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Pet Food Ingredient Suppliers, the latter including Alltech (UK) Ltd,
By Galen Rokey
upgraded their statistical armoury with the introduction of their new Pet Data Report. Clearly, PFMS personnel don’t go around the country counting dogs and cats. Each year a representative sample of UK adults are interviewed face-to-face regarding their pet ownership by Kantar sample of over two thousand people was questioned each year but,
in the last two years, a sample of more than four thousand people has been interviewed. In order to further reduce statistical uncertainty, survey
results are averaged over two years, giving an effective sample of over eight thousand people. In total, 44 per cent of householders have a pet of some description, of which there are no less than 54 million. It is at this point that I have
to confess to some doubt as to whether PFMA’s definition of a ‘pet’ chimes with my own conception of what a pet is all about. Reptiles?
By Graham Rawlings
Pet Foods and Extrusion
of information about pet ownership in the UK and they have further
TNS, an internationally known market research outfit. Historically, a
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Provimi and Trouw Nutrition GB. As one might expect, the PFMA is a capacious compendium
By David Primrose
Beta-Glucans Enhance the Protection of Puppies
familiar to those working in the animal feed industry: C & D Foods, divide their membership into two classes: Pet Food Manufacturers and
The Changing Face of Pet Food Safety in the 21st Century – HACCP Alone is Not Enough 24 Hydronix Launches Two New Digital Moisture Sensors
The names of some of the Association’s members will be very Dodson and Horrell, Marriages Feeds spring readily to mind. PFMA
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Game Mixes It
The Pet Foods Manufacturing Association (PFMA) is the leading trade body for the UK pet food industry and its seventy members account for
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Fish, whether indoors or outdoors? Hamsters? I do not doubt that it is possible to form some sort of relationship with a guinea pig but, for my part, I tend to think in terms of dogs or cats where pets are concerned. Still, each to his own.
Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd, Plas Y Coed, Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Web site: www.feedcompounder.com Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Editor: Andrew Mounsey Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit www.pentlandspublishing.com/pfs. htm#register © Pentlands Publishing Ltd 2017
In fact, according to the 2017 survey, 24 per cent of all households, had a dog in residence, the largest proportion of pet owners across all UK households. The equivalent figure for cats was 17 per cent, the second largest proportion of UK households. There are, however, some interesting regional variations. The region with the largest proportion of households owning a dog is Northern Ireland where the figure is 38 per cent. In sharp contrast, the region with the lowest proportion of households owning a dog is London with just nine per cent of households. This is intuitively understandable; opportunities for walking dogs are more restricted in the metropolis compared to those in more rural environments. The same would appear to apply to felines where the national figure
Pet Food Supplement 2017
is 17 per cent of all households with a cat or cats in residence. London
feed safety are transposed, again seamlessly, into UK law. This process
is characterised by just 14 per cent of households with a cat. Again,
has two objectives. Bellingham stresses that the UK pet food industry
conditions in the metropolis are not ideal for these creatures. However,
is proud of the high levels of animal welfare, raw material and finished
London is not the region with the lowest proportion; the North-East
product safety that characterise their UK operations and ‘we wish to
has that distinction with just 13 per cent of all households with a cat
maintain that’. There is, however, the further incentive, in that maintaining
or cats in residence. As for the highest proportion of cat-owners, this
these high standards will also ensure that trade with the EU remains
distinction is held by Wales with 22 per cent of all households. Perhaps
‘straightforward’ as the UK will not have different rules both for the use
cats enjoy the singing.
of raw materials and for manufacturing safe finished products.
PFMA have produced a valuable compendium of facts and figures
Bellingham observes that domestic UK agriculture supplies the pet
about the UK’s pet population which is likely to be on great interest, not
food industry with 80 per cent of its raw materials in the form of animal
just to the marketing men in the pet food industry but also to a wider
by-products and cereals and he notes that ‘it is vital for our interests
that this supply should continue and not be undermined by imports of both raw materials and finished products produced using lower welfare
Pets and Brexit
and safety standards’. The converse of this is that by maintaining these
Michael Bellingham, Chief Executive of the Pet Food Manufacturers’
standards, PFMA sees opportunities to export to the rest of the world
Association, was in the company of the CEO’s of a large number of
high quality products with the best raw materials and incorporating the
organisations of the UK’s Food and Drink industry calling for tariff-free
highest welfare standards.
trade with the EU which remains ‘our largest external market and our
Bellingham reports that PFMA is now ‘in full lobbying mode’ and
largest source of imported supplies’. Signatories included Ian Wright, the
is talking to as many key stakeholders as possible. Contact with as
Director-General of the Food and Drink Federation and David Caffall,
many relevant government departments such as DEFRA, the Food
Chief Executive of the Agricultural Industries Confederation (AIC).
standards Agency and the Department for Exiting the EU, which PFMA
The round-robin directed its attention to trade with Ireland. It
is undertaking in conjunction with other members of the Food and Drink
pointed out that securing tariff-free trade was of particular importance
Industry Round Table including, as noted, AIC, is ongoing. These
in the case of the Republic which constituted the UK’s only land border
contacts are supplemented by discussions with government ministers
with the EU. Ireland bought more from the UK than the United States,
and MP’s as well as FEDIAF, the European-wide trade association for
China, Russia, Brazil, Canada and Japan combined. Nearly a fifth of
the industry. Finally, the PFMA’s Annual Convention was focused on
UK food and drink exports went to Ireland, while more than a third of
the Brexit issue, although this event was too late to be incorporated in
Ireland’s exports landed in the UK. A quarter of all Northern Irish milk is
this issue of Petfood Miscellany. PFMA also launched its own Brexit
processed in the Republic while more than half of Irish beef and cheese
Manifesto at the end of March, in order ‘to make clear to key opinion
is destined for the UK. The signatories pointed out that the UK supplied
formers the needs of our large and vibrant sector as we go forward into
eighty per cent of the flour used in the Republic and concluded their
a brave new world’.
first paragraph by noting that, as far as the statistics were concerned, ‘We could go on’.
With regard to the approach adopted by PFMA, that of identifying its own specific interests and seeking out other bodies who may, in
It is not clear as to the extent of trade in pet food between the UK
however general terms, share those interests, it would seem that PFMA
and other EU countries. However, in a recent issue of Pet Gazette,
is very much on the right track. Their approach smacks of common
Michael Bellingham has been voicing his thoughts on a post-Brexit
sense and has been adopted by a number of other organisations and
world. Risk management is very much the name of the game with the
car crash scenario resulting from the disruption of trade at the end of
Whether the virtues of this approach will be recognised by our
the two-year Brexit negotiations as the result of failure to reach an
EU interlocuters is another matter. Quite apart from these virtues, the
agreement. However, Bellingham admits that tariffs are ‘one thing, but
success or otherwise of the UK’s negotiators as far as the food and
what keeps me up at night is the thought that we would need, from one
drinks industry is concerned will depend on their attitude and how they
day to the next, to produce export health certificates, evidence to comply
interface with the EU’s representatives. From what I have seen of the
with rules of origin, veterinary inspection at port to move our goods into
Brexit standard bearers so far, I would be happy to feel a little more
the EU’. At present, he notes that none of the foregoing is needed in
optimistic on this score.
that the UK is part of the Single Market and PFMA was lobbying both the UK government and the EU to ensure that trade can continue ‘as
seamlessly as possible’.
It is a little over five years since a survey conducted by the PFMA
PFMA have ‘fully engaged’ their membership in the process on which they have now embarked by asking what are for them the critical
in conjunction with a research organisation highlighted what PFMA described as the growing risk of a ‘super-sized’ pet population.
issues, including domestic agriculture, animal welfare, product safety
The survey revealed that 20 per cent of pet owners with overweight
and facilitating international trade. As a result of the surveys that they
pets ‘do not acknowledge the problem’. Nearly a half of pets visiting
have undertaken, PFMA is engaged on the process of working to ensure
the vet were overweight while an astounding 92 per cent of pet owners
that EU legislation, particularly that relating to farm animal welfare and
with overweight pets ‘do not see pet obesity as a life-threatening risk’.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
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The ensuing report went on to opine that keeping pets within an ideal
simple steps to help their animal. A significant number of veterinary
weight range could add as much as two years to their life span and
practices now run weight-loss clinics and, if anyone is not sure if their
concluded that experts were warning that the issue of pet obesity was
pet is overweight, ‘that’s the starting point.’
‘rapidly reaching a crisis point’.
It goes without saying that pet obesity is a growing problem in the
Two years ago, the Peoples Dispensary for Sick Animals (PSDA)
more affluent countries of Europe and Northern America. In the US, the
released its 2014 Animal Welfare Report and warned that the number
Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP) is scheduling its tenth
of fat cats – and dogs and rabbits – were expected to outstrip healthy
Annual National Pet Obesity Awareness Day survey on 11 October,
ones within five years – that is, by 2019, as pet obesity rates continued
somewhat too late for discussion in this column. However, the results
to rise across the country. A massive eighty per cent of veterinary
from previous surveys are available and showed that pet obesity in the
professionals reported seeing an increase in the levels of pet obesity
US continued to steadily increase in 2016, affecting nearly 59 per cent
in the two years preceding the PSDA report, with increasing numbers
of cats and 54 per cent of dogs. Worryingly however, during the ninth
of overweight dogs, cats, rabbits and even small rodents being brought
annual survey, APOP found pet owners and veterinary professionals
into their surgeries for treatment. The report estimated that one in
disagreeing on key pet food issues such as the benefits of corn and
three dogs, one in four cats and one in four rabbits in the UK were
grains, value of raw and organic diets, and the best sources of advice
overweight or obese, and that the proportion of overweight pets would
as regards pet nutrition. Following the release of the results of the 2016
continue to increase.
survey, the founder of APOP, veterinarian Dr Ernie Ward, was quoted
Why should we pet owners be concerned? Just as in humans, pet
as saying that obesity continued to be the greatest health threat to dogs
obesity can reduce life expectancy. A senior veterinary surgeon with the
and cats, adding that obesity was a disease that killed millions of pets
PDSA, Sean Wensley, said that the pet obesity epidemic was something
prematurely, created immeasurable pain and suffering, and cost pet
about which all veterinary professionals were increasingly concerned.
owners ‘tens of millions of dollars in avoidable medical costs.’
