said that by supplementing consumption data with

While PFMA warns that their statistics cannot be directly compared

behaviour data, comprising food focus, work effort and interaction, cats’

to recent data as a different method of collection was used between

enjoyment – or otherwise – of their food could be better measured. What

1980 and 2002, the available data suggests that, in 1965, there were

do these terms mean?

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Food focus is the degree to which the cat focuses on the food.

on 28 September 2018, the author predicted that the thriving Chinese

High food focus indicates palatable food and high interest, while low

market for pet food and pet care products was likely to make China the

food focus indicates distractions while eating, which could be related to

world’s largest market for pet food and pet care products in five to ten

palatability. Measuring food focus can help distinguish between products

years’ time, a development that implies ‘vast business opportunities’

where the volume of alternative products consumed is similar. Work effort

for current and potential players. According to one report published by

shows ‘whether the cat thinks the food is worth working for’. By giving

China Pet Market, the Chinese pet population increased by a 7 per cent

cats puzzle trials, wherein they have to work to get a treat, researchers

average annual growth rate between 2013 and 2017, from 389 million

can measure preference, which is helpful in distinguishing differences

pets to 755 million. The report suggests that the Chinese pet population

between products. Interaction indicates the cat’s willingness ‘to interact

will continue to show strong growth from 2018 to 2022, with an annual

with a human to get the food or treat’. By using treat products, researchers

average growth rate of 8.2 per cent. Within this total market, the cat

can measure how much a cat enjoyed the treat and is ‘more likely to

population will have the largest growth, with an 18.5 average annual

allow the owner to pet them, even when no more treats are offered’. She

growth rate while the reptile population is forecast to have the smallest

went on to say that enjoyment measures were an additional dimension

growth, averaging just 0.3 per cent a year. Cats, which constituted the

of the feeding experience, adding that evaluating enjoyment could help

fourth largest pet population in 2017, will become the second largest

pet food manufacturers to improve products, help pet parents to enjoy

pet population by 2022.

more interaction with their cats, thereby increasing the human-cat bond,

South America is another area that is coming under increasing

and also with the potential to ‘interpret preference based on additional

scrutiny as regards the development of its markets for pet food and pet


care. Brazil naturally receives a great deal of attention as the largest player on the continent; according to some reports, it is the world’s the

Growth Markets

third biggest market for pet foods and pet care products, after the U.S.

As the pet food markets of the US and Western Europe mature, it is

and China.

only natural that analysts look for the markets which offer opportunities

According to Mordor Intelligence, an India-based consultancy,

for further quantitative development. The increasing number of Chinese

the Brazilian pet food market was valued at $4.93 billion in 2018 and

tourists in hotspots all over Europe testifies to the emergence of a

is projected to register average annual growth of 7.5 per cent during

travelling middle class with increased levels of disposable incomes – and,

the forecast period 2019 to 2024. As consumers become progressively

reflecting this, pet foods and pet care products is another area where

more concerned about their own health, particularly in relation to their

China is playing an increasingly significant role.

diet, similar concerns about the diets of their pets is reportedly increasing

In an article that appeared in the Hong Kong Economic Journal

significantly. In 2017, the latest year for which data is available, there were in Brazil 52.2 million dogs and 22.1 million cats – as well as 37.9 million birds. Mordor Intelligence reports that what it calls ‘Pet Refinement/ Humanization’ is influencing pet food purchasing decisions and may thus be described as the main driver of the pet food and pet care market. ‘Pet humanization’ reflects rising income, changing demographic patterns, and the evolution of consumer preferences. Specifically, the shift toward

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pet ‘parenting’ from pet ‘ownership’, plays an important part in influencing the purchasing decisions made regarding pet products in Brazil. The Brazilian market for pet food and pet care products is highly consolidated, with the top five market players accounting for more than 60 per cent of the market. The Brazilian pet food market consists of global players, like Nestle, Mars Incorporated and Hill’s Pet Nutrition, but domestic companies also play a major role. It is expected that the Brazilian pet food market would assume a more consolidated shape in future years. Other Latin American companies also demonstrate the conditions for rapid growth in the market for pet foods and pet care products of which Mexico is the second largest Latin American player. In contrast,

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oil rich Venezuela has the lowest level of both average consumption of commercial pet food per animal and the lowest volume of total consumption. However, the pet food industry in Venezuela is unlikely to grow much until the nation’s rampant inflation, political challenges,

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unemployment, poverty and other problems improve.

Insect Feast? There has been considerable interest, in both the animal feed industry and the petfood sector, in the potential of insect-based protein for

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 5

inclusion in feeds for livestock and for pets. This stems from concerns

novel petfood product in order to secure market acceptance. While Fido

about the availability of vegetable protein such as soybean meal and

and Puss may be quite happy at the prospect of sampling a novel version

rapeseed meal, either in the event of demand exceeding supply or in

of their conventional food, their owners may be more concerned. Despite

the context of an emerging tariff war featuring the U.S. and other major

the clear growth of interest in insects as a protein source, with insects


ranking as the most searched for pet food ingredient on Petfood Industry’s

It was thus interesting to read a report written by Tim Wall in Petfood

website in 2018, we know that there is a high degree of disgust amongst about feeding trials involving both dogs and cats which

consumers about the idea of insects as a food. However, researchers

resulted in pet foods, made with insect-based ingredients, which ‘had

have pointed out that many pet owners have witnessed their dogs and

similar palatability and digestibility to kibble containing conventional pet

cats hunting insects and, knowing that dogs and cats instinctively dine

food protein and oil sources’. The ingredients used in the dog and cat

on insects may lead to pet owners dispensing with their reservations

foods used in the trial came from black soldier fly larva which increasingly

about them as novel protein sources in dog and cat foods, even if they

serves both as a protein and a palatability improver in pet foods, as

are uncertain about eating insects themselves.

regulatory restrictions are relaxed.

Interest in insect-based protein for incorporation into dog foods

The result of the trials was reported in the recent Petfood Forum

seems strong in the UK where a company called Yora has created an

2019 which took place in Kansas City, ending on 1 May. Researchers

insect-based food for dogs which it describes as ‘the only alternative to

offered twenty Beagles bowls of kibble made with black soldier fly

traditional meat and fish sources that is fully suited to your pet’s digestive

larvae protein, oil or, alternatively, a control diet made with conventional

system.’ The full name of the company, which was incorporated on 3

ingredients. The bowls were offered individually for thirty minutes once

October 2017, is Yora Pet Foods for the Planet Ltd. However, while the

daily for two days.

company’s product appears to be quite widely available, the company

The control diet contained poultry by-product meal, brewers rice,

has yet to produce its first set of accounts, so it is not possible to evaluate

maize, poultry fat, beet pulp, dicalcium phosphate, salt, potassium

objectively the degree to which customers have so far accepted the

chloride, and a vitamin and mineral mix. In the experimental diets,

new product.

insect-based ingredients replaced the poultry meal or the poultry fat.

It is, perhaps, too early to know whether insects might become an

The researchers used three levels of black soldier fly meal – 5, 10 or 20

integral part of the pet foods raw material matrix. There is certainly a

per cent – in one set of diets’ recipes while, in the other experimental

degree of resistance to the use of public funds to promote or develop the

diet, the researchers applied black soldier fly larvae oil at three levels of

technique. In the US, there have been attempts in the Senate to frame

concentration – 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 per cent – to the exterior of the kibble.

ongoing research supporting insect farming as ‘wasteful’. In Europe,

How did the experimental diets work with the dogs? Dogs ‘readily

in the same way as any food or feed company, insect producers have

accepted’ the kibble with black soldier fly meal at up to 20 per cent

to follow the principles established under the General Food Law, the

inclusion and with insect-based oil at up to 5 per cent. Those two values

legislation that forms the cornerstone of the European Feed Safety

were incorporated into the subsequent digestibility study. In the latter,

risk management policy where responsibility for the safety of feed and

six dogs ate one of three diets, either the 20 per cent insect meal, the

food placed on the market lies with individual feed and food business

5 per cent insect oil or the control kibble. The diets were offered to the

operators, including the requirement that traceability of products must

dogs, once daily, for ten days.

be ensured. In the EU today, opportunities for using and feeding insects

After the first five days, the researchers began collecting faecal

are still quite limited; for example, insects are not allowed to be used

samples from the dogs for analysis. Both the insect oil and protein diets

as feed for poultry and pigs and may not be fed with former foodstuff

had digestibility similar to the control diet. The dogs’ faecal quality was

containing meat, fish or food losses originating from restaurants or from

also similar in both the experimental and control diets.

other catering establishments.

The researchers found that cats, too, found insect-based protein

Insect-derived protein is, thus, very much a work-in-progress,

and oil ingredients palatable while the cat’s digestive systems handled

whether for farm animals or domestic pets. Nevertheless, in a world that

the insect-based pet food ingredients as well as poultry products. In the

faces rising population and increasing competition for available protein

palatability study, twenty cats ate a variety of experimental pet food or

sources, whether for human or animal, the interest in insect protein is

the control over two days. Each formulation was offered individually for

unlikely to diminish any time soon.

four hours. For the cat acceptance feeding trial, the researchers used two levels of black soldier fly meal, 5 per cent or 20 per cent. In the other

Pet Food Manufacturer’ Concerns What bothers pet food manufacturers the most?

experimental cat diet, the researchers applied black soldier fly larvae

In the attendee registration process running up to Petfood Forum

oil at three concentrations – 1 per cent, 2.5 per cent or 5 per cent to

2019, Watt Global Media, the publisher of Petfood Industry, conducted

the exterior of the kibble. The cats accepted the insect protein meal at

a survey into what constituted the five most pressing issues affecting

up to 20 per cent but showed a lower level of palatability than dogs for

the industry. A total of 1,300 respondents provided responses to the

the black soldier fly larvae oil. In the digestibility study, the researchers


used black soldier fly larvae meal at 20 per cent, but oil at the middle

The results were revealing. Many observers would think that

2.5 per cent concentration on the exterior of the cat food. As with dogs,

ingredient quality is pet food manufacturers’ primary concern, and the

cats digested the insect-based ingredients’ nutrients at similar rates to

issue did indeed top the poll of responses, at 17.2 per cent, but only by

conventional poultry products.

the narrowest of margins. Commenting on the results of the survey, one

The trials illustrate the length to which researchers must go with a

Page 6

Pet Food Supplement 2019

commentator surmised that it was possible that respondents to the survey



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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 7


Probiotic for dogs, for gut health and optimal faecal consistency

EU-a spore pproved probio -forming tic for dogs

Engineering your feed solutions

were considering recent news relating to problems with raw materials.

note that, in mature pet food markets, the criteria applying to human food

Earlier this year, starting 31 January, Hill’s Pet Nutrition recalled

quality tend to be replicated in pet foods to an increasing extent.

numerous lots of prescription dog food for excessive levels of vitamin D.

Ranked third in the list of pet food professionals’ concerns was

Hill’s identified a pet food ingredient supplier as the source of the problem;

the cost of ingredients, packaging, etc – 16.4 per cent. Developing an

this was followed by an additional product recall on 21 March.

effective online digital trading platform – 11.9 per cent – and maintaining

The second most pressing concern, at 16.7 per cent, was

a favourable consumer perception of the respondents’ brand – 9.6 per

understanding what dog, cat and other pet owners want. With some

cent – were the remaining issues of significance, leaving 28.2 per cent

consumers calling for high meat content while others demanded vegan

for other and, presumably, minor issues.

pet foods, making every pet owner happy may be impossible. However,

An interesting survey and with results that many observers in the

the survey postulated that pet food professionals ‘may please some of

pet food industry might not have expected. For example, the issue of

the people some of the time’ by following how trends in human food

ingredient quality might have been expected to absorb a higher proportion

consumption migrate into pet food. In this connection, it is important to

of pet food manufacturers’ concerns. It might be interesting to repeat the survey in a few years’ time, in the expectation that ingredient quality would assume a higher degree of importance. Or maybe not.

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The Impact of Vegan There were a reported 600,000 vegans in the UK in 2018, a figure that represents a quadrupling from 150,000 in 2014, according to the Vegan Society. The UK also topped the list in terms of new vegan product launches during 2018 – thereby deposing Germany from its Number One spot. As one commentator put it, ‘as an animal-loving nation it makes sense to see this trend continue into the pet food industry.’ And 2019 has been proclaimed as the Vegan’s year. Why are consumers choosing vegan pet food? It’s not just vegan owners putting their pets on plant-based diets;

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non-vegan consumers buy vegan pet food too. Organic pet food manufacturer Yarrah started producing vegetarian kibble for dogs in 1995 and, after a few years, it made the transition to being completely vegan. Contrary to a widely held view that it was introduced to the market to give vegetarians the option of feeding their dogs a meat-free diet, the food was primarily intended for – and pre-eminently well-suited to – ‘dogs that don’t get on well with animal proteins.’ A question that has concerned many households that include a cat is the suitability of vegetarian or vegan foods for the feline species. Vegan cat food is a more contentious issue than dog food, as cats are,

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vegan cat owners are confident in giving their pets a plant-based diet – in Page 8 Pet Food Supplement Feed Compounder quarter page vertical 86 x 124.indd 1


Stand A044

particular, it remains to be seen how vegan cat food sales may fare in the future as veganism in humans continues to rise.

15/04/2019 11:55:40

Seaweed blends enhance digestion for pets By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen, Barentz Animal Nutrition

Gut health or digestive performance is an important challenge in the pet food industry. Pet food producers are looking for solutions to produce food for dogs or cats that stimulates digestion, resulting in healthy animals and firm stools. It can be a challenge because digestion is influenced by many different aspects such as the presence of both

Benefits of seaweed blends  100% natural and sustainable product  Rich in minerals

beneficial and pathogenic bacteria in the gut, as well as the ingredients

 Prebiotic effect

and additives used in the food. Seaweed is a feed ingredient that will

 Supports enhanced digestive balance

prebiotically support digestion in the intestine, while delivering trace minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and even omega-3 fatty acids.

