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2019 Vol. 21
Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd Plas Y Coed Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 Web site: www.feedcompounder.com E-mail: email@example.com
Editor: Andrew Mounsey
Editorial assistant: Ryan Mounsey
Contents Pet Topics
By Roger W Dean
Seaweed Blends Enhance Digestion for Pets
By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen
Supporting Pet Health With Functional Treats and Dietary Supplements
By Sarah-Jane Godfrey
Taking Advantage From the Use of Special Yeast Products
By Antonia Schulte and Dr Bastian Hildebrand
Thermal Extrusion Baked Pet Foods
By Galen Rokey
Pets Love Yeast!
By Francesca Suska PhD, DVM
On Trend Solutions Through Premix
By Alexandra Wesker
Pet Owner Trust in Pet Food
By David Primrose
Subscription rates: Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit www.pentlandspublishing.com/pfs. htm#register
ISSN 0950-771X Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the
Sustainability From Livestock to Petfood
By Gill Gallagher
Good Gut, Good Coat, Good Dog
By Alexia LĂŠpine
Aromatic Attractiveness of Insects to Dogs
By Matthew Wedzerai MSc
Dinnissen Helps GA Pet Food Ingredients Kitchen to Achieve Premium Production Standards
Warehouse Management for Pet Food
By Paul Girdham
Bringing a New Scientific Product to Market
By Professor John Hunter
ÂŠ Feed Compounder 2019
An Interview With Tom Neish, Founder of Yora
40 Pet Food Supplement 2019
PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean
4.7 million dogs and 4.1 million cats in UK households. A decade later in
Each year the Pet Foods Manufacturers Association (PFMA) commissions
1985, the respective numbers were 6.3 million dogs and 6.1 million cats;
the authoritative and well-regarded Pet Population Report, which looks in
there were also 1.8 million budgerigars, a figure that was to reach 1.9
detail at pet ownership trends in the UK. In 2019 it is estimated that 12
million ten years later, a year that was a high point in the UK budgerigar
million UK households – 40 per cent of the total – have pets.
population. In 1995, marked by a move to a second digit after the decimal
As one might reasonably expect, dogs and cats dominate the pet
point, the dog population of the UK numbered 6.65 million and cats
register. On a rolling total for 2018-19, the UK dog population numbered
numbered 7.23 million where it appeared, according to the available
nine million with 25 per cent of all households in possession of a dog.
data, to have plateaued for both dogs and cats. The data does appear
Cats numbered 7.5 million with 17 per cent of all households with a cat
to confirm that further development of the UK market for pet foods will
in residence. There following what one may call the minor pets ranging
depend on qualitative rather than quantitative factors.
from rabbits down to frogs and toads. Rabbits numbered an estimated 600,000 with just 1 per cent of UK households owing a rabbit. Other minor
Is your cat satisfied?
pets ranged from lizards and snakes to gerbils and ferrets.
Cats are notoriously fussy creatures, a fact to which the present author
Are pet numbers growing? PFMA statistics suggest that the number of dogs in 2010-11 was 7.6 million; in 2018-19, it amounted to 9 million.
can personally attest. But how do we measure their appreciation of the food we provide for them?
The cat population in 2010-11 was estimated at 7.9 million; by 2018-19 it
Before embarking on a discussion of this complex topic, there is
had fallen to 7.5 million. These figures suggests that the dog population
another question that must be addressed. At the recent Petfood Forum
is increasing while the cat population is in decline, albeit slowly. It might
2019 gathering held in Kansas City, a paper by Dr Susan Jojola, manager
be possible to explain the relative trends by saying that while it is possible
of applied behaviour research at AFB International (an American
to establish a working relationship with a dog, catsend to be more aloof.
company that manufactures a full range of liquid and dry palatability
As the number of households increase, new householders considering a
enhancers) made frequent reference to ‘pet parents’, rather than pet
pet may opt for the closer relationship that seems potentially realisable
owner or, referring to the pet, ‘companion animal’. On mature reflection,
with a dog rather than with a cat.
the author has concluded that ‘pet parent’ is, in fact, an appropriate
PFMA also produce interesting statistics on the regional distribution
description of the pet owner’s role, in that ‘parent’ implies the degree
of the respective pet species, defined as the percentage of households
of care and nurture that should characterise the relationship between a
in each region who own at least one of the major pet species. The data
parent and a human child, except that in the case of a pet parent, a pet
is expressed as the average of the last three years.
is substituted for the child.
While nationally more households include a dog than a cats, the
Dr Jojola introduced her presentation by observing that ‘because pet
regional data suggests that the relative percentages for London are
parents see feeding as a time to enrich the bond with their cats, measuring
reversed, at 14 per cent and 9 per cent respectively. This is intuitively
a cat’s enjoyment of food and treats can enhance that bond’. She said
acceptable; London is arguably less dog-friendly in terms of the wide-
that a pet parent’s perception of the cat’s enjoyment of a meal was very
open spaces desirable for the dog’s daily walk while cats are better suited
important, as this perception was likely to influence the pet parent either
to exploiting the nooks and crannies of the capital. Looking at the data
to continue purchasing the same type of food that they were currently
in an overall context, the region with the largest proportion of dogs is the
offering their cat or, maybe, to make a switch to something different.
north east, with 36 per cent of households with a canine in residence,
Critically, however, this could also help pet food and treat
with Northern Ireland having 31 per cent. As previously mentioned, the
manufacturers figure out what products cats find most and least
smallest proportion of households with a dog in residence is London with
just 9 per cent. Where cats are concerned, the south west has the largest
Dr Jojola said that measuring cats’ enjoyment could offer insight
proportion of households with a cat – 21 per cent – with households in
into product performance that went beyond the simple amount of cat
the south-east at 20 per cent. London is the only part of the UK with a
food consumed and was ‘a possible indicator of the in-home feeding
higher proportion of households housing a cat than a dog but the region
experience’. She said that there was a shift from cats being simply
with a lower proportion of households owning a cat is Northern Ireland
‘a pest control agent’ to being members of the family and sharing the
at just 12 per cent.
family home. This development underpinned the need to look at the
Do the available data cast any light upon the development of pet ownership in the UK in earlier years?
cat’s enjoyment of its food. Dr Jojola said that by supplementing consumption data with
While PFMA warns that their statistics cannot be directly compared
behaviour data, comprising food focus, work effort and interaction, cats’
to recent data as a different method of collection was used between
enjoyment – or otherwise – of their food could be better measured. What
1980 and 2002, the available data suggests that, in 1965, there were
do these terms mean?
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Food focus is the degree to which the cat focuses on the food.
on 28 September 2018, the author predicted that the thriving Chinese
High food focus indicates palatable food and high interest, while low
market for pet food and pet care products was likely to make China the
food focus indicates distractions while eating, which could be related to
world’s largest market for pet food and pet care products in five to ten
palatability. Measuring food focus can help distinguish between products
years’ time, a development that implies ‘vast business opportunities’
where the volume of alternative products consumed is similar. Work effort
for current and potential players. According to one report published by
shows ‘whether the cat thinks the food is worth working for’. By giving
China Pet Market, the Chinese pet population increased by a 7 per cent
cats puzzle trials, wherein they have to work to get a treat, researchers
average annual growth rate between 2013 and 2017, from 389 million
can measure preference, which is helpful in distinguishing differences
pets to 755 million. The report suggests that the Chinese pet population
between products. Interaction indicates the cat’s willingness ‘to interact
will continue to show strong growth from 2018 to 2022, with an annual
with a human to get the food or treat’. By using treat products, researchers
average growth rate of 8.2 per cent. Within this total market, the cat
can measure how much a cat enjoyed the treat and is ‘more likely to
population will have the largest growth, with an 18.5 average annual
allow the owner to pet them, even when no more treats are offered’. She
growth rate while the reptile population is forecast to have the smallest
went on to say that enjoyment measures were an additional dimension
growth, averaging just 0.3 per cent a year. Cats, which constituted the
of the feeding experience, adding that evaluating enjoyment could help
fourth largest pet population in 2017, will become the second largest
pet food manufacturers to improve products, help pet parents to enjoy
pet population by 2022.
more interaction with their cats, thereby increasing the human-cat bond,
South America is another area that is coming under increasing
and also with the potential to ‘interpret preference based on additional
scrutiny as regards the development of its markets for pet food and pet
care. Brazil naturally receives a great deal of attention as the largest player on the continent; according to some reports, it is the world’s the
third biggest market for pet foods and pet care products, after the U.S.
As the pet food markets of the US and Western Europe mature, it is
only natural that analysts look for the markets which offer opportunities
According to Mordor Intelligence, an India-based consultancy,
for further quantitative development. The increasing number of Chinese
the Brazilian pet food market was valued at $4.93 billion in 2018 and
tourists in hotspots all over Europe testifies to the emergence of a
is projected to register average annual growth of 7.5 per cent during
travelling middle class with increased levels of disposable incomes – and,
the forecast period 2019 to 2024. As consumers become progressively
reflecting this, pet foods and pet care products is another area where
more concerned about their own health, particularly in relation to their
China is playing an increasingly significant role.
diet, similar concerns about the diets of their pets is reportedly increasing
In an article that appeared in the Hong Kong Economic Journal
significantly. In 2017, the latest year for which data is available, there were in Brazil 52.2 million dogs and 22.1 million cats – as well as 37.9 million birds. Mordor Intelligence reports that what it calls ‘Pet Refinement/ Humanization’ is influencing pet food purchasing decisions and may thus be described as the main driver of the pet food and pet care market. ‘Pet humanization’ reflects rising income, changing demographic patterns, and the evolution of consumer preferences. Specifically, the shift toward
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pet ‘parenting’ from pet ‘ownership’, plays an important part in influencing the purchasing decisions made regarding pet products in Brazil. The Brazilian market for pet food and pet care products is highly consolidated, with the top five market players accounting for more than 60 per cent of the market. The Brazilian pet food market consists of global players, like Nestle, Mars Incorporated and Hill’s Pet Nutrition, but domestic companies also play a major role. It is expected that the Brazilian pet food market would assume a more consolidated shape in future years. Other Latin American companies also demonstrate the conditions for rapid growth in the market for pet foods and pet care products of which Mexico is the second largest Latin American player. In contrast,
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oil rich Venezuela has the lowest level of both average consumption of commercial pet food per animal and the lowest volume of total consumption. However, the pet food industry in Venezuela is unlikely to grow much until the nation’s rampant inflation, political challenges,
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unemployment, poverty and other problems improve.
Insect Feast? There has been considerable interest, in both the animal feed industry and the petfood sector, in the potential of insect-based protein for
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Pet Food Supplement 2019
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Pet Food Supplement 2019
inclusion in feeds for livestock and for pets. This stems from concerns
novel petfood product in order to secure market acceptance. While Fido
about the availability of vegetable protein such as soybean meal and
and Puss may be quite happy at the prospect of sampling a novel version
rapeseed meal, either in the event of demand exceeding supply or in
of their conventional food, their owners may be more concerned. Despite
the context of an emerging tariff war featuring the U.S. and other major
the clear growth of interest in insects as a protein source, with insects
ranking as the most searched for pet food ingredient on Petfood Industry’s
It was thus interesting to read a report written by Tim Wall in Petfood
website in 2018, we know that there is a high degree of disgust amongst
Industry.com about feeding trials involving both dogs and cats which
consumers about the idea of insects as a food. However, researchers
resulted in pet foods, made with insect-based ingredients, which ‘had
have pointed out that many pet owners have witnessed their dogs and
similar palatability and digestibility to kibble containing conventional pet
cats hunting insects and, knowing that dogs and cats instinctively dine
food protein and oil sources’. The ingredients used in the dog and cat
on insects may lead to pet owners dispensing with their reservations
foods used in the trial came from black soldier fly larva which increasingly
about them as novel protein sources in dog and cat foods, even if they
serves both as a protein and a palatability improver in pet foods, as
are uncertain about eating insects themselves.
regulatory restrictions are relaxed.
Interest in insect-based protein for incorporation into dog foods
The result of the trials was reported in the recent Petfood Forum
seems strong in the UK where a company called Yora has created an
2019 which took place in Kansas City, ending on 1 May. Researchers
insect-based food for dogs which it describes as ‘the only alternative to
offered twenty Beagles bowls of kibble made with black soldier fly
traditional meat and fish sources that is fully suited to your pet’s digestive
larvae protein, oil or, alternatively, a control diet made with conventional
system.’ The full name of the company, which was incorporated on 3
ingredients. The bowls were offered individually for thirty minutes once
October 2017, is Yora Pet Foods for the Planet Ltd. However, while the
daily for two days.
company’s product appears to be quite widely available, the company
The control diet contained poultry by-product meal, brewers rice,
has yet to produce its first set of accounts, so it is not possible to evaluate
maize, poultry fat, beet pulp, dicalcium phosphate, salt, potassium
objectively the degree to which customers have so far accepted the
chloride, and a vitamin and mineral mix. In the experimental diets,
insect-based ingredients replaced the poultry meal or the poultry fat.
It is, perhaps, too early to know whether insects might become an
The researchers used three levels of black soldier fly meal – 5, 10 or 20
integral part of the pet foods raw material matrix. There is certainly a
per cent – in one set of diets’ recipes while, in the other experimental
degree of resistance to the use of public funds to promote or develop the
diet, the researchers applied black soldier fly larvae oil at three levels of
technique. In the US, there have been attempts in the Senate to frame
concentration – 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0 per cent – to the exterior of the kibble.
ongoing research supporting insect farming as ‘wasteful’. In Europe,
How did the experimental diets work with the dogs? Dogs ‘readily
in the same way as any food or feed company, insect producers have
accepted’ the kibble with black soldier fly meal at up to 20 per cent
to follow the principles established under the General Food Law, the
inclusion and with insect-based oil at up to 5 per cent. Those two values
legislation that forms the cornerstone of the European Feed Safety
were incorporated into the subsequent digestibility study. In the latter,
risk management policy where responsibility for the safety of feed and
six dogs ate one of three diets, either the 20 per cent insect meal, the
food placed on the market lies with individual feed and food business
5 per cent insect oil or the control kibble. The diets were offered to the
operators, including the requirement that traceability of products must
dogs, once daily, for ten days.
be ensured. In the EU today, opportunities for using and feeding insects
After the first five days, the researchers began collecting faecal
are still quite limited; for example, insects are not allowed to be used
samples from the dogs for analysis. Both the insect oil and protein diets
as feed for poultry and pigs and may not be fed with former foodstuff
had digestibility similar to the control diet. The dogs’ faecal quality was
containing meat, fish or food losses originating from restaurants or from
also similar in both the experimental and control diets.
other catering establishments.