As well as what he described as a ‘general loss of quality of life’,
In 2013, FEDIAF noted that, for humans, the World Health
Wensley said that obese animals suffered from similar health troubles
Organisation considered obesity as ‘one of the greatest public health
to overweight humans. The health implications that the veterinary
challenges of the 21st century’. However, this trend was not limited
profession was increasingly diagnosing as a result of obesity included
to humans, as an increasing percentage of cats and dogs were
diabetes, arthritis, heart disease and certain types of cancer.
either overweight or obese. To promote better pet nutrition, FEDIAF
According to the PDSA, the causes of pet obesity were fairly
developed, with the advice of independent scientists from across Europe,
straightforward. In the first place, pets were being ‘fed too much and
an updated version of their previously published Nutritional Guidelines
exercised too little’. As regards feeding, the PDSA saw two general
for Cats and Dogs with a special attention addressing pet obesity.
problems. The first related to overfeeding an otherwise good quality diet.
Readers may not know this but, according to the Guidelines, cats
Pet owners did not follow feeding guidelines; either they guessed what
require no less than at least forty-one essential nutrients whereas thirty-
was the right amount or they feed ‘on demand’, in response to actions
seven are required for dogs. FEDIAF regularly adapts its Guidelines ‘in
of their pet which they interpret as meaning that their pet is hungry. But
the light of evolving nutritional science’. The Guidelines thus underpin
the second aspect is of more recent vintage: people feeding their pets
the effort to ensure that all prepared pet foods are formulated to provide
treats throughout the day – ranging from takeaways, cheese, chips, to
all of the nutrients required in the right amounts and proportions. As part
crisps, often in only small amounts, ‘but pets really do struggle to burn
of this process, FEDIAF has, over the years, continuously improved its
off those extra calories.’
publication which is increasingly recognised as a reference document
The PDSA’s report also notes that, when it came to exercise, across the country six million dogs go for a daily walk that is shorter than an hour long, and – a statistic that stunned me – a quarter of a
for good pet nutrition, not just in Europe but further afield. FEDIAF’s 2013 update contained important new information addressing the question of pet weight management.
million dogs did not get walked at all. I have often wondered whether
It is disturbing to note FEDIAF’s contention, supported by a number
cats have a natural advantage in this respect in that I have rarely seen a
of other concerned quarters that surveys repeatedly reveal that pet
cat being walked, the species preferring to take care of its own exercise
owners are rarely aware of the fact that their companion animal is
programme. However, the rising incidence of cat obesity seems to
overweight. The subject is seldom discussed with their veterinarians
suggest that many cats are increasing ignoring their own wanderlust –
and pet owners are, as often as not, blissfully unconscious of the correct
or taking advantage of the increasing range of treats that have become
portion sizes for their pets. One important aspect is the realisation
available for cats in recent years.
that any additional feeding should be deducted from the daily ration.
The PDSA report did, however, contain a sting in the tail as
A combination of overfeeding unsuitable table scraps together with
regards overweight pets. It is that owners who ‘persistently ignore
insufficient exercise are a major cause of overweight pets. In this
veterinary advice about their overweight animals could have their pets
regard, FEDIAF introduced into the 2013 Guidelines a new annex on
removed from their care for failing to provide a suitable diet for their
Body Condition Score for cats and dogs, aimed at giving directions to
pet, as required by the Animal Welfare Acts’. However, as a PDSA
both pet owners and their veterinarians. The Guidelines give practical
spokesman noted, this is rare and only happens when owners show ‘a
explanations on the use of the Body Condition Score with particular
blatant disregard for the advice they’re receiving’. Most owners simply
emphasis on the different energy requirements according to pets’
don’t realise that their pet is overweight and when they do, can take
Pet Food Supplement 2017
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I must confess that I am not an enthusiastic blogger nor, indeed,
is already a stack of scholarly articles on the subject of pet obesity
an aficionado of any social media but I was interested to read to read
in China. A recent article in the Journal of Shanghai Small Animal
John Burn’s blog of 15 December last year headlined Pet Obesity; the
Veterinary Practitioners offers guidance on how to tell whether a dog is
Taboo We Need to Talk About.
obese, outlines the causes of obesity and describes the myriad harms
John Burns, by profession a vet, is the founder of Burns Pet Nutrition
that obesity can cause, including heart disease, asthma and diabetes.
Ltd, which Group turned over £24.47 million in the twelve months ending
Metabolic disorders can be caused by obesity as well as pancreatitis.
31 July 2015 on which it made pre-tax profits of £2.69 million. It was
The article also described obesity as possibly leading to a decreased
launched in 1993. John Burns notes that when he repeatedly saw the
immune function of the respiratory system with the potential to cause
same pet health problems in his veterinary surgery he realised that there
bronchitis and pneumonia. Obesity is also linked to diseases of the
must be a common factor and subsequent research ‘rapidly indicated
that poor quality diet was at fault’.
Another scholarly article, described as the first report of the
At the London Vet Show in November 2016 he attended a lecture
epidemiology of canine obesity in China, surveyed prevalence and risk
titled ‘Obesity – are we wasting our time?’, the ‘we’ referring to the
factors for canine obesity in veterinary practices in Beijing; the study
veterinary profession. The speaker was Dr Alex German, Reader in
found that breed type was a significant determinant of obesity, with pugs
Small Animal Medicine at Liverpool Veterinary School.
most affected and cocker spaniels not far behind. Slightly more than 44
As the talk title suggests, long-term success in pet weight
per cent of the dogs examined in the survey were described as obese
management is ‘challenging’ with studies suggesting that 40 per cent
with risk factors including the use of non-commercial food – scraps –
of dogs and 55 per cent of cats fail to meet target weight. Longer term
activity control, neutering, sex and feeding frequency.
studies show that, following a weight reduction regime, 48 per cent of dogs and 46 per cent of cats subsequently regain weight.
The detailed conclusions of the study are not, in the present context, important. What is important is that the pet obesity problem in China
Burns noted that, despite the facts, the subject of pet obesity is
has reached a degree of seriousness that merits detailed and scholarly
rarely raised in veterinary consultations. The subject of excess weight
study. We can expect to see developments in the pet markets of other
‘is just too touchy’ and, as Burns notes, there is no profit in making your
Asian countries justifying increasing their scrutiny of this growing pet
clients feel guilty.
A second point that Dr German made was that society tends to be ‘amused, indulgent or even mocking’ of overweight people or animals
Sign of the Times?
in a way we would never do if someone has cancer, or diabetes, heart
Still on the topic of pet obesity, one in four UK pets is on a diet, according
disease or kidney failure. German stressed that ‘obesity is a serious
to a survey of 1,592 UK pet owners by Rosewood Pet Products which
illness and should be viewed as such’.
took place during March 2017.
Burns makes the interesting if obvious point that, as Dr German
With an excess of ‘treats’ and walks that are ‘way too short’,
suggested, ‘we need a new approach based on prevention rather than
fuelling a pet obesity time bomb warning, Rosewood surveyed the
treatment’; as with most health issues, this is surely the best route. For
UK’s pet owners to understand just how health-conscious they really
example, monitoring puppies’ weight as they grow to early adulthood
are when it comes to pets which, in the current context, would appear
can nip the problem of excess weight in the bud. ‘This is an opportunity
to mean dogs.
and responsibility for pet owners and health professionals alike; health management is a lifetime process’. What about the emerging markets for pets and pet products in the developing world?
Out of those surveyed, 25 per cent of pet owners admitted to putting their pets on ‘diets’, due to concerns over obesity, by eliminating table scraps from their pets’ diets and swapping fatty treats for healthier options. Dog owners were revealed as the most likely to treat their pets,
As countries such as the Peoples Republic of China and India grow
with 36 per cent admitting to ‘treating’ their dogs three or more times
richer on the fruits of their rapid economic development, the propensity
per day, compared to 19 per cent of cat owners. When asked about
for the pet population to increase is clearly evident in the statistics
their shopping habits, 78 per cent of all pet owners admitted to always
prepared by the likes of Euromonitor. Asia offers major opportunities,
having a fully-stocked treats cupboard for their pets!
with its burgeoning middle class and rising disposable incomes. As
On a slightly different tack I was, to say the least, taken aback when
more consumers switch to commercially prepared pet food, the financial
I learned that, according to a survey by the Marks & Spencer’s Bank,
landscape is becoming increasingly competitive. More players are
while over ninety per cent of UK pet owners describe their pets as a
entering this lucrative market and local players are becoming more clued
member of the family, many have no pet insurance for their four-legged
up. Pet products are also benefiting as consumers in more developed
friends. Despite seeing their pet as part of the family, the research
Asian markets ‘flaunt their status and pamper their pets’, to quote the
revealed that over a third of dog owners – 39 per cent – and 62 per cent
introductory blurb to a Euromonitor report on the Rising Dragon – Pet
of cat owners, do not have any insurance. The most common reason
Care Potential in Asia Pacific, including country analyses of Thailand,
stated was that ‘it isn’t considered to be worth the money’.
South Korea and Taiwan. But with the growing pet food markets of these emerging economies comes the threat of the same problems that are affecting pets in the more established pet product markets of the western world. There
Pet Food Supplement 2017
The survey also found that, if unexpectedly faced with the average veterinary bill of around £700, 40 per cent of pet owners admitted that ‘they would not be able to afford it’. As a former cat owner, I must admit to the occasional violent
palpitations when presented with the bill for the cat’s annual service/
On the negative side, participants learned that the main types of
check-up, although I fully appreciate that the cost of treatment has
ingredients cat food purchasers say they avoid are fillers or by-products
increased in recent years due to advances in veterinary science. Having
– a quarter of all participants, the inclusion of artificial ingredients, colours
the appropriate insurance in place can help avoid costly vet’s fees, not
and preservatives – 24 per cent – genetically modified organisms –
least when you are least expecting them.
24 per cent – grains and gluten – 24 per cent – and maize or maize
A quarter of those without pet insurance state another common
derivatives – 22 per cent. Where dogs are concerned, the food
reason for not having it is thinking that ‘it won’t be needed’. However,
ingredients avoided by dog owners include maize – 24 per cent, wheat
as Paul Stokes, Head of Products, M&S Bank said: ‘With nearly half
– 19 per cent – and soya – 18 per cent. Participants in the exercise
of all UK adults now owning a pet, it would seem we are a pet loving
learned that just under one-fifth of consumers avoid purchasing a dog
nation, so it’s perhaps surprising that less than half of pet owners have
food with salmon or shrimp, while 18 per cent reported that they avoided
insurance; they could be leaving themselves exposed to significant
whitefish or chicken.
Given the fact that the participants in the survey were from the US, one might put down the list of preferences as reflecting the likes and
Formulating Pet Owners
dislikes of a society of consumers used to a huge range of choices.