 Shiny and softer coat  Better and firmer stools  Good taste and palatability  Supports increased stamina, more energy

and absorbed. This results in an enhanced intestinal balance which was seen by a group of 50 customers testing the seaweed blend as a supplement to their existing dog food for 4 weeks. The following results were measured: • 88% - reported improved digestive health. Ranges of outcome included reducing diarrhea, firming stools. • 88% - reported improved coat or skin condition. Responses

Red, brown and green Seaweeds are macroalgae which can contain polysaccharides, specific proteins, antioxidants, omega-3s, and are also rich in important

included softer or shinier coats, reduced flaking. • 41% - reported improved energy or stamina, particularly during hot weather.

minerals. Those bioactive components contribute to improved digestive

• 29% - reported better smelling breath. Likely due to reduced

function and better nutrient use in animals. Our seaweed blends

pathogenic bacteria in the gut as part of the prebiotic effect.

contain a mixture of red, brown and green seaweed species. Different species are chosen for the blends to target a variety of polysaccharides,

Natural clean label

minerals, proteins, fibers, etc. With a seaweed blend we can fulfil the

Seaweed blends are produced and harvested sustainably, and are

requirements of each animal species regarding polysaccharides and

subject to minimal processing in order to preserve the natural bioactive

minerals, and gain broad efficacy, as each seaweed within the blend

components. Seaweed blends for pets with an organic certificate can

brings its own distinct performance.

also be supplied. Therefore it fits fantastically in clean label, natural and sustainable pet food diets.

Mode of action - polysaccharides Polysaccharides like alginates, fucoidan, laminarin and ulvan have a

Barentz Animal Nutrition: Your Ingredients Partner

prebiotic effect. This means that the seaweed stimulates the growth of

Barentz is a global distributor of ingredients in the animal nutrition, food

good bacteria in the gut. Some other bioactives present in seaweed have

& nutrition, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. At Barentz

been shown to have a natural antibacterial effect and, by increasing the

Animal Nutrition we are active in technical ingredients and additives for

population of beneficial bacteria with prebiotics, there can be a competitive

the feed and pet food industry. We have a big portfolio of carbohydrates,

inhibition effect on the pathogenic bacteria. Besides those effects some

proteins, vitamins, anti-oxidants, yeast and novel ingredients including

seaweeds have been shown to support stimulation of the immune system

insect protein and sea weeds. Our ingredients experts support our

and to support a positive effect on intestinal epithelium.

customers in making the right ingredients choices for their new and existing products. We strongly believe that by acting as an ingredients

Digestive health

partner, rather than merely a distributor, we can provide our clients with

The polysaccharides support digestion. The protein, roughly 10% in

complementary high quality products that add value to their formulations

the blend, contains bioactive small peptides, which are easily digested

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 9

Supporting pet health with functional treats and dietary supplements By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products

What functionality is required? Just like for themselves, pet parents want to ensure that health and vitality of their pets is maintained well into old age, and are therefore willing to invest in nutrition, medical/veterinary care and healthy lifestyles to achieve this. In addition, consumers are becoming more educated on the benefits of functional nutrition and functional supplement ingredients for themselves, and use this knowledge when seeking suitable supplements or treats containing functionality that better supports their pets’ lifetime health. Functional human food and health products are good role models for pet products. This type of modelling was demonstrated with the increased awareness surrounding the importance of good oral hygiene in the human sector which provided Driven by humanisation, the pet parent bond with their animal companion

the pet industry with a “reason to believe”, leading to the growth in the

has never been stronger. This creates an increased willingness for the

development of oral health products for pets.

pet parent to do whatever it takes to keep their pets healthy and happy

Such functional products that positively support lifetime health and

for as long as possible. Consumers are becoming increasingly health

wellbeing are becoming more important. This is because life expectancy

conscious, as the scientific knowledge and awareness of the impact of

of the pet population is increasing due to better overall nutrition and

nutrition on both human and pet health has rapidly spread, thanks to

veterinary care, plus there is a shift towards smaller breed dogs and

digitalisation of communications. In addition, rising animal healthcare

cats. This results in a growing percentage of pets that will spend a

costs and the aging pet population means that pet parents are becoming

longer-period of life in a senior or geriatric phase. Like humans, pets

more comfortable in adopting a supportive, one might say preventative,

suffer from age related health concerns such as heart issues, arthritis,

approach to managing their pets’ specific health issues. Functional

vision and related cognition challenges. Beyond the traditional joint

treats and dietary supplements therefore provide a convenient vehicle

health supplements, solutions that help pet parents manage cognitive

for pet parents to add additional nutritional ingredients to their pets’

decline and behaviour issues are of increasing interest, giving rise to

daily dietary intake.

the development of supplements that can address brain health, mood and calmness. Nutrients such as DHA omega 3 to support brain and

How can functional nutrition support pets?

eye health, neural development plus senior dog cognition have been

Whilst we should not confuse food with medicine, the quote from

proven effective (Hadley et al, 2017). Other commonly occurring issues

Hippocrates remains relevant to us today: “Let food be thy medicine

of concern to pet parents include skin and coat challenges, and weight

and medicine be thy food”. A diet rich in essential nutrients is needed to

management due to the animals having lower levels of activity and

support good health. Nutritional research now also shows that nutrients

overfeeding. This last issue relates to both age and urbanization, where

impact the body’s systems more widely than previously thought. Vitamin

pet parents leave their pets home alone for long periods of time, have

D, as an example, influences the immune system, not just calcium and bone homeostasis. The science also demonstrates that consumption

Figure 1: Effect of feeding biotin to dogs:

of some nutrients at levels above published requirement, or even

Before brushing mean coat scores for the following attributes: Shine,

those without a defined requirement, can deliver benefits above those

Uniformity, Softness and Dander

classically described. In dogs, as an example, FEDIAF does not define a requirement of biotin for normally fed, healthy dogs. DSM however found that feeding biotin to dogs (5 mg of biotin per 10 kg body weight) over a period of 12 weeks, led to better coat quality scores (Figure 1). Such results give confidence that scientifically proven nutrients, which can be straightforwardly included in a supplement or a functional treat, can provide a supportive benefit to pets’ wellbeing, with results visible to the pet parent.

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

little time to exercise their pets adequately, and the resultant feeling of

(61.3%) and diet/nutrition (58.5%). Pet parents are clearly interested

guilt. Products containing ingredients that support a feeling of satiety,

in managing their pets’ health, and providing correct nutrition is one

possibly modifying food begging behaviour in such pets, may prove to

of their priorities.

be useful. The increased interest in raw feeding gives opportunity to Gut health is an important part of overall wellbeing for both people

Pet treat and supplement markets show continued growth

and pets. According to Mintel, from 2015 to 2018, the number of pet food

Pet parents are increasingly engaged with their pets emotionally and

products with prebiotic or probiotic claims increased by 56%. For pets,

as a result are willing to invest in their companion animal’s lifetime

the most obvious nutritional solutions are those that positively impact

wellbeing. They are also becoming more comfortable with providing

fecal quality or help manage normal digestion. In the human sector

additional nutritional support to their pets. This has helped drive the

however, digestive health has a new focus, with the gut microbiome

supplement market, which has shown considerable growth in recent

now being explored not just for its physical effects on the gut, but also

years (Figure 3).

develop supplements that improve dietary micronutrient balance.

its influence on brain function and mental health. An increasing number of scientific papers have been published on this subject, describing the

Figure 3: Pet Supplement Global Retail Market Value US$ mn

connection as the gut-brain axis. This area of emerging science gives

(Euromonitor Statistics)

functional pet treat and supplement producers excellent opportunities to develop innovative, added-value gut health solutions. Prebiotics fibres known to improve microflora balance, such as FOS (fructooligosaccharide), MOS (mannan-oligosaccharide) with more novel prebiotic sources such as XOS (xylo-oligosaccharide), and/or probiotics are ingredient candidates to consider for this purpose.

Online platforms boost the awareness of the impact of nutrition on health The internet is a highly accessible information resource for human and pet health information. DSM’s 2017 EU survey of pet parents found

In line with the growth in use of supplements for pets (and for

they were more likely to use the internet than their veterinarian to find

people), the pet treat market has also shown considerable growth with

out information on the benefits of functional nutrition and functional

the rationalization that pet parents are driven to reward, indulge, or

ingredients for their dog or cat (Figure 2).

simply spend more pleasure time with their pets (Figure 4). Given that pet treating is not without guilt due to a growing pet obesity problem,

Figure 2: Pet parents were asked, “Where do you normally

and that the market is becoming increasingly competitive, the addition

learn about the benefits of functional nutrition and functional

of “functional nutrition” creates an exceptional opportunity for treat

ingredients for your dog & cat (vitamins, plant extracts, omega


3’s, fiber etc.)?” Figure 4: Global Dog and Cat Treat Retail Selling Price US$ mn (Euromonitor Statistics)

Similar results were demonstrated by Kogan et al, 2018 who reported the most frequently used resource for pet health

Delivering functional ingredients to pets

information by UK pet parents was the internet (78.6%), followed

Even though this dynamic treat and supplement market offers great

by the veterinarian (72%). The veterinarian followed by other pet

opportunity, there is product form to consider and dosing challenges

parents with similar problems and family/friends were however

to overcome.

found to be the most trustworthy information resources. The topics

DSM 2011 pet parent survey data indicated that convenience is

searched for most often online were specific medical problems

key when pet parents are seeking to deliver functional nutrition to their

Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 11

pets. When asked which system they would prefer to deliver functional ingredients to their pets, both cat and dog parents ranked food, biscuits/ cookies, and edible chews among the top three (Figure 5). These same parents indicated pills, powders, and pastes were among the three least desirable delivery methods. Figure 5: Pet parent functional ingredient delivery preferences for dogs and cats

The value of supplementation and what’s needed by the pet parent Functional treats forms are increasingly varied. Traditional pet snack forms such as fortified biscuits, jerky strips or chews form the basis of many functional snacks, but more novel presentations include lick-off pastes, fortified gravies, nutrition bars and drinks. These product forms can be very successful, due to good palatability promoting positive pet to parent interaction. When, however, more accurate intakes of the active nutrient or nutraceutical are required to avoid potential issues of over or under dose of the animal, requiring the need for many product SKUS, they can be challenging to manage logistically. Although less desirable to some pet parents, specially formulated concentrated supplements in the forms of pills, powders and some liquid

When surveyed by DSM (MetrixLab, 2011 and 2015), a large majority of dog and cat owners agreed that providing their pet with functional/ fortified treats and snacks was beneficial. These health conscious consumers are attracted to fortified snacks and dietary supplement type products (Figure 6). This consumer mind-set has helped pet parents rationalize supplemental nutrition for their pets. It is evident from all DSM pet consumer studies since 2011 that added nutrient functionality in a pet treat or supplement was attractive and beneficial. Functional snacks and supplements give opportunities for pet parents to better support their pet’s lifetime health and for brand owners to expand their brand offering to meet this consumer demand.

preparations do provide more accurate nutrient dosing opportunities, especially for dogs due to dog breed size disparity. For supplement

Figure 6: Survey results: Pet parent agreement with attribute

manufacturers, the main problem often encountered is making some

statements associated with functional treats and supplements

forms of these products acceptable to the pet and/or are easy to

(DSM / Metrix Labs 2011& 2015) (top 2 box scores)

administer, thereby making them convenient for the pet parent. Development of meaty flavoured palatable, chewable pills, semi-moist pieces or “gummies” for pets are examples in the pet supplement arena that allow easy and more precise dosing of a pet with functional nutrients and nutraceuticals. Traditional powder supplements, measured with a small scoop, offer a simple route of administration as they can easily be sprinkled on top of the pets’ food. Traditional pill supplement format can however be difficult to administer to a

The millennials are an increasingly important demographic as they

reluctant pet. To overcome this,

are choosing to nurture a pet, often due to delaying parenthood. This

development of “pill pockets”

means their needs should be carefully monitored when it comes to

into which the supplement can

identifying what pet food, treat and supplement products should deliver.

be hidden, increases the ease

In the USA, the millennials have now overtaken the baby boomers as

of their administration to the pet

the biggest pet-owning generation, with 35% owning a pet, compared

considerably and maintains positive

with 32% of boomers (GFK, 2015). According to Packaged Facts

pet and pet-parent interaction.

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

(2017), 70% of US consumers say treats with functional benefits play an

important role in their pets’ health, and 71% look for treats that address health concerns or offer extra nutrition. Of millennial pet parents, 55% are willing to try holistic and natural-branded nutritional pet supplements before resorting to conventional pet medication, as opposed to only 30% of owners 35 and over. Millennials will however use conventional medicine first, if no other alternative is available. Wider pet food trends should also be incorporated when developing new pet treats and supplements. For example, the clean label and transparency trend requires product packaging to be clear, reflecting what the product contains, and how you deliver the nutrition you promise through safe, traceable ingredients and supply chains. A company’s commitment to sustainability and wider societal issues are also increasingly important to a wide demographic. Online platforms also deliver opportunities for customisation of supplementation through a subscription ordering service and importantly offer the customer convenience when buying items they need for their pet.

Summary Pet treats and supplements are ideal vehicles to provide the extra ingredient functionality that is identified by a growing body of evidence from human and animal nutrition research to help manage certain health concerns. The ideal functional treat or supplement product is one that controls calorie intake (either using low caloric density or size), is palatable, contains functional ingredients known to deliver a specific benefit, and comes with a clear and convenient dosing concept. With these types of products, pet parents can feel positive about using functional nutrition and supplementation as a strategy to manage their pets’ overall health and wellbeing.