The researchers found that cats, too, found insect-based protein
Insect-derived protein is, thus, very much a work-in-progress,
and oil ingredients palatable while the cat’s digestive systems handled
whether for farm animals or domestic pets. Nevertheless, in a world that
the insect-based pet food ingredients as well as poultry products. In the
faces rising population and increasing competition for available protein
palatability study, twenty cats ate a variety of experimental pet food or
sources, whether for human or animal, the interest in insect protein is
the control over two days. Each formulation was offered individually for
unlikely to diminish any time soon.
four hours. For the cat acceptance feeding trial, the researchers used two levels of black soldier fly meal, 5 per cent or 20 per cent. In the other
Pet Food Manufacturer’ Concerns What bothers pet food manufacturers the most?
experimental cat diet, the researchers applied black soldier fly larvae
In the attendee registration process running up to Petfood Forum
oil at three concentrations – 1 per cent, 2.5 per cent or 5 per cent to
2019, Watt Global Media, the publisher of Petfood Industry, conducted
the exterior of the kibble. The cats accepted the insect protein meal at
a survey into what constituted the five most pressing issues affecting
up to 20 per cent but showed a lower level of palatability than dogs for
the industry. A total of 1,300 respondents provided responses to the
the black soldier fly larvae oil. In the digestibility study, the researchers
used black soldier fly larvae meal at 20 per cent, but oil at the middle
The results were revealing. Many observers would think that
2.5 per cent concentration on the exterior of the cat food. As with dogs,
ingredient quality is pet food manufacturers’ primary concern, and the
cats digested the insect-based ingredients’ nutrients at similar rates to
issue did indeed top the poll of responses, at 17.2 per cent, but only by
conventional poultry products.
the narrowest of margins. Commenting on the results of the survey, one
The trials illustrate the length to which researchers must go with a
Pet Food Supplement 2019
commentator surmised that it was possible that respondents to the survey
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Pet Food Supplement 2019
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were considering recent news relating to problems with raw materials.
note that, in mature pet food markets, the criteria applying to human food
Earlier this year, starting 31 January, Hill’s Pet Nutrition recalled
quality tend to be replicated in pet foods to an increasing extent.
numerous lots of prescription dog food for excessive levels of vitamin D.
Ranked third in the list of pet food professionals’ concerns was
Hill’s identified a pet food ingredient supplier as the source of the problem;
the cost of ingredients, packaging, etc – 16.4 per cent. Developing an
this was followed by an additional product recall on 21 March.
effective online digital trading platform – 11.9 per cent – and maintaining
The second most pressing concern, at 16.7 per cent, was
a favourable consumer perception of the respondents’ brand – 9.6 per
understanding what dog, cat and other pet owners want. With some
cent – were the remaining issues of significance, leaving 28.2 per cent
consumers calling for high meat content while others demanded vegan
for other and, presumably, minor issues.
pet foods, making every pet owner happy may be impossible. However,
An interesting survey and with results that many observers in the
the survey postulated that pet food professionals ‘may please some of
pet food industry might not have expected. For example, the issue of
the people some of the time’ by following how trends in human food
ingredient quality might have been expected to absorb a higher proportion
consumption migrate into pet food. In this connection, it is important to
of pet food manufacturers’ concerns. It might be interesting to repeat the survey in a few years’ time, in the expectation that ingredient quality would assume a higher degree of importance. Or maybe not.
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The Impact of Vegan There were a reported 600,000 vegans in the UK in 2018, a figure that represents a quadrupling from 150,000 in 2014, according to the Vegan Society. The UK also topped the list in terms of new vegan product launches during 2018 – thereby deposing Germany from its Number One spot. As one commentator put it, ‘as an animal-loving nation it makes sense to see this trend continue into the pet food industry.’ And 2019 has been proclaimed as the Vegan’s year. Why are consumers choosing vegan pet food? It’s not just vegan owners putting their pets on plant-based diets;
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non-vegan consumers buy vegan pet food too. Organic pet food manufacturer Yarrah started producing vegetarian kibble for dogs in 1995 and, after a few years, it made the transition to being completely vegan. Contrary to a widely held view that it was introduced to the market to give vegetarians the option of feeding their dogs a meat-free diet, the food was primarily intended for – and pre-eminently well-suited to – ‘dogs that don’t get on well with animal proteins.’ A question that has concerned many households that include a cat is the suitability of vegetarian or vegan foods for the feline species. Vegan cat food is a more contentious issue than dog food, as cats are,
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as taurine and arachidonic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid contained in meat. While taurine can be synthesized and added to cat food, not all
vegan cat owners are confident in giving their pets a plant-based diet – in
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particular, it remains to be seen how vegan cat food sales may fare in the future as veganism in humans continues to rise.
Seaweed blends enhance digestion for pets By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen, Barentz Animal Nutrition
Gut health or digestive performance is an important challenge in the pet food industry. Pet food producers are looking for solutions to produce food for dogs or cats that stimulates digestion, resulting in healthy animals and firm stools. It can be a challenge because digestion is influenced by many different aspects such as the presence of both
Benefits of seaweed blends 100% natural and sustainable product Rich in minerals
beneficial and pathogenic bacteria in the gut, as well as the ingredients
and additives used in the food. Seaweed is a feed ingredient that will
Supports enhanced digestive balance
prebiotically support digestion in the intestine, while delivering trace minerals, vitamins, amino acids, and even omega-3 fatty acids.
Shiny and softer coat Better and firmer stools Good taste and palatability Supports increased stamina, more energy
and absorbed. This results in an enhanced intestinal balance which was seen by a group of 50 customers testing the seaweed blend as a supplement to their existing dog food for 4 weeks. The following results were measured: • 88% - reported improved digestive health. Ranges of outcome included reducing diarrhea, firming stools. • 88% - reported improved coat or skin condition. Responses
Red, brown and green Seaweeds are macroalgae which can contain polysaccharides, specific proteins, antioxidants, omega-3s, and are also rich in important
included softer or shinier coats, reduced flaking. • 41% - reported improved energy or stamina, particularly during hot weather.
minerals. Those bioactive components contribute to improved digestive
• 29% - reported better smelling breath. Likely due to reduced
function and better nutrient use in animals. Our seaweed blends
pathogenic bacteria in the gut as part of the prebiotic effect.
contain a mixture of red, brown and green seaweed species. Different species are chosen for the blends to target a variety of polysaccharides,
Natural clean label
minerals, proteins, fibers, etc. With a seaweed blend we can fulfil the
Seaweed blends are produced and harvested sustainably, and are
requirements of each animal species regarding polysaccharides and
subject to minimal processing in order to preserve the natural bioactive
minerals, and gain broad efficacy, as each seaweed within the blend
components. Seaweed blends for pets with an organic certificate can
brings its own distinct performance.
also be supplied. Therefore it fits fantastically in clean label, natural and sustainable pet food diets.
Mode of action - polysaccharides Polysaccharides like alginates, fucoidan, laminarin and ulvan have a
Barentz Animal Nutrition: Your Ingredients Partner
prebiotic effect. This means that the seaweed stimulates the growth of
Barentz is a global distributor of ingredients in the animal nutrition, food
good bacteria in the gut. Some other bioactives present in seaweed have
& nutrition, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. At Barentz
been shown to have a natural antibacterial effect and, by increasing the
Animal Nutrition we are active in technical ingredients and additives for
population of beneficial bacteria with prebiotics, there can be a competitive
the feed and pet food industry. We have a big portfolio of carbohydrates,
inhibition effect on the pathogenic bacteria. Besides those effects some
proteins, vitamins, anti-oxidants, yeast and novel ingredients including
seaweeds have been shown to support stimulation of the immune system
insect protein and sea weeds. Our ingredients experts support our
and to support a positive effect on intestinal epithelium.
customers in making the right ingredients choices for their new and existing products. We strongly believe that by acting as an ingredients
partner, rather than merely a distributor, we can provide our clients with
The polysaccharides support digestion. The protein, roughly 10% in
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Pet Food Supplement 2019
Supporting pet health with functional treats and dietary supplements By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products
What functionality is required? Just like for themselves, pet parents want to ensure that health and vitality of their pets is maintained well into old age, and are therefore willing to invest in nutrition, medical/veterinary care and healthy lifestyles to achieve this. In addition, consumers are becoming more educated on the benefits of functional nutrition and functional supplement ingredients for themselves, and use this knowledge when seeking suitable supplements or treats containing functionality that better supports their pets’ lifetime health. Functional human food and health products are good role models for pet products. This type of modelling was demonstrated with the increased awareness surrounding the importance of good oral hygiene in the human sector which provided Driven by humanisation, the pet parent bond with their animal companion
the pet industry with a “reason to believe”, leading to the growth in the
has never been stronger. This creates an increased willingness for the
development of oral health products for pets.
pet parent to do whatever it takes to keep their pets healthy and happy
Such functional products that positively support lifetime health and
for as long as possible. Consumers are becoming increasingly health
wellbeing are becoming more important. This is because life expectancy
conscious, as the scientific knowledge and awareness of the impact of
of the pet population is increasing due to better overall nutrition and
nutrition on both human and pet health has rapidly spread, thanks to
veterinary care, plus there is a shift towards smaller breed dogs and
digitalisation of communications. In addition, rising animal healthcare
cats. This results in a growing percentage of pets that will spend a
costs and the aging pet population means that pet parents are becoming
longer-period of life in a senior or geriatric phase. Like humans, pets
more comfortable in adopting a supportive, one might say preventative,
suffer from age related health concerns such as heart issues, arthritis,
approach to managing their pets’ specific health issues. Functional
vision and related cognition challenges. Beyond the traditional joint
treats and dietary supplements therefore provide a convenient vehicle
health supplements, solutions that help pet parents manage cognitive
for pet parents to add additional nutritional ingredients to their pets’
decline and behaviour issues are of increasing interest, giving rise to
daily dietary intake.
the development of supplements that can address brain health, mood and calmness. Nutrients such as DHA omega 3 to support brain and
How can functional nutrition support pets?
eye health, neural development plus senior dog cognition have been
Whilst we should not confuse food with medicine, the quote from
proven effective (Hadley et al, 2017). Other commonly occurring issues
Hippocrates remains relevant to us today: “Let food be thy medicine
of concern to pet parents include skin and coat challenges, and weight
and medicine be thy food”. A diet rich in essential nutrients is needed to
management due to the animals having lower levels of activity and
support good health. Nutritional research now also shows that nutrients
overfeeding. This last issue relates to both age and urbanization, where
impact the body’s systems more widely than previously thought. Vitamin
pet parents leave their pets home alone for long periods of time, have
D, as an example, influences the immune system, not just calcium and bone homeostasis. The science also demonstrates that consumption
Figure 1: Effect of feeding biotin to dogs:
of some nutrients at levels above published requirement, or even
Before brushing mean coat scores for the following attributes: Shine,
those without a defined requirement, can deliver benefits above those
Uniformity, Softness and Dander
classically described. In dogs, as an example, FEDIAF does not define a requirement of biotin for normally fed, healthy dogs. DSM however found that feeding biotin to dogs (5 mg of biotin per 10 kg body weight) over a period of 12 weeks, led to better coat quality scores (Figure 1). Such results give confidence that scientifically proven nutrients, which can be straightforwardly included in a supplement or a functional treat, can provide a supportive benefit to pets’ wellbeing, with results visible to the pet parent.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
little time to exercise their pets adequately, and the resultant feeling of
(61.3%) and diet/nutrition (58.5%). Pet parents are clearly interested
guilt. Products containing ingredients that support a feeling of satiety,
in managing their pets’ health, and providing correct nutrition is one
possibly modifying food begging behaviour in such pets, may prove to
of their priorities.
be useful. The increased interest in raw feeding gives opportunity to Gut health is an important part of overall wellbeing for both people
Pet treat and supplement markets show continued growth
and pets. According to Mintel, from 2015 to 2018, the number of pet food
Pet parents are increasingly engaged with their pets emotionally and
products with prebiotic or probiotic claims increased by 56%. For pets,
as a result are willing to invest in their companion animal’s lifetime
the most obvious nutritional solutions are those that positively impact
wellbeing. They are also becoming more comfortable with providing
fecal quality or help manage normal digestion. In the human sector
additional nutritional support to their pets. This has helped drive the
however, digestive health has a new focus, with the gut microbiome
supplement market, which has shown considerable growth in recent
now being explored not just for its physical effects on the gut, but also
years (Figure 3).
develop supplements that improve dietary micronutrient balance.
its influence on brain function and mental health. An increasing number of scientific papers have been published on this subject, describing the
Figure 3: Pet Supplement Global Retail Market Value US$ mn
connection as the gut-brain axis. This area of emerging science gives
functional pet treat and supplement producers excellent opportunities to develop innovative, added-value gut health solutions. Prebiotics fibres known to improve microflora balance, such as FOS (fructooligosaccharide), MOS (mannan-oligosaccharide) with more novel prebiotic sources such as XOS (xylo-oligosaccharide), and/or probiotics are ingredient candidates to consider for this purpose.
Online platforms boost the awareness of the impact of nutrition on health The internet is a highly accessible information resource for human and pet health information. DSM’s 2017 EU survey of pet parents found
In line with the growth in use of supplements for pets (and for
they were more likely to use the internet than their veterinarian to find
people), the pet treat market has also shown considerable growth with
out information on the benefits of functional nutrition and functional
the rationalization that pet parents are driven to reward, indulge, or
ingredients for their dog or cat (Figure 2).
simply spend more pleasure time with their pets (Figure 4). Given that pet treating is not without guilt due to a growing pet obesity problem,
Figure 2: Pet parents were asked, “Where do you normally
and that the market is becoming increasingly competitive, the addition
learn about the benefits of functional nutrition and functional
of “functional nutrition” creates an exceptional opportunity for treat
ingredients for your dog & cat (vitamins, plant extracts, omega
3’s, fiber etc.)?” Figure 4: Global Dog and Cat Treat Retail Selling Price US$ mn (Euromonitor Statistics)
Similar results were demonstrated by Kogan et al, 2018 who reported the most frequently used resource for pet health
Delivering functional ingredients to pets
information by UK pet parents was the internet (78.6%), followed
Even though this dynamic treat and supplement market offers great
by the veterinarian (72%). The veterinarian followed by other pet
opportunity, there is product form to consider and dosing challenges
parents with similar problems and family/friends were however
found to be the most trustworthy information resources. The topics
DSM 2011 pet parent survey data indicated that convenience is
searched for most often online were specific medical problems
key when pet parents are seeking to deliver functional nutrition to their
Pet Food Supplement 2019
pets. When asked which system they would prefer to deliver functional ingredients to their pets, both cat and dog parents ranked food, biscuits/ cookies, and edible chews among the top three (Figure 5). These same parents indicated pills, powders, and pastes were among the three least desirable delivery methods. Figure 5: Pet parent functional ingredient delivery preferences for dogs and cats
The value of supplementation and what’s needed by the pet parent Functional treats forms are increasingly varied. Traditional pet snack forms such as fortified biscuits, jerky strips or chews form the basis of many functional snacks, but more novel presentations include lick-off pastes, fortified gravies, nutrition bars and drinks. These product forms can be very successful, due to good palatability promoting positive pet to parent interaction. When, however, more accurate intakes of the active nutrient or nutraceutical are required to avoid potential issues of over or under dose of the animal, requiring the need for many product SKUS, they can be challenging to manage logistically. Although less desirable to some pet parents, specially formulated concentrated supplements in the forms of pills, powders and some liquid
When surveyed by DSM (MetrixLab, 2011 and 2015), a large majority of dog and cat owners agreed that providing their pet with functional/ fortified treats and snacks was beneficial. These health conscious consumers are attracted to fortified snacks and dietary supplement type products (Figure 6). This consumer mind-set has helped pet parents rationalize supplemental nutrition for their pets. It is evident from all DSM pet consumer studies since 2011 that added nutrient functionality in a pet treat or supplement was attractive and beneficial. Functional snacks and supplements give opportunities for pet parents to better support their pet’s lifetime health and for brand owners to expand their brand offering to meet this consumer demand.
preparations do provide more accurate nutrient dosing opportunities, especially for dogs due to dog breed size disparity. For supplement
Figure 6: Survey results: Pet parent agreement with attribute
manufacturers, the main problem often encountered is making some
statements associated with functional treats and supplements
forms of these products acceptable to the pet and/or are easy to
(DSM / Metrix Labs 2011& 2015) (top 2 box scores)
administer, thereby making them convenient for the pet parent. Development of meaty flavoured palatable, chewable pills, semi-moist pieces or “gummies” for pets are examples in the pet supplement arena that allow easy and more precise dosing of a pet with functional nutrients and nutraceuticals. Traditional powder supplements, measured with a small scoop, offer a simple route of administration as they can easily be sprinkled on top of the pets’ food. Traditional pill supplement format can however be difficult to administer to a
The millennials are an increasingly important demographic as they
reluctant pet. To overcome this,
are choosing to nurture a pet, often due to delaying parenthood. This
development of “pill pockets”
means their needs should be carefully monitored when it comes to
into which the supplement can
identifying what pet food, treat and supplement products should deliver.
be hidden, increases the ease
In the USA, the millennials have now overtaken the baby boomers as
of their administration to the pet
the biggest pet-owning generation, with 35% owning a pet, compared
considerably and maintains positive
with 32% of boomers (GFK, 2015). According to Packaged Facts
pet and pet-parent interaction.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
(2017), 70% of US consumers say treats with functional benefits play an
important role in their pets’ health, and 71% look for treats that address health concerns or offer extra nutrition. Of millennial pet parents, 55% are willing to try holistic and natural-branded nutritional pet supplements before resorting to conventional pet medication, as opposed to only 30% of owners 35 and over. Millennials will however use conventional medicine first, if no other alternative is available. Wider pet food trends should also be incorporated when developing new pet treats and supplements. For example, the clean label and transparency trend requires product packaging to be clear, reflecting what the product contains, and how you deliver the nutrition you promise through safe, traceable ingredients and supply chains. A company’s commitment to sustainability and wider societal issues are also increasingly important to a wide demographic. Online platforms also deliver opportunities for customisation of supplementation through a subscription ordering service and importantly offer the customer convenience when buying items they need for their pet.