I was interested in a recent issue of petfoodindustry.com which sought
However, it is unlikely that the pet food industry’s marketing gurus will
to elucidate why consumer attitudes matter in pet food formulation.
take this view. Albeit the UK or European consumer may be less overtly
It is not immediately obvious why, when formulating dog and cat
fussy about what constitutes a proper meal for his or her pet, overall
food, it is not only important to consider the nutritional science involved.
attitudes are shaped by a large number of influences, some expressed
It is also important to factor in consumers’ attitudes toward the pet food
but others internalised. Nevertheless, the latter still have to be taken
and its ingredients that the pet food industry is purchasing. Based on
into account as potential game-changers.
research from market researcher Packaged Facts’ survey of US pet owners, attendees at a recent workshop learned more about what pet
Men and Cats
owners are looking for in their dog and cats’ diets.
It is a truism to say that, where pets are concerned, men prefer
Consumer research consistently shows that nearly two-thirds of
dogs and women prefer cats; this is presumably on the grounds that
dog or cat owners ‘strongly agree’ that pets are part of the family, and
dogs were originally bred for guard duties and for hunting, traditional
another one-quarter ‘somewhat agree’. Participants in the workshop
male occupations, while cats were more focussed on the domestic
learned that this strong ‘pet humanization sentiment’ translated directly
environment and, in particular, keeping the latter free from domestic
into the expectations consumers have for the pet food they buy. For
threats such as rats, mice and other threats to human food supplies,
example, more than half of all pet owners – 57 per cent – keep their
the traditional domain of the female sex.
pet’s food in the kitchen or pantry, a reflection of the level of freshness
I have to admit that my attention was drawn to PFMA’s challenge to
they expect from a pet food. Just over a third of the millennial generation
the established wisdom concerning gender preferences as far as dogs
– twenty to forty year olds – strongly agree that high-quality pet foods
and cats are concerned by a somewhat tongue-in-cheek article in the
are effective for preventative healthcare and this aspect constitutes a
Guardian newspaper. The article argued that ‘men love dogs, surely?
strong influence on the types of products they expect to find available in
They (men) are messier, bigger and more dangerous. Just like dogs
their store for their pet’s health. A fifth of urban pet owners, together with
are’. The article continued in this vein, including the news, contained in
those who consider pets as part of the family, are strongly concerned
the PFMA’s new Pet Data Report, that the cat population had risen by
about whether their pets have food allergies; this aspect is a driving force
500,000 moggies and ‘now stands at eight million’.
behind grain-free and other specialised pet food formulations.
However, it was the analysis of the increase that caused a
The exercise also concentrated on educating its participants
succession of raised eyebrows in that ‘This increase is largely driven
more about the characteristics of pet food products and ingredients
by a rise of over 25 per cent in the number of men owning cats’. Over
that research shows consumers finding desirable and those that they
a quarter? The Guardian piece went on to ask whether the statistics
avoid when purchasing.
‘were really saying the one million men or about 4 per cent of all the
For example, the top five pet health concerns cited by consumers when buying pet foods, treats or supplements for specific purposes are
men in Britain became cat owners just last year ... and yet there are only 500,000 more cats’.
dental and oral health – 29 per cent of respondents – skin and coat
There followed some less than funny pet puns yet, and I must
care – 22 per cent, joint health – 19 per cent – digestive health – 16
admit to my surprise, the Guardian followed up the original piece the
per cent and weight loss or weight control – 15 per cent. Other than
very next day with an article entitled ‘The Joy of becoming a Cat Dad’.
concerns over health, 43 per cent of consumers said that protein quality
The writer, observing that ‘What makes cats such fascinating pets is
and content was the most important consideration in their purchase,
there’s just enough of us (i.e. men) in them. The writer suggests that
followed by 33 per cent who say their pet liking the taste of the food is
what the PFMA’s survey doesn’t mention is their respondents’ ages
most important, 31 per cent who want a pet food whose price represents
and bet that ‘it’s men in their 30s and 40s who are really behind all this.
good value for money, 28 per cent of consumers who value purchasing
The theory of pets being a proxy for a child is an old chestnut, but it’s
a ‘natural’ – but not organic product – and 26 per cent whose primary
surely true, and maybe men are now embracing this’, with cats as the
concern is described simply as ‘product freshness’.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
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SFI has successfully delivered innovation, cost reduction, food safety management and quality management projects for clients in the global pet food supply chain. To learn more about recent projects, please contact us. SFI can help you protect and grow your business by providing mentoring, expertise and training in 3 key areas: ď&#x201A;ˇ Petfood Protection â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mentoring and Consultancy to enhance and develop your pet food safety management systems to cover 21st Century â&#x20AC;&#x153;Best Practiceâ&#x20AC;? used in the human food chain and now expected in petfood - Protecting your business and our pets ď&#x201A;ˇ Petfood Innovation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mentoring and Consultancy to help develop innovative raw materials and products, save money and grow ď&#x201A;ˇ Technology Search and Horizon Scanning â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ConďŹ dential service to help identify innovative ideas and horizon scanning to identify emerging threats to petfood safety (food safety and food fraud) To discover more about our services and learn how SFI can help you to protect and grow your business please visit our website www.sďŹ -ltd.com or email us at david@sďŹ -ltd.com To learn more about innovation for pet food and petfood protection, you are invited to join a specialist technical seminar in October 2017. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Health & Wellbeingâ&#x20AC;? is the 3rd specialist technical seminar being run by Nordic Pet Food Events, Passion4Feed and Synergy Food Ingredients. Please visit www.norpetfood.com for more details.
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Pet Food Supplement 2017
Sustaining The Active Canine By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products
Just like human athletes, canine athletes need specialist nutrition,
condition score (BCS), has the behavioural drive to undertake the task
supported by appropriate training to perform at their very best. An
and is physically trained up to perform; only then will the benefits of
active dog must have optimal energy levels, a strong immune system,
correctly designed diets and feeding practices be fully apparent. Other
strong muscles, appropriate body condition score, flexible joints,
compounding factors include the variations of physical and mental
sharp vision and optimal mental alertness. These are also all physical
activity undertaken by dogs, the extremes of environments, both in
attributes accredited to our companion animal’s wellbeing. Consumer
terms of terrain and climate and frequency of the events. Anxiety can
data clearly indicates that being active is associated with good health
also impact upon energy demands. Woods and Besch, (1974) reported
and happiness. It is certainly a counterbalance to the growing obesity
that post absorptive heat production was almost doubled in stressed
rate seen in pets and also the human population. Pet foods and treats
dogs compared to those in more relaxed circumstances.
positioned to support an active lifestyle hold strong appeal for pet
Whilst energy requirements may spring to the forefront of one’s
owners. Active products are not only for those owners seeking high
mind in diet design for active dogs, it is also important to consider the
performance nutrition for their sporting and working dogs, but also for
role of each nutrient, including water, and under what circumstances
those owners who identify the critical role that activity and nutrition
a change in supply above maintenance levels may be appropriate.
has to play in the maintenance of their dog’s lifelong wellbeing.
What foods do we need? What is an Active Dog?
For the majority of today’s active dog food sales, we probably need
Before we can design an appropriate feeding regime for active dogs,
to consider more the needs of those dogs undertaking agility, flyball,
we need to deliberate exactly what we mean by active. Activity
olfactory and detection work, obedience and those that run for pleasure
comes in a wide range of both intensities and duration. Each of these parameters impacts upon both the diet design and feeding strategy. Matters are complicated further by the fact that much of the research and information so far on feeding the active dog is based on the extremes of activity, examining such sports as Greyhound or endurance Husky racing. Practically, the range of activities that dogs participate in is varied, for example dogs retrieving game in the hunting field, farm herding dogs, military dogs, mountain search and rescue dogs and those taking part in events such as agility or canicross, an event where owners run with their dogs. We also need to recognise that diet is only a part of the picture. You need a dog that is bred for the event, of appropriate body
Pet Food Supplement 2017
(Canicross or trail runners), police work and racing, rather than the extremes of Husky racing. Counterintuitively, such activities may not need extremes of specialised diets, but would benefit more from carefully balanced moderate changes to dietary nutrient content and, more importantly, changes to how the dogs are fed. Development of a specially designed feeding programme for a food around a particular event could give manufacturers another tool to differentiate their product. Some studies indicated that feed restriction prior to and during an event improved performance and that carbohydrate re-supply immediately following an activity can help restore muscle glycogen for sprint events (Wakshlag, 2013). Equally, studies reveal that overfeeding or an overweight dog is detrimental to performance.
drive the performance, but rather inbuilt reserves, such as fat stores,
The energy demands of the active dog are directly related to the
muscle and liver glycogen. Therefore, feeding the active dog is all
distance travelled both horizontally and vertically. Consequently, steep
about developing those reserves effectively through appropriate diet
hills have a greater impact on energy needs than flat ground (NRC,
over time, and adapting, through training, the biochemistry of the dog
2006). Further, rough terrain appears to increase energy needs above
to utilise the stored energy efficiently.
that of running on a smooth surface. Whereas, the intensity and, or speed of the activity affects where the energy comes from.
It’s all in the preparation. Training an endurance dog on a diet with proportionally more calories from fat will increase mitochondrial mass
These changes are observed when comparing the various energy
and number, enhance VO2 max, the maximum amount of oxygen that
requirements of dogs. For example, a pet dog at maintenance needs
an individual can utilize during intense or maximal exercise and thus
around 95-110 kcal.kg body weight-0.75, a greyhound 125-150kcal.
enhance stamina by improving aerobic metabolism (Reynolds 1996).
kg bodyweight-0.75 whereas a Husky would be in the order of 325-
The dog will consequently run further for longer.
depending upon the duration and distance
of the event.