Resources Used Hadley, K.B., Bauer, J. and Milgram, N.W., 2017. The oil-rich alga Schizochytrium sp. as a dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid improves shape discrimination learning associated with visual processing in a canine model of senescence. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 118, pp.10-18. Kogan, L., Oxley, JA., Hellyer, P., Schoenfeld, R., Rishniw, M. (2018) UK pet owners’ use of the internet for online pet health information Veterinary Record 182, 601. Nutraceutical World: 11.26.18 Article: Aging Cats & Dogs Drive Market for Functional Pet Foods Packaged Facts’ report, 2016, Millennials as Pet Market Consumers Packaged Facts’ report, 2018. Pet Industry Outlook: Veterinary Services and Pet Product Retailing Packaged Facts Report: February 7 2017 : 1 in 3 U.S. Pet Owners Millennials: What it Means for the Pet Food Market Patent activity boosted by the gut-brain health link: Mintel Report: March 2019 The Pet Retail Market Is Hot And Getting Hotter By The Day: https://www.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 13

Taking advantage from the use of special yeast products By Antonia Schulte and Dr. Bastian Hildebrand, Biochem, Germany Animal nutrition is always developing and nutritionists are looking

stronger the pathogen binding effect. Moreover, the starch content

for functional ingredients that provide additional benefits for animal

should be as low as possible to ensure a high purity. There are also

health. Many functional ingredients are thought to decrease the

differences in the yeast origin: “Primary grown” yeasts (baker’s yeast)

incidence of certain disease states or extend the lifespan of animals

are only fermented to produce premium yeast products. Due to the

by possessing antioxidant activity, antimicrobial action or immuno-

manufacturing process, the cell wall activity of primary grown yeast

enhancing properties. Specialist yeast products show significant

is greater in comparison to byproducts from beer/ethanol production.

potential to support animal health and well-being, particularly during

Another important characteristic is the particle size; small particles give

challenging situations, such as digestive disorders caused by a variety

more surface area resulting in pathogen-binding capacity.

of pathogenic bacteria. To reduce the risk of digestive disorders it is

MOS origin affects adhesion of pathogens

supporting the desired intestinal microbiota and the natural immune

Due to high variations in yeast cell origin and production processes,

defenses of the animal.

respective differences in the efficacy of MOS products can be expected.

relative superoxide production (%)

critical to keep the concentrations of potential pathogens low, while

160 140 120

Prebiotic polysaccharides like MOS (Mannan-Oligo-Saccharides)

Vahjen et al. (2015) tested the efficiency of different MOS-products

and β-1.3-1.6-glucans are the major components of the commercial

on their capacity to reduce E. coli attachment on intestinal epithelial 80 cells derived from the small intestine of piglets. After incubation of the 60

yeast cell wall products, commonly named MOS products. Due to their specific affinity, MOS are able to agglutinate onto type-1-fimbriae of pathogens (e.g. E. coli, Salmonella), and thus prevent the adhesion of


epithelial40 cells in the cell culture plates in order to form a monolayer, the cells were 20 treated with MOS suspensions (1%) of six different MOS 100


Negative control


respective bacteria on the intestinal wall. Since adhesion presents the

products and 0 infected with a fluorescent enterotoxic E. coli K88 strain

first step in microbial invasion, blocking of the fimbriae may prevent or

(ETEC K88). All MOS-products reduced E.coli attachment compared

eliminate infection. The β-1.3-1.6-glucans are known to have stimulating

to control without MOS treatment, but showed significant differences

effects on the unspecific immune system by activating macrophages

in their capacity to inhibit pathogen adhesion (Figure 2).

and increasing the production of cytokines, which are the initiator of the immune response. Thus, they can reinforce the natural defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites.


100 d

relative superoxide production (%)

TechnoMos® 160





36 a 58 b 73 bc



77 c



63 bc


60 40

69 bc 0

20 0






Relative proportion of E.coli-infected epithelial cells (%)



Negative control


Figure 2: Effect of different MOS products on the proportion of E. coli infected epithelial cells (IPEC J2) ex vivo; abc - different letters

Figure 1: Effect of 1% TechnoMos® on the intracellular superoxide

indicate significant differences between treatments (P<0.05)

production of leucocytes in vitro (Oxidative burst assay, University Wageningen, 2007) Control



100 d

A closer look on quality aspects

The use of a MOS product benefits animal health status due to several

36 a

Numerous MOS products are available on the market. Although MOS 2

modes of action. However, it is essential to carefully assess the qualities

58 b those materials are primarily derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

of the individual MOS products. The mannan and ß-1.3-1.6 glucan

3 in their quality depending on 73origin bc yeast, theyMOS differ and processing

content, the origin and purity as well as the particle size are critical to

during manufacturing. The more mannans the product contains, the MOS 4 77 c

the effectiveness of a yeast cell wall product.


63 bc

Page 14 MOSP6et Food Supplement 2019 69 bc 0






Relative proportion of E.coli-infected epithelial cells (%)

With you all the way!












Oliver Caiger-Smith Technical Sales Manager Mobile: +447722 019727 E-mail:

Feed Safety for Food Safety®

THERMAL EXTRUSION BAKED PET FOODS Process Qualities Indicate Marketing and Functional Advantages By Galen Rokey, Process Technology Director, Wenger

A new process technology for pet foods is to couple a thermal extrusion-cooking process with the baking process. Although both of these manufacturing steps are well-known in the industry and have been practiced for many years, combining the attributes of each has been shown to produce remarkable results in product texture and palatability.

Following is a summary of how the combined thermal extrusion/baked

5. Reduced mechanical energy inputs (SME or specific

process differs from the individual and separate processes of standard

mechanical energy in units of kWhr/t) during thermal extrusion

extrusion-cooking and traditional baking.

compared to standard extrusion-cooking as a stand-alone

1. Greater potential of production rates over traditional baking lines which improves process efficiency.

process. When followed by a baking step, the thermal extrusion step does not have to develop the final texture and structure

2. Continual process compared to traditional baking which often

as this is usually modified or advanced during the subsequent

times involves a batch dough-mixing process. This favors

baking step. Not only is the total consumed energy less when

stopping or adjusting the process on-line without having to

combining extrusion with baking (often as much as 20% less

waste or discard a batch which has already been committed

energy), but the main energy source is now shifted to thermal

but is not correct in some aspect.

(steam) energy which usually costs less than half of mechanical

3. Decreased use of dough conditioners, leavening agents, and other minor ingredients which may not be desirable on the label or are costly. The extrusion portion of this process develops a visco-elastic dough and can also create a cell structure through expansion without the use of these additives.

(electrical) energy. Thermal energy (steam) has the potential of being generated by the pet food manufacture in a boiler fired by renewable energy resources while electrical energy is much more difficult to generate on site and will usually consume nonrenewable energy resources.

4. Extrusion permits a lower moisture dough to be fed into the

6. The thermal extrusion process as a first step in this combined

baking oven unit operation. Traditional baking requires ≼ 30%

process has much greater flexibility in choice of ingredients.

moisture dough to enter the rotary moulders for shaping and

The traditional baking process by itself has a very small window

then the oven to develop correct textures and matrix. The

of moisture addition and use of sticky ingredients such as non-

extrusion process can often reduce that moisture level to

grain sources. Many ingredients would be too sticky to create

less than 25% due to increased mixing and partial flash-off of

a satisfactory dough during the traditional baking process and

moisture at the die.

result in poor release from rotary moulders and unsatisfactory

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

textures during baking. The pet food industry today requires

Hardness was measured using a Perten TexVol TVT-300 PH

a process that can have tremendous flexibility in recipes and

instrument equipped with a sharp-pointed probe simulating a

ingredient sources because of fluid marketing trends and

canine tooth.

ingredient availability.

The sensory attributes of products from the thermal extrusion/

7. The combination of thermal extrusion and baking processes results in unique technical and sensory qualities/attributes.

HTST (high temperature /short time) baking process include the following:

The technical qualities of products from the thermal extrusion/

1. Caramelization: The Maillard Reactions that occur during

HTST (high temperature /short time) baking process include the

the baking step intensify as the time, temperature, and


alkalinity parameters increase. Although not well understood, it is believed that caramelization contributes to both color

1. Bulk density: During the baking steps, the product bulk

developments and palatability.

density can decrease significantly depending on operating parameters by virtue of thermal expansion occurring in this

2. Palatability: Feeding trials have confirmed that the consumption

baking process.

and the first-choice preference increase when recipes from the

2. Moisture levels: Moisture content of the extruded dough is

thermal extrusion/baked process are compared to standard

often lower than traditional baking by itself, but the baking

extrusion-cooking alone followed by the standard drying

step coupled with extrusion significantly reduces moisture

process. Results have been spectacular and ranged from a

levels often requiring only an abbreviated, mild final drying step where traditional baked products processed at the higher moisture levels require final drying steps approaching one hour or more.

1.96/1 to 3/1 improvement.

                          

3. Starch gelatinization: Further starch gelatinization occurs in the baking step that follows extrusion and this means that the extrusion step can be a much milder process with less energy inputs. 4. Pasteurization: Adequate temperatures are usually achieved in the extrusion step to reach CCP (critical control point) parameters which serve as the “kill step” for biological hazards. However, studies have shown that during the baking step the core product temperature will reach that CCP criteria and provide an additional safeguard against biological hazards. 5. Hardness/textural differences: The hardness of the extruded product is reduced during the baking step and can be controlled by operating parameters during extrusion and baking. The table below summarizes several studies where hardness was  measured in extruded and thermal extrusion-baked products. 


 

 

                             

3. Color: Although color measurements have been conducted, there is obvious visual browning in recipes from the thermal

Hardness (kg force)

extrusion/baked process compared to standard extrusioncooking alone followed by the standard drying process.

Effect of Thermal Extrusion and Baking on Product Hardness

4. Texture: As discussed under the hardness/textural differences in technical quality evaluations of various products, the texture as measured by texturometers was always less hard when the

40 30 20 10 0

thermal extrusion process was coupled with a baking step. The differences of the technical and sensory qualities in the various processes as discussed above indicate the potential



3 Sample

Standard Extrusion Without Baking Without Baking


Thermal Extrusion With Baking With Baking


marketing and functional advantages of products processed via thermal extrusion/baking versus standard extrusion/drying and traditional baking as well as a potential improvement in process energy-efficiency.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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Pets love yeast! By Francesca Susca, Ph.D., DVM, Pet Development Manager at Lallemand Animal Nutrition Therefore, selecting the right yeast strain for a given application is critical and requires a high level of knowledge and expertise. The main forms of yeast that are available for petfood formulations are: • Live yeast, which can be added to animal feed for their probiotic effects. However, in Europe, none are currently authorized for use in petfood. • Inactive yeast (killed yeast cells), used as flavor enhancers or as a natural source of nutrients such as B vitamins, high quality protein and minerals. These can then be further separated into two different fractions: o The yeast extracts, i.e. the soluble fraction of the inactive yeast, comprised of more than 60% proteins. They represent a valuable source of proteins, nutrients and minerals and can also be used as natural flavor enhancers and palatants in petfood. o The yeast cell walls, rich in beta-glucans and mannan oligo From a palatability enhancer to a source of nutrients and functional ingredients, yeast and yeast derivative products are versatile and natural ingredients to keep in mind when formulating food for pets. Yeast has been utilized as far back as ancient Egypt to leaven bread and ferment wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the most used microorganism in the food industry, and today it is used for the annual production of 60 million tonnes of beer and 30 million tonnes of wine! Its exceptional fermentative and nutritional properties make yeast a valuable source of ingredients for pet nutrition too. But not all yeast or yeast products are equivalent. After reviewing the multiple benefits and applications of yeast and yeast derivative products, this article aims to classify these products according to their composition, production process, nutritional value, biological activities, as well as their regulatory status.

Meet the yeast Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms of the fungi family. The yeast cell wall is made of glucans, glycoproteins, mannans and chitin. The intracellular chemical components of yeast cells include among others: amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, salts, nucleic acids and enzymes. The combination of these compounds make yeasts useful nutraceuticals for human nutrition but also attractive as nutritional supplements in animal feed! There are about 60 different genera of yeasts, which are comprised of about 500 different species. Only a few of these species are used commercially. Thanks to its exceptional fermentative capacities and nutritional properties, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant microorganism used in food, beverage and baking. It is also the main yeast used in feed production processes. Within the specie, there are thousands of different strains, each with a unique genetic makeup, leading to different outcomes in terms of metabolisms and activities.

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

saccharides, are well known for their pathogen-binding and immune-modulation activities. They can contribute to pet microbiota balance and digestive well-being. The production process, characteristics and potential benefits are intimately linked for each of these forms. Figure 1 gives an overview of these characteristics and associated functions. Figure 1: Classification of yeast products according to their characteristics, composition and potential benefits (No live yeast is currently authorized for pets in the E. U.)

Innovative yeast ingredient

yeast, and live microorganisms in general, are feed additives and

Since probiotic yeast are not yet authorized for petfood in Europe, very

require pre-market approval. So far, no live yeast is authorized for use

few studies have been conducted yet in cats and dogs. However, certain

in petfood in the European Union.

yeast fractions have received strong attention for their beneficial effects

When it comes to labeling and claims, the main objective of the

in petfood. Recently, the team of Professor Giacomo Biagi from the

regulation is to protect the consumer and avoid misleading information.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, in

There are two types of information: the mandatory ones: nutritional,

Italy, conducted a study to evaluate the effects of an association of yeast

composition, dosage, etc., and the voluntary information, such as

fractions from different yeast strains (YANG, Lallemand Animal Nutrition)

functional claims.

on the intestinal ecosystem of adult healthy dogs. The trial involved an in vitro part, whereby the yeast derivative was incubated with canine

Claims are not mandatory, but when it is used on a label, strict rules apply:

fecal inoculum, and an in vivo trial involving 16 adult dogs (fed YANG or

• A claim must be scientifically substantiated

control diet). Dog feces was analyzed at three and four weeks into the

• It must not be confusing or misleading

trial. The results indicate benefits of the yeast derivatives on:

• It must not denigrate other petfood

• Dogs’ gut microbiota: the in vitro analysis shows higher levels of Lactobacilli and Bifodobacteria as well as a lower pH with

• It should be objective, verifiable by the competent authorities, and understandable by the user.

the yeast derivative. The acidic environment helps inhibit the

Different categories of claims can apply to yeast products (Figure

development of undesirable bacteria and favors the growth of

3). For example, YANG or other yeast fractions could bear functional

the beneficial ones, showing a unique indirect prebiotic effect of

claims as long as these are substantiated.

the yeast derivative products. • Dogs’ natural defenses, through a higher level of IgA antibodies detected in the feces of dogs fed YANG. IgAs are a well-

Figure 3: the different claim categories that can apply to yeast products, depending on scientific substantiation.

recognized biomarker of immunomodulation and play a key role in mucosal immunity by inhibiting the attachment and penetration


of bacteria in the gut lumen, increasing mucus secretion and

 

preventing inflammatory reactions that would cause damage to the epithelial tissues. The scientists concluded that the innovative association of yeast fractions “could improve the composition of canine microbiota and, potentially, help reinforce the natural defenses of adult dogs”.