Summary Pet treats and supplements are ideal vehicles to provide the extra ingredient functionality that is identified by a growing body of evidence from human and animal nutrition research to help manage certain health concerns. The ideal functional treat or supplement product is one that controls calorie intake (either using low caloric density or size), is palatable, contains functional ingredients known to deliver a specific benefit, and comes with a clear and convenient dosing concept. With these types of products, pet parents can feel positive about using functional nutrition and supplementation as a strategy to manage their pets’ overall health and wellbeing.
Resources Used Hadley, K.B., Bauer, J. and Milgram, N.W., 2017. The oil-rich alga Schizochytrium sp. as a dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid improves shape discrimination learning associated with visual processing in a canine model of senescence. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 118, pp.10-18. Kogan, L., Oxley, JA., Hellyer, P., Schoenfeld, R., Rishniw, M. (2018) UK pet owners’ use of the internet for online pet health information Veterinary Record 182, 601. Nutraceutical World: 11.26.18 Article: Aging Cats & Dogs Drive Market for Functional Pet Foods Packaged Facts’ report, 2016, Millennials as Pet Market Consumers Packaged Facts’ report, 2018. Pet Industry Outlook: Veterinary Services and Pet Product Retailing Packaged Facts Report: February 7 2017 : 1 in 3 U.S. Pet Owners Millennials: What it Means for the Pet Food Market Patent activity boosted by the gut-brain health link: Mintel Report: March 2019 The Pet Retail Market Is Hot And Getting Hotter By The Day: https://www. forbes.com/sites/pamdanziger/2018/10/18/the-pet-retail-market-is-hot-andgetting-hotter-by-the-day/#3ba4ea6e7ecd
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Taking advantage from the use of special yeast products By Antonia Schulte and Dr. Bastian Hildebrand, Biochem, Germany Animal nutrition is always developing and nutritionists are looking
stronger the pathogen binding effect. Moreover, the starch content
for functional ingredients that provide additional benefits for animal
should be as low as possible to ensure a high purity. There are also
health. Many functional ingredients are thought to decrease the
differences in the yeast origin: “Primary grown” yeasts (baker’s yeast)
incidence of certain disease states or extend the lifespan of animals
are only fermented to produce premium yeast products. Due to the
by possessing antioxidant activity, antimicrobial action or immuno-
manufacturing process, the cell wall activity of primary grown yeast
enhancing properties. Specialist yeast products show significant
is greater in comparison to byproducts from beer/ethanol production.
potential to support animal health and well-being, particularly during
Another important characteristic is the particle size; small particles give
challenging situations, such as digestive disorders caused by a variety
more surface area resulting in pathogen-binding capacity.
of pathogenic bacteria. To reduce the risk of digestive disorders it is
MOS origin affects adhesion of pathogens
supporting the desired intestinal microbiota and the natural immune
Due to high variations in yeast cell origin and production processes,
defenses of the animal.
respective differences in the efficacy of MOS products can be expected.
relative superoxide production (%)
critical to keep the concentrations of potential pathogens low, while
160 140 120
Prebiotic polysaccharides like MOS (Mannan-Oligo-Saccharides)
Vahjen et al. (2015) tested the efficiency of different MOS-products
and β-1.3-1.6-glucans are the major components of the commercial
on their capacity to reduce E. coli attachment on intestinal epithelial 80 cells derived from the small intestine of piglets. After incubation of the 60
yeast cell wall products, commonly named MOS products. Due to their specific affinity, MOS are able to agglutinate onto type-1-fimbriae of pathogens (e.g. E. coli, Salmonella), and thus prevent the adhesion of
epithelial40 cells in the cell culture plates in order to form a monolayer, the cells were 20 treated with MOS suspensions (1%) of six different MOS 100
respective bacteria on the intestinal wall. Since adhesion presents the
products and 0 infected with a fluorescent enterotoxic E. coli K88 strain
first step in microbial invasion, blocking of the fimbriae may prevent or
(ETEC K88). All MOS-products reduced E.coli attachment compared
eliminate infection. The β-1.3-1.6-glucans are known to have stimulating
to control without MOS treatment, but showed significant differences
effects on the unspecific immune system by activating macrophages
in their capacity to inhibit pathogen adhesion (Figure 2).
and increasing the production of cytokines, which are the initiator of the immune response. Thus, they can reinforce the natural defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites.
relative superoxide production (%)
36 a 58 b 73 bc
69 bc 0
Relative proportion of E.coli-infected epithelial cells (%)
Figure 2: Effect of different MOS products on the proportion of E. coli infected epithelial cells (IPEC J2) ex vivo; abc - different letters
Figure 1: Effect of 1% TechnoMos® on the intracellular superoxide
indicate significant differences between treatments (P<0.05)
production of leucocytes in vitro (Oxidative burst assay, University Wageningen, 2007) Control
A closer look on quality aspects
The use of a MOS product benefits animal health status due to several
Numerous MOS products are available on the market. Although MOS 2
modes of action. However, it is essential to carefully assess the qualities
58 b those materials are primarily derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae
of the individual MOS products. The mannan and ß-1.3-1.6 glucan
3 in their quality depending on 73origin bc yeast, theyMOS differ and processing
content, the origin and purity as well as the particle size are critical to
during manufacturing. The more mannans the product contains, the MOS 4 77 c
the effectiveness of a yeast cell wall product.
Page 14 MOSP6et Food Supplement 2019 69 bc 0
Relative proportion of E.coli-infected epithelial cells (%)
With you all the way!
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THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF HIGH PERFORMANCE ZĞůŝĂďŝůŝƚǇĂŶĚŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶĨŽƌŽǀĞƌϯϬǇĞĂƌƐ &ƵůůůŝŶĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƌŽĨŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞĨĞĞĚĂĚĚŝƟǀĞƐ Now available in the UK
Oliver Caiger-Smith Technical Sales Manager Mobile: +447722 019727 E-mail: Caiger-Smith@biochem.net
Feed Safety for Food Safety®
THERMAL EXTRUSION BAKED PET FOODS Process Qualities Indicate Marketing and Functional Advantages By Galen Rokey, Process Technology Director, Wenger
A new process technology for pet foods is to couple a thermal extrusion-cooking process with the baking process. Although both of these manufacturing steps are well-known in the industry and have been practiced for many years, combining the attributes of each has been shown to produce remarkable results in product texture and palatability.
Following is a summary of how the combined thermal extrusion/baked
5. Reduced mechanical energy inputs (SME or specific
process differs from the individual and separate processes of standard
mechanical energy in units of kWhr/t) during thermal extrusion
extrusion-cooking and traditional baking.
compared to standard extrusion-cooking as a stand-alone
1. Greater potential of production rates over traditional baking lines which improves process efficiency.
process. When followed by a baking step, the thermal extrusion step does not have to develop the final texture and structure
2. Continual process compared to traditional baking which often
as this is usually modified or advanced during the subsequent
times involves a batch dough-mixing process. This favors
baking step. Not only is the total consumed energy less when
stopping or adjusting the process on-line without having to
combining extrusion with baking (often as much as 20% less
waste or discard a batch which has already been committed
energy), but the main energy source is now shifted to thermal
but is not correct in some aspect.
(steam) energy which usually costs less than half of mechanical
3. Decreased use of dough conditioners, leavening agents, and other minor ingredients which may not be desirable on the label or are costly. The extrusion portion of this process develops a visco-elastic dough and can also create a cell structure through expansion without the use of these additives.
(electrical) energy. Thermal energy (steam) has the potential of being generated by the pet food manufacture in a boiler fired by renewable energy resources while electrical energy is much more difficult to generate on site and will usually consume nonrenewable energy resources.
4. Extrusion permits a lower moisture dough to be fed into the
6. The thermal extrusion process as a first step in this combined
baking oven unit operation. Traditional baking requires â‰Ľ 30%
process has much greater flexibility in choice of ingredients.
moisture dough to enter the rotary moulders for shaping and
The traditional baking process by itself has a very small window
then the oven to develop correct textures and matrix. The
of moisture addition and use of sticky ingredients such as non-
extrusion process can often reduce that moisture level to
grain sources. Many ingredients would be too sticky to create
less than 25% due to increased mixing and partial flash-off of
a satisfactory dough during the traditional baking process and
moisture at the die.
result in poor release from rotary moulders and unsatisfactory
Pet Food Supplement 2019
textures during baking. The pet food industry today requires
Hardness was measured using a Perten TexVol TVT-300 PH
a process that can have tremendous flexibility in recipes and
instrument equipped with a sharp-pointed probe simulating a
ingredient sources because of fluid marketing trends and
The sensory attributes of products from the thermal extrusion/
7. The combination of thermal extrusion and baking processes results in unique technical and sensory qualities/attributes.
HTST (high temperature /short time) baking process include the following:
The technical qualities of products from the thermal extrusion/
1. Caramelization: The Maillard Reactions that occur during
HTST (high temperature /short time) baking process include the
the baking step intensify as the time, temperature, and
alkalinity parameters increase. Although not well understood, it is believed that caramelization contributes to both color
1. Bulk density: During the baking steps, the product bulk
developments and palatability.
density can decrease significantly depending on operating parameters by virtue of thermal expansion occurring in this
2. Palatability: Feeding trials have confirmed that the consumption
and the first-choice preference increase when recipes from the
2. Moisture levels: Moisture content of the extruded dough is
thermal extrusion/baked process are compared to standard
often lower than traditional baking by itself, but the baking
extrusion-cooking alone followed by the standard drying
step coupled with extrusion significantly reduces moisture
process. Results have been spectacular and ranged from a
levels often requiring only an abbreviated, mild final drying step where traditional baked products processed at the higher moisture levels require final drying steps approaching one hour or more.
1.96/1 to 3/1 improvement.
3. Starch gelatinization: Further starch gelatinization occurs in the baking step that follows extrusion and this means that the extrusion step can be a much milder process with less energy inputs. 4. Pasteurization: Adequate temperatures are usually achieved in the extrusion step to reach CCP (critical control point) parameters which serve as the “kill step” for biological hazards. However, studies have shown that during the baking step the core product temperature will reach that CCP criteria and provide an additional safeguard against biological hazards. 5. Hardness/textural differences: The hardness of the extruded product is reduced during the baking step and can be controlled by operating parameters during extrusion and baking. The table below summarizes several studies where hardness was measured in extruded and thermal extrusion-baked products.
3. Color: Although color measurements have been conducted, there is obvious visual browning in recipes from the thermal
Hardness (kg force)
extrusion/baked process compared to standard extrusioncooking alone followed by the standard drying process.
Effect of Thermal Extrusion and Baking on Product Hardness
4. Texture: As discussed under the hardness/textural differences in technical quality evaluations of various products, the texture as measured by texturometers was always less hard when the
40 30 20 10 0
thermal extrusion process was coupled with a baking step. The differences of the technical and sensory qualities in the various processes as discussed above indicate the potential
Standard Extrusion Without Baking Without Baking
Thermal Extrusion With Baking With Baking
marketing and functional advantages of products processed via thermal extrusion/baking versus standard extrusion/drying and traditional baking as well as a potential improvement in process energy-efficiency.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Pets love yeast! By Francesca Susca, Ph.D., DVM, Pet Development Manager at Lallemand Animal Nutrition Therefore, selecting the right yeast strain for a given application is critical and requires a high level of knowledge and expertise. The main forms of yeast that are available for petfood formulations are: â€˘ Live yeast, which can be added to animal feed for their probiotic effects. However, in Europe, none are currently authorized for use in petfood. â€˘ Inactive yeast (killed yeast cells), used as flavor enhancers or as a natural source of nutrients such as B vitamins, high quality protein and minerals. These can then be further separated into two different fractions: o The yeast extracts, i.e. the soluble fraction of the inactive yeast, comprised of more than 60% proteins. They represent a valuable source of proteins, nutrients and minerals and can also be used as natural flavor enhancers and palatants in petfood. o The yeast cell walls, rich in beta-glucans and mannan oligo From a palatability enhancer to a source of nutrients and functional ingredients, yeast and yeast derivative products are versatile and natural ingredients to keep in mind when formulating food for pets. Yeast has been utilized as far back as ancient Egypt to leaven bread and ferment wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae remains the most used microorganism in the food industry, and today it is used for the annual production of 60 million tonnes of beer and 30 million tonnes of wine! Its exceptional fermentative and nutritional properties make yeast a valuable source of ingredients for pet nutrition too. But not all yeast or yeast products are equivalent. After reviewing the multiple benefits and applications of yeast and yeast derivative products, this article aims to classify these products according to their composition, production process, nutritional value, biological activities, as well as their regulatory status.