Dietary Fat Optimisation
Consequently, short events as agility, obedience or service
In terms of diet design, fat is used more efficiently and extensively in
dogs will require no more than maintenance plus up to 25% of
the dog than glycogen. Fat utilisation to provide energy dominates in
maintenance energy requirement, whereas more lengthy periods
dog muscle at all times bar the first few seconds of a sprint, though
of work such as field trials, herding, gundogs working around 3
clearly at close to maximal oxygen consumption glucose plays its
hours per day would be in the order of 50 to 100% (Wakshlag and
part. Fat reserves are greater than those of glycogen, thus help to
sustain the dog’s endurance. Fat is also beneficial in cold weather but
There are limited data for the impact of swimming on energy
is less relevant at high altitudes as the reduction in available oxygen
requirements. One recent report (Hill et al, 2016) indicates that
favours anaerobic glucose utilisation and reduces the efficiency of
swimming at 2kph (kilometres per hour) expends as much energy
as trotting at 11kph. This would appear to be a similar effect to
Feeding fat and training the dog to utilise a diet with a greater
that of rough terrain, heavy ground, or snow, where the resistance
proportion of calories from fat makes sense for the canine athlete. A
to movement increases the energy demands per unit of distance
suitable guide is between 13-15% of calories from fat for maintenance
travelled (Taylor, 1957).
diets increasing as the duration of activity is extended to 50% or more
Climate has less of an effect, but is worth noting that hot weather can be as demanding on the dog’s energy expenditure as cold, with each degree of temperature above or below the thermo-neutral zone for the dog accounting for an additional 3-5kcal.kg bodyweight -0.75.°C-1. For most dogs this zone equates to between 20-30°C (NRC, 2006) although for Huskies it is estimated that the lower critical temperature is <0 °C.
Energy Reserves Although active dogs need to consume energy sources each day, they do not directly utilise the energy from the food they ate that day to
Pet Food Supplement 2017
How Much Protein? Adequate protein supply is important to help maintain muscle mass and integrity as well as blood albumin, haematocrit and the immune system. Contrary to popular opinion, it is much less important as an energy source. It is suggested that around 24% of dietary energy from protein is ideal for sprint dogs. There is some good evidence to suggest that excess protein intake can reduce sprint performance (Hill et al 2001). However for endurance dogs >30% of dietary energy should come from protein. Such protein is often referred to as needing to be of good quality and digestibility and this being essentially of animal origin. Indeed some studies do indicate that plant based animal proteins do not support the canine athlete as effectively as animal sources (Wakshlag et al 2003, Middlebos et al 2009). However, these for endurance. In terms of the fatty acid profile, it is reported that the long chain
results may be entirely due to an inappropriate amino acid profile rather than the protein source per se. (John Lowe, pers comm).
omega 3 fatty acids have a role to play in reducing inflammatory responses and optimising cognitive function, whilst linolenic acid may
The Forgotten Nutrient
be preferentially oxidised and encourage oxidation of other fatty acids.
Water, is often the forgotten nutrient, yet it is vital to optimising the
A number of studies, for example Altom et al (2003) also indicate that
dogâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance. The requirement for water increases in direct line
polyunsaturated dietary fatty acids may beneficially affect the scenting
with energy requirement. Higher protein intakes will further increase
ability of trained active dogs.
water requirements with regards to urea excretion whilst in hot
Carbohydrates for Active Dogs?
weather requirements may double. Water should be provided for the dog immediately after the event. Electrolytes are contra indicated at
Carbohydrate (CHO) inclusion in the diet can be a double-edged
this time as they are not lost through sweat, as dogs predominately
sword. Excess dietary fibre is a diluent to energy content, adds weight
pant and studies to date indicate either no benefit to recovery or
to the gastrointestinal tract, influences faecal bulk and defaecation
subsequent performance and/or a possible increase in the incidence
frequency which may all adversely affect the activity and reduce
of diarrhoea (Mazin et al 2001, Young et al 1960)
competitive speed. However, some functional carbohydrates, such as short chain FOS (fructo-oligosaccharides) or MOS (mannan-
oligosaccharides), are reported to be useful to help support immune
The DSM concept of Optimum Vitamin Nutrition (OVNÂŽ) ensures that
system (Swanson et al 2002) and general digestive flora balance.
food provides adequate amounts of all essential vitamins. Vitamins
Some degree of water retention through dietary fibre may help to
are involved with all metabolic reactions in the body. The B group for
maintain osmotic balance in the dog.
example, play a vital role in energy metabolism. Vitamin A is required
Highly digestible and readily available sources of starch
for strong vision, an essential for an active dog. The fatty acid, omega
and sugars nevertheless provide a good energy resource for the
3 DHA has a role to play in the function and structure of the retina,
sprint athlete, providing 35-50% of the energy needs, whereas for
plus the neural system and brain. Optimising biotin and zinc intake
endurance, it is recommended to reduce this supply to ~10%. It may be more helpful if this smaller contribution also provides fermentable CHO to help support gut function and reduce the incidence of stress related diarrhoea. For dogs running hard repeatedly on successive days for between 5 minutes and 4 hours there may be benefits to each subsequent performance event from feeding 1.5g of maltodextrin or similar carbohydrate per kg of body weight within 30 mins of completing the exercise. This will help to replenish muscle glycogen; such a strategy should be before feeding the normal diet. In practical terms for the pet food manufacturer, this leads to the opportunity for the design and development of specialist, active dog treats/food supplements to match the dogâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activity (Reynolds et al, 1997, Wakshlag et al, 2002, Clero, et al, 2015)
Pet Food Supplement 2017
with appropriate amounts of essential fatty acids will ensure that dogs have good skin, paw pad and coat quality. The skin of the body and the paw is the first organ that comes into contact with the environment. It is therefore important that optimal nutrition promoting skin health is provided to working and exercising dogs. During exercise, production of reactive oxygen species and other free radicals can increase, which if increased above the capability of the antioxidant system results in the condition of oxidative stress (Hinchcliff et al, 1998). Oxidative stress is an imbalance, or excess of the pro-oxidants/free radicals in relation to anti-oxidants present in a system. Oxidative damage to cell membrane lipids, proteins and DNA may alter athletic performance. In sled dogs, those with higher levels of plasma vitamin E were found more likely to finish a race. (Hinchcliff, et al, 2000). Studies have demonstrated that dogs undergoing intense
described above, agility and field trial dogs undertaking multiple bouts
exercise benefit from appropriate antioxidant supplementation,
of exercise in a day of say 2-3 hours apart may well benefit from small
providing protection against exercise induced oxidative stress. In
amounts of readily available carbohydrates. If the bouts any closer,
addition, the function of the immune system has been demonstrated
the dog may experience vomiting with such practice.
to be altered by exercise. Providing intensely exercising sled dogs
For dogs undertaking intermediate duration activities, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not
with 21.7 mg beta-carotene, 18.4 mg lutein (both carotenoids with
just more of the same food, rather a re-design of where the energy
antioxidant properties) with 400 iu of vitamin E was shown to normalise
comes from, with progressively more reliance on fat and adequate
their immune system response (Chew, 2000).
but not excessive supplies of other nutrients.
A package of antioxidants is generally advised due to their
If the event is high intensity then additional post event carbohydrate
functional interactions and different locations within in the cell. Vitamin
supplement will benefit the dog. These dogs will experience some
C has been the subject of much debate and outcomes from excessive
glycogen utilisation, however will have fat predominate as an energy
supplementation are questionable. Nevertheless as a part of a total
source within 20-30 mins of the event start. Feeding a normal meal
antioxidant package, and its role in vitamin E recycling, some degree
approximately 2 hours post event will help lipolysis persist, sparing
of supplementation would seem sensible. Such an antioxidant package
glycogen. It is not good practice to feed within 8 hours of the start
would include, particularly in the higher fat content diets, vitamin E to
of such activity.
provide at least 200-400mg daily to the dog, along with supplemental
Dogs undertaking more long term events and distance work
beta-carotene. Beta-carotene at an inclusion rate to provide 30 mg/kg
should have two meals per day and will benefit from high proportions
in dietary DM (4000 kcal) at point of consumption is suggested.
of ME from fat, >50%, to exploit their aerobic metabolism; vitamin E
Carnitine has an important role to play in beta-oxidation of fatty
levels should be elevated in line with the increased dietary fat. Dogs
acids and energy metabolism in muscle and heart cells. Although
will require 8-12 weeks of this high fat diet along with appropriate
produced by the body, additional dietary carnitine may have a
training time to adapt fully to the benefits
supportive role to play in the nutrition of active dogs. (Grandjean D., et al. 1993, 1977). Carnitine, together with taurine have roles to
Older Active Dogs
play as antioxidants and in the support of the cardiovascular system
When it comes to the older canine athlete the same feeding rules
(Siktar et al, 2001; Roudeboush and Keen,2010; Jong et al, 2013,
apply dependent upon the nature of the event. However additional
Ra et al, 2016).
support for joints from omega 3 fatty acids such as DHA (230-370mg/ kg BW
EPA&DHA) (Bauer, 2011), and other chondro-protective
agents such as glucosamine and chondroitin may be helpful. Further,
Once an appropriate diet is designed then good on pack feeding
it is important that the working dogsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mental agility is maintained
advice will ensure the benefits are fully exploited. All canine athletes
during the middle and senior years. DHAgold, an alga, naturally rich
benefit from being maintained at optimal BCS for their sport. However
in DHA, has been shown to provide significant learning and visual
it is suggested that endurance athletes should start the season with
processing benefits in the senior dog (Hadley et al, 2017). Correct
adequate reserves. For short duration, intense exercise activities it
protein and amino acid intake must be maintained in the older dog to
is recommended to advise limited feed intake restriction of around
maintain muscle mass. As protein turnover almost doubles in older
25% for the 24 hours pre-event. The diet required by these dogs will
versus younger adult dogs, and assuming such older athletes are not
not be too dissimilar from many higher quality pet foods.
overweight, then high proportions of ME (metabolizable energy) from
Few data support feeding immediately pre-exercise; however, as
fat and protein are desirable in senior working dogs. Older active dogs
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Table 1: DSM European Pet Owner Survey 2013 Country
1. Enhancing Mobility 2. Special (Base) 3. Active Living
Top Concepts – Purchase Intent
1. Active Living 2. Enhancing Mobility 3. Special (Base) / Strong Defense
Top Concept - Ranking
1. Special (Base) 2. Active Living 3. Fresh Breath
1. Special (Base) 2. Active Living 3. Active Senior / Strong Defense
1. Special (Base) 2. Active Living 3. Enhancing Mobility
1. Special (Base) 2. Active Living / Active Senior 3. Enhancing Mobility
may also benefit from enhanced intake of dietary antioxidants such
support activity levels. Weight management diets positioned with
as beta-carotene to overcome age related immune function decline
activity could therefore have the potential to be highly attractive to
(Massimino et al, 2003).
pet owners. Simple messages around nutrients linked to aspects of activity and associated physical attributes can help differentiate,
Using consumer data to build products for active dogs
revitalise a pet food or even create a new market opening for an
The DSM 2013 DSM Pet Food European Survey found that pet
However one approaches the diet design and feeding strategies
food concepts based on a leading dog food brand (base) that
for active dogs it is important to remember that whilst certain key
promoted activity or supported mobility, an aspect required for an
nutrients are required in greater proportions, no diet should include
active life, were highly attractive to pet owners (Table 1) and were
massive excesses. Not all nutrients will change in proportion to
ranked equally or better than that base brand. Further a European
energy intake per se nor necessarily to changes in energy sources.