   

This particular yeast fraction can be described as a new generation of yeast cell wall. It is the very first formulated product on the market


of yeast derivatives. Three specifically selected strains of yeast, with

 

different, but complementary, properties have been combined to ensure superior pathogen binding capacity and a broader and well-balanced immunomodulation. The development of this unique solution on the market is the fruit of a three-step development process (Figure 2), where strong expertise in yeast screening and characterization have

  

been completed by the application of optimal industrial production



 

Figure 2: The three steps of YANG development

Figure 3: the different claim categories that can apply to yeast products, d

Conclusions Conclusions Yeasta versatile represent a versatile and valuable of na Yeast represent and valuable source of natural ingredientsource to formulating petfood petfood and petfood supplements. keep in mind whenever formulating and petfood supplements.However, t make the most appropriate choice, including: However, there are several things to consider in order to make the most

How to label yeast and yeast derivatives in petfood? Last but not least, how to translate the science into marketing and product labels for petfood? How can we and should we label yeast products on petfood? Depending on the nature of the product, regulatory status differs. Inactivated yeast and yeast derivatives are feed materials, while live

appropriate choice, including:

• The composition of the yeast derivative product • The desired benefits • The desired benefits • The industrial process to be applied (some forms a • The industrial process to be applied (some forms are more • The regulatory status and potential for substantiate

• The composition of the yeast derivative product

resistant than others)

• The regulatory status and potential for substantiated claims

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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On-trend solutions through premix By Alexandra Wesker MSc, Pet Customer Technical Adviser, Trouw Nutrition GB

the long run if labels need to be amended. Furthermore, a company’s image can become damaged by providing misleading information about their products, irrespective of whether this was unintentional. Traditionally premixes contained only vitamins, minerals and other additives on a carrier. In recent years, our facilities increasingly produce premixes composed only of ingredients such as parsley, spirulina and turmeric, alongside our traditional premixes. If you need a specific material, discuss this with your supplier and ensure measures are in place that ensure you receive what you request. Ask about technicalities of the material and check the claims you make on pack are consistent with the supplied material.

Home cooking Much care is given to choosing the diet of a pet and I have heard it

A home-cooked meal is one that has literally been cooked at home.

frequently said that pets eat better than humans. Most pet owners

This can be done similarly to a human meal, but it is also possible to

regard their pet as part of the family and although most owners did not

buy a device similar to a bread-baking machine in which you put the

expect the costs associated with owning a pet, they are more ready to

ingredients and later you have a meal ready for your pet.

spend on their pet’s health than their own. Irrespective of whether pets

A study1 in the US assessed 200 recipes for home-made pet

actually eat better than humans, trends seen in the pet food industry

food diets and concluded 95% were deficient in at least one nutrient

seem generally centred around health, fairness and sustainability.

and more than 83% were lacking in more than one nutrient. There are

Ingredients on the label must meet nutritional requirements as a minimum, and health promoting as an optimum. Materials that sound

reports of animals being taken to the vet with severe health problems caused by nutritional imbalances from a home-cooked diet.

like chemicals are unappealing and this is one of the reasons owners

Home-cooked does not necessarily mean non-commercial – home-

cook for their pets at home or choose a food that has recognisable

cooking kits are available from the fridge or freezer. Manufacturers claim

ingredients within it rather than a homogenous kibble. Sustainability

health benefits such as healthier skin, fresh breath and vitality over

is definitely on the agenda, mainly driven by younger generations. In

extruded and canned products. Popularity is on the rise: numbers in

this article I address trends in the pet food industry, the risks they carry

the US are forecast to rise to 11 million regular customers by 2021. The

and how premixes can provide pet food manufacturers with effective,

challenge is to keep the fun for the pet owners and tick all their boxes,

safe and traceable options.

while providing them with a nutritionally complete diet formulation.



Superfoods have been on the menu for years in the human food industry

Raw diets take animals back to nature. Thinking of wild cats and

and they no longer seem to be a trend, but rather a well-established

wolves, they do not receive kibble but (literally) raw materials. There

concept. In restaurants, too, a super food salad is a common option,

is a lot of debate about this way of feeding; in this section we look at

even if it is often alongside burgers and sausages. It may have been

the main concerns.

a fad for some materials, but more research continues to come out about the health benefits of other superfoods such as blueberries which feature frequently. Foods continually proven to be ‘super’ tend to remain popular. Studies focus on the active components within the superfood that give it its benefits. There are typically varying grades of material that can be used in pet food: from premium extracts high in active component, all the way down to a powder of the pulp that remains after the active component has been extracted from the material. It is essential for the pet food manufacturer to know what grade of material is being used in order to decide on packaging claims. If a claim about functionality is made, the material needs to deliver it. A cheaper material may be attractive at first sight, but may become expensive in

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Similar to the US study for home-made formulations, a study2


performed at a German university found 60% of 95 commercially

In parallel to the raw diet trend,

available raw pet formulations had significant dietary imbalances.

vegetarian and vegan pet foods

Again, there are commercial recipes available on the market and

are on the rise. In part this is

formulating a suitable recipe together with a premix can address

driven by sustainability, but also

this problem.

reduces the number of animals

A greater issue is contamination. The University of Utrecht

required for pet food. In 2017

analysed 3 35 commercial raw pet foods and found 23% were

the estimation was that pet food

contaminated with Escherichia coli, 54% with Listeria monocytogenes

was responsible for 25-30% of

and 20% with Salmonella. These bacteria live within the gut of

the environmental impact of meat

the slaughtered animal, meaning the meat can easily become

consumption regarding use of

contaminated during slaughter. Thorough cooking kills some of

land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate,

these harmful bacteria, but when feeding a raw diet this is not done.

and biocides7.

Industry bodies including the PFMA and FDA provide guidelines

A commonly quoted challenge is meeting the nutritional

about washing hands and disinfecting all surfaces the raw meat has

requirements of pets, particularly when on a vegan diet over a

touched. Unfortunately, the risk of infection is one that remains an

vegetarian diet. Vegetarian excludes animal parts such as meat and

inherent part of feeding a raw diet and raw pet food manufacturers

gelatine; vegan furthermore excludes anything produced by animals,

we work with keep a close eye on their materials.

such as milk and eggs. Some vitamins and amino acids can only be



found in animals or their products. On top of that, some vitamins are


stabilised using animal gelatine. There are, however, synthetic forms

Sustainability has been on the agenda within the human food industry

available through premixes which allow for a complete nutritional

for years. Eco-conscious consumers demand more sustainable

formulation without needing to rely on animal production.

options on the menu and the industry is responding. ‘Millennials’ and

Aside from environmental drivers, choices of

‘Generation Z’ are willing to spend up to 20% more on goods that

conscientious consumers are frequently steered by

meet their values and are more sustainable6 and reduce their pet’s

ethics. As part of Nutreco, Trouw Nutrition is SEDEX

carbon ‘pawprint’.

certified and we are continuously improving the ethical

One solution offered could come from insects. In broad terms,

performance in our supply chain8 – from guarding human

insects need little substrate to grow on and convert this to protein.

rights to minimising impact on biodiversity, climate

There are constraints to the substrates on which insects can be

change and water scarcity. Traceability is guarded by

grown, which vary globally: the EU accepts vegetal substrates and

our Nutrace® programme, providing full visibility into

unprocessed former foodstuffs, in other parts of the globe organic

your supply chain.

waste and animal by-products are allowed. The substrate used impacts how environmentally friendly the material is: the ‘greenhouse


warming potential’ (GWP) of insects fed on what would otherwise

[1] Stockman, J. Fascetti, A.J. Kass, P.H., Larsen J.A. ‘Evaluation of recipes of home-prepared maintenance diets for dogs.’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, June 1, 2013, Vol. 242, No. 11, Pages 1500-1505 [2] Dillitzer, N, Becker, N, Kienzle, E. ‘Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.’ British Journal of Nutrition (2011), 106, S53–S56 [3] van Bree FPJ, Bokken GCAM, Mineur R, Franssen F, Opsteegh M, van der Giessen JWB, Lipman LJA1, Overgaauw PAM. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs. [4] PFMA – Raw Feeding Factsheet: [5] Animal Health Library – Avoid the Dangers of Raw Pet Food https://www.fda. gov/animalveterinary/resourcesforyou/animalhealthliteracy/ucm368730.htm [6] YouthSight, Tanya Michelsen (Associate Director) Keynote speech at PFMA AGM: ‘Top 10 food trends that reveal the State of the Youth Nation’ [7] Okin GS (2017) Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0181301. [8]

be considered waste looks much better than that of insects fed on human food-grade ingredients. Seasonal availability, relatively high prices and the frequently quoted ‘yuk-factor’ are all challenges, but innovative entrepreneurs are driving the market to change and definitely generating interests. Nutritionally, although all amino acids are supplied by insects, they vary in their amino acid composition among species. The black soldier is commonly used as a source of insect protein and is considered a complete protein, providing the required amino acids in a suitable ratio. The substrate insects are grown on does not seem to affect amino acid composition much, total protein content is affected by up to about 10%, but fat and ash content are greatly affected by up to 200% difference between substrates. When deciding on insects as a protein source in your pet food, ensure the nutritional profile can be relied on. Nutritional analyses will indicate whether gaps need to be filled and these can be compensated for by using other ingredients. Reliability and predictability of the nutritional composition may therefore prove to be of key importance for this novel ingredient.

Alexandra Wesker is an animal scientist with an MSc degree in Animal Nutrition from Wageningen University. She has worked for Trouw Nutrition since 2017 as the technical expert for pet premixes in Europe, Middle East and Africa. She advises on premix formulation and legislation and develops products in collaboration with pet food manufacturers.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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Pet owner trust in pet food Recalibrating our Trust Compass By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients

Growth on the global petfood market

suppliers adopt systems and business practices used in human food

The great news for petfood manufacturers and their suppliers is that

supply like food safety, sustainability, corporate social responsibility.

the global petfood market has seen significant growth in recent years and is expected to continue this trend. Figures from the market analysts

Pet owner trust in petfood

“Euromonitor International” indicated that the global sales value in

An indication of how pet owners trust in petfood is changing is

2018 amounted to US$91.1 billion and has grown at 6% compound

indicated by data published by “Pacakaged Facts - National Pet

annual growth rate (CAGR) since 2013, representing an overall growth

Owner Survey 2018”. As indicated in the Deloitte survey outlined in a

of 31% overall growth during the same period. This is great news and

previous section, safety is a key component of consumer food values.

cause for celebration.

With respect to pet owners concerns about the safety of petfood and

With the market expected to continue to show strong growth, with other market analysts, like “Grand View Research, Inc” predicting a

treats, this shows growing concern from both cat and dog owners over the period 2015 – 2017:

market value of around US$98.81 billion by 2022. However, there is always uncertainty in these predictions due to many factors including

Table 1: Pet owner concern in safety

the size of dogs kept by owners.

“I am concerned about the safety of the pet food, treat and chew

To capitalise on this market growth prediction, petfood

products that I buy”

manufacturers and supplier must also remain vigilant of changes in consumer attitudes and needs with respect to food values and trust.

Evolution of consumer food values.




% Cat owners “strongly / somewhat agree”




% Dog owners “strongly / somewhat agree”




(Source: Packaged Facts National Pet Owner Survey 2018)

The business consultancy Deloitte published a report in 2016 (“Capitalizing on the shifting consumer food value equation”) that

This concern is highlighted further by data, in the same survey, that

summarises how consumers expectations in food have evolved. In

indicates that 57% of dog owners and 55% of cat owners agree that

making decisions on which food to buy, consumers still strongly value,

“fear of pet food contamination/product safety is a key consideration

traditional drivers like price, taste and convenience. Increasingly

in the dog foods/cat foods I buy”.

however, we also see consumers placing greater importance in other

Aligned to this is a significant level of pet owners’ general distrust

factors like: - experience, health & wellness, social impact and food

of factors like: - marketing vs scientific claims; “clean labelling” and

safety. All of these are bound together with the concept of transparency

source of information e.g. veterinarians are a highly respected

where food manufacturers must demonstrate transparency in all aspects

source of information (Source: - Packaged Facts, National Pet Owner

of their business including: - ingredient sourcing, ethical business


philosophy and product claims (marketing vs scientific based). The question is, “What does this have to do with petfood?”. In my mind, the answer is simple, it has as much to do with pet food as

In summary, many of the trends we see in petfood around trust are aligned to those found by Deloitte in their research on consumer food values.

human food. Why? For many years, the concept of humanization has been a driver of

Product claims and their role in trust

growth in the global petfood market. Humanization means many things,

Examples of false claims in the petfood industry include: - false health

pet owners expect the food they feed their pets to be “humanized”

claims; false claims on material composition / digestibility etc. These

(appearance and types / quality of ingredients used). However, they

not only damage the company making the false claims but can also

also demand more. As “pet parents” where pets are considered part of

do reputational damage to the industry.

the family, the expectation is also that petfood manufacturers and their

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Other factors to emerge about pet owners trust in petfood from

Table 2: Petfood Melamine Crisis (2007- 2008) Recall size

Around 100 Brands, over 60 million cans of pet food

Recall cost

$42 million

Deaths from kidney failure

236 cats and 112 dogs

Estimated pet deaths

1,950 cats and 2,200 dogs

Quantity and value of adulterated wheat gluten

> 800 tons; market value US$850,000

US Class Action damages paid to pet owners by Chemnutra

$12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims

Judicial findings against company supplying adulterated wheat gluten 2 owners of Chemnutra sentenced to three years of probation and fines of $5,000 each. Chemnutra fined $25,000 fine Source: Feed Compounder “Pet Food Supplement” Issue 19; based on industry data

the Packaged Facts, National Pet Owner Survey are around claims. Data on claims and scientific information further indicates a level of mistrust depending on where the information comes from. For example,

Vitamin D or the presence of Salmonella in our finished product. However, calibration and recalibration should also be applied to our systems and practices that also ensure consumer trust.

the data indicates: • Whilst 62% of pet owners believe that scientific research provides useful information on petfood and nutrition, a high proportion of pet owners mistrust data from research sponsored by petfood companies (only 29% somewhat / strongly agree that the data is unbiased) • 61% of pet owners somewhat / strongly agree that they can trust scientific information if this is provided by a veterinarian • 55% of pet owners somewhat / strongly agree they can trust product claims if these are based on scientific data.

Recalibrating our trust in petfood – an ongoing process. Search the internet and you will also find, or so it seems, news of recalls of unsafe petfood e.g. toxic levels of vitamin D in dry and wet petfood, metal and plastic fragments in wet petfood, “high” levels of Listeria and Salmonella in raw petfood and treats. Not only are these recalls costly and detrimental to the implicated petfood manufacturer but they can also negatively impact on trust in the overall industry. The largest recall in the history of the petfood industry occurred following the melamine crisis of 2007 – 2008. The effects of this

These factors are likely to be important contributors to trust in terms

were far reaching, including economically motivated adulteration of

of the Center for Food Integrity model of trust reviewed in a later section.

pet food (in this case what gluten and rice gluten) that resulted in

For example, information provided to pet owners from veterinarians

loss of trust in safe raw material supply, it was costly to the overall

contributes to building trust through “Influential Others”.

industry (Table 2).