Meet the yeast Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms of the fungi family. The yeast cell wall is made of glucans, glycoproteins, mannans and chitin. The intracellular chemical components of yeast cells include among others: amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, salts, nucleic acids and enzymes. The combination of these compounds make yeasts useful nutraceuticals for human nutrition but also attractive as nutritional supplements in animal feed! There are about 60 different genera of yeasts, which are comprised of about 500 different species. Only a few of these species are used commercially. Thanks to its exceptional fermentative capacities and nutritional properties, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the predominant microorganism used in food, beverage and baking. It is also the main yeast used in feed production processes. Within the specie, there are thousands of different strains, each with a unique genetic makeup, leading to different outcomes in terms of metabolisms and activities.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
saccharides, are well known for their pathogen-binding and immune-modulation activities. They can contribute to pet microbiota balance and digestive well-being. The production process, characteristics and potential benefits are intimately linked for each of these forms. Figure 1 gives an overview of these characteristics and associated functions. Figure 1: Classification of yeast products according to their characteristics, composition and potential benefits (No live yeast is currently authorized for pets in the E. U.)
Innovative yeast ingredient
yeast, and live microorganisms in general, are feed additives and
Since probiotic yeast are not yet authorized for petfood in Europe, very
require pre-market approval. So far, no live yeast is authorized for use
few studies have been conducted yet in cats and dogs. However, certain
in petfood in the European Union.
yeast fractions have received strong attention for their beneficial effects
When it comes to labeling and claims, the main objective of the
in petfood. Recently, the team of Professor Giacomo Biagi from the
regulation is to protect the consumer and avoid misleading information.
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, in
There are two types of information: the mandatory ones: nutritional,
Italy, conducted a study to evaluate the effects of an association of yeast
composition, dosage, etc., and the voluntary information, such as
fractions from different yeast strains (YANG, Lallemand Animal Nutrition)
on the intestinal ecosystem of adult healthy dogs. The trial involved an in vitro part, whereby the yeast derivative was incubated with canine
Claims are not mandatory, but when it is used on a label, strict rules apply:
fecal inoculum, and an in vivo trial involving 16 adult dogs (fed YANG or
• A claim must be scientifically substantiated
control diet). Dog feces was analyzed at three and four weeks into the
• It must not be confusing or misleading
trial. The results indicate benefits of the yeast derivatives on:
• It must not denigrate other petfood
• Dogs’ gut microbiota: the in vitro analysis shows higher levels of Lactobacilli and Bifodobacteria as well as a lower pH with
• It should be objective, verifiable by the competent authorities, and understandable by the user.
the yeast derivative. The acidic environment helps inhibit the
Different categories of claims can apply to yeast products (Figure
development of undesirable bacteria and favors the growth of
3). For example, YANG or other yeast fractions could bear functional
the beneficial ones, showing a unique indirect prebiotic effect of
claims as long as these are substantiated.
the yeast derivative products. • Dogs’ natural defenses, through a higher level of IgA antibodies detected in the feces of dogs fed YANG. IgAs are a well-
Figure 3: the different claim categories that can apply to yeast products, depending on scientific substantiation.
recognized biomarker of immunomodulation and play a key role in mucosal immunity by inhibiting the attachment and penetration
of bacteria in the gut lumen, increasing mucus secretion and
preventing inflammatory reactions that would cause damage to the epithelial tissues. The scientists concluded that the innovative association of yeast fractions “could improve the composition of canine microbiota and, potentially, help reinforce the natural defenses of adult dogs”.
This particular yeast fraction can be described as a new generation of yeast cell wall. It is the very first formulated product on the market
of yeast derivatives. Three specifically selected strains of yeast, with
different, but complementary, properties have been combined to ensure superior pathogen binding capacity and a broader and well-balanced immunomodulation. The development of this unique solution on the market is the fruit of a three-step development process (Figure 2), where strong expertise in yeast screening and characterization have
been completed by the application of optimal industrial production
Figure 2: The three steps of YANG development
Figure 3: the different claim categories that can apply to yeast products, d
Conclusions Conclusions Yeasta versatile represent a versatile and valuable of na Yeast represent and valuable source of natural ingredientsource to formulating petfood petfood and petfood supplements. keep in mind whenever formulating and petfood supplements.However, t make the most appropriate choice, including: However, there are several things to consider in order to make the most
How to label yeast and yeast derivatives in petfood? Last but not least, how to translate the science into marketing and product labels for petfood? How can we and should we label yeast products on petfood? Depending on the nature of the product, regulatory status differs. Inactivated yeast and yeast derivatives are feed materials, while live
appropriate choice, including:
• The composition of the yeast derivative product • The desired benefits • The desired benefits • The industrial process to be applied (some forms a • The industrial process to be applied (some forms are more • The regulatory status and potential for substantiate
• The composition of the yeast derivative product
resistant than others)
• The regulatory status and potential for substantiated claims
Pet Food Supplement 2019
On-trend solutions through premix By Alexandra Wesker MSc, Pet Customer Technical Adviser, Trouw Nutrition GB
the long run if labels need to be amended. Furthermore, a company’s image can become damaged by providing misleading information about their products, irrespective of whether this was unintentional. Traditionally premixes contained only vitamins, minerals and other additives on a carrier. In recent years, our facilities increasingly produce premixes composed only of ingredients such as parsley, spirulina and turmeric, alongside our traditional premixes. If you need a specific material, discuss this with your supplier and ensure measures are in place that ensure you receive what you request. Ask about technicalities of the material and check the claims you make on pack are consistent with the supplied material.
Home cooking Much care is given to choosing the diet of a pet and I have heard it
A home-cooked meal is one that has literally been cooked at home.
frequently said that pets eat better than humans. Most pet owners
This can be done similarly to a human meal, but it is also possible to
regard their pet as part of the family and although most owners did not
buy a device similar to a bread-baking machine in which you put the
expect the costs associated with owning a pet, they are more ready to
ingredients and later you have a meal ready for your pet.
spend on their pet’s health than their own. Irrespective of whether pets
A study1 in the US assessed 200 recipes for home-made pet
actually eat better than humans, trends seen in the pet food industry
food diets and concluded 95% were deficient in at least one nutrient
seem generally centred around health, fairness and sustainability.
and more than 83% were lacking in more than one nutrient. There are
Ingredients on the label must meet nutritional requirements as a minimum, and health promoting as an optimum. Materials that sound
reports of animals being taken to the vet with severe health problems caused by nutritional imbalances from a home-cooked diet.
like chemicals are unappealing and this is one of the reasons owners
Home-cooked does not necessarily mean non-commercial – home-
cook for their pets at home or choose a food that has recognisable
cooking kits are available from the fridge or freezer. Manufacturers claim
ingredients within it rather than a homogenous kibble. Sustainability
health benefits such as healthier skin, fresh breath and vitality over
is definitely on the agenda, mainly driven by younger generations. In
extruded and canned products. Popularity is on the rise: numbers in
this article I address trends in the pet food industry, the risks they carry
the US are forecast to rise to 11 million regular customers by 2021. The
and how premixes can provide pet food manufacturers with effective,
challenge is to keep the fun for the pet owners and tick all their boxes,
safe and traceable options.
while providing them with a nutritionally complete diet formulation.
Superfoods have been on the menu for years in the human food industry
Raw diets take animals back to nature. Thinking of wild cats and
and they no longer seem to be a trend, but rather a well-established
wolves, they do not receive kibble but (literally) raw materials. There
concept. In restaurants, too, a super food salad is a common option,
is a lot of debate about this way of feeding; in this section we look at
even if it is often alongside burgers and sausages. It may have been
the main concerns.
a fad for some materials, but more research continues to come out about the health benefits of other superfoods such as blueberries which feature frequently. Foods continually proven to be ‘super’ tend to remain popular. Studies focus on the active components within the superfood that give it its benefits. There are typically varying grades of material that can be used in pet food: from premium extracts high in active component, all the way down to a powder of the pulp that remains after the active component has been extracted from the material. It is essential for the pet food manufacturer to know what grade of material is being used in order to decide on packaging claims. If a claim about functionality is made, the material needs to deliver it. A cheaper material may be attractive at first sight, but may become expensive in
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Similar to the US study for home-made formulations, a study2
performed at a German university found 60% of 95 commercially
In parallel to the raw diet trend,
available raw pet formulations had significant dietary imbalances.
vegetarian and vegan pet foods
Again, there are commercial recipes available on the market and
are on the rise. In part this is
formulating a suitable recipe together with a premix can address
driven by sustainability, but also
reduces the number of animals
A greater issue is contamination. The University of Utrecht
required for pet food. In 2017
analysed 3 35 commercial raw pet foods and found 23% were
the estimation was that pet food
contaminated with Escherichia coli, 54% with Listeria monocytogenes
was responsible for 25-30% of
and 20% with Salmonella. These bacteria live within the gut of
the environmental impact of meat
the slaughtered animal, meaning the meat can easily become
consumption regarding use of
contaminated during slaughter. Thorough cooking kills some of
land, water, fossil fuel, phosphate,
these harmful bacteria, but when feeding a raw diet this is not done.
Industry bodies including the PFMA and FDA provide guidelines
A commonly quoted challenge is meeting the nutritional
about washing hands and disinfecting all surfaces the raw meat has
requirements of pets, particularly when on a vegan diet over a
touched. Unfortunately, the risk of infection is one that remains an
vegetarian diet. Vegetarian excludes animal parts such as meat and
inherent part of feeding a raw diet and raw pet food manufacturers
gelatine; vegan furthermore excludes anything produced by animals,
we work with keep a close eye on their materials.
such as milk and eggs. Some vitamins and amino acids can only be
found in animals or their products. On top of that, some vitamins are
stabilised using animal gelatine. There are, however, synthetic forms
Sustainability has been on the agenda within the human food industry
available through premixes which allow for a complete nutritional
for years. Eco-conscious consumers demand more sustainable
formulation without needing to rely on animal production.
options on the menu and the industry is responding. ‘Millennials’ and
Aside from environmental drivers, choices of
‘Generation Z’ are willing to spend up to 20% more on goods that
conscientious consumers are frequently steered by
meet their values and are more sustainable6 and reduce their pet’s
ethics. As part of Nutreco, Trouw Nutrition is SEDEX
certified and we are continuously improving the ethical
One solution offered could come from insects. In broad terms,
performance in our supply chain8 – from guarding human
insects need little substrate to grow on and convert this to protein.
rights to minimising impact on biodiversity, climate
There are constraints to the substrates on which insects can be
change and water scarcity. Traceability is guarded by
grown, which vary globally: the EU accepts vegetal substrates and
our Nutrace® programme, providing full visibility into
unprocessed former foodstuffs, in other parts of the globe organic
your supply chain.
waste and animal by-products are allowed. The substrate used impacts how environmentally friendly the material is: the ‘greenhouse
warming potential’ (GWP) of insects fed on what would otherwise
 Stockman, J. Fascetti, A.J. Kass, P.H., Larsen J.A. ‘Evaluation of recipes of home-prepared maintenance diets for dogs.’ Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, June 1, 2013, Vol. 242, No. 11, Pages 1500-1505  Dillitzer, N, Becker, N, Kienzle, E. ‘Intake of minerals, trace elements and vitamins in bone and raw food rations in adult dogs.’ British Journal of Nutrition (2011), 106, S53–S56  van Bree FPJ, Bokken GCAM, Mineur R, Franssen F, Opsteegh M, van der Giessen JWB, Lipman LJA1, Overgaauw PAM. Zoonotic bacteria and parasites found in raw meat-based diets for cats and dogs.  PFMA – Raw Feeding Factsheet: https://www.pfma.org.uk/raw-feedingfactsheet  Animal Health Library – Avoid the Dangers of Raw Pet Food https://www.fda. gov/animalveterinary/resourcesforyou/animalhealthliteracy/ucm368730.htm  YouthSight, Tanya Michelsen (Associate Director) Keynote speech at PFMA AGM: ‘Top 10 food trends that reveal the State of the Youth Nation’  Okin GS (2017) Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats. PLoS ONE 12(8): e0181301. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181301  Nutreco.com/en/our-way/sustainability/
be considered waste looks much better than that of insects fed on human food-grade ingredients. Seasonal availability, relatively high prices and the frequently quoted ‘yuk-factor’ are all challenges, but innovative entrepreneurs are driving the market to change and definitely generating interests. Nutritionally, although all amino acids are supplied by insects, they vary in their amino acid composition among species. The black soldier is commonly used as a source of insect protein and is considered a complete protein, providing the required amino acids in a suitable ratio. The substrate insects are grown on does not seem to affect amino acid composition much, total protein content is affected by up to about 10%, but fat and ash content are greatly affected by up to 200% difference between substrates. When deciding on insects as a protein source in your pet food, ensure the nutritional profile can be relied on. Nutritional analyses will indicate whether gaps need to be filled and these can be compensated for by using other ingredients. Reliability and predictability of the nutritional composition may therefore prove to be of key importance for this novel ingredient.
Alexandra Wesker is an animal scientist with an MSc degree in Animal Nutrition from Wageningen University. She has worked for Trouw Nutrition since 2017 as the technical expert for pet premixes in Europe, Middle East and Africa. She advises on premix formulation and legislation and develops products in collaboration with pet food manufacturers.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Pet owner trust in pet food Recalibrating our Trust Compass By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients
Growth on the global petfood market
suppliers adopt systems and business practices used in human food
The great news for petfood manufacturers and their suppliers is that
supply like food safety, sustainability, corporate social responsibility.
the global petfood market has seen significant growth in recent years and is expected to continue this trend. Figures from the market analysts
Pet owner trust in petfood
“Euromonitor International” indicated that the global sales value in
An indication of how pet owners trust in petfood is changing is
2018 amounted to US$91.1 billion and has grown at 6% compound
indicated by data published by “Pacakaged Facts - National Pet
annual growth rate (CAGR) since 2013, representing an overall growth
Owner Survey 2018”. As indicated in the Deloitte survey outlined in a
of 31% overall growth during the same period. This is great news and
previous section, safety is a key component of consumer food values.
cause for celebration.
With respect to pet owners concerns about the safety of petfood and
With the market expected to continue to show strong growth, with other market analysts, like “Grand View Research, Inc” predicting a
treats, this shows growing concern from both cat and dog owners over the period 2015 – 2017:
market value of around US$98.81 billion by 2022. However, there is always uncertainty in these predictions due to many factors including
Table 1: Pet owner concern in safety
the size of dogs kept by owners.
“I am concerned about the safety of the pet food, treat and chew
To capitalise on this market growth prediction, petfood
products that I buy”
manufacturers and supplier must also remain vigilant of changes in consumer attitudes and needs with respect to food values and trust.
Evolution of consumer food values.