2017 DSM pet owner survey has shown that owners link their pet’s
A balanced diet meeting nutritional needs of all the listed nutrients
activity to its happiness (Table 2). Responses gaining a score
(FEDIAF 2016) is vital to success.
active product with wide pet owner appeal.
above 50% using the top 2 box scoring system are identified to be
Pet owners link activity to wellbeing and happiness. Products
important and warrant further investigation. Although differences
positioned to support activity, or an active life, with recognised
exist between countries, certain key nutrients are recognised and
nutrients gives pet food manufacturers an additional marketing
linked to aspects of the dogs’ physiology or health required for
message to apply to foods, or novel treats appealing to both the more
activity such as energy levels, joint, bone health and immunity.
health conscious and “active” dog owner. Active dog diets are not just
They also see that managing their pet’s weight is a good way to
for the owner of the extreme performance dog.
Table 2: DSM European Pet Owner Survey 2017 Question - How strongly do you agree with the statement? Country
% of respondents agreeing with the statement (top 2 box) Spain
Being active is important for my dog’s happiness
DHA omega-3 nutritionally supports my dog’s joints to help keep him/her active
Nutritionally supporting my dog’s joints from a younger age will help my dog remain healthier and more active as he/she gets older
Managing my dog’s weight is a good way to help reduce joint strain and support their activity levels
B vitamins help support energy metabolism
Vitamin D, vitamin K and minerals, such as calcium, help support strong bones
Feeding my dog a diet enriched with omega-3 DHA and extra antioxidant vitamins will help to nutritionally manage health problems associated with aging such as joint stiffness and reduced cognition
Antioxidant vitamins E & C plus beta-carotene help support and strengthen my dog’s natural defence systems
Pet Food Supplement 2017
References Altom EK, Davenport GM, Myers LJ & Cummins KA (2003) Effect of dietary fat source and exercise on odorant-detecting ability of canine athletes. Res Vet Sci 75, 149–55 Bauer, J.E., 2011. Therapeutic use of fish oils in companion animals. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 239(11), pp.1441-1451. Chew, B.P., Park, J.S., Kim, H.W., Wong, T.S., Cerveny, C., Park, H.J., Baskin, C.R., Hinchcliff, K.W., Swenson, R.A., Reinhart, G.A. and Burr, J.R., 2000. Effects of heavy exercise and the role of dietary antioxidants on immune response in the Alaskan sled dog. Recent advances in canine and feline nutrition, 3, pp.531-539. Clero D., et al. “Influence of Pre and Per-Exercise Nutritional Supplementation on Working Dogs Biological Markers Evolution during a Standardized Exercise”. EC Veterinary Science 1.1 (2015): 10-25. Hadley, K. B., Bauer, J., & Milgram, N. W. (2017). The oil-rich alga Schizochytrium sp. as a dietary source of docosahexaenoic acid improves shape discrimination learning associated with visual processing in a canine model of senescence. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids (PLEFA), 118, 10-18. FEDIAF 2016 Nutritional Guidelines. http://www.fediaf.org/self-regulation/ nutrition/ Grandjean D., et al. (1993), Dietary supplementation with L-carnitine, vitamin C and Vitamin B12 in sport dogs; experimental study with sled dogs (in french)”. Recueil de MedecineVeterinaire 169.7543-551. Grandjean D and V Fuks. (1977), Physiopathological interests of L.carnitine in the dog (in french). Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire 173: 95-106. Hill,R.C. Lewis, D.D. and K.C. Scott 2001 The effects of increased protein and decreased carbohydrates in the diet on performance and body composition in racing greyhounds Am J Vet Res 62 440-447 Hill, R.C., Scott, K.C. and J.W. Schmalberg, 2016 Energy required by Siberian Husky dogs swimming with and without a floatation jacket. Waltham International Nutritional Services Symposium Abstracts Hinchcliff KW, Piercy RJ, Baskin CR, DiSilvestro RA, Reinhart GA, Hayek MG, Chew BP. (2000). Oxidant stress, oxidative damage and antioxidants: Review and studies in Alaskan sled dogs. In: Reinhart GA, Carey DP, eds. Recent Advances in Canine and Feline Nutrition, Vol II: 2000 Iams Nutrition Symposium Proceedings. Wilmington, OH: Orange Frazer Press; 517-530. Jong, C.J. and Schaffer, S., 2013. Mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine. The FASEB Journal, 27(1 Supplement), pp.1086-1. Massimino, S., Kearns, R.J., Loos, K.M., Burr, J., Park, J.S., Chew, B., Adams, S. and Hayek, M.G., 2003. Effects of Age and Dietary β‐Carotene on Immunological FeedComHalfRevised:Select 3/4/17 09:45 1 Variables in Dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 17(6), Page pp.835-842. Mazin R.M., Fordyce H.H and C.M Otto 2001 electrolyte replacement in urban
search and rescue dogs: a field study Vet Ther 2 140-147 Middelbos, I.S.; Vester, B.M.; Karr-Lilienthal, L.K.; Schook, L.B.; Swanson, K.S., 2009: Age and diet affect gene expression profile in canine skeletal muscle. PloS one 4, e4481. NRC, 2006 Nutrient Requirement of dogs and cats Pub: Nat Acad Sci pp258312 Ra, S.G., Choi, Y., Akazawa, N., Ohmori, H. and Maeda, S., 2016. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 41(6), pp.618-623. Reynolds, A.J. 1996 The effect of diet on sled dog performance. Recent advances in canine and feline nutritional research, Proc Iams Int Nutr Symposium Ed: carey, Norton and Bolser pp 181-198 Reynolds, A.J., Carey, D.P. and G.A. Reinhart 1997 Effect of post exercise carbohydrate supplementation on muscle glycogen repletion in trained sled dogs. Am J Vet Res 58: 1252-1256 Roudebush, P and Keene, B, 2010, Cardiovasular Disease. In. Small Animal Clinical Nutrition, Mark Morris Institute, Topeka, Kansas, 5th Edition Ed. Hand, M S.; Thatcher, C D.; Remillard, R L.; Roudebush, P; Novotny, B J. pp 733-575 Siktar E, Ekinci D, Siktar E, et al. (2001) Protective role of L-carnitine supplementation against exhaustive exercise induced oxidative stress in rats. Euro J Pharm 668, 407–413. Swanson, K.S., Grieshop, C.M., Flickinger, E.A., Bauer, L.L., Healy, H., Dawson, K.A., Merchen, N.R and G.C. Fahey Jr. 2002 Supplemental Fructooligosaccharides and Mannanoligosaccharides Influence Immune Function, Ileal and Total Tract Nutrient Digestibilities, Microbial Populations and Concentrations of Protein Catabolites in the Large Bowel of Dogs J Nutr 132: 980-989 Taylor, R.J., 1957 The work output of sledge dogs J Physiol 137: 210-217 Wakshlag, J.J., Sneddon, K.A. and A.M. Ottis 2002 Effects of post exercise supplements on glycogen repletion in skeletal muscle Vet Therap 3: 226-234 Wakshlag, J.; Barr, S.; Ordway, G.; Kallfelz, F.; Flaherty, C.; Christensen, B.W.; Shepard, L.; Nydam, D.; Davenport, G., 2003: Effect of dietary protein on lean body wasting in dogs: correlation between loss of lean mass and markers of proteasome‐dependent proteolysis. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87, 408-420. Wakshlag, J.J. 2013 The new age of working dogs Comp Anim Nutr Summit, Atlanta pp 60-67 Wakshlag, J.J. and J. W. Shmalberg. 2014 Nutrition for working and service dogs. Vet Clin Small Anim 44: 719-740 Woods, J. E.and E.L. Besch. 1974 Dissipation of body heat in dogs in a controlled environment. Physiologist 14: 252 Young,D.R., Schafer, N.S. and R. Price 1960 Effect of nutrient supplements during work on performance J Appl Physiol 15 1022-1026
13 – 14 JUNE 2017 . KOELNMESSE, COLOGNE, GERMANY
FVG Select 2017 is a new event which will be organized by Victam International BV. The event will focus on a series of high quality industry conferences and matchmaking with colleagues and clients in the animal feed processing, grain processing, ingredients & additives, aquafeed, petfood and biomass pelleting industries. The event will be complemented by an industry expo for a select group of companies. Learn about the latest pet food research at Petfood Forum Europe 2017. Topics include new information on pet food ingredients, processing and trends in the European pet food market. Scheduled for June 13, 2017 at the Koelnmesse in Cologne, Germany, Petfood Forum Europe 2017 will be part of FVG Select, the new networking event organized and hosted by Victam International BV. For more information and registration, please visit www.fvgselect.com.
EVENT ORGANIZERS Victam International BV P.O. Box 197, 3860 AD Nijkerk, The Netherlands. T: +31 33 246 4404 F: +31 33 246 4706 E: email@example.com
www.fvgselect.com Supported by:
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Making pet premixes a win,win,win,win By Dr Andrew Miller, Pet Nutritionist, Premier Nutriton
A premixture is defined legally as ‘a mix of feed additives or mixtures
delivered conveniently and efficiently within a premix and these can
of one or more feed additives with feed materials or water used as
support the health and well-being aspirations of a pet food brand.
carriers, not intended for direct feeding to animals’ (EC 1831/2003).