Calibration is critical to ensure the safety and quality of the petfood we manufacture and sell

reported greater interest in manufacture and feeding of “homemade”

Manufacture of safe, nutritious pet food that meets the demands of

industry wide loss of trust.

With respect to trust in safe petfood, the incident also saw a petfood by concerned pet owners. This is a clear example of an

today’s pet owners requires that petfood manufacturers and suppliers

One of the positive outcomes from the melamine crisis was

have robust quality and food safety management systems. Whilst

implementation of stronger quality management systems across

our quality systems might be based on the internationally recognised

the petfood supply chain e.g. raw materials quality assurance / risk

ISO9001 standard, our food safety systems based on HACCP, the

management. In strengthening these systems, the industry was

importance of calibration cannot and should not be underestimated.

effectively recalibrating our trust compass and rebuilding trust in

It is widely recognised that the effectiveness of both quality and

safe petfood.

food safety management systems depends on the use of Pre-Requisite

Like instrument calibration, recalibration is not something that

Programmes (PRPs) and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). One

happens only once and then is forgotten about. In the context of

critical component in PRPs is calibration.

petfood safety, authenticity and quality it is important that we maintain

A calibration PRP requires that we monitor the effectiveness

ongoing awareness of emerging factors that can destroy trust e.g. new

and accuracy of measuring equipment and make any necessary

food safety hazards, new food fraud threats (economically motivated

adjustments to ensure this. Without this we put our pets, our Brands


and ultimately our businesses at risk. What if the scales used to weigh

As with forgetting to calibrate a thermometer, if we don’t

Vitamin D were not accurate or the thermometer used to measure the

recalibrate our trust compass then this increases the risk of loss of

temperature in the extruder was shown a wrong temperature? This

trust. When trust is lost, our pets, our Brands and our businesses can

would result in greater risk of food safety failure e.g. toxic levels of

suffer and we might go out of business.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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Table 3 – Application of CFI Trust model applied to petfood



Shared Values

Shared values on pets as important members of society and families; supporting healthy longevity in petfood attributes


Sustainable, ethical raw material supply

Competence Skills

Trained personnel in company


Ability to carry out tasks / operate quality and food safety management systems to demonstrate ability to perform to independent, globally recognised auditable certification standards e.g. ISO9000: ISO22000; BRC Global Standard Food.

Influential Others (Stakeholders) Friends / Family

Listening to pet owners

Credentialed others

Listening to and seeking advice from veterinarians, regulatory and scientific community

Center for Food Integrity (CFI) – Consumer Trust Model

• Competence – (Skills and ability) • Influential others (Stakeholders – friends, family, fellow

Based on extensive research, the US based Center for Food Integrity

consumers, credentialed others including regulatory, scientific

first published its consumer trust model in partnership with Iowa State

advisors etc.)

University in 2009 and is still widely used today. The key components and interrelationship are shown below: Figure 1 – Center for Food Integrity Trust Model

CFI Trust Model – What does this mean for petfood manufacturers? Although originally designed for application to food, the principles underlying the CFI trust model can be applied to petfood, as indicated the Table 3 above.

Transparency – The overarching principle that builds trust The Deloitte research shows that in a modern food value equation there is a combination of traditional values (price, taste, convenience) and emerging values (health & wellness, social values, experience and food safety). Surrounding this is the concept of transparency. The question is how do we demonstrate transparency in a meaningful way that the consumer can trust? Unless we can measure transparency there is always the risk that we claim we are transparent but there is no quantifiable proof of this. Some examples from the CFI Trust model where we can demonstrate transparency in a measurable way are shown below in Table 4: Table 4: How to demonstrate transparency in CFI Trust model parameters (Source: Center for Food Integrity website ) This model provides the basis on how food businesses can have


Transparency demonstrated using


Certification to independent, auditable standards covering sustainability and ethics e.g. SEDEX certification


Certification to independent, auditable standards covering quality and food safety management e.g. ISO9000, ISO22000, BRC certification

Credentialed Others

Use of veterinarian testimonies on product claims and efficacy

the Freedom To Operate (make and sell food), through implementing and maintaining business management systems that keep regulatory inspections to a minimum (Social Licence), building and maintaining consumer trust. With respect to “Trust”, this is based on 3 key drivers: • Confidence – (Shared Values and ethics)

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd – Helping petfood industry businesses grow their market share Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd (SFI) is a specialist technical consultancy for the petfood industry and ingredients suppliers. We help the industry grow their market share in a growing global petfood market through product development and innovation. Based on 40 years’ R&D and technical risk management expertise in the industry, SFI ensures that customers take a balanced approach to innovation. This allows them to control the quality, food safety and authenticity risks whilst implementing innovative ideas that grow their business. Humanization is an on-going driver of global petfood market growth. Not only do today’s pet owners demand that pet food that supports healthy longevity of their pets, they demand the same high standards of food integrity we apply to human food. SFI helps customers develop innovative products that customers want and helps ensure these are of the quality, safety and authenticity expected by pet parents. This enables business growth whilst protecting our pets, brands and our business. To discover how SFI can help you deliver innovative ideas to market, grow and protect your business please email us at david@sfi-ltd. com to set up a meeting. To learn more about petfood innovation, linked to humanisation and healthy longevity, you are invited to join industry colleagues for 2-days of networking and educational presentations from global experts, at the 5th Nordic Pet Food Conference & Exhibition (5NPFC), Porto, Portugal, 8th – 9th October 2019. 5NPFC is organised by Nordic Pet Food Events and builds on highly acclaimed events in Norway, Croatia, Denmark and Czech Republic between 2015 – 2018. Please visit for more details.

A new model for demonstrating trust in petfood for the 21st Century

in all areas, we can build a model based on current thinking on

Historically trust in petfood was largely demonstrated through compliance

CFI trust model, surrounded by the critical overarching principle of

with food safety systems required from a regulatory perspective e.g.


food integrity, food safety culture and the attitudinal aspects of the

Transparency is difficult to demonstrate in a meaningful way. To

HACCP and relevant EU legislation of petfood safety. However, with pets becoming more integrated into society and

some extent, we can do this using certification to independent, auditable

families, expectations on demonstration of trust has grown into other

certification schemes like BRC Global Standard Food, ISO22000 and

areas e.g. food authenticity (free from claims, avoidance of food fraud

SEDEX certification.

e.g. Economically Motivated Adulteration of gluten with melamine), product claims.

Figure 2 – Model for trust in 21st Century Pet Food

The combination of quality management, HACCP with tools to control adulteration e.g.


VACCP and TACCP, give rise to the concept of food integrity. Food integrity is defined as ensuring “safe, authentic food that meets customer expectations”. However good our food integrity systems are they will be ineffective if we don’t consider how people behave for example “food safety culture” / food safety behaviour i.e. how people behave - Do we do what say we do when it comes to operating food safety management systems? To ensure that we demonstrate trust


ood Supplement 2019 Figure 2 – Model for trust in 21Pet FCentury Pet FoodPage 25


from livestock to petfood By Gill Gallagher, Sustainability Manager, Devenish There is growing awareness and interest among consumers, particularly

economically. Trials conducted with pigs have shown environmental

millennials, in the sustainability credentials of products and brands1.

benefits in the form of lower greenhouse gas emissions (independently

Sustainability is a broad concept and can mean many different things

validated by SAC Consulting using accredited tool AgRE Calc©),

to different people, depending on their perspective. As such, it can be

ammonia, odour, water consumption and slurry output.

difficult to define, although it is generally premised on the three pillars

The Devenish Lands at Dowth is an internationally recognised

of economics, environment and ethics, with the Holy Grail nestled in

research farm dedicated to developing sustainable systems-based

between, satisfying all three simultaneously.

solutions and is part of Wageningen University and Research’s Lighthouse Farm Network, in recognition of its sustainability credentials. Research is ongoing to improve soil health, water quality and carbon sequestration to offset GHGs. Further work has been ongoing to better understand the environmental impact of the embedded carbon emissions associated with different raw materials and to optimise diet formulations accordingly. Embedded emissions are generally associated with the cultivation, harvesting, processing and transport of feed ingredients. With this knowledge Devenish works with customers to understand the carbon footprint of their supply chain and how it can be influenced through choice of materials and formulation. So, how and why is this relevant and important to the pet food sector? As consumers become more discerning, the industry must show leadership to address the challenges, such as supply chain greenhouse gas emissions, which are equally pertinent in pet food. In addition, the pet food sector is entwined in both livestock production

Source: Roadmap for Sustainable EU Livestock

and the human food system, as a competitor for ingredients and user of by-products from both supply chains. More sustainable diets should

Nutrition company, Devenish, have framed their sustainability

seek to maximise nutrient utilisation, the health of the animal and

ethos within an overarching vision of One Health from Soil to Society,

digestibility to reduce losses, with consideration given to the embedded

which focuses on the importance of nutrient utilisation in soil, crop,

emissions associated with the raw materials selected.

animal, environmental and human health, as key and interlinked

Application of knowledge and research from agriculture can help

components of the value chain. This takes a more holistic approach

the pet food sector calculate and understand how to influence the

to the broader life cycle and reinforces the link between nutrition and

carbon footprint impact of its supply chain particularly around the choice

health, both of the human and the environment.

of raw materials and formulations.

From an environmental perspective, Devenish are thought leaders

Protein sources are also deserving of attention in their own right

in the livestock sector, and provide practical solutions to reduce the

– for many consumers protein quantity and source is the key nutrient

environmental impact of production. Much of this is centred on targeted

in their pet food and can influence buying decisions. The Pet Food

precision nutrition, understanding the precise nutrient requirements of

industry recognises the need to have sustainable protein sources

the animal at each life stage and balancing accordingly to avoid feeding

and is looking at alternatives to traditional sources, but it is also worth

excess nutrients which are not able to be utilised and so end up being

considering the quantity of protein being fed to our pets – are we over

excreted into the environment. In particular, protein optimisation is

feeding it? What impact, can overfeeding protein have on the health of

key. Specially developed DevAmine™ technology improves nutrient

our pets and the health of the environment? What can we learn from

utilisation and allows the crude protein content of the diet to be reduced,

the agricultural sector?

without detriment to animal wellbeing or performance which is crucial

As the focus on sustainability intensifies, our research and focus will continue to look at developing supply chain solutions and


formulations for the future that meet the nutritional requirements of our


pets and deliver improved economic and environmental performance


for our customers.

Page 26

Pet Food Supplement 2019

Driving sustainability improvements through innovative nutritional solutions and technical expertise to petfood manufacturers globally

T | +44 (0)28 9075 5566 E |

Calsporin® is already known to strongly support gut health in many animal species. Recently approved by the EU for dog food applications, the spore-forming probiotic has now shown to also strengthen the gut health, digestion, and faecal quality of ‘man’s best friend’.

Good gut Good coat Good dog By Alexia Lépine, PhD, Central Technical Manager, Orffa Additives B.V.

Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer beneficial health effects

shared by all these species to explain such a transversal benefit is

to animals once ingested. Surviving the gastrointestinal fluids is crucial

their developed and diverse intestinal microbiota. The microbiota, or

for probiotics in order to reach the right locations in the intestine, where

microflora, is the huge community of microbes that lives in animals’

they are most effective. The probiotic Calsporin® contains spores of

guts. By constantly communicating amongst themselves and with their

the specifically selected strain Bacillus subtilis C-3102 that stimulates

host, the microflora directly contributes to the animal’s health. Microbes

a stable and strong core microflora. By shaping and maintaining a

feed from the host’s leftovers and excrete compounds such as vitamins

powerful barrier against pathogens, the Calsporin strain ensures

and short chain fatty acids. Maintaining an optimal microbiota prevents

optimal digestion.

the development of pathogens and considerably improves digestibility.


Recent studies verify this process in dogs, too. Apparent digestibility


of ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) have been

Spore-forming probiotics have the major advantage of being extremely

significantly improved, digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter

stable. In addition to its resistance to the low pH of gastrointestinal

(OM) tended to be improved, and observations reveal positive effects

fluids, Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is also thermostable. Extensive studies

on crude fibre (CF) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (Figure 1).

have been conducted for the numerous EU registrations of Calsporin®. All results indicate that harsh processing, such as pelletizing, cannot harm Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores. While resisting temperatures as

Figure 1. Apparent digestibility (%)

high as 90°C, the spores are more sensitive to very rapid changes in

Calsporin® significantly improves digestibility of ether extract (EE) and

pressure, which in turn limits their applicability in extrusion processes.

nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and tends to improve dry matter (DM) and

In order to overcome this limitation, alternative inclusion strategies have

organic matter (OM) digestibility.

been developed together with key industrial partners. For instance,

Figure 1. Apparent digestibility (%). Calsporin® significantly improves digestibility of ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and tends to improve dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. Digestibility of crude proteins (CP) an

studies in digest application have been successfully conducted. The findings underscore that no matter the form in which the product is stored, Calsporin® spores have proven to be highly stable and viable for more than one year in all kinds of feed and petfood. Thus, the probiotic ensures full activity once ingested by the dog.


Gut health / digestion Years of experience led to the registration of Calsporin® as a gut flora






A b


32 28



34 30












74 DM





20 CF

stabilizer for over 10 animal categories. Mammals, birds, and fish have been the beneficiaries of Calsporin®’s positive effects on gut health,

A, B: Different superscript are significant differences (p < 0.05)

faecal consistency, and nutrients absorption. The main parameter

a, b: indicate near significance, trend (0.05 < p < 0.10)

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

Figure 2. Faecal quality scores

Faecal consistency

Calsporin® significantly improves dog’s faeces by lowering soft stools

A healthier microbiota directly contributes to better digestion and

occurrence and increasing the rate of well-formed stools

improved gut health. But how to measure these hidden, internal effects in a concrete and feasible way? Put simply, the visible product of digestion can be evaluated daily in terms of the faecal quality.


p<0.001 p< 0.001 Calsporin

Conducted evaluations emphasized a considerable and repeated improvement of the faecal consistency of dogs fed with Calsporin®.












Figure 2 reveals that dogs using Calsporin® for 5 weeks had less loose and formless stools than controls. Also, well-formed stools were observed in over 55% of the dogs that received Calsporin®, while these were observed in 35% of controls only. Felix et al. 2010 and Paap et al. 2016 confirmed the positive impact. Applying a regression analysis, the authors found that dogs with lower stool consistency before Calsporin® benefit most from the probiotic.