% Cat owners “strongly / somewhat agree”
% Dog owners “strongly / somewhat agree”
(Source: Packaged Facts National Pet Owner Survey 2018)
The business consultancy Deloitte published a report in 2016 (“Capitalizing on the shifting consumer food value equation”) that
This concern is highlighted further by data, in the same survey, that
summarises how consumers expectations in food have evolved. In
indicates that 57% of dog owners and 55% of cat owners agree that
making decisions on which food to buy, consumers still strongly value,
“fear of pet food contamination/product safety is a key consideration
traditional drivers like price, taste and convenience. Increasingly
in the dog foods/cat foods I buy”.
however, we also see consumers placing greater importance in other
Aligned to this is a significant level of pet owners’ general distrust
factors like: - experience, health & wellness, social impact and food
of factors like: - marketing vs scientific claims; “clean labelling” and
safety. All of these are bound together with the concept of transparency
source of information e.g. veterinarians are a highly respected
where food manufacturers must demonstrate transparency in all aspects
source of information (Source: - Packaged Facts, National Pet Owner
of their business including: - ingredient sourcing, ethical business
philosophy and product claims (marketing vs scientific based). The question is, “What does this have to do with petfood?”. In my mind, the answer is simple, it has as much to do with pet food as
In summary, many of the trends we see in petfood around trust are aligned to those found by Deloitte in their research on consumer food values.
human food. Why? For many years, the concept of humanization has been a driver of
Product claims and their role in trust
growth in the global petfood market. Humanization means many things,
Examples of false claims in the petfood industry include: - false health
pet owners expect the food they feed their pets to be “humanized”
claims; false claims on material composition / digestibility etc. These
(appearance and types / quality of ingredients used). However, they
not only damage the company making the false claims but can also
also demand more. As “pet parents” where pets are considered part of
do reputational damage to the industry.
the family, the expectation is also that petfood manufacturers and their
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Other factors to emerge about pet owners trust in petfood from
Table 2: Petfood Melamine Crisis (2007- 2008) Recall size
Around 100 Brands, over 60 million cans of pet food
Deaths from kidney failure
236 cats and 112 dogs
Estimated pet deaths
1,950 cats and 2,200 dogs
Quantity and value of adulterated wheat gluten
> 800 tons; market value US$850,000
US Class Action damages paid to pet owners by Chemnutra
$12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims
Judicial findings against company supplying adulterated wheat gluten 2 owners of Chemnutra sentenced to three years of probation and fines of $5,000 each. Chemnutra fined $25,000 fine Source: Feed Compounder “Pet Food Supplement” Issue 19; based on industry data
the Packaged Facts, National Pet Owner Survey are around claims. Data on claims and scientific information further indicates a level of mistrust depending on where the information comes from. For example,
Vitamin D or the presence of Salmonella in our finished product. However, calibration and recalibration should also be applied to our systems and practices that also ensure consumer trust.
the data indicates: • Whilst 62% of pet owners believe that scientific research provides useful information on petfood and nutrition, a high proportion of pet owners mistrust data from research sponsored by petfood companies (only 29% somewhat / strongly agree that the data is unbiased) • 61% of pet owners somewhat / strongly agree that they can trust scientific information if this is provided by a veterinarian • 55% of pet owners somewhat / strongly agree they can trust product claims if these are based on scientific data.
Recalibrating our trust in petfood – an ongoing process. Search the internet and you will also find, or so it seems, news of recalls of unsafe petfood e.g. toxic levels of vitamin D in dry and wet petfood, metal and plastic fragments in wet petfood, “high” levels of Listeria and Salmonella in raw petfood and treats. Not only are these recalls costly and detrimental to the implicated petfood manufacturer but they can also negatively impact on trust in the overall industry. The largest recall in the history of the petfood industry occurred following the melamine crisis of 2007 – 2008. The effects of this
These factors are likely to be important contributors to trust in terms
were far reaching, including economically motivated adulteration of
of the Center for Food Integrity model of trust reviewed in a later section.
pet food (in this case what gluten and rice gluten) that resulted in
For example, information provided to pet owners from veterinarians
loss of trust in safe raw material supply, it was costly to the overall
contributes to building trust through “Influential Others”.
industry (Table 2).
Calibration is critical to ensure the safety and quality of the petfood we manufacture and sell
reported greater interest in manufacture and feeding of “homemade”
Manufacture of safe, nutritious pet food that meets the demands of
industry wide loss of trust.
With respect to trust in safe petfood, the incident also saw a petfood by concerned pet owners. This is a clear example of an
today’s pet owners requires that petfood manufacturers and suppliers
One of the positive outcomes from the melamine crisis was
have robust quality and food safety management systems. Whilst
implementation of stronger quality management systems across
our quality systems might be based on the internationally recognised
the petfood supply chain e.g. raw materials quality assurance / risk
ISO9001 standard, our food safety systems based on HACCP, the
management. In strengthening these systems, the industry was
importance of calibration cannot and should not be underestimated.
effectively recalibrating our trust compass and rebuilding trust in
It is widely recognised that the effectiveness of both quality and
food safety management systems depends on the use of Pre-Requisite
Like instrument calibration, recalibration is not something that
Programmes (PRPs) and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). One
happens only once and then is forgotten about. In the context of
critical component in PRPs is calibration.
petfood safety, authenticity and quality it is important that we maintain
A calibration PRP requires that we monitor the effectiveness
ongoing awareness of emerging factors that can destroy trust e.g. new
and accuracy of measuring equipment and make any necessary
food safety hazards, new food fraud threats (economically motivated
adjustments to ensure this. Without this we put our pets, our Brands
and ultimately our businesses at risk. What if the scales used to weigh
As with forgetting to calibrate a thermometer, if we don’t
Vitamin D were not accurate or the thermometer used to measure the
recalibrate our trust compass then this increases the risk of loss of
temperature in the extruder was shown a wrong temperature? This
trust. When trust is lost, our pets, our Brands and our businesses can
would result in greater risk of food safety failure e.g. toxic levels of
suffer and we might go out of business.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Table 3 – Application of CFI Trust model applied to petfood
Shared values on pets as important members of society and families; supporting healthy longevity in petfood attributes
Sustainable, ethical raw material supply
Trained personnel in company
Ability to carry out tasks / operate quality and food safety management systems to demonstrate ability to perform to independent, globally recognised auditable certification standards e.g. ISO9000: ISO22000; BRC Global Standard Food.
Influential Others (Stakeholders) Friends / Family
Listening to pet owners
Listening to and seeking advice from veterinarians, regulatory and scientific community
Center for Food Integrity (CFI) – Consumer Trust Model
• Competence – (Skills and ability) • Influential others (Stakeholders – friends, family, fellow
Based on extensive research, the US based Center for Food Integrity
consumers, credentialed others including regulatory, scientific
first published its consumer trust model in partnership with Iowa State
University in 2009 and is still widely used today. The key components and interrelationship are shown below: Figure 1 – Center for Food Integrity Trust Model
CFI Trust Model – What does this mean for petfood manufacturers? Although originally designed for application to food, the principles underlying the CFI trust model can be applied to petfood, as indicated the Table 3 above.
Transparency – The overarching principle that builds trust The Deloitte research shows that in a modern food value equation there is a combination of traditional values (price, taste, convenience) and emerging values (health & wellness, social values, experience and food safety). Surrounding this is the concept of transparency. The question is how do we demonstrate transparency in a meaningful way that the consumer can trust? Unless we can measure transparency there is always the risk that we claim we are transparent but there is no quantifiable proof of this. Some examples from the CFI Trust model where we can demonstrate transparency in a measurable way are shown below in Table 4: Table 4: How to demonstrate transparency in CFI Trust model parameters (Source: Center for Food Integrity website www.foodintegrity.org ) This model provides the basis on how food businesses can have
Transparency demonstrated using
Certification to independent, auditable standards covering sustainability and ethics e.g. SEDEX certification
Certification to independent, auditable standards covering quality and food safety management e.g. ISO9000, ISO22000, BRC certification
Use of veterinarian testimonies on product claims and efficacy
the Freedom To Operate (make and sell food), through implementing and maintaining business management systems that keep regulatory inspections to a minimum (Social Licence), building and maintaining consumer trust. With respect to “Trust”, this is based on 3 key drivers: • Confidence – (Shared Values and ethics)
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd – Helping petfood industry businesses grow their market share Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd (SFI) is a specialist technical consultancy for the petfood industry and ingredients suppliers. We help the industry grow their market share in a growing global petfood market through product development and innovation. Based on 40 years’ R&D and technical risk management expertise in the industry, SFI ensures that customers take a balanced approach to innovation. This allows them to control the quality, food safety and authenticity risks whilst implementing innovative ideas that grow their business. Humanization is an on-going driver of global petfood market growth. Not only do today’s pet owners demand that pet food that supports healthy longevity of their pets, they demand the same high standards of food integrity we apply to human food. SFI helps customers develop innovative products that customers want and helps ensure these are of the quality, safety and authenticity expected by pet parents. This enables business growth whilst protecting our pets, brands and our business. To discover how SFI can help you deliver innovative ideas to market, grow and protect your business please email us at david@sfi-ltd. com to set up a meeting. To learn more about petfood innovation, linked to humanisation and healthy longevity, you are invited to join industry colleagues for 2-days of networking and educational presentations from global experts, at the 5th Nordic Pet Food Conference & Exhibition (5NPFC), Porto, Portugal, 8th – 9th October 2019. 5NPFC is organised by Nordic Pet Food Events and builds on highly acclaimed events in Norway, Croatia, Denmark and Czech Republic between 2015 – 2018. Please visit www.norpetfood.com for more details.
A new model for demonstrating trust in petfood for the 21st Century
in all areas, we can build a model based on current thinking on
Historically trust in petfood was largely demonstrated through compliance
CFI trust model, surrounded by the critical overarching principle of
with food safety systems required from a regulatory perspective e.g.
food integrity, food safety culture and the attitudinal aspects of the
Transparency is difficult to demonstrate in a meaningful way. To
HACCP and relevant EU legislation of petfood safety. However, with pets becoming more integrated into society and
some extent, we can do this using certification to independent, auditable
families, expectations on demonstration of trust has grown into other
certification schemes like BRC Global Standard Food, ISO22000 and
areas e.g. food authenticity (free from claims, avoidance of food fraud
e.g. Economically Motivated Adulteration of gluten with melamine), product claims.
Figure 2 – Model for trust in 21st Century Pet Food
The combination of quality management, HACCP with tools to control adulteration e.g.
VACCP and TACCP, give rise to the concept of food integrity. Food integrity is defined as ensuring “safe, authentic food that meets customer expectations”. However good our food integrity systems are they will be ineffective if we don’t consider how people behave for example “food safety culture” / food safety behaviour i.e. how people behave - Do we do what say we do when it comes to operating food safety management systems? To ensure that we demonstrate trust
ood Supplement 2019 Figure 2 – Model for trust in 21Pet FCentury Pet FoodPage 25
from livestock to petfood By Gill Gallagher, Sustainability Manager, Devenish There is growing awareness and interest among consumers, particularly
economically. Trials conducted with pigs have shown environmental
millennials, in the sustainability credentials of products and brands1.
benefits in the form of lower greenhouse gas emissions (independently
Sustainability is a broad concept and can mean many different things
validated by SAC Consulting using accredited tool AgRE Calc©),
to different people, depending on their perspective. As such, it can be
ammonia, odour, water consumption and slurry output.
difficult to define, although it is generally premised on the three pillars
The Devenish Lands at Dowth is an internationally recognised
of economics, environment and ethics, with the Holy Grail nestled in
research farm dedicated to developing sustainable systems-based
between, satisfying all three simultaneously.
solutions and is part of Wageningen University and Research’s Lighthouse Farm Network, in recognition of its sustainability credentials. Research is ongoing to improve soil health, water quality and carbon sequestration to offset GHGs. Further work has been ongoing to better understand the environmental impact of the embedded carbon emissions associated with different raw materials and to optimise diet formulations accordingly. Embedded emissions are generally associated with the cultivation, harvesting, processing and transport of feed ingredients. With this knowledge Devenish works with customers to understand the carbon footprint of their supply chain and how it can be influenced through choice of materials and formulation. So, how and why is this relevant and important to the pet food sector? As consumers become more discerning, the industry must show leadership to address the challenges, such as supply chain greenhouse gas emissions, which are equally pertinent in pet food. In addition, the pet food sector is entwined in both livestock production
Source: Roadmap for Sustainable EU Livestock
and the human food system, as a competitor for ingredients and user of by-products from both supply chains. More sustainable diets should
Nutrition company, Devenish, have framed their sustainability
seek to maximise nutrient utilisation, the health of the animal and
ethos within an overarching vision of One Health from Soil to Society,
digestibility to reduce losses, with consideration given to the embedded
which focuses on the importance of nutrient utilisation in soil, crop,
emissions associated with the raw materials selected.
animal, environmental and human health, as key and interlinked
Application of knowledge and research from agriculture can help
components of the value chain. This takes a more holistic approach
the pet food sector calculate and understand how to influence the
to the broader life cycle and reinforces the link between nutrition and
carbon footprint impact of its supply chain particularly around the choice
health, both of the human and the environment.
of raw materials and formulations.
From an environmental perspective, Devenish are thought leaders
Protein sources are also deserving of attention in their own right
in the livestock sector, and provide practical solutions to reduce the
– for many consumers protein quantity and source is the key nutrient
environmental impact of production. Much of this is centred on targeted
in their pet food and can influence buying decisions. The Pet Food
precision nutrition, understanding the precise nutrient requirements of
industry recognises the need to have sustainable protein sources
the animal at each life stage and balancing accordingly to avoid feeding
and is looking at alternatives to traditional sources, but it is also worth
excess nutrients which are not able to be utilised and so end up being
considering the quantity of protein being fed to our pets – are we over
excreted into the environment. In particular, protein optimisation is
feeding it? What impact, can overfeeding protein have on the health of
key. Specially developed DevAmine™ technology improves nutrient
our pets and the health of the environment? What can we learn from
utilisation and allows the crude protein content of the diet to be reduced,
the agricultural sector?
without detriment to animal wellbeing or performance which is crucial
As the focus on sustainability intensifies, our research and focus will continue to look at developing supply chain solutions and
formulations for the future that meet the nutritional requirements of our
pets and deliver improved economic and environmental performance
for our customers.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Driving sustainability improvements through innovative nutritional solutions and technical expertise to petfood manufacturers globally
T | +44 (0)28 9075 5566 E | firstname.lastname@example.org www.devenish.com
Calsporin® is already known to strongly support gut health in many animal species. Recently approved by the EU for dog food applications, the spore-forming probiotic has now shown to also strengthen the gut health, digestion, and faecal quality of ‘man’s best friend’.
Good gut Good coat Good dog By Alexia Lépine, PhD, Central Technical Manager, Orffa Additives B.V.
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer beneficial health effects
shared by all these species to explain such a transversal benefit is
to animals once ingested. Surviving the gastrointestinal fluids is crucial
their developed and diverse intestinal microbiota. The microbiota, or
for probiotics in order to reach the right locations in the intestine, where
microflora, is the huge community of microbes that lives in animals’
they are most effective. The probiotic Calsporin® contains spores of
guts. By constantly communicating amongst themselves and with their
the specifically selected strain Bacillus subtilis C-3102 that stimulates
host, the microflora directly contributes to the animal’s health. Microbes
a stable and strong core microflora. By shaping and maintaining a
feed from the host’s leftovers and excrete compounds such as vitamins
powerful barrier against pathogens, the Calsporin strain ensures
and short chain fatty acids. Maintaining an optimal microbiota prevents
the development of pathogens and considerably improves digestibility.
Recent studies verify this process in dogs, too. Apparent digestibility
of ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) have been
Spore-forming probiotics have the major advantage of being extremely
significantly improved, digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter
stable. In addition to its resistance to the low pH of gastrointestinal
(OM) tended to be improved, and observations reveal positive effects
fluids, Bacillus subtilis C-3102 is also thermostable. Extensive studies
on crude fibre (CF) and crude protein (CP) digestibility (Figure 1).
have been conducted for the numerous EU registrations of Calsporin®. All results indicate that harsh processing, such as pelletizing, cannot harm Bacillus subtilis C-3102 spores. While resisting temperatures as
Figure 1. Apparent digestibility (%)
high as 90°C, the spores are more sensitive to very rapid changes in
Calsporin® significantly improves digestibility of ether extract (EE) and
pressure, which in turn limits their applicability in extrusion processes.
nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and tends to improve dry matter (DM) and
In order to overcome this limitation, alternative inclusion strategies have
organic matter (OM) digestibility.
been developed together with key industrial partners. For instance,
Figure 1. Apparent digestibility (%). Calsporin® significantly improves digestibility of ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) and tends to improve dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. Digestibility of crude proteins (CP) an
studies in digest application have been successfully conducted. The findings underscore that no matter the form in which the product is stored, Calsporin® spores have proven to be highly stable and viable for more than one year in all kinds of feed and petfood. Thus, the probiotic ensures full activity once ingested by the dog.