As such speciality pet premixes may have a long list of ingredients
Historically, this was a relatively simple blend of vitamins, minerals,
which can help pet food producers bring differentiation and luxury
medicaments and diluent but modern premixtures (premixes) for pets
to their products in the market place and protect the intellectual
are much more complex than this. In reality, the modern pet premix
property of brands.
manufacturer produces speciality premixes that are bespoke blends
The inclusion of herbs and other botanical ingredients can help
designed to meet the specific requirements of each customer, brand
with the premiumisation and humanisation of a product or brand. We
and application. The premix must also be safe, high quality, consistent
cook widely with herbs to enhance flavour and enjoyment of foods so
why shouldn’t my pet enjoy them too? Botanical ingredients, particularly extracts, bring a broad range of potential functional benefits that are sought by pet owners who understand the potential benefits of these ingredients from their own experiences and knowledge. For some of these functional ingredients there is sufficient peer reviewed published
But we mustn’t lose sight of the critical function of a premix
data in pet species to support on-pack claims (e.g. FOS, Yucca and
which is to ‘optimise mixing of feed additives in feedingstuffs’. These
others). I would say, however, that while published literature or well
feed additives deliver quality nutrition to the finished feed which
controlled clinical trials are few and far between for these types
contributes to the essential health and wellbeing of the pet. Alongside
of ingredients, anecdotal evidence is widespread and owners can
essential nutritional additives, the modern speciality pet premix can
draw their own views on the benefits that their animal may get from
deliver other additives and feed materials to help support advanced
a product which includes any such ingredient. The list of botanical
nutrition in pets.
ingredients available is very long indeed
Pet food brands have a voracious
and they bring a broad range of potential
appetite for new raw materials to support
functional benefits and claims. Experts
novel and innovative product claims
within premix companies are in a great
which enable them to differentiate
position to be able to provide advice
themselves on shelf and provide
on raw material selection to achieve
consumers compelling reasons to
the outcome desired by the pet food
inform and change their purchasing
manufacturer whilst ensuring that premix
behaviours. It is undoubted that pets
integrity and safety is maintained at the
play a prominent role in the lives of their
owners and their families. Pet owners
The premix manufacturer is best
therefore seek out products and brands
placed to help provide the correct
that they connect with emotionally and
assurances required by pet food
intellectually to provide the very best
manufacturers and pet owners that
that they can afford for their beloved
these novel additives and feed materials
pet. For example, functional ingredients,
are safe and fit for purpose. The supply
herbs, botanical extracts etc can all be
chain for botanical ingredients can be long and convoluted so safe and reliable
Right: Transfer of technologies like
sourcing of these raw materials can be
tumble mixing from pharmaceutical
rather specialist. Increasingly China,
to premix manufacture meets pet
India and other developing regions are
manufacturers strictest demands
the primary sources of many ingredients
Pet Food Supplement 2017
for pet foods. This is particularly true for botanical ingredients, botanical extracts and other functional ingredients. Lead times may be extended from far flung suppliers and distance also makes the relationship more difficult to manage closely. Long, convoluted supply chains also pose a challenge in ensuring that a pet food business can adequately demonstrate they understand their supply chains and also to be confident in the consistent quality of their ingredients. This again is where a progressive premix company will be able to provide significant expertise. Due to the changing requirements of pet premix customers, the portfolio of materials purchased by a premix manufacturer is continually growing as is the global reach of the supply chain. Integrated supply chain management to promote transparency, ethical sourcing and sustainability is something that the modern premix manufacturer can provide to its customers. As already mentioned, many materials come from all around the world and quality assurance programmes, supplier approval and auditing
Above: Accurate and reliable management of complex raw material
are day to day activities that conscientious premixers can apply readily
supply chains right through to the factory is in the DNA of the
to this issue. For example, do they have local auditors in key global
territories where a significant number of materials are being sourced? Do they have robust processes and technologies to map and manage these complex supply chains?
the pharmaceutical industry help to ensure that the premix industry doesn’t lose ground against the increasing demands of pet food manufacturers. Premix design is based on the principles of nutrition including food technology and marketing requirements. Key global food trends are increasing the constraints placed on pet premix design but these can be surmounted where the correct relationship between premix manufacturer and pet food producer is in place. A few of the key trends are:
Above: NIR provides premix customers absolute assurance of raw material quality and safety
Vegetarian and Vegan
BARF and Frozen raw foods
Specific formulations and new product formats
Novel proteins (e.g. insects)
To deeply understand and meet each customer specific needs, the best premixer must work in a truly open and trusted partnership with their customers. They must also invest in knowledge and
Once materials are received by a premixer, the processes by
expertise and employ a team of expert technical product managers
which they can assure their customers, and ultimately pet owners,
who will have significant and broad experience in the pet food
that they are safe are being developed rapidly by the industry leaders.
industry and can not only advise on nutrition but also be able to
Whilst wet chemistry testing is a critical and key element of this
advise broadly on product performance, design, manufacture, and
assurance, more novel applications of technology such as Near Infra-
marketing amongst a host of other topics. These experts can also
Red (NIR) can be applied to further develop and strengthen these
help pet food companies upskill their own staff by sharing expertise,
processes. Downstream application of NIR should also be considered
and knowledge by providing bespoke training designed to meet the
as a further addition to existing assurance programmes.
specific needs of the company and its staff.
Continual investment in manufacturing processes and facilities
This intimate relationship between premixer and pet food
are critical to maintain and improve the highest standards that the
manufacturer is not only a win, win for both parties but also arguably
premix industry can offer to its customers. New technologies and
a win, win for the pet owner and their pets as better pet nutrition often
transfer of technologies from other industries like tumble mixing from
ensures longer and happy times together.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
NEM® Brand Eggshell Membrane Clinically proven benefits for joint health in dogs By Nena Dockery, ESM Technologies and Céline Cousin, Novus Europe Novus has recently added a new specialty ingredient for the pet industry
hip joint, and the resulting uneven weight distribution frequently lead to
to its portfolio, NEM brand eggshell membrane partially hydrolyzed, an
the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Though there are few studies
innovative and scientifically proven solution for joint health.
tracking the prevalence of osteoarthritis in dogs, it is estimated that
Pet owners are increasingly treating their cats, dogs and even horses like members of their family and their wellbeing is very
20% of adult dogs and 80% of geriatric dogs (over 8 years old) have OA, roughly mirroring the incidence in humans. 7,8,9
important to them. This trend correlates with the growth of certain pet food segments, including healthy treats, specialty pet foods and other
more premium options. Pet owners are moving more and more from
This new prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
expectations of “high quality (for pets)” to “humanized” and they desire
study was conducted through eight veterinary clinics. The dogs in
pet food options that address the same concerns currently influencing
the trial were between the ages of 3 and 14 years and weighed 5-45
human food production such as unnatural preservatives, genetically
kg. Their owners had all reported joint related issues of at least three
modified ingredients, or sustainability. They also look for functional
months duration, including difficulty getting up from a lying position, a
ingredients added in the diet of their pets to address specific heath
noticeable limp, impaired gait, and difficulty climbing stairs.
issues, such as joint care. Clean labeling is another trend influencing
The study used an owner survey called the Canine Brief Pain
pet owners’ purchase decisions. They want to understand exactly what
Inventory (CBPI) questionnaire, in combination with a veterinary
ingredients are in the food they give to their pets. So using simple,
assessment called the Veterinary Canine Scoring Assessment (VCSA).
natural, and as few ingredients as possible will increase a product’s
CBPI is a validated questionnaire designed to evaluate chronic pain
and how it impacts dogs’ daily activities and overall quality of life.
NEM brand eggshell membrane partially hydrolyzed is a natural
Through the VCSA, the veterinarians assessed joint pain and mobility,
joint health ingredient that fits perfectly in this trend. NEM® is derived
as well as lameness while walking and trotting. In addition, potential
from the membrane between the shell and the white of chicken egg.
chondroprotective benefits were also analyzed by assessing levels of
Eggshell represents an otherwise low-value sustainable ingredient
serum CTX-II – a biomarker directly indicating cartilage degradation.
source, but once separated from the shell through a patented process, the membrane is partially hydrolyzed using naturally derived enzymes.
Improvement in pain, function and quality of life
The result is a unique composition of high value nutrients beneficial for
The NEM® treated dogs experienced a relatively rapid improvement in
the joints, including collagen (Type I, V, and X), glycosaminoglycans
pain (average of 19.4% improvement for all dogs as reported by owners)
(hyaluronic acid, chondroitin, glucosamine, keratin), peptides and
in just 1 week. By the end of the 6-week follow-up period, veterinarians
sulfur-containing amino acids.
also reported significant improvement in the dogs’ joint pain (Figure 1).
NEM brand eggshell membrane partially hydrolyzed has been ®
researched in multiple human clinical trials for its benefits to joint
Figure 1. Effect of NEM® on pain assessed by owners (CBPI) and
structure and function;
A new NEM study has published in the ®
journal, Veterinary Medicine: Research & Reports,5 which is the first study demonstrating NEM’s benefits in a canine population. This study,
which was conducted in several canine breeds, adds to the growing
portfolio of research demonstrating NEM’s outstanding benefits for joint
comfort and flexibility, as well as cartilage protection.
Structural abnormalities and injury are the two principal causes
although, because of the increasing lifespan of companion animals,
aging is also an important contributor. In some breeds, the prevalence
is as high as 50% and is most common in the hip joints, manifest as
pain, stiffness and loss of flexibility.6 Joint laxity, misalignment of the
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Poor joint function is a common issue affecting many dog breeds.
Joint health issues in dogs
In addition, by the end of the 6 weeks study period, nearly half (48%)
There were no reports of serious adverse events in the study, and
of the NEM-treated dogs experienced a 33% improvement or greater
no notable changes in the dogs’ blood chemistry. The owners further
in both VCSA pain and CBPI pain.
reported that consuming NEM® was well tolerated by their pets. This
As for joint function (daily activities: general activity, enjoyment of life, ability to rise to standing from lying down, to walk, to run, to
exceptional level of safety is in agreement with what has been noted in prior human and animal studies.
climb stairs), treated dogs also experienced a relatively rapid (1 week) average improvement in CPBI function of 20.5%. This increased to
NEM® a complete joint health solution
21.1% by the end of the 6-week period (Figure 2). The veterinarians’
This multicentre randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled
assessments for mobility and lameness also showed trends toward
study demonstrates that NEM® brand eggshell membrane partially
hydrolyzed, is able to improve joint health and impaired quality of life
One of the most important factors for the ultimate success of
associated with sub-optimal joint function in dogs. Supplementation
a treatment is its effect on overall quality of life (QOL). Benefits of a
with a low daily dose of ~13.5 mg/kg body weigh quickly reduced joint
joint treatment on QOL involve not only improvements in joint pain,
pain (CBPI) with a lasting benefit through 6 weeks (VCSA). Moreover,
immobility, and lameness, but also several intangible qualities as well.
a profound chondroprotective effect was demonstrated following 6
In the present study, dog owners reported a rapid (1 week) response
weeks of supplementation with NEM® which should slow loss of joint
in QOL with a mean improvement of 14.0%. This increased to 26.8%
function over the dog’s lifetime. A majority of pet owners concluded
that a significant number of dogs could benefit substantially from NEM of improvement is considered very meaningful in the quality of life of supplementation. dogs suffering from poor joint function. by the end of the 6-week follow-up period (Figure 2). This magnitude
NEM ® brand eggshell membrane partially hydrolyzed is
commercially available in Europe. Due to the effective small dose and Figure 2. Effect of NEM® on function and quality of life assessed
neutral taste, NEM® is easy to formulate into joint care products such
by owners (CBPI).