Faecal odour VFA (µmol/g faecal DM)*




Not only unpleasant, a strong smell is a marker for the release of harmful gases, e.g. ammonia. The excretion of such compounds by





animals is common. Concerning husbandry animals, poultry trials have









poisonous hydrogen sulphide (Jeong & Kim 2014). Supplementing





Calsporin® significantly lowered ammonia emission of dogs (Felix et









chain fatty acids (SCFA), while pathogens typically produce branched





chain fatty acids (BCFA). BCFA are the fermentation products of





protein degradation, SCFA relate to carbohydrate metabolism.





Dog owners are often confronted with the odour of their dogs’ faeces.

accumulated evidence for Calsporin® to drastically reduce the excretion of both, ammonia (Jeong & Kim 2014, Blair 2004, field trials) and the

al 2010). Moreover, observations show significant effects on volatile fatty acids (Table 1). Beneficial bacteria are known to produce short

Calsporin® induces the combined effects of decreased ammonia and BCFA and increased SCFA, indicating the shift towards a healthier status of dogs’ microflora. Not surprisingly, the odour of dogs’ faeces therefore improves significantly by supplementing Calsporin® (Paap

Short chain fatty acids, end products of fiber fermentation Branched-chain fatty acids, end products of protein fermentation

et al 2016).

Coat condition Dog owners may not only assess their dogs’ faeces to judge the gut health of their pet. Seeing and petting a soft, thick, and shiny fur coat provides an additional reassurance. Faecal and coat conditions mirror the health status and reflect the quality of the food. As a matter of fact, the benefits of Calsporin® to ameliorate chronic diarrhoea extend to an improved fur coat. Such a clear link between gut health and general improvement of external features is a noticeable way for the owners to realise direct positive effects on their dogs’ health.

Summary A well-formulated dog food containing the stable and viable Bacillus subtilis C-3102 will be highly appreciated by both dogs and their owners. The highly stable, robust and compatible Calsporin® probiotic provides a daily boost to the dogs’ immune system by constantly maintaining a healthy and stable core microflora. Improved hair coat and faecal quality are the visible benefits of Calsporin® that keeps the inner health of the dog at its best.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 29

Aromatic attractiveness of insects to dogs By Matthew Wedzerai MSc The acceptance for insect use in animal nutrition is increasing.

et al., 2004). The main advantage of this insect over other insect

The need for alternative protein sources to soybean and fish meal

species used for biomass production is that the adult does not feed

is the main drive. It is known that the use of supplemental aromas

and therefore does not require particular care and is not a potential

and flavours in pet foods generates additional costs without direct

carrier of diseases. It has been suggested that the larva contains natural

feed quality improvement. However, the use of insects in the

antibiotics (Newton et al., 2008).

form of aroma additives has a high potential for improving both palatability and quality of animal feed.

Mealworm Mealworms are easy to breed and feed and have a valuable protein

The application of insects as an innovative feedstuff component

profile. They contain high amounts of CP (47–60%) and fat (31–43%).

is becoming an interesting issue in companion animal nutrition. In

For these reasons, they are produced industrially as feed for pets and

companion animal nutrition, insect meal can be used, especially in

zoo animals, including birds, reptiles, small mammals, amphibians

hypoallergenic diets. Also, insects are considered a functional feed

and fish. They are usually fed live, but are also sold canned, dried,

due to their chitin and antimicrobial peptide contents (Józefiak et al.,

or in powder form. Mealworms can recycle plant waste materials of

2016; Józefiak and Engberg, 2017).

low quality into high-quality feed rich in energy, protein and fat in a relatively short time.

Some facts about insects Insect rearing could be one of the ways to enhance food and feed

Tropical house cricket

security (van Huis et al., 2013). They have high feed conversion

The crude protein content of house cricket is also very high (55–67%).

efficiency (since they are cold blooded) and can be reared on bio-waste

Both Ca and P contents in house cricket are higher than in locust or

streams. In general, they grow and reproduce easily. Studies show

grasshopper meal.

that a kilogram of insect biomass can be produced from, on average,

The researchers at the University of Poznań in Poland carried out

2 kg of feed biomass (Collavo et al., 2005). Insects can feed on waste

a study to investigate the aromatic attractiveness of insects to dogs.

biomass and have the capability of transforming this waste into high

The results of their trial are given below:

value food and feed resource. However, studies show that most insect meals are deficient in calcium, and its supplementation in the diet is, therefore, required, especially for growing animals. The good news is that these levels of calcium in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the

The trial Animals and diets • 35 dogs (20 males and 15 females) kept as companion animals were used. • Their ages ranged from 12 months to 7 years.

substrate on which insects are reared.

• The dogs were allowed free olfactory access to the selected

Overview of the insect species

unprocessed dried insects (turkestan cockroach (Shelfordella

Black soldier fly

lateralis), black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), tropical house

Black soldier fly larvae are a high-value feed source, rich in protein

cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor).

and fat. They contain about 40–44% crude protein. Black soldier fly

The dogs were also allowed free access to the control treatment

larvae process organic waste very quickly, restraining bacterial growth

which was a commercial dried and pelleted dog feed.

and thereby reducing production of bad odour to a minimum (Erickson

• Samples (100 g) were located separately in non-transparent

Table 1: Nutritive value of the insect species Item

Control diet

Gryllodes sigillatus

Hermetia illucens

Tenebrio molitor

Shelfordella lateralis










Crude fat (g)






Crude fibre (g)






Crude ash (g)






Per kg of DM1 Crude protein (g)


DM – dry matter; 2ND – data not available


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Pet Food Supplement 2019

closed boxes with 5 perforations in the cover (7 mm each) to improve the intensity of the aromas without direct contact with

Speciality Ingredients for Pet Foods

the tested samples • The box was recorded as chosen when the dog showed interest in it for more than 15 seconds continuously per each attempt (3 attempts per dog).

Results and concluding remarks • Mealworm and cockroach contained the highest crude protein levels, up to 59% and 73%, respectively – it’s not clear whether these levels are correlated to aromatic preferences. • Although the aromatic attractiveness was not significantly different between diets, the study demonstrated a positive effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) and cockroach (Shelfordella lateralis) on improving attractiveness to dogs. • On preferences by sex, mealworm was favoured more often by males than by females – which preferred cockroach. • In most cases, producers of companion animal feed use expensive aroma and flavour supplements that do not provide nutrients – besides the aroma and flavour, insects can provide an additional source of high-quality crude protein and fat. • The researchers also concluded that the possibility of insect application to dog diets provides the double benefit of an aroma

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The world’s largest animal feed event VICTAM International is by far the world’s largest dedicated event for the animal feed processing, ingredients and additives industries. The exhibition is the essential ‘one-stop’ show for decision makers within these sectors and is complimented by the following conferences: • 1st International Feed Technology Congress • Feed Strategy Conference 2019 • Petfood Forum Europe 2019 • GMP+ Seminar • AllAboutFeed Seminar • Aquafeed Horizons Conference 2019

Victam International BV P.O. Box 197, 3860 AD Nijkerk, The Netherlands T: +31 33 246 4404 E: W: See us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Google+ or scan the QR code

For the latest news and up-to-date exhibitor list please visit us at Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 31

Dinnissen helps GA Pet Food Ingredients Kitchen to achieve new premium production standards

Advertising feature

Golden Acres Pet Food Partners (Lancashire, England) has completed a large and prestigious project on its premises Ingredients Kitchen sets new standards

innovative ideas into working concepts that are successfully adapted

GA Pet Food Partners (Lancashire, England) is one of Europe’s largest

for the largest producers in the world.

pet food producers. It only produces private label brands which are exported to more than 40 countries throughout the world.

A nice example of such a successful innovative development is the vacuum core coating process that Dinnissen invented in 1992.

CEO Roger Bracewell of GA Pet Food Partners had, together

Several years later, this was followed by the lean gravity mixing lines

with his management team, a vision. The idea was to produce a new

and the hammer mill featuring an automatic screen exchange

excellent line of dry pet food products for the top of the market. To

system. These are just a few of the many technical breakthroughs

achieve this, a special 26-metre-high production plant has been built

that have gained Dinnissen considerable recognition throughout the

called ‘Ingredients Kitchen’ that will set a new standard for pet food. It


concerns premium solutions, where no less than 800 different pet food formulas with different ingredients must be processed on the same

Other wishes

lines … at the ‘premium’ level. And because for premium products, in

In addition to GA Pet Food Partners’ desire to only produce excellent

many cases, premium machines are required, the search was on for

pet food products, various other items were on the wish list: far-reaching

the world’s best machine manufacturers.

automation, a clean and hygienic work floor and ergonomic workplaces for the machine operator. In view of the final result, these wishes have

Teamwork from the individual disciplines

been more than fulfilled.

Bracewell did not believe that there was a single total contractor in the market that had all of the technical and engineering disciplines under

Scaling up to 60 tonnes/hour

one roof that could offer the best possible solution for any situation.

When designing the large-scale installation, which is mainly made

Therefore, for every part of the installation, individual parties were

from stainless steel, the decision was made to create three separate

searched for, each specialised in their own discipline, with a view of

production lines each with a capacity of 12 – 15 tonnes/hour. In other

letting them all work together as a team. “Only then will you be able to

words, a total volume of 40 – 45 tonnes/hour. This mega-volume can,

find and work out the best ideas”, was the vision.

if desired, be relatively simply scaled up to 60 tonnes/hour, because

During the search to find such specialist companies, Dinnissen

during the entire preparation phase, sufficient space was left to allow

quickly came into the picture. The fact that they had devised numerous

the installation of a fourth production line. As is often the case, the entire

innovative engineering solutions reinforced the impression that

line had to comply with the latest Atex regulations.

Dinnissen’s professionalism could guarantee the highest expectations in the areas of volume, accuracy and production security.

Complete milling/mixing line For this project, Dinnissen has built an entire milling/mixing line to

Why Dinnissen?

prepare the product for the extruder. The system consists of Pegasus

Since 1948, Dinnissen Process Technology has been developing

pre-mixers, two different Hamex mills, a screen, a check screen, the

machines, complete processes and customised solutions for the food,

pneumatic transport, the connecting piping, the transport screws and

feed, pet food and chemical industries. The focus mainly lies on the

the bunkers. With respect to the mills, two different types are used: the

efficient handling and processing of powders, granulates and pellets.

Hamex 1000-LS-MG featuring automatic screen exchange which runs at 1500 rpm for fine milling; and the Hamex 1200-HS that, running at

Innovation is the basis One of Dinnissen’s characteristic qualities is to transform daring

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

3000 rpm, is used to mill materials that are rich in fats. An important partner in the entire process is KSE from Bladel in

Pictures show various internal views of the GA Pet Food Partners’ Ingredients Kitchen plant in Lancashire, England

the Netherlands. This company developed the container filling system that fills the containers layer by layer with non-mixed fine and coarse product.

Amended process Where it is normal to first mill the product and then to mix it, here it was decided to optimise this process as well and to mix it before and after milling it. During the process, KSE loads a batch of 1500 kg of various unmixed ingredients into the Dinnissen dual shaft PG2400FF mixer. This 2400-litre Pegasus Front-to-Front mixer optimally mixes the batch and unloads it completely. This means that the ingredients are first mixed before being milled. The reason is that during the mixing process the fines (powders) stick to

to the end bunker. The KSE installation then picks up the next container

the fatty raw materials, meaning that later in the process it is possible to

and fills it from the bunker. The mixed product is then transported to

mill a ‘dryer’ product, improving the efficiency of the process. Moreover,

the extrusion line, where the last micro component can be mixed in

the mixing time is extremely short, a more homogenous mix is achieved

immediately before the extrusion process.

(the coefficient of variation is < 3%) and due to the premixing, the grinding process is better and more efficient.

Additional check

If a specific product with its own formula is extremely rich in fats,

After screening of the fines and after the separator, sample screws

it can be routed to the mill immediately after being mixed. After all,

continually take samples, which are checked via a control screen. If

thanks to the optimal mixing, the additives will stick effectively in and

coarse particles are present, the probability is that a screen is defective.

on the product.

This is an additional check to maintain the final quality at the desired

If the basic product is less fatty, then a screen will screen out the

premium level.

fines as effectively as possible and transport them to an end bunker. The coarser particles will be carefully rerouted to the mill. Thanks to

All in all, once more a stunning technical achievement that is being

them being screened out, the fines will not be exposed to too much

closely followed in the process world. If you also want to follow

energy in the mill, which can possibly lead to them (partially) losing their

it, start by clicking the following link:

product characteristics. Therefore, it is only natural that the production


costs are reduced and quality is increased. That is the reason that the process sequence was amended. After the milling process, the processed product is transported pneumatically to a separator, which also transports the milled product

If you want to receive more information about such high-quality solutions, please contact Dinnissen in Sevenum (the Netherlands). Tel.: +31 (0)77 467 35 55 or go to

Pet Food Supplement 2019

Page 33

Warehouse Management for Pet Food By Paul Girdham There are many off-the-shelf Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) from a variety of suppliers but most systems are geared up for different industries and may have rigid rules which are not really suitable for pet food manufacturers. The unique aspects of warehouses of manufacturers of pet food and animal feed are that a Fork Lift Truck (FLT) has to be used to move pretty well everything and also flexibility is very important. Racking is not always available and stock often has to be stored temporarily on the floor in general areas and aisles. The value of stock doesn’t warrant expensive RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology. On top of that, badging (putting a base product in different bags for marketing reasons) is common, stock shelf life is important and items often have to be held for quality control (QC) checks. A warehouse would normally have five different types of material which all benefit from tracking: • Raw material used in manufacturing • Intermediate material (work in progress) • Finished product for sale (including bought-in product for resale) • Reworks • Packaging material such as empty sacks There are many worthwhile benefits to managing a warehouse efficiently. Top of the list has to be that you know, in real-time, exactly

system both for them and the company; these would include finding

what you have where. This makes warehouse utilisation much more

stock faster, preventing over shipping as well as not forgetting to ship

efficient and may even reduce the need for additional space. The next

something which is in stock.

benefit is the elimination, or at least drastic reduction, in mistakes made

All WMS systems will require wireless (Wi-Fi) coverage throughout

and all the associated costs which those entail. For larger warehouses,

the warehouse, not forgetting the areas outside where lorries are loaded

a WMS system will automatically show warehouse operators where

and unloaded. This area can be tricky to cover as wireless coverage

the oldest stock is for stock rotation.

will be reduced the more lorries are around. Since wireless coverage

Of course, a WMS system will include traceability to track every batch / lot of raw material through to the production process. The FLT

is critical, it pays to install a proper industrial system which allows FLTs to move rapidly around without losing connection.

driver would scan the barcode, for example on an IBC, and ‘move’

The next thing to decide is what type of vehicle mount terminal

it to the IBC addition point. Traceability would also include tracking

you want and the amount of information the FLT driver can see. I

each finished product batch to the final customer or at least to the

personally would always recommend a full-size touch-screen tablet,


bearing in mind that life on a FLT is very tough with bad vibration,

It is important not to slow down warehouse operators and so speed

sometimes getting wet and very cold in winter. Having a terminal

of operation and simplicity of operation are important. When training

permanently wired into the FLT battery solves the problem of battery

warehouse operators it is important to stress the benefits of a WMS

life and mounting it securely means that it cannot be dropped but it does need a vibration-proof mounting. Ram Mount supply suitable mounts for most terminals. Practically, the most sensible way to track items is to use barcoded labels where there is one label for every big bag / IBC and one label for every pallet of bags / packs / cases. For a pallet, the WMS system remembers the number of bags/packs/cases on the pallet when it gets changed and so there is no need to print this information on the label. The labels can also include other useful information such as product code and expiry date. Bear in mind, though, that when a pallet is high up in racking, the label looks pretty small and so important information needs to be made as large as possible. I would recommend a minimum size of A5 for labels. You can purchase very good long-range, rugged, barcode scanners now with a range of a few metres which means that the FLT

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

driver can scan whilst remaining in his/her seat.

system makes for a very efficient operation.