Gut health / digestion Years of experience led to the registration of Calsporin® as a gut flora
stabilizer for over 10 animal categories. Mammals, birds, and fish have been the beneficiaries of Calsporin®’s positive effects on gut health,
A, B: Different superscript are significant differences (p < 0.05)
faecal consistency, and nutrients absorption. The main parameter
a, b: indicate near significance, trend (0.05 < p < 0.10)
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Figure 2. Faecal quality scores
Calsporin® significantly improves dog’s faeces by lowering soft stools
A healthier microbiota directly contributes to better digestion and
occurrence and increasing the rate of well-formed stools
improved gut health. But how to measure these hidden, internal effects in a concrete and feasible way? Put simply, the visible product of digestion can be evaluated daily in terms of the faecal quality.
p<0.001 p< 0.001 Calsporin
Conducted evaluations emphasized a considerable and repeated improvement of the faecal consistency of dogs fed with Calsporin®.
Figure 2 reveals that dogs using Calsporin® for 5 weeks had less loose and formless stools than controls. Also, well-formed stools were observed in over 55% of the dogs that received Calsporin®, while these were observed in 35% of controls only. Felix et al. 2010 and Paap et al. 2016 confirmed the positive impact. Applying a regression analysis, the authors found that dogs with lower stool consistency before Calsporin® benefit most from the probiotic.
Faecal odour VFA (µmol/g faecal DM)*
Not only unpleasant, a strong smell is a marker for the release of harmful gases, e.g. ammonia. The excretion of such compounds by
animals is common. Concerning husbandry animals, poultry trials have
poisonous hydrogen sulphide (Jeong & Kim 2014). Supplementing
Calsporin® significantly lowered ammonia emission of dogs (Felix et
chain fatty acids (SCFA), while pathogens typically produce branched
chain fatty acids (BCFA). BCFA are the fermentation products of
protein degradation, SCFA relate to carbohydrate metabolism.
Dog owners are often confronted with the odour of their dogs’ faeces.
accumulated evidence for Calsporin® to drastically reduce the excretion of both, ammonia (Jeong & Kim 2014, Blair 2004, field trials) and the
al 2010). Moreover, observations show significant effects on volatile fatty acids (Table 1). Beneficial bacteria are known to produce short
Calsporin® induces the combined effects of decreased ammonia and BCFA and increased SCFA, indicating the shift towards a healthier status of dogs’ microflora. Not surprisingly, the odour of dogs’ faeces therefore improves significantly by supplementing Calsporin® (Paap
Short chain fatty acids, end products of fiber fermentation Branched-chain fatty acids, end products of protein fermentation
et al 2016).
Coat condition Dog owners may not only assess their dogs’ faeces to judge the gut health of their pet. Seeing and petting a soft, thick, and shiny fur coat provides an additional reassurance. Faecal and coat conditions mirror the health status and reflect the quality of the food. As a matter of fact, the benefits of Calsporin® to ameliorate chronic diarrhoea extend to an improved fur coat. Such a clear link between gut health and general improvement of external features is a noticeable way for the owners to realise direct positive effects on their dogs’ health.
Summary A well-formulated dog food containing the stable and viable Bacillus subtilis C-3102 will be highly appreciated by both dogs and their owners. The highly stable, robust and compatible Calsporin® probiotic provides a daily boost to the dogs’ immune system by constantly maintaining a healthy and stable core microflora. Improved hair coat and faecal quality are the visible benefits of Calsporin® that keeps the inner health of the dog at its best.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Aromatic attractiveness of insects to dogs By Matthew Wedzerai MSc The acceptance for insect use in animal nutrition is increasing.
et al., 2004). The main advantage of this insect over other insect
The need for alternative protein sources to soybean and fish meal
species used for biomass production is that the adult does not feed
is the main drive. It is known that the use of supplemental aromas
and therefore does not require particular care and is not a potential
and flavours in pet foods generates additional costs without direct
carrier of diseases. It has been suggested that the larva contains natural
feed quality improvement. However, the use of insects in the
antibiotics (Newton et al., 2008).
form of aroma additives has a high potential for improving both palatability and quality of animal feed.
Mealworm Mealworms are easy to breed and feed and have a valuable protein
The application of insects as an innovative feedstuff component
profile. They contain high amounts of CP (47–60%) and fat (31–43%).
is becoming an interesting issue in companion animal nutrition. In
For these reasons, they are produced industrially as feed for pets and
companion animal nutrition, insect meal can be used, especially in
zoo animals, including birds, reptiles, small mammals, amphibians
hypoallergenic diets. Also, insects are considered a functional feed
and fish. They are usually fed live, but are also sold canned, dried,
due to their chitin and antimicrobial peptide contents (Józefiak et al.,
or in powder form. Mealworms can recycle plant waste materials of
2016; Józefiak and Engberg, 2017).
low quality into high-quality feed rich in energy, protein and fat in a relatively short time.
Some facts about insects Insect rearing could be one of the ways to enhance food and feed
Tropical house cricket
security (van Huis et al., 2013). They have high feed conversion
The crude protein content of house cricket is also very high (55–67%).
efficiency (since they are cold blooded) and can be reared on bio-waste
Both Ca and P contents in house cricket are higher than in locust or
streams. In general, they grow and reproduce easily. Studies show
that a kilogram of insect biomass can be produced from, on average,
The researchers at the University of Poznań in Poland carried out
2 kg of feed biomass (Collavo et al., 2005). Insects can feed on waste
a study to investigate the aromatic attractiveness of insects to dogs.
biomass and have the capability of transforming this waste into high
The results of their trial are given below:
value food and feed resource. However, studies show that most insect meals are deficient in calcium, and its supplementation in the diet is, therefore, required, especially for growing animals. The good news is that these levels of calcium in insect meals can be enhanced by manipulation of the
The trial Animals and diets • 35 dogs (20 males and 15 females) kept as companion animals were used. • Their ages ranged from 12 months to 7 years.
substrate on which insects are reared.
• The dogs were allowed free olfactory access to the selected
Overview of the insect species
unprocessed dried insects (turkestan cockroach (Shelfordella
Black soldier fly
lateralis), black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), tropical house
Black soldier fly larvae are a high-value feed source, rich in protein
cricket (Gryllodes sigillatus), and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor).
and fat. They contain about 40–44% crude protein. Black soldier fly
The dogs were also allowed free access to the control treatment
larvae process organic waste very quickly, restraining bacterial growth
which was a commercial dried and pelleted dog feed.
and thereby reducing production of bad odour to a minimum (Erickson
• Samples (100 g) were located separately in non-transparent
Table 1: Nutritive value of the insect species Item
Crude fat (g)
Crude fibre (g)
Crude ash (g)
Per kg of DM1 Crude protein (g)
DM – dry matter; 2ND – data not available
Pet Food Supplement 2019
closed boxes with 5 perforations in the cover (7 mm each) to improve the intensity of the aromas without direct contact with
Speciality Ingredients for Pet Foods
the tested samples • The box was recorded as chosen when the dog showed interest in it for more than 15 seconds continuously per each attempt (3 attempts per dog).
Results and concluding remarks • Mealworm and cockroach contained the highest crude protein levels, up to 59% and 73%, respectively – it’s not clear whether these levels are correlated to aromatic preferences. • Although the aromatic attractiveness was not significantly different between diets, the study demonstrated a positive effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) and cockroach (Shelfordella lateralis) on improving attractiveness to dogs. • On preferences by sex, mealworm was favoured more often by males than by females – which preferred cockroach. • In most cases, producers of companion animal feed use expensive aroma and flavour supplements that do not provide nutrients – besides the aroma and flavour, insects can provide an additional source of high-quality crude protein and fat. • The researchers also concluded that the possibility of insect application to dog diets provides the double benefit of an aroma
Inovitec Ltd Unit 5A, Tarporley Business Centre, Nantwich Road, Tarporley, Cheshire, CW6 9UT.
as well as high-quality nutrient source; can be an alternative for commercial aroma additives in10:11 dog nutrition. Feed178x124:Ad 18/12/18 Page 1
T:+44 (0)1829 730407
The world’s largest animal feed event VICTAM International is by far the world’s largest dedicated event for the animal feed processing, ingredients and additives industries. The exhibition is the essential ‘one-stop’ show for decision makers within these sectors and is complimented by the following conferences: • 1st International Feed Technology Congress • Feed Strategy Conference 2019 • Petfood Forum Europe 2019 • GMP+ Seminar • AllAboutFeed Seminar • Aquafeed Horizons Conference 2019
Victam International BV P.O. Box 197, 3860 AD Nijkerk, The Netherlands T: +31 33 246 4404 E: email@example.com W: www.victaminternational.com See us on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Google+ or scan the QR code
For the latest news and up-to-date exhibitor list please visit us at www.victaminternational.com Pet Food Supplement 2019
Dinnissen helps GA Pet Food Ingredients Kitchen to achieve new premium production standards
Golden Acres Pet Food Partners (Lancashire, England) has completed a large and prestigious project on its premises Ingredients Kitchen sets new standards
innovative ideas into working concepts that are successfully adapted
GA Pet Food Partners (Lancashire, England) is one of Europe’s largest
for the largest producers in the world.
pet food producers. It only produces private label brands which are exported to more than 40 countries throughout the world.
A nice example of such a successful innovative development is the vacuum core coating process that Dinnissen invented in 1992.
CEO Roger Bracewell of GA Pet Food Partners had, together
Several years later, this was followed by the lean gravity mixing lines
with his management team, a vision. The idea was to produce a new
and the hammer mill featuring an automatic screen exchange
excellent line of dry pet food products for the top of the market. To
system. These are just a few of the many technical breakthroughs
achieve this, a special 26-metre-high production plant has been built
that have gained Dinnissen considerable recognition throughout the
called ‘Ingredients Kitchen’ that will set a new standard for pet food. It
concerns premium solutions, where no less than 800 different pet food formulas with different ingredients must be processed on the same
lines … at the ‘premium’ level. And because for premium products, in
In addition to GA Pet Food Partners’ desire to only produce excellent
many cases, premium machines are required, the search was on for
pet food products, various other items were on the wish list: far-reaching
the world’s best machine manufacturers.
automation, a clean and hygienic work floor and ergonomic workplaces for the machine operator. In view of the final result, these wishes have
Teamwork from the individual disciplines
been more than fulfilled.
Bracewell did not believe that there was a single total contractor in the market that had all of the technical and engineering disciplines under
Scaling up to 60 tonnes/hour
one roof that could offer the best possible solution for any situation.
When designing the large-scale installation, which is mainly made
Therefore, for every part of the installation, individual parties were
from stainless steel, the decision was made to create three separate
searched for, each specialised in their own discipline, with a view of
production lines each with a capacity of 12 – 15 tonnes/hour. In other
letting them all work together as a team. “Only then will you be able to
words, a total volume of 40 – 45 tonnes/hour. This mega-volume can,
find and work out the best ideas”, was the vision.
if desired, be relatively simply scaled up to 60 tonnes/hour, because
During the search to find such specialist companies, Dinnissen
during the entire preparation phase, sufficient space was left to allow
quickly came into the picture. The fact that they had devised numerous
the installation of a fourth production line. As is often the case, the entire
innovative engineering solutions reinforced the impression that
line had to comply with the latest Atex regulations.
Dinnissen’s professionalism could guarantee the highest expectations in the areas of volume, accuracy and production security.
Complete milling/mixing line For this project, Dinnissen has built an entire milling/mixing line to
prepare the product for the extruder. The system consists of Pegasus
Since 1948, Dinnissen Process Technology has been developing
pre-mixers, two different Hamex mills, a screen, a check screen, the
machines, complete processes and customised solutions for the food,
pneumatic transport, the connecting piping, the transport screws and
feed, pet food and chemical industries. The focus mainly lies on the
the bunkers. With respect to the mills, two different types are used: the
efficient handling and processing of powders, granulates and pellets.
Hamex 1000-LS-MG featuring automatic screen exchange which runs at 1500 rpm for fine milling; and the Hamex 1200-HS that, running at
Innovation is the basis One of Dinnissen’s characteristic qualities is to transform daring
Pet Food Supplement 2019
3000 rpm, is used to mill materials that are rich in fats. An important partner in the entire process is KSE from Bladel in
Pictures show various internal views of the GA Pet Food Partnersâ€™ Ingredients Kitchen plant in Lancashire, England
the Netherlands. This company developed the container filling system that fills the containers layer by layer with non-mixed fine and coarse product.
Amended process Where it is normal to first mill the product and then to mix it, here it was decided to optimise this process as well and to mix it before and after milling it. During the process, KSE loads a batch of 1500 kg of various unmixed ingredients into the Dinnissen dual shaft PG2400FF mixer. This 2400-litre Pegasus Front-to-Front mixer optimally mixes the batch and unloads it completely. This means that the ingredients are first mixed before being milled. The reason is that during the mixing process the fines (powders) stick to
to the end bunker. The KSE installation then picks up the next container
the fatty raw materials, meaning that later in the process it is possible to
and fills it from the bunker. The mixed product is then transported to
mill a â€˜dryerâ€™ product, improving the efficiency of the process. Moreover,
the extrusion line, where the last micro component can be mixed in
the mixing time is extremely short, a more homogenous mix is achieved
immediately before the extrusion process.
(the coefficient of variation is < 3%) and due to the premixing, the grinding process is better and more efficient.
If a specific product with its own formula is extremely rich in fats,
After screening of the fines and after the separator, sample screws
it can be routed to the mill immediately after being mixed. After all,
continually take samples, which are checked via a control screen. If
thanks to the optimal mixing, the additives will stick effectively in and
coarse particles are present, the probability is that a screen is defective.
on the product.