as pet food, treats, snacks or supplements. For further information: firstname.lastname@example.org
1 Ruff KJ et al. “Eggshell membrane: a possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies” Clin Interv Aging (2009) 4:235-240 2 Ruff KJ et al. “Eggshell membrane in the treatment of pain and stiffness from osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-
controlled clinical study” Clin Rheumatol (2009) 28:907-914
3 Danesch U et al. “NEM® brand eggshell membrane effective in the treatment
of pain associated with knee and hip osteoarthritis: results from a six-center,
open-label German clinical study” J Arthritis (2014) 3(3):136
4 Brunello E and Masini A “NEM® brand eggshell membrane effective in the
treatment of pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in an
Italian study population” Int J Clin Med (2016) 7:169-175 5 Ruff KJ et al. “Effectiveness of NEM® brand eggshell membrane in the treatment of suboptimal joint function in dogs: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind,
Chondroprotective effect Relief from painful symptoms is certainly important for any joint
placebo-controlled study” Vet Med Res Reports (2016) 7:113-121 6 Simon S et al. “Incidence of canine hip dysplasia: A survey of 272 cases” Vet World (2010) 3(5):219-220
treatment, however additional factors should be considered in
7 Marshall WG et al “A review of osteoarthritis and obesity: current understanding
assessing long-term benefits of a joint-support ingredient. Reducing
of the relationship and benefit of obesity treatment and prevention in the dog”
inflammation in and around the joint and preserving the integrity of the
Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol (2009) 22:339-345
joint cushioning cartilage, in addition to providing symptom relief, can
8 Rialland P et al. “Clinical validity of outcome pain measures in naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis” BMC Vet Res (2012) 8:162
contribute to better compliance and long-term success. Unfortunately,
9 Helmick CG et al. “Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic
chondroprotection is an area where research has been lacking – until
conditions in the United States. Part I” Arthritis Rheum (2008) 58(1):15-25
now. In the current study, chondroprotective effects were evidenced by a substantial reduction (47.9%) in serum CTX-II levels after 6 weeks of supplementation with NEM® versus the placebo.5 This chondroprotective effect from NEM was previously documented in an arthritis-induced ®
rat model10 and can most likely be attributed to a reduction in joint
10 Sim BY et al. “Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on monosodium iodoacetate-induced arthritis in rats” J Nutr Health (2015) 48(4):310-318 11 Benson KF et al. “Effects of natural eggshell membrane (NEM) on cytokine production in cultures of peripheral blood monocuclear cells: increased suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α levels after in vitro digestion” J Med Food (2012) 15(4):360-368 12 Ruff KJ and DeVore DP. “Reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats
inflammation,11,12 along with a reduction in various cartilage-degrading
following 7-day oral supplementation with a proprietary eggshell membrane-
enzymes known as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
derived product” Mod Res Inflamm (2014) 3(1): 19-25
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Be more efficient by integrating data from external sources into a centralized
Quality Control Platform By Lynn Verstrepen, Adifo NV
In most cases, the capture of quality data is organized in data silos
job of the plant operators. At the creation of the sample, sample
and ends up being separated from other data. A silo is a system,
labels are generated (one label per sample to take). So based on
process, department, etc. that operates in isolation from others. As
this number, the operator knows how many samples to take and
a consequence, it is also isolated from broader decision-making.
which type of bag to use and where to send to.
Therefore, merging data silos in one central solution encourages information sharing for better business decisions.
Once the labels are printed, the operator starts the QC process by taking samples from the intake and by checking the delivery note
Besides the quality data silo challenge, organizations are willing
and truck cleaning documents. The operator fills out the document
to continuously improve efficiency at the capturing of the data. Here
conformity status in the QC software. He or she also executes a
is where smart integrations play a key role to avoid repetitive tasks,
visual control of the raw material (texture, colour, smell â&#x20AC;Ś) and
transcriptions and errors. A smart integration will also enable the
also fills out these results in the sample. During the visual check,
availability of information on time and at the correct place. Think
the operator can look at reference pictures and guidance texts in
of the operator to be notified on how many samples to take and
the QC software as shown in image 2.
where to send them to. This article focusses on three orchestrated
In this scenario, the sample also has to be NIR scanned. At
scenarios where smart integrations lead to increased efficiency in
the creation of the sample in the QC software and the assignment
a central QC platform.
of the NIR package test in the sample itself, the sample data (for example, sample code, product code and upper and lower limits)
Scenario 1 - Intake of raw materials
is automatically sent to the NIR instrument in the plant. Thanks
This scenario starts from the creation of a sample from intake of
to these limits in the NIR device, the operator has an immediate
raw materials to the approval for unloading the truck. Image 1 gives
evaluation when doing the NIR scan and can decide to rescan if
an overview of the processes that take place during the intake of
raw materials and a few possible integrations that can be set up.
Now, when performing the actual scan, the operator will first
Image 2 and 3 show the corresponding result in a sample in Adifoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s
prepare the sample and present it to the NIR device. The operator
BESTMIX Quality Control software.
selects the sample from the sample queue in the instrument
This scenario is based on the intake being registered in the
software, ideally via barcode reading found on the sample label that
ERP or MES software of the company. This software sends the
was generated by the QC software. As a result, the product code
relevant information for the intake to the BESTMIX Quality Control
and calibration is found. The scanning is started and the instrument
software in an XML file, for example, the product name, date of
generates the prediction and the NIR software compares the results
intake, lot number, supplier, etc. As a result, a sample will be created
with the limits as delivered by the Bestmix QC software. Meanwhile
automatically in the QC software, without any user interaction. Smart
the predictions are also automatically captured in the QC software
QC software, like BESTMIX, will then assign analyses to the sample
without user interaction.
based on the quality control plan. All companies have their plans
Furthermore, the intake also has to be tested for DON, a
and targets on how often to test products in different stages of the
mycotoxin. AccuScan reader software generates the result for
logistic flow. As testing costs time and money, it is imperative to
the DON-test and saves it in an Excel file. This file is saved in
optimize the sampling and testing. Therefore, analysis schedules,
a predefined folder and is automatically processed into the QC
stating the conditions and frequency of appliance, are used to
software. This is the third integration that focusses on limiting user
automate the execution of the quality control plan.
interaction and thus increasing efficiency.
The next step in the process flow is meant to support the daily
Pet Food Supplement 2017
At this point, all sample test results are not yet available. But as
Image 1: Smart integrations during the intake of raw materials
Image 3: Sample for intake of raw materials in BESTMIX QC software (Wet chemistry analysis)
Image 2: Sample for intake of raw materials in BESTMIX QC software (Visual control, NIR & Don analysis)
soon as all release critical tests are performed (in this example, the green ones) the QC software can generate an approval or rejection notification for truck unloading. The approval is based on the results of those tests being in line with the tolerances or not. A message is also returned to the ERP or MES software with the release status and some relevant results. In this way, the truck unloading process time can be reduced significantly. As mentioned before, the sample is not fully completed yet because more tests may be assigned to the sample which may take some more time. In this scenario, a sample is sent to a service lab, requesting to perform a wet chemistry analysis. The QC software will send a file with the request to the lab and print a
What are you waiting for? 600 customers in over 60 countries are using the BESTMIX® software to achieve optimal animal wellness and happy pets. The key benefits of BESTMIX® software for PET FOOD: •
Save costs and time by allocation of raw materials and rework to multiple recipes in 1 run
Easily break down your master recipe in sub recipes to reflect the production steps
Fulfill marketing claims (non-GMO, grain-free, …) from formulation until declaration
Assure end-product quality by improved moisture management during optimization
Avoid replacement of packaging by formulating towards your label declaration
Generate the applicable feeding guidelines to be used on the product packaging
Feel safe by integrating a Quality Control system from raw material intake until delivery of end-products
www.adifo.com Pet Food Supplement 2017
request submission form with all tests to perform. Once the results
the settings in a centralized QC software enables the reuse of this
are available, the service lab prepares the certificates of analysis
knowledge for future production orders. Therefore, the set points
and uploads the results. Importing of the results does not require
and variables (such as sieve size, number of knives, temperature,
any human interaction, but is automatically processed and filled in
pressure, steam, density) are captured multiple times during the
in the sample. Even the certificate of analysis can be attached to
production process in the QC software. The software will also give
the sample automatically.
extra guidance by using warning symbols when a result is not
All sample results are now available and the sample
within the expected boundaries, so that the operator can steer the
is completed. This scenario clearly shows that using smart
production and adjust some set points / variables where needed
integrations, to bring all quality data from multiple data sources in
to get to the required result.
one central platform and so avoiding multiple data silos, leads to
Finally, the finished product can be tested for nutritional content
increased efficiency. The centralization of the quality control data is
via a NIR scan, where again the automated interface can be used
also enhanced, allowing better business decisions and facilitating
to upload the results. This testing is important because, before the
the traceability in the production process chain, upstream as well
product goes to packaging, you want to be sure that the nutritional
content is exactly what you are claiming on the packaging.
Scenario 2 - Production of extruded products
Scenario 3 - Sales order handling
The second scenario is based on the production of an extruded
The last scenario handles the sales order process. Once again,
product. Here again, the production order is generated in the
the sample in the QC software is created from a transaction in the
ERP or MES software and is sent via an XML file with all relevant
ERP (or MES) software. Typical information here is: the product,
information (for example, product code, a unique batch number, a
the customer, the quantity, the date, etc.
quantity to produce etc.) to the QC software. The production of extruded products requires multiple process steps and equipment. The first step is the mixing process of dry
Image 5: Sample for visual control of the sales order in BESTMIX QC software
and wet raw materials. As a finished product is needed with tight limits of moisture content, the latter is analysed in the mix via a Sartorius instrument. Again, the result can be captured in the QC software automatically, without user interaction. Image 4: Sample for monitoring the production in BESTMIX QC software
As a company delivering packaged goods, a visual check of the products is done at palletizing to confirm that everything complies with the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quality standards. Typical questions in this case are: is the plastic foil wrapped correctly? Is the label content correct? Are labels readable? Are some boxes damaged? etc. All these checks can be filled in the QC software directly. When an operator notices something is wrong, e.g. with the label, a picture can be taken and automatically attached to the sample. This way After mixing, different processes are applied, such as preconditioning, extruding, drying, cooling and finally coating.
all data is stored centrally in the integrated QC software, allowing full traceability.