For barcodes there is a world-wide standard for logistics called

When it comes to installation, the most

SSCC which is very suitable for use in a warehouse. This has the added

important thing is to have one person in charge in

benefit that if you intend to ship products to a supermarket or another

the warehouse who can sort out any problems and

large company then the same SSCC barcode will be suitable. The

prevent bad practices. Operator training is especially

SSCC barcode consists of 18 digits in 3 parts: the first is unique to the

important to ensure that they remember to do

factory; the second is a consecutive number unique to you; and lastly

everything and that if there is a problem, it is sorted

there is a check digit. The first part is policed by the GS1 organisation

out straight away. Any problems with warehouse

( but if you don’t ship to anyone who accepts SSCC

stock control get worse the longer that they are left;

barcodes, you don’t need to register with GS1. In future, I suspect that

hoping that they go away never works!

many sites will start to use SSCC barcodes when shipping to other

Installation always has to be done in stages as

companies’ sites; for example, a factory supplying raw material to a pet

initially no stock is barcoded and you cannot start

food factory will ship using SSCC barcodes and the pet food factory

to ship product out until most is. It pays to install a

will be able to scan them directly into stock.

WMS system in a quiet period and having extra staff

Information on warehouse stock and historical traceability

to barcode existing stock helps.

information is important and you cannot afford to lose it. Your IT advisors

When it comes to orders for small numbers

may suggest SQL Server replication which automatically copies all the

of items, it’s best to ‘pre-pick’ these before the

information to a second computer instantly. Thus, you will always have a

lorry arrives. You probably already have a suitable pre-pick area and

spare computer

normally a pre-picked mixed pallet will be issued with a new barcode

with up-to-date

specifically for the customer. This means that when the collection lorry


arrives, this barcode is scanned ensuring that no items are missed off

In all cases,

the load and all lots numbers are stored with that order.

it is essential that

A WMS system will provide lots of information to help with your


business. This could include information on how much reworks is

can be directly

produced from where, how much stock is close to expiry, details on

imported from

raw material arrivals, full traceability, totals of written-off / damaged

your sales order

stock, stock of all material (highlighting low or excessive stock), usage

system / office

of empty sacks, who shipped which order and so on.

IT system as it would be far too onerous to have to re-key them into the WMS system. This is especially true for pet food and animal feed where

Paul Girdham is a Senior Consultant for DSL Systems Ltd which has

orders seem to get changed at the last minute, sometimes even as the

its own Warehouse Stock Tracking system (WST) used in a variety of

lorry is being loaded! Exporting load information back to the accounts

warehouses. For further information visit

A d v a n c e d

c o n t r o l

s y s t e m s

f o r

p e t

f o o d

p l a n t s

Optimise processes Reduce labour User friendly 24/7 support Performance monitoring Flexible and configurable Stock control and traceability Please contact us to arrange a demonstration and find out how we can improve your pet food plant

DSL Systems Ltd, Adbolton Hall, Adbolton Lane, West Bridgford, Nottingham NG2 5AS T: +44 (0) 115 981 3700 I E: I W: Pet Food Supplement 2019

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How to manage the challenge of bringing a new scientific product to market By Professor John Hunter, Tharos Bringing a scientific product to market can be a long and challenging process – whether it’s health, veterinary, medical equipment, food & nutrition etc. Unlike many other products, scientific products need much more rigorous testing and supporting evidence if they are to be credible. People are increasingly wary of pseudo-scientific claims that sound too good to be true. They also want new and innovative ideas. But they only trust what they know and understand. It’s a tricky balance to achieve it takes time and patience to build up trust and confidence. After many years of research and testing my company, Tharos™, launched Equinectar®, an enzyme-enriched feed supplement for performance racehorses. From getting the science right to raising investment, it’s been an uphill challenge, and we learnt a lot along the way. Here’s my advice based on our own experiences:

money to get credible scientific proof, so concentrate on that. Don’t spend it elsewhere unless you really have to, or you’ll be in danger of running out of cash.

Be prepared to look at things differently

It can be a bit of a catch-22: You need money and investment to

Ideas and inspiration can come from the most unexpected sources. For

pay for the science, but people will only invest if they are confident in

me, it was having lunch with the editor of an equine veterinary journal.

the science.

We were speaking about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in humans –

We were very mindful not to fall into this trap. Instead, we focused

my area of focus at the time – and he asked if horses suffer from IBS.

our initial investment and resources on working with some of the best

I had no idea, so I went away to find out. I discovered that horses do

specialist gut health scientists in the UK and abroad. We ran studies

indeed suffer from IBS-like symptoms.

with a number of universities and other research institutions.

It was only by looking at horses specifically that I got the clue that

By building up a body of scientific evidence over time, we have

some conditions, such as IBS, may be caused by undigested starch

managed to gain greater buy-in from investors, helping us to gain more

fermenting in the large intestine. I reasoned that we could improve the

scientific backing. This led us to a position where we were confident

digestion of starch by increasing the levels of amylase – an enzyme

in our products’ efficacy and had a wealth of evidence to prove it.

that breaks down carbohydrates into sugars – and less fermentation

Then we could begin to build the wider team we needed to launch the

would occur in the intestine.

product to market.

This was really the start of our journey. We then began looking at amylase supplements used in human medicine before considering

Building Credibility

using a malt extract, which was more widely available.

Despite our focus on the science, it can still be hard to convince people

So, my advice would be to keep an eye and ear out for interesting

of the efficacy of your product. We were a new company targeting

ideas, dig in to the existing research and see what you come up with.

the racehorse industry - a sector not well known for its incorruptibility.

Meet people in different areas to your own - often it’s the crossover point

People were sceptical, especially given the significance of our results.

that brings the new insight and inspires the development of something

They needed actually to see the product working or speak to someone

truly new and groundbreaking.

they trusted to gain confidence.

Invest in the science

working with well-respected vets and stables, and by writing and

The problem with many so-called scientific products is that they’re

publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals.

The way we tackled this particular challenge was twofold: by

based on old wives’ tales with little actual scientific evidence. Real,

Fortunately for us, the performance equine market is quite

solid science and clear evidence is essential. More important, in fact,

niche. As such, we could run a presentation to vets and trainers in

than having the company set-up and fully formed. If you focus on

Newmarket, tapping into the most influential horse-racing market in

building a company rather than getting the science right you are, to

one fell swoop.

use an appropriate idiom, putting the cart before the horse. You need

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

We began ad-hoc trials of the product in stables and demonstrated

improvements in performance and overall condition of the horses

About Prof John Hunter

over five years, providing first-hand experience to influential market

Professor Hunter is founder


of Tharos, an equine health

Secondly, we wrote and published articles in peer-reviewed

company. He was a Consultant

journals which helped us build credibility on the science side of things.

Physician at Addenbrooke’s

So, on the one hand we were able to demonstrate the effect on horses

Hospital, Cambridge, Visiting

first-hand, and, on the other, we built up our scientific credibility.

Professor of Medicine at Cranfield

So, start with a small market where you know you can reach the

University, and is a recognised

right people. Let them see the product in action and take part in trials.

authority on diseases of the gut,

Focus your writing on peer-reviewed journals for the sector. By starting

including Crohn’s disease, colitis

with a smaller group you can gain traction faster, and then expand.

and irritable bowel syndrome.

If you aim too widely, you’ll need a lot of money to gain any sort of awareness and traction. So, focus on one area at a time.

Professor Hunter has published books in this field and contributed over 150 research papers to major medical journals. He has also been a consultant to international

Take care with patents

companies including Shell, Unilever, Nutricia, Quest International and

A particularly tricky aspect was dealing with patents for our product.

Marlow Foods.

We needed the evidence before we were confident in applying for the patents, but we needed the patents before we could publish any

About Tharos


Tharos is a science-led health company focused on animal digestive

So, while we were publishing in journals, we had to be very careful

health, malfermentation, and the gut microbiome. Following four

about what we included. Giving away our ‘special sauce’ in published

years of ground-breaking research into equine digestion, Tharos has

papers would have meant it was in the public domain and would

developed pioneering diet management products that bestow significant

invalidate our patent applications.

health, condition, and performance benefits for horses.

My advice would be to hire a good patent lawyer who can help you

Diet and digestion are key issues for performance horses and

write your patents in order to expedite the process and who can advise

their management. Tharos presents a compelling opportunity to horse

you on what you can and can’t include in your published research.

professionals worldwide. Tharos is a member of the British Equestrian Trade Association (BETA).

Consider regulatory requirements

EquiNectar ® is an equine dietary

Every product, and especially scientific products, need to pass certain

supplement that helps maintain normal

regulatory requirements. Medical products have the most stringent

body function and improves condition by

regulations and therefore take the longest to process. Fortunately,

promoting an optimal gut microflora.

Equinectar® is classified as a food supplement rather than a medical product, so the regulations are a little lighter. Regulatory approval, regardless of your market, takes time. Knowing what regulatory framework your product will fall into and,

EquiNectar®: • promotes optimal digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine • prevents overspill of undigested

therefore, how long the process should take, will help you manage

carbohydrates into the large bowel

your cash flow until you are approved. There would be nothing worse

• balances the horse’s biochemistry by

than developing a great product only for the company to go bankrupt before it was approved for sale. This may also affect your choice of ingredients. Everything within Equinectar® is included on the Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) list, making it easier to gain regulatory approval from BETA and NOPS.

reducing endotoxicity • restores and maintains the horse’s microbiome to ensure a healthy gut • improves performance and condition through improved feed conversion to energy

If you are using any prohibited or novel ingredients in your product,

EquiNectar is certified under the Feed Materials Assurance Scheme

however, it could take much longer to gain approval. This is something

(FEMAS) and is under application for Universal Feed Assurance

to consider at development stage.

Scheme (UFAS) and British Equestrian Trade Association Naturally

The single most important aspect to keep in mind when bringing a

Occurring Prohibited Substances (BETA NOPS) certifications.

scientific product to market is money. It takes a lot of money to pay for

The company are now looking to run trials of their malt-extract

specialist studies, product development, regulatory approval, patents,

supplement on other animals, including cats, dogs, and cattle, to assess

lawyers, etc. and you need to support yourself and your team throughout

whether the product can be used to improve IBS, diabetes, diarrhoea

the process. Good products can fail due to lack of funds. Keeping your

and other common digestive issues.

attention on your cashflow will be key.


Pet Food Supplement 2019

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An interview with Tom Neish, founder of Yora

fly). After conducting five years of extensive research and consulting entomologists and animal nutritionists, these grubs were selected because they are packed with essential amino acids, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and iron. They also have a higher percentage of protein than either chicken or beef and require a fraction of the energy, land, water and feed that traditional livestock farming needs. Most pet foods, even the premium ones, use meat meal and

What’s behind Yora?

by-product, but Yora uses the whole grub, which is more nutritious.

Yora is our trailblazing new pet food made with 40% insect protein,

There are several other insect-based pet foods on the market but Yora

making it the world’s most sustainable dog food. Our innovative new

contains a higher percentage of insect protein (40%) than other brands.

kibble appeals to ethical dog owners looking to reduce their impact

From a scientific perspective, Yora’s grubs score higher than chicken

on the planet whilst providing a healthy and delicious diet for their

in terms of digestibility, and pets are less likely to be allergic to them,

four-legged friend.

so they’re great for dogs with delicate tummies.

Who created Yora?

What are the nutritional benefits?

I have worked in the pet food industry for over 25 years and, after

Our specialist nutritionist Will Bisset has an encyclopaedic knowledge

having children, I started to become more aware of the damage we are

of pet nutrition and has an infectious enthusiasm for experimenting with

causing to the planet. It prompted me to wonder what the cumulative

ingredients in the kitchen. He actually cooked, baked and tweaked with

impact of feeding meat to the 500 million pet dogs and cats worldwide

29 recipes until he was satisfied he had reached the perfect combination

is and will be.

for Yora. This recipe provides optimum nutrition for dogs and offers a

One day, I was eating an energy bar made from cricket flour and

range of nutritional benefits.

realised that insect protein could provide a viable alternative to beef,

Here are the top 10 nutritional benefits of Yora:

chicken and fish - and the concept of Yora was born.


Where does the name Yora come from?


They’re also great for a dog’s skin and joints.

We selected the name Yora in honour of one of the last uncontacted


The oats offer a nutritious, low GI source of carbohydrates.

tribes in the Amazonian rainforest. Tribes like these, who have always


Beetroot packs a vitamin C punch, potassium for the nervous

The grubs in Yora are a great source of animal protein and packed with essential amino acids.

lived in harmony with nature, are the most at risk from the damage being caused by humankind’s insatiable appetite for meat.

system and iron for blood cells. 5.