This is an additional check to maintain the final quality at the desired
If the basic product is less fatty, then a screen will screen out the
fines as effectively as possible and transport them to an end bunker. The coarser particles will be carefully rerouted to the mill. Thanks to
All in all, once more a stunning technical achievement that is being
them being screened out, the fines will not be exposed to too much
closely followed in the process world. If you also want to follow
energy in the mill, which can possibly lead to them (partially) losing their
it, start by clicking the following link: https://www.youtube.com/
product characteristics. Therefore, it is only natural that the production
costs are reduced and quality is increased. That is the reason that the process sequence was amended. After the milling process, the processed product is transported pneumatically to a separator, which also transports the milled product
If you want to receive more information about such high-quality solutions, please contact Dinnissen in Sevenum (the Netherlands). Tel.: +31 (0)77 467 35 55 or go to www.dinnissen.nl.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
Warehouse Management for Pet Food By Paul Girdham There are many off-the-shelf Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) from a variety of suppliers but most systems are geared up for different industries and may have rigid rules which are not really suitable for pet food manufacturers. The unique aspects of warehouses of manufacturers of pet food and animal feed are that a Fork Lift Truck (FLT) has to be used to move pretty well everything and also flexibility is very important. Racking is not always available and stock often has to be stored temporarily on the floor in general areas and aisles. The value of stock doesn’t warrant expensive RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology. On top of that, badging (putting a base product in different bags for marketing reasons) is common, stock shelf life is important and items often have to be held for quality control (QC) checks. A warehouse would normally have five different types of material which all benefit from tracking: • Raw material used in manufacturing • Intermediate material (work in progress) • Finished product for sale (including bought-in product for resale) • Reworks • Packaging material such as empty sacks There are many worthwhile benefits to managing a warehouse efficiently. Top of the list has to be that you know, in real-time, exactly
system both for them and the company; these would include finding
what you have where. This makes warehouse utilisation much more
stock faster, preventing over shipping as well as not forgetting to ship
efficient and may even reduce the need for additional space. The next
something which is in stock.
benefit is the elimination, or at least drastic reduction, in mistakes made
All WMS systems will require wireless (Wi-Fi) coverage throughout
and all the associated costs which those entail. For larger warehouses,
the warehouse, not forgetting the areas outside where lorries are loaded
a WMS system will automatically show warehouse operators where
and unloaded. This area can be tricky to cover as wireless coverage
the oldest stock is for stock rotation.
will be reduced the more lorries are around. Since wireless coverage
Of course, a WMS system will include traceability to track every batch / lot of raw material through to the production process. The FLT
is critical, it pays to install a proper industrial system which allows FLTs to move rapidly around without losing connection.
driver would scan the barcode, for example on an IBC, and ‘move’
The next thing to decide is what type of vehicle mount terminal
it to the IBC addition point. Traceability would also include tracking
you want and the amount of information the FLT driver can see. I
each finished product batch to the final customer or at least to the
personally would always recommend a full-size touch-screen tablet,
bearing in mind that life on a FLT is very tough with bad vibration,
It is important not to slow down warehouse operators and so speed
sometimes getting wet and very cold in winter. Having a terminal
of operation and simplicity of operation are important. When training
permanently wired into the FLT battery solves the problem of battery
warehouse operators it is important to stress the benefits of a WMS
life and mounting it securely means that it cannot be dropped but it does need a vibration-proof mounting. Ram Mount supply suitable mounts for most terminals. Practically, the most sensible way to track items is to use barcoded labels where there is one label for every big bag / IBC and one label for every pallet of bags / packs / cases. For a pallet, the WMS system remembers the number of bags/packs/cases on the pallet when it gets changed and so there is no need to print this information on the label. The labels can also include other useful information such as product code and expiry date. Bear in mind, though, that when a pallet is high up in racking, the label looks pretty small and so important information needs to be made as large as possible. I would recommend a minimum size of A5 for labels. You can purchase very good long-range, rugged, barcode scanners now with a range of a few metres which means that the FLT
Pet Food Supplement 2019
driver can scan whilst remaining in his/her seat.
system makes for a very efficient operation.
For barcodes there is a world-wide standard for logistics called
When it comes to installation, the most
SSCC which is very suitable for use in a warehouse. This has the added
important thing is to have one person in charge in
benefit that if you intend to ship products to a supermarket or another
the warehouse who can sort out any problems and
large company then the same SSCC barcode will be suitable. The
prevent bad practices. Operator training is especially
SSCC barcode consists of 18 digits in 3 parts: the first is unique to the
important to ensure that they remember to do
factory; the second is a consecutive number unique to you; and lastly
everything and that if there is a problem, it is sorted
there is a check digit. The first part is policed by the GS1 organisation
out straight away. Any problems with warehouse
(www.gs1uk.org) but if you don’t ship to anyone who accepts SSCC
stock control get worse the longer that they are left;
barcodes, you don’t need to register with GS1. In future, I suspect that
hoping that they go away never works!
many sites will start to use SSCC barcodes when shipping to other
Installation always has to be done in stages as
companies’ sites; for example, a factory supplying raw material to a pet
initially no stock is barcoded and you cannot start
food factory will ship using SSCC barcodes and the pet food factory
to ship product out until most is. It pays to install a
will be able to scan them directly into stock.
WMS system in a quiet period and having extra staff
Information on warehouse stock and historical traceability
to barcode existing stock helps.
information is important and you cannot afford to lose it. Your IT advisors
When it comes to orders for small numbers
may suggest SQL Server replication which automatically copies all the
of items, it’s best to ‘pre-pick’ these before the
information to a second computer instantly. Thus, you will always have a
lorry arrives. You probably already have a suitable pre-pick area and
normally a pre-picked mixed pallet will be issued with a new barcode
specifically for the customer. This means that when the collection lorry
arrives, this barcode is scanned ensuring that no items are missed off
In all cases,
the load and all lots numbers are stored with that order.
it is essential that
A WMS system will provide lots of information to help with your
business. This could include information on how much reworks is
can be directly
produced from where, how much stock is close to expiry, details on
raw material arrivals, full traceability, totals of written-off / damaged
your sales order
stock, stock of all material (highlighting low or excessive stock), usage
system / office
of empty sacks, who shipped which order and so on.
IT system as it would be far too onerous to have to re-key them into the WMS system. This is especially true for pet food and animal feed where
Paul Girdham is a Senior Consultant for DSL Systems Ltd which has
orders seem to get changed at the last minute, sometimes even as the
its own Warehouse Stock Tracking system (WST) used in a variety of
lorry is being loaded! Exporting load information back to the accounts
warehouses. For further information visit www.dsl-systems.com
A d v a n c e d
c o n t r o l
s y s t e m s
f o r
p e t
f o o d
p l a n t s
Optimise processes Reduce labour User friendly 24/7 support Performance monitoring Flexible and configurable Stock control and traceability Please contact us to arrange a demonstration and find out how we can improve your pet food plant
DSL Systems Ltd, Adbolton Hall, Adbolton Lane, West Bridgford, Nottingham NG2 5AS T: +44 (0) 115 981 3700 I E: firstname.lastname@example.org I W: www.dsl-systems.com Pet Food Supplement 2019
How to manage the challenge of bringing a new scientific product to market By Professor John Hunter, Tharos Bringing a scientific product to market can be a long and challenging process – whether it’s health, veterinary, medical equipment, food & nutrition etc. Unlike many other products, scientific products need much more rigorous testing and supporting evidence if they are to be credible. People are increasingly wary of pseudo-scientific claims that sound too good to be true. They also want new and innovative ideas. But they only trust what they know and understand. It’s a tricky balance to achieve it takes time and patience to build up trust and confidence. After many years of research and testing my company, Tharos™, launched Equinectar®, an enzyme-enriched feed supplement for performance racehorses. From getting the science right to raising investment, it’s been an uphill challenge, and we learnt a lot along the way. Here’s my advice based on our own experiences:
money to get credible scientific proof, so concentrate on that. Don’t spend it elsewhere unless you really have to, or you’ll be in danger of running out of cash.
Be prepared to look at things differently
It can be a bit of a catch-22: You need money and investment to
Ideas and inspiration can come from the most unexpected sources. For
pay for the science, but people will only invest if they are confident in
me, it was having lunch with the editor of an equine veterinary journal.
We were speaking about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in humans –
We were very mindful not to fall into this trap. Instead, we focused
my area of focus at the time – and he asked if horses suffer from IBS.
our initial investment and resources on working with some of the best
I had no idea, so I went away to find out. I discovered that horses do
specialist gut health scientists in the UK and abroad. We ran studies
indeed suffer from IBS-like symptoms.
with a number of universities and other research institutions.
It was only by looking at horses specifically that I got the clue that
By building up a body of scientific evidence over time, we have
some conditions, such as IBS, may be caused by undigested starch
managed to gain greater buy-in from investors, helping us to gain more
fermenting in the large intestine. I reasoned that we could improve the
scientific backing. This led us to a position where we were confident
digestion of starch by increasing the levels of amylase – an enzyme
in our products’ efficacy and had a wealth of evidence to prove it.
that breaks down carbohydrates into sugars – and less fermentation
Then we could begin to build the wider team we needed to launch the
would occur in the intestine.
product to market.
This was really the start of our journey. We then began looking at amylase supplements used in human medicine before considering
using a malt extract, which was more widely available.
Despite our focus on the science, it can still be hard to convince people
So, my advice would be to keep an eye and ear out for interesting
of the efficacy of your product. We were a new company targeting
ideas, dig in to the existing research and see what you come up with.
the racehorse industry - a sector not well known for its incorruptibility.
Meet people in different areas to your own - often it’s the crossover point
People were sceptical, especially given the significance of our results.
that brings the new insight and inspires the development of something
They needed actually to see the product working or speak to someone
truly new and groundbreaking.
they trusted to gain confidence.
Invest in the science
working with well-respected vets and stables, and by writing and
The problem with many so-called scientific products is that they’re
publishing papers in peer-reviewed journals.
The way we tackled this particular challenge was twofold: by
based on old wives’ tales with little actual scientific evidence. Real,
Fortunately for us, the performance equine market is quite
solid science and clear evidence is essential. More important, in fact,
niche. As such, we could run a presentation to vets and trainers in
than having the company set-up and fully formed. If you focus on
Newmarket, tapping into the most influential horse-racing market in
building a company rather than getting the science right you are, to
one fell swoop.
use an appropriate idiom, putting the cart before the horse. You need
Pet Food Supplement 2019
We began ad-hoc trials of the product in stables and demonstrated
improvements in performance and overall condition of the horses
About Prof John Hunter
over five years, providing first-hand experience to influential market
Professor Hunter is founder
of Tharos, an equine health
Secondly, we wrote and published articles in peer-reviewed
company. He was a Consultant
journals which helped us build credibility on the science side of things.
Physician at Addenbrooke’s
So, on the one hand we were able to demonstrate the effect on horses
Hospital, Cambridge, Visiting
first-hand, and, on the other, we built up our scientific credibility.
Professor of Medicine at Cranfield
So, start with a small market where you know you can reach the
University, and is a recognised
right people. Let them see the product in action and take part in trials.
authority on diseases of the gut,
Focus your writing on peer-reviewed journals for the sector. By starting
including Crohn’s disease, colitis
with a smaller group you can gain traction faster, and then expand.
and irritable bowel syndrome.
If you aim too widely, you’ll need a lot of money to gain any sort of awareness and traction. So, focus on one area at a time.
Professor Hunter has published books in this field and contributed over 150 research papers to major medical journals. He has also been a consultant to international
Take care with patents
companies including Shell, Unilever, Nutricia, Quest International and
A particularly tricky aspect was dealing with patents for our product.
We needed the evidence before we were confident in applying for the patents, but we needed the patents before we could publish any
Tharos is a science-led health company focused on animal digestive
So, while we were publishing in journals, we had to be very careful
health, malfermentation, and the gut microbiome. Following four
about what we included. Giving away our ‘special sauce’ in published
years of ground-breaking research into equine digestion, Tharos has
papers would have meant it was in the public domain and would
developed pioneering diet management products that bestow significant
invalidate our patent applications.
health, condition, and performance benefits for horses.
My advice would be to hire a good patent lawyer who can help you
Diet and digestion are key issues for performance horses and
write your patents in order to expedite the process and who can advise
their management. Tharos presents a compelling opportunity to horse
you on what you can and can’t include in your published research.
professionals worldwide. Tharos is a member of the British Equestrian Trade Association (BETA).
Consider regulatory requirements
EquiNectar ® is an equine dietary
Every product, and especially scientific products, need to pass certain
supplement that helps maintain normal
regulatory requirements. Medical products have the most stringent
body function and improves condition by
regulations and therefore take the longest to process. Fortunately,
promoting an optimal gut microflora.
Equinectar® is classified as a food supplement rather than a medical product, so the regulations are a little lighter. Regulatory approval, regardless of your market, takes time. Knowing what regulatory framework your product will fall into and,
EquiNectar®: • promotes optimal digestion of carbohydrates in the small intestine • prevents overspill of undigested
therefore, how long the process should take, will help you manage
carbohydrates into the large bowel
your cash flow until you are approved. There would be nothing worse
• balances the horse’s biochemistry by
than developing a great product only for the company to go bankrupt before it was approved for sale. This may also affect your choice of ingredients. Everything within Equinectar® is included on the Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) list, making it easier to gain regulatory approval from BETA and NOPS.
reducing endotoxicity • restores and maintains the horse’s microbiome to ensure a healthy gut • improves performance and condition through improved feed conversion to energy
If you are using any prohibited or novel ingredients in your product,
EquiNectar is certified under the Feed Materials Assurance Scheme
however, it could take much longer to gain approval. This is something
(FEMAS) and is under application for Universal Feed Assurance
to consider at development stage.
Scheme (UFAS) and British Equestrian Trade Association Naturally
The single most important aspect to keep in mind when bringing a
Occurring Prohibited Substances (BETA NOPS) certifications.
scientific product to market is money. It takes a lot of money to pay for
The company are now looking to run trials of their malt-extract
specialist studies, product development, regulatory approval, patents,
supplement on other animals, including cats, dogs, and cattle, to assess
lawyers, etc. and you need to support yourself and your team throughout
whether the product can be used to improve IBS, diabetes, diarrhoea
the process. Good products can fail due to lack of funds. Keeping your
and other common digestive issues.
attention on your cashflow will be key.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
An interview with Tom Neish, founder of Yora
fly). After conducting five years of extensive research and consulting entomologists and animal nutritionists, these grubs were selected because they are packed with essential amino acids, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins and iron. They also have a higher percentage of protein than either chicken or beef and require a fraction of the energy, land, water and feed that traditional livestock farming needs. Most pet foods, even the premium ones, use meat meal and
What’s behind Yora?
by-product, but Yora uses the whole grub, which is more nutritious.
Yora is our trailblazing new pet food made with 40% insect protein,
There are several other insect-based pet foods on the market but Yora
making it the world’s most sustainable dog food. Our innovative new
contains a higher percentage of insect protein (40%) than other brands.
kibble appeals to ethical dog owners looking to reduce their impact
From a scientific perspective, Yora’s grubs score higher than chicken
on the planet whilst providing a healthy and delicious diet for their
in terms of digestibility, and pets are less likely to be allergic to them,
so they’re great for dogs with delicate tummies.
Who created Yora?
What are the nutritional benefits?
I have worked in the pet food industry for over 25 years and, after
Our specialist nutritionist Will Bisset has an encyclopaedic knowledge
having children, I started to become more aware of the damage we are
of pet nutrition and has an infectious enthusiasm for experimenting with
causing to the planet. It prompted me to wonder what the cumulative
ingredients in the kitchen. He actually cooked, baked and tweaked with
impact of feeding meat to the 500 million pet dogs and cats worldwide
29 recipes until he was satisfied he had reached the perfect combination
is and will be.
for Yora. This recipe provides optimum nutrition for dogs and offers a
One day, I was eating an energy bar made from cricket flour and
range of nutritional benefits.
realised that insect protein could provide a viable alternative to beef,
Here are the top 10 nutritional benefits of Yora:
chicken and fish - and the concept of Yora was born.
Where does the name Yora come from?
They’re also great for a dog’s skin and joints.