These processes are regulated by multiple variables and set points
The above scenarios clearly focus on integration and
and are therefore complex, requiring experienced operators. A
centralization. This integrated centralized concept matters because
time-based logging of those settings and variables is relevant to
when an organization unifies its data, information becomes a
improve the understanding of the process and steer it whenever it
strategic asset and a differentiator, giving the data-driven company
is necessary to get towards the correct set points. The logging of
a better chance to win in its market.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Game Mixes It
Game Engineering is well-known for its system supply and installation expertise and with their superbly equipped workshops and qualified staff will often manufacture most of the components – storage silos, holding hoppers and support structures – which comprise a system. What are perhaps not so well known are their machinery manufacturing capabilities. Some years ago, Game Engineering decided to design and build their own twin-shaft Paddle Mixer thereby passing on significant savings to their customers. Today there are two types available, the twin-shaft paddle mixer and the Ribbon Blade mixer There are six models in the GPM Paddle Mixer range giving a batch spread from 400 litres through to 2,000 litres. Key attributes with every model include their ability to produce thoroughly homogenous mixes quickly, consistently and without product degradation or heat build-up. The paddle mixers are based on a twin drum design with two counter rotating shafts. Carefully profiled paddles are attached to each shaft at specific angles to guide the material along the shaft in a direction which is dependent on the rotational direction of that shaft. The paddle assemblies overlap and the pre-determined low speed of the counter rotating shafts generates a precise peripheral velocity at the tip of the blades, this action suspends the bulk of the material being mixed in a near weightless condition which enables a total mix. Once the mix has been completed a bomb-door arrangement discharges the batch into an under-hopper and onwards for further processing or packaging. The body, endplates, shafts and paddles are manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel to current EU Standards. The Ribbon Blade Mixer is an incredibly flexible design which ensures that a customer takes delivery of machine that precisely suits their application. The Ribbon Blade mixer can be supplied as part of a three tier mixing system, consisting of a top receiving hopper, the mixer itself and a discharge under hopper. Customers then have a
choice of discharge mechanisms (either bomb door or a single central slide), a choice of drive systems, construction from either mild steel or full stainless steel and can opt for the fitting of a sparge pipe for liquid additions. With a capability of being able to handle batch capacities from 1200 litres through to 6,000 litres, the Ribbon Blade Mixer is a batch machine for handling the blending of pre-weighed ingredients for a multitude of industries. Both the GPM Paddle mixers and Ribbon Blade mixers have been designed for continuous batch mixing and, as a consequence are robust and built to last. For more information please contact Darren Kirk at Game Engineering on 01522 868021 or email email@example.com
Above: With the addition of a sparge pipe a Twin Shaft Paddle Mixer is ideal for oil & fats coating in the Pet Food and Animal Feed industries
Expanding? Let us project manage your move
We offer Turnkey Process Solutions Tel: 01522 868021 firstname.lastname@example.org www.game-engineering.com
Since our humble beginnings in 1986, we are proud to have grown to a team of over 70 experienced engineers, fabricators and project managers. Working around your existing production, we implement cost-effective solutions as quoted, resulting in you being fully operational with minimal downtime. Key services include: • • • • • •
Process Design Engineering Project Management Site Installation & Commissioning Site Management Bespoke Machinery Manufacture Turnkey Process Solutions
Pet Food Supplement 2017
The changing face of pet food safety in the 21st Century HACCP alone is not enough for 21st century pet parents By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd Figures published in 2014 by FEDIAF, the “The European Pet Food
food raw materials either on a mandatory basis e.g. for meat supply and
Industry Federation” http://www.fediaf.org/facts-figures/ show some
on a voluntary basis for the supply of other ingredients.
eye watering statistics for the cat and dog population in Europe, with
One of the key drivers for pet food market growth is the concept
a reported dog population of over 80 million and a cat population in
of humanization of pet food. A major part of this is based on the use of
excess of 97 million.
ingredients typically used in human foods for health benefits e.g. fruit,
It must be recognised that not all pets are fed commercially
berries, oily fish etc. However, this is only part of what humanization is
manufactured pet food. However, it is still a lot of mouths to feed as
all about and pet parents also demand that the pet food supply chain
reflected in 2014 FEDIAF data, with indicates a pet food sales volume
operates human standard food safety management systems that ensure
of 9 million tonnes equating to a sales value of €15 billion.
pet food is safe for our pets to eat. Failure to do this means we will not
The products that contribute to this market volume and value
satisfy demanding pet owner requirements and the industry will suffer.
must deliver many attributes and satisfy many different demands. As
Failure to ensure safe pet food can also result in pet owners
a starting point, they must be wanted by both the pet (palatable) and
abandoning the use of commercial pet food and looking instead to
the pet owner (palatable, nutritional, digestible, pet enjoyment). The
the concept of “homemade” pet food. This was seen in 2007 after the
products must also be available at a price that pet owners can afford.
melamine crisis that afflicted the global pet food industry.
As an independent pet food safety and quality mentor, above all, the Failure to deliver these attributes means that ultimately our pets will
The melamine crisis of 2007 – The birth of food fraud in the pet food industry?
suffer ill health and our businesses might fail. With the market expected
It is very difficult and maybe impossible to be 100% certain about the
to show continued strong future growth, everyone with a role in the pet
existence of food fraud in the pet food industry due to a lack of information
food supply chain must ensure that all these factors are considered an
in the public domain. However, clear evidence of the crime of economically
on-going basis, otherwise we face the prospect of business failures. The
motivated adulteration (food fraud) was seen in the investigation into the
question is: “What do we need to do to meet pet owners (pet parents)
melamine crisis of 2007 – 2008. It is not unreasonable therefore to see
demands on pet food safety in the 21st Century?”
this as the birth of food fraud in the pet food industry.
Food Safety and the role of HACCP
largest ever market recall in the history of the industry. In March 2007,
Whilst human and pet food show many differences (product format, taste,
the US Food & Drug Administration (partly responsible for US pet food
nutritional composition etc.) when it comes to the critical aspect of food
regulatory affairs alongside other US departments), published on its
safety we see many of the same risks. This is logical given that both
website the following statement: “On March 15, 2007, FDA learned
human and pet foods are based on natural products that are consumed
that certain pet foods were sickening and killing cats and dogs.” At the
either raw or in a processed form e.g. canned, dried etc.
time the cause of the illness and death was unknown. This uncertainty
products must be safe to eat.
In 2007 – 2008, the global pet food market was subject to the
On this basis, as a starting point, both the human and pet food industries control food safety by application of the principles of Hazard
resulted in a complex, costly, lengthy investigation into the causes and the source of the problem.
Analysis and Critical Control Point HACCP. HACCP is a systematic
The assignable cause of the illness and death in pets was ultimately
process based on objective data for identifying food safety hazards,
attributed to adulterated wheat gluten. A key raw material widely used in
identifying controls for the hazards (to avoid, eliminate or reduce these
pet food, investigation identified that Chinese wheat gluten shipments
to an acceptable level) and implementing these controls to ensure the
to the USA, had been deliberately contaminated with melamine and
food is safe to eat. Whilst it was originally developed in association with
cyanuric acid. Typically, wheat gluten is priced based on its protein
NASA, to ensure a safe food supply for manned spaceflight HACCP has
content and these adulterants artificially increased the protein content
been ensuring a safe human food supply for over 50 years and is likely
thereby commanding a higher selling price. This is a clear case of
to continue to do so well into the future.
what we call economically motivated adulteration (EMA) i.e. “addition
Not only is HACCP recognised globally as the most effective means of ensuring food safety, it is typically a regulatory requirement in most
of a contaminant for economic gain” or quite simply the crime of “food fraud”.
countries for any business manufacturing commercial pet food, snacks
The facts around the recall are shocking and illustrate many aspects
and treats. This requirement also extends into the supply chain for pet
of the costs to industry and society that the food fraud crisis caused.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Table 1: 2007 Melamine Crisis – A costly example of food fraud in the pet food industry Recall size
Around 100 Brands, over 60 million cans of pet food (2)
$42 million (3)
Deaths from kidney failure
236 cats and 112 dogs (4)
Estimated pet deaths
1,950 cats and 2,200 dogs (2)
Quantity and value of adulterated wheat gluten
> 800 tons; market value US$850,000 (2)
US Class Action damages paid to pet owners by Chemnutra
$12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims (5)
Judicial findings against company supplying adulterated wheat gluten
2 owners of Chemnutra sentenced to three years of probation and fines of $5,000 each. Chemnutra fined $25,000 fine (6)
These are illustrated in Table 1.
These costs are, of course, purely economic and do not fully
Remember, while there might not be a food safety issue, food fraud
reflect the emotional suffering of pet owners and stress caused in the
costs us money and consumers might be paying a premium price for a
product that is not actually what it says on the label e.g. is the monkfish
It is important to appreciate that, unlike the melamine issue, not all cases of EMA result in the adulterated food being unsafe. Recent
genuine? Food fraud also causes a loss in consumer trust in the company and its brands.
examples of EMA without a food safety issue include: fruit juice, olive
The horsemeat scandal of 2013 happened when there was
Keeping our on-site operations safe and secure – Introducing Threat Analysis Critical Control Point (TACCP)
widespread adulteration, across Europe, of human meat products like
Whilst VACCP is concerned with the entire supply chain, TACCP is more
beef burgers, ready meals etc. with (lower cost) horsemeat which was
focused on threats that originate mainly within our own business and
not declared on the label. This was the main driver for a revision of the
premises. It is important to note that TACCP is concerned with wider
approach to ensuring a safe food supply in the UK through publication
threats to our business not only food safety or food fraud e.g. cyber-
of the independent review carried out by Prof Chris Elliott (Professor
crime, accountancy fraud, industrial espionage, extortion etc. TACCP
of Food Safety and Director of the Institute for Global Food security at
is analogous to both VACCP and HACCP as it also uses a risk based
Queen’s University Belfast) and the findings of which form the basis of
approach to identify threats, where they might happen and how we can
current day strategy to protect against food fraud.
oil and horsemeat adulteration of meat products (might cause revulsion to some consumers but not inherently a food safety hazard).
In the context of pet food, other examples of EMA which could
Unlike both HACCP and VACCP which require an “all eyes open”
present themselves include identity preserved materials e.g. organic
approach, TACCP is a more covert, cloak and dagger operation. Whilst
ingredients, “Marine Stewardship Council” sustainable fish and indeed
both HACCP and VACCP involve setting up multidisciplinary / cross
fish species themselves where an expensive species might be substituted
functional teams, TACCP involves only a few people, for example a senior
with a cheaper alternative.
management team member, security and human resources.