Potato is rich in phytonutrients, fibre and vitamin C.

If we can wean the world’s pets off meat and onto insects, then


Linseed and insect oil provide Omega 3 and 6.

we’ll make a huge positive change for our planet’s future. It’s up to us


Chicory helps with digestion and stool formation.

to take the steps we can to change the world for the better.


Parsley is a natural aid to digestion, helps kidney health and has

Where do the insects come from?


anti-inflammatory properties. Yora insects are sourced from Protix, the leading insect and protein nutrient company, based in Holland. The grubs are reared in high tech

Seaweed is a superfood packed with 73 different essential minerals.

10. Yora contains zero antibiotics and is hypoallergenic.

vertical farms and fed on recycled vegetable matter. They are what’s known as ‘primary composters’, which means that once they have

What are the environmental benefits?

processed the vegetable matter, the by-product is a fertiliser that can be

Meat farming is incredibly energy intensive and inefficient, huge

used to grow more vegetables. The grubs naturally grow very quickly.

swathes of land, energy, fertilisers and pesticides are needed to grow

During the lifecycle of an insect there are four stages: egg, larva,

crops to feed livestock. The livestock themselves consume enormous

pupa and adult. During the larvae stage, they are packing away all of the

quantities of water and produce a lot of waste that leaches into the

essential nutrients they’ll need to give them enough energy to transform

water supply and the air. Our grubs are fed on leftover vegetable

into their final adult stage, much like a chicken’s egg is packed with

waste which is essentially carbon neutral, and don’t need much more

nutrition to feed the chicken embryo. Harvesting the grubs just before

input from us to thrive. Our grub protein is more resource and energy

they turn into pupa is when they are at their most nutritious, and before

efficient than soya.

they expend a lot of energy transforming.

Here are the top five environmental benefits of Yora: 1.

Yora is the most sustainable dog food currently available,

How is Yora different to other pet food brands?

containing a higher percentage of insect protein than competitor

Yora is different from other brands because it’s made from an insect-


based protein source, Hermetia Illucens (also known as black soldier

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Pet Food Supplement 2019


When compared to beef farming, Yora’s grubs need just 2% of

the land and 4% of the water required to produce each kilogram of protein, making them incredibly efficient. 3.

Producing 10kg of insect protein generates 0.06 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions – a tenth of the amount of CO2 required to produce the same quantity of chicken protein.


All of the ingredients in Yora have been selected because they have the best nutritional profiles while also being the most sustainable to produce. For example, potatoes generate 85% less CO2 than rice.


Yora’s grubs feast on waste vegetable matter and the only byproduct is compost!

Have you struggled with people’s perceptions of insects compared to more traditional ingredients like meat or fish?

Have you got plans for expanding into other pet foods?

Some people are just instantly on board, while others do take a little

Yes! We have some exciting plans to expand, including Yora for cats

gentle persuading. We find that if a customer gives us a couple of

and a range of sustainable pet treats. Our manufacturing partner Protix

minutes of their time, we can get them over the initial ‘ick’ factor and

recently expanded their range of insects to include crickets, so we’re

realise that Yora is actually often better for their pets than what they’re

now looking to develop a range of nutritious and delicious treats such


as protein bars and bedtime biscuits for dogs and cats – which means

Insects have been a major part of the food chain since the dawn

their whole diet can be migrated across to Yora.

of time, and they’ve fallen out of favour in the West while millions of people eat them every day. It’s definitely easier to convince people to

How do you predict the market will develop in the future?

feed grubs to their pets than to try them themselves!

With a heightened awareness of the impacts of climate change, demand for sustainable products across all sectors, including pet food, is a

Why is feeding human grade meat to dogs an issue?

major trend. Consumers and suppliers are increasingly looking to be

Traditionally pet food was a great way to use leftovers from the human

more ethical and environmentally conscious. Add that to the increasing

food industry, so it was actually not too bad for the environment. But

pressure to reduce meat intake and it’s clear that the pet food industry

now people want higher quality protein sources for their pets, hence the

needs to diversify. We have been welcomed and praised by The

trend towards human grade meat, which is just not sustainable.

Pet Industry Federation as an innovative new pet food that is taking

It seems wrong to me that while resources are dwindling around

important steps towards greening the market. We firmly believe that

the world, we’re feeding food to pets that could go to people instead.

insect protein will become a key component in both human and animal

This can clearly be seen in the fact that carcasses are arriving for

diets as we are forced to re-think outdated food production systems in

processing for pet food more stripped of meat than ever, and meat

order to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

prices are going up because of demand. With insect protein, we’ve found a source of protein that’s incredibly nutritious and that pets love, without taking food off the world’s plate.

Where do you sell Yora? Yora will be stocked in independent and specialist pet food shops and is also available to buy online.

Is Yora suitable for all types of dog? Yora offers a nutritionally complete food for all standard breeds.

Is Yora available globally?

Puppies generally need a specially formulated diet but large breeds

Yora pet food is currently only available in the UK, but we have had

can transition to dry food by 9 or 10 weeks of age, and small dogs can

interest from across the world. These companies aren’t restricted to

do the same around 12 or 13 weeks. Yora is also supported by a team

having an explicit environmental mission which is extremely promising

of qualified veterinary experts including TV vet Dr. Rory Cowlam, who

for the future of sustainable pet food.

shares our excitement for the enormous potential for Yora to reduce our pets’ collective carbon pawprint.

How much does it cost? Yora is priced at £13.99 (£1.68 per day) for a 1.5kg bag, £47.99

How do you manage production?

(£1.44 per day) for a 6kg bag and £89.99 (£1.35 per day) for a 12kg

Yora’s manufacturing arrangement means we supply all the ingredients

bag. The cost per day is based on a medium-sized dog (15kg) eating

to a partner who runs the recipe through an extruder. This means

180g of food.

we have no issues supplying ourselves and we are set to meet the increasing demand.

Visit for more information.

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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… PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … C H I C O R Y B O A S T S H E A LT H BENEFITS FOR PETS Chicory is a blue flowering plant belonging to the dandelion family and its root being a great source of inulin, a type of prebiotic, which can also be found in wheat, onions, bananas, garlic and asparagus. As onions and garlic are toxic to dogs and wheat can trigger an adverse food reaction, Vet’s Kitchen use inulin from chicory root in nearly all of their dry dog and cat food range, wet dog food products and their HJealthy Digestion supplement. Jenny Philp, managing director and senior practicing vet at Vet’s Kitchen, explains the science behind inulin and how chicory can be incorporated as part of your pets healthy diet to encourage healthy digestion: “When it comes to the digestive system, prebiotics are broken down (fermented) by the bacteria in the large intestine and used like a fertilizer or energy source to encourage healthy/beneficial bacterial growth. These prebiotics affect the levels, species and activity of beneficial bacteria in the gut, which in turn can have a positive effect on digestion. “Beneficial bacteria can help the digestive system in a numbers of ways by producing certain vitamins, including Vitamins K which are required for blood clotting. It can also help to breakdown food to make it more digestible, as well as aiding the absorption of nutrients which help your pet stay happy and healthier for longer. By making the environment in the gut less favourable for harmful bacteria, beneficial bacteria created by prebiotics can also positively affect and regulate the immune system.”

TO M R A F O O D I N T R O D U C E S ADVANCED SORTING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PETFOOD INDUSTRY TOMRA Food, manufacturer of sensorbased sorting machines for the food industry, has become the first to provide advanced sorting solutions for petfood producers. By developing four new sorting applications of its proven technologies, the company has made it possible for petfood manufacturers to easily remove even very small particles of foreign materials from dry meat and bone meal, ground frozen meat, biscuits residue, and dry kibble. All four new sorting applications have been validated over the last two years at TOMRA facilities as well as in real-world working conditions at petfood manufacturing plants in Europe and the United States. By recalibrating sorting machines originally designed to ensure the purity of food for human consumption, extensive tests have identified the best equipment for specific petfood sorting tasks and have arrived at the optimal configurations for sorting efficiency and product yield. Contamination risk can

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Pet Food Supplement 2019

be high in petfood because of the nature of the raw materials. Dry meat and bone meal, derived from offal (animal by-products) collected at slaughterhouses, can contain all kinds of foreign bodies. Ground frozen meat for wet petfood is also derived from offal. Biscuits residue, an ingredient for dry kibble, can contain plastic or cardboard from wrappers and boxes. And if dry kibble storage silos are not completely emptied before refilling, there can be cross-contamination of Stock Keeping Units (product types).

CDR FoodLab The CDR FoodLab is a photometric analyser that can rapidly measure levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in under 1 minute, along with peroxide value (PV) and p-Anisidine (p-AnV) in 3-4 minutes. The methods are easy to use and all test kits are pre-prepared with no further instrument calibration required. The CDR FoodLab is reference method compliant but does not require the use of toxic reagents. Pet food customers have found it to be a crucial and cost-effective analytical tool for bringing quality control of fats and oils in-house.

Burns Pet Nutrition donates 25% of profits to charity In 2018, Burns Pet Nutrition announced a £1 million charity donation to celebrate its 25th year of trading. The leading pet food producer is donating a quarter of its annual profits to a number of charitable organisations of part of its continued efforts to support community projects and animal charities. Burns Pet Nutrition, a family-run business, has been producing natural pet food for dogs, cats and rabbits since 1993. The Carmarthenshire-based company is led by Veterinary Surgeon, John Burns. Today, the multi-award-winning firm operates on a global scale with trade deals in place across Hong Kong and Europe. The company’s record charity donation will help a number of charitable animal welfare organisations including their charity partners Dogs for the Disabled and Forever Hounds Trust. A significant portion of the donation (£800,000) is being invested into The Burns Pet Nutrition Foundation, a charity established in 2007 by John Burns to improve the lives of people and pets across the UK with an emphasis on tackling the effects of social isolation in rural west Wales. Six full-time staff members currently work for the third sector arm of the organisation on a variety of projects supporting disadvantaged groups in the community. The money will go towards developing and expanding the charity’s projects and activities.

Croston Engineering Croston Engineering, since its formation in 1976, has specialised in the design and building of bulk storage and handling plants throughout the UK. The company’s clients include many household names in the pet food, animal feed and human food industries from whom repeat contracts are received as a result of the prompt and personal service that is provided. Projects undertaken range from the intake and bulk storage of raw materials through processing that may include batch weighing, grinders, mixers, extrusion, pelleting and the out loading of finished products. The carrying out of improvements and extensions to existing production plants is part of the Company’s remit. Croston Engineering is an Approved SAFEContractor, a recognised standard of competence in the industry and is fully conversant with the requirements of DSEAR/ATEX Explosion Regulations where applicable.

From the gut to the brain, and back: A two-way connection for improving pet well-being The brain-gut axis is a well demonstrated concept in humans, showing that the enteric microbiota communicates with nervous, emotional and cognitive systems. A review presented at Petfood Forum China, in Shangai, by Francesca Susca, Ph.D., DVM, Pet Development Manager at Lallemand Animal Nutrition highlighted recent research focusing on the brain-gut axis and the capacity of specific natural microbial solutions to enhance pets’ well-being. In particular, the potential of probiotics to influence the braingut axis is a growing field of evidence with first animal study published in 2006, briefly followed by the first human studies showing that a probiotic supplement can effectively alleviate both physiological and psychological symptoms of chronic stress. To date, more than 50 published studies have evaluated the link between probiotics supplementation and the brain-gut axis. The brain-gut axis represents certainly one of the newest and most promising areas of research in microbiota and probiotics. The studies presented have the potential to pave the way for new holistic approaches to modern pet well-being issues by targeting the gut microbiota,

BUTCHER’S PET CARE TAKES A LEAD ON PLASTIC-FREE PACKAGING Butcher’s Pet Care, the UK’s number one canned dog food brand, has is removing the equivalent of 4.2 million plastic bottles from its supply chain by replacing the shrink wrap on its canned food for dogs. The six & twelve pack cans, are now 100% recyclable, using cardboard packaging made from sustainably grown trees.






botanical extracts and plant-based sweeteners

over two decades of experience

natural ingredients for animal nutrition

Our Ingredients TruGro TM AOX Natural Antioxidants

TruGro TM SW Palatability / Sweeteners

TruGro TM G H Gut Health

Botanical Extracts |

Layn Supports Three Key Pillars of Pet Nutrition Layn has launched into the pet nutrition space, targeting specific pet health needs, and pleasing pets and their owners with its high-quality, natural, plant-based ingredients. Its new pet food additive platforms can improve palatability, and address three important areas of pet health – gut health, cell oxidation and weight control.

Gut Health A healthy gut is the foundation of health for pets. As the largest immune organ, more than 80% of the immune system resides in the gut. Proper gut health helps to ensure that pets are able to digest and absorb valuable nutrients from the food and supplements they eat. The TruGro GH pet food additive platform that includes natural solutions based in botanical extracts that help maintain intestinal barrier function and health for improving animal welfare. The platform is based in botanical extracts that help strengthen the gut microbiome to provide a myriad of life-supporting functions that can help pets live their healthiest days.

Cell Oxidation Oxidation can damage mitochondria, cell membranes and other mechanisms and structures essential to the cell. This kind of damage underlies many diseases. The TruGro AOX platform is based in botanical extracts with antioxidant capabilities, targeted at reducing cell oxidation.

Palatability Obesity is a significant risk factor for many life-threatening diseases that affect pets. Body weight is a balancing act of “energy in” (food) versus “energy out” (activity). To achieve weight loss, food consumption needs to be decreased and/or the amount of activity must be increased. But, it’s best to prevent weight gain in the first place since weight loss can be more difficult to achieve. The TruGro SW pet food additive platform includes plant-based sweeteners and flavors, adding palatability to the food and helping to control eater activity. The new pet nutrition ingredients are available as part of Layn’s animal nutrition brand, TruGro™ by Layn®. The new product line includes polyphenol & flavonoid rich extracts, palatability ingredients and other specialty extracts from botanicals including grape seed, green tea, rosemary and others. For more information, visit

Pet Food Supplement 2019

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In the fast-changing world of FMCG, if you’re not innovating, you’re standing still… and that’s when your competitors can overtake you. Trouw Nutrition leads the world in developing the kind of product innovations that differentiate our partners’ brands, keeping them way ahead of the rest of the marketplace. Isn’t it time you gave your NPD the ‘Trouw innovation’ difference?

Contact Katarzyna Świrkowicz or Roderick Prince on: +44 (0)1335 341121 or visit


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