We selected the name Yora in honour of one of the last uncontacted
The oats offer a nutritious, low GI source of carbohydrates.
tribes in the Amazonian rainforest. Tribes like these, who have always
Beetroot packs a vitamin C punch, potassium for the nervous
The grubs in Yora are a great source of animal protein and packed with essential amino acids.
lived in harmony with nature, are the most at risk from the damage being caused by humankind’s insatiable appetite for meat.
system and iron for blood cells. 5.
Potato is rich in phytonutrients, fibre and vitamin C.
If we can wean the world’s pets off meat and onto insects, then
Linseed and insect oil provide Omega 3 and 6.
we’ll make a huge positive change for our planet’s future. It’s up to us
Chicory helps with digestion and stool formation.
to take the steps we can to change the world for the better.
Parsley is a natural aid to digestion, helps kidney health and has
Where do the insects come from?
anti-inflammatory properties. Yora insects are sourced from Protix, the leading insect and protein nutrient company, based in Holland. The grubs are reared in high tech
Seaweed is a superfood packed with 73 different essential minerals.
10. Yora contains zero antibiotics and is hypoallergenic.
vertical farms and fed on recycled vegetable matter. They are what’s known as ‘primary composters’, which means that once they have
What are the environmental benefits?
processed the vegetable matter, the by-product is a fertiliser that can be
Meat farming is incredibly energy intensive and inefficient, huge
used to grow more vegetables. The grubs naturally grow very quickly.
swathes of land, energy, fertilisers and pesticides are needed to grow
During the lifecycle of an insect there are four stages: egg, larva,
crops to feed livestock. The livestock themselves consume enormous
pupa and adult. During the larvae stage, they are packing away all of the
quantities of water and produce a lot of waste that leaches into the
essential nutrients they’ll need to give them enough energy to transform
water supply and the air. Our grubs are fed on leftover vegetable
into their final adult stage, much like a chicken’s egg is packed with
waste which is essentially carbon neutral, and don’t need much more
nutrition to feed the chicken embryo. Harvesting the grubs just before
input from us to thrive. Our grub protein is more resource and energy
they turn into pupa is when they are at their most nutritious, and before
efficient than soya.
they expend a lot of energy transforming.
Here are the top five environmental benefits of Yora: 1.
Yora is the most sustainable dog food currently available,
How is Yora different to other pet food brands?
containing a higher percentage of insect protein than competitor
Yora is different from other brands because it’s made from an insect-
based protein source, Hermetia Illucens (also known as black soldier
Pet Food Supplement 2019
When compared to beef farming, Yora’s grubs need just 2% of
the land and 4% of the water required to produce each kilogram of protein, making them incredibly efficient. 3.
Producing 10kg of insect protein generates 0.06 tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions – a tenth of the amount of CO2 required to produce the same quantity of chicken protein.
All of the ingredients in Yora have been selected because they have the best nutritional profiles while also being the most sustainable to produce. For example, potatoes generate 85% less CO2 than rice.
Yora’s grubs feast on waste vegetable matter and the only byproduct is compost!
Have you struggled with people’s perceptions of insects compared to more traditional ingredients like meat or fish?
Have you got plans for expanding into other pet foods?
Some people are just instantly on board, while others do take a little
Yes! We have some exciting plans to expand, including Yora for cats
gentle persuading. We find that if a customer gives us a couple of
and a range of sustainable pet treats. Our manufacturing partner Protix
minutes of their time, we can get them over the initial ‘ick’ factor and
recently expanded their range of insects to include crickets, so we’re
realise that Yora is actually often better for their pets than what they’re
now looking to develop a range of nutritious and delicious treats such
as protein bars and bedtime biscuits for dogs and cats – which means
Insects have been a major part of the food chain since the dawn
their whole diet can be migrated across to Yora.
of time, and they’ve fallen out of favour in the West while millions of people eat them every day. It’s definitely easier to convince people to
How do you predict the market will develop in the future?
feed grubs to their pets than to try them themselves!
With a heightened awareness of the impacts of climate change, demand for sustainable products across all sectors, including pet food, is a
Why is feeding human grade meat to dogs an issue?
major trend. Consumers and suppliers are increasingly looking to be
Traditionally pet food was a great way to use leftovers from the human
more ethical and environmentally conscious. Add that to the increasing
food industry, so it was actually not too bad for the environment. But
pressure to reduce meat intake and it’s clear that the pet food industry
now people want higher quality protein sources for their pets, hence the
needs to diversify. We have been welcomed and praised by The
trend towards human grade meat, which is just not sustainable.
Pet Industry Federation as an innovative new pet food that is taking
It seems wrong to me that while resources are dwindling around
important steps towards greening the market. We firmly believe that
the world, we’re feeding food to pets that could go to people instead.
insect protein will become a key component in both human and animal
This can clearly be seen in the fact that carcasses are arriving for
diets as we are forced to re-think outdated food production systems in
processing for pet food more stripped of meat than ever, and meat
order to mitigate the impacts of climate change.
prices are going up because of demand. With insect protein, we’ve found a source of protein that’s incredibly nutritious and that pets love, without taking food off the world’s plate.
Where do you sell Yora? Yora will be stocked in independent and specialist pet food shops and is also available to buy online.
Is Yora suitable for all types of dog? Yora offers a nutritionally complete food for all standard breeds.
Is Yora available globally?
Puppies generally need a specially formulated diet but large breeds
Yora pet food is currently only available in the UK, but we have had
can transition to dry food by 9 or 10 weeks of age, and small dogs can
interest from across the world. These companies aren’t restricted to
do the same around 12 or 13 weeks. Yora is also supported by a team
having an explicit environmental mission which is extremely promising
of qualified veterinary experts including TV vet Dr. Rory Cowlam, who
for the future of sustainable pet food.
shares our excitement for the enormous potential for Yora to reduce our pets’ collective carbon pawprint.
How much does it cost? Yora is priced at £13.99 (£1.68 per day) for a 1.5kg bag, £47.99
How do you manage production?
(£1.44 per day) for a 6kg bag and £89.99 (£1.35 per day) for a 12kg
Yora’s manufacturing arrangement means we supply all the ingredients
bag. The cost per day is based on a medium-sized dog (15kg) eating
to a partner who runs the recipe through an extruder. This means
180g of food.
we have no issues supplying ourselves and we are set to meet the increasing demand.
Visit yorapetfoods.com for more information.
Pet Food Supplement 2019
… PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … C H I C O R Y B O A S T S H E A LT H BENEFITS FOR PETS Chicory is a blue flowering plant belonging to the dandelion family and its root being a great source of inulin, a type of prebiotic, which can also be found in wheat, onions, bananas, garlic and asparagus. As onions and garlic are toxic to dogs and wheat can trigger an adverse food reaction, Vet’s Kitchen use inulin from chicory root in nearly all of their dry dog and cat food range, wet dog food products and their HJealthy Digestion supplement. Jenny Philp, managing director and senior practicing vet at Vet’s Kitchen, explains the science behind inulin and how chicory can be incorporated as part of your pets healthy diet to encourage healthy digestion: “When it comes to the digestive system, prebiotics are broken down (fermented) by the bacteria in the large intestine and used like a fertilizer or energy source to encourage healthy/beneficial bacterial growth. These prebiotics affect the levels, species and activity of beneficial bacteria in the gut, which in turn can have a positive effect on digestion. “Beneficial bacteria can help the digestive system in a numbers of ways by producing certain vitamins, including Vitamins K which are required for blood clotting. It can also help to breakdown food to make it more digestible, as well as aiding the absorption of nutrients which help your pet stay happy and healthier for longer. By making the environment in the gut less favourable for harmful bacteria, beneficial bacteria created by prebiotics can also positively affect and regulate the immune system.”
TO M R A F O O D I N T R O D U C E S ADVANCED SORTING SOLUTIONS FOR THE PETFOOD INDUSTRY TOMRA Food, manufacturer of sensorbased sorting machines for the food industry, has become the first to provide advanced sorting solutions for petfood producers. By developing four new sorting applications of its proven technologies, the company has made it possible for petfood manufacturers to easily remove even very small particles of foreign materials from dry meat and bone meal, ground frozen meat, biscuits residue, and dry kibble. All four new sorting applications have been validated over the last two years at TOMRA facilities as well as in real-world working conditions at petfood manufacturing plants in Europe and the United States. By recalibrating sorting machines originally designed to ensure the purity of food for human consumption, extensive tests have identified the best equipment for specific petfood sorting tasks and have arrived at the optimal configurations for sorting efficiency and product yield. Contamination risk can
Pet Food Supplement 2019
be high in petfood because of the nature of the raw materials. Dry meat and bone meal, derived from offal (animal by-products) collected at slaughterhouses, can contain all kinds of foreign bodies. Ground frozen meat for wet petfood is also derived from offal. Biscuits residue, an ingredient for dry kibble, can contain plastic or cardboard from wrappers and boxes. And if dry kibble storage silos are not completely emptied before refilling, there can be cross-contamination of Stock Keeping Units (product types).
CDR FoodLab The CDR FoodLab is a photometric analyser that can rapidly measure levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in under 1 minute, along with peroxide value (PV) and p-Anisidine (p-AnV) in 3-4 minutes. The methods are easy to use and all test kits are pre-prepared with no further instrument calibration required. The CDR FoodLab is reference method compliant but does not require the use of toxic reagents. Pet food customers have found it to be a crucial and cost-effective analytical tool for bringing quality control of fats and oils in-house. www.qclscientific.com/foodlab
Burns Pet Nutrition donates 25% of profits to charity In 2018, Burns Pet Nutrition announced a £1 million charity donation to celebrate its 25th year of trading. The leading pet food producer is donating a quarter of its annual profits to a number of charitable organisations of part of its continued efforts to support community projects and animal charities. Burns Pet Nutrition, a family-run business, has been producing natural pet food for dogs, cats and rabbits since 1993. The Carmarthenshire-based company is led by Veterinary Surgeon, John Burns. Today, the multi-award-winning firm operates on a global scale with trade deals in place across Hong Kong and Europe. The company’s record charity donation will help a number of charitable animal welfare organisations including their charity partners Dogs for the Disabled and Forever Hounds Trust. A significant portion of the donation (£800,000) is being invested into The Burns Pet Nutrition Foundation, a charity established in 2007 by John Burns to improve the lives of people and pets across the UK with an emphasis on tackling the effects of social isolation in rural west Wales. Six full-time staff members currently work for the third sector arm of the organisation on a variety of projects supporting disadvantaged groups in the community. The money will go towards developing and expanding the charity’s projects and activities.
Croston Engineering Croston Engineering, since its formation in 1976, has specialised in the design and building of bulk storage and handling plants throughout the UK. The company’s clients include many household names in the pet food, animal feed and human food industries from whom repeat contracts are received as a result of the prompt and personal service that is provided. Projects undertaken range from the intake and bulk storage of raw materials through processing that may include batch weighing, grinders, mixers, extrusion, pelleting and the out loading of finished products. The carrying out of improvements and extensions to existing production plants is part of the Company’s remit. Croston Engineering is an Approved SAFEContractor, a recognised standard of competence in the industry and is fully conversant with the requirements of DSEAR/ATEX Explosion Regulations where applicable.
From the gut to the brain, and back: A two-way connection for improving pet well-being The brain-gut axis is a well demonstrated concept in humans, showing that the enteric microbiota communicates with nervous, emotional and cognitive systems. A review presented at Petfood Forum China, in Shangai, by Francesca Susca, Ph.D., DVM, Pet Development Manager at Lallemand Animal Nutrition highlighted recent research focusing on the brain-gut axis and the capacity of specific natural microbial solutions to enhance pets’ well-being. In particular, the potential of probiotics to influence the braingut axis is a growing field of evidence with first animal study published in 2006, briefly followed by the first human studies showing that a probiotic supplement can effectively alleviate both physiological and psychological symptoms of chronic stress. To date, more than 50 published studies have evaluated the link between probiotics supplementation and the brain-gut axis. The brain-gut axis represents certainly one of the newest and most promising areas of research in microbiota and probiotics. The studies presented have the potential to pave the way for new holistic approaches to modern pet well-being issues by targeting the gut microbiota,
BUTCHER’S PET CARE TAKES A LEAD ON PLASTIC-FREE PACKAGING Butcher’s Pet Care, the UK’s number one canned dog food brand, has is removing the equivalent of 4.2 million plastic bottles from its supply chain by replacing the shrink wrap on its canned food for dogs. The six & twelve pack cans, are now 100% recyclable, using cardboard packaging made from sustainably grown trees.
G LOBAL LEADE R I N BOTAN ICAL EXTRACTS WITH FU NCTIONAL PROPE RTI ES
WE PROD UCE
WE OFFE R
botanical extracts and plant-based sweeteners
over two decades of experience
natural ingredients for animal nutrition
Our Ingredients TruGro TM AOX Natural Antioxidants
TruGro TM SW Palatability / Sweeteners
TruGro TM G H Gut Health
www.layncorp.com/trugro | email@example.com
Layn Supports Three Key Pillars of Pet Nutrition Layn has launched into the pet nutrition space, targeting specific pet health needs, and pleasing pets and their owners with its high-quality, natural, plant-based ingredients. Its new pet food additive platforms can improve palatability, and address three important areas of pet health – gut health, cell oxidation and weight control.
Gut Health A healthy gut is the foundation of health for pets. As the largest immune organ, more than 80% of the immune system resides in the gut. Proper gut health helps to ensure that pets are able to digest and absorb valuable nutrients from the food and supplements they eat. The TruGro GH pet food additive platform that includes natural solutions based in botanical extracts that help maintain intestinal barrier function and health for improving animal welfare. The platform is based in botanical extracts that help strengthen the gut microbiome to provide a myriad of life-supporting functions that can help pets live their healthiest days.
Cell Oxidation Oxidation can damage mitochondria, cell membranes and other mechanisms and structures essential to the cell. This kind of damage underlies many diseases. The TruGro AOX platform is based in botanical extracts with antioxidant capabilities, targeted at reducing cell oxidation.
Palatability Obesity is a significant risk factor for many life-threatening diseases that affect pets. Body weight is a balancing act of “energy in” (food) versus “energy out” (activity). To achieve weight loss, food consumption needs to be decreased and/or the amount of activity must be increased. But, it’s best to prevent weight gain in the first place since weight loss can be more difficult to achieve. The TruGro SW pet food additive platform includes plant-based sweeteners and flavors, adding palatability to the food and helping to control eater activity. The new pet nutrition ingredients are available as part of Layn’s animal nutrition brand, TruGro™ by Layn®. The new product line includes polyphenol & flavonoid rich extracts, palatability ingredients and other specialty extracts from botanicals including grape seed, green tea, rosemary and others. For more information, visit https://layncorp.com/trugro/
Pet Food Supplement 2019
WHAT ARE YOU DOING DIFFERENTLY TO STAY AHEAD?
In the fast-changing world of FMCG, if you’re not innovating, you’re standing still… and that’s when your competitors can overtake you. Trouw Nutrition leads the world in developing the kind of product innovations that differentiate our partners’ brands, keeping them way ahead of the rest of the marketplace. Isn’t it time you gave your NPD the ‘Trouw innovation’ difference?
Contact Katarzyna Świrkowicz or Roderick Prince on: +44 (0)1335 341121 or visit trouwnutrition.co.uk/globalleader
GLOBAL LEADER IN PET PREMIX
2019 edition of the magazine for the European pet food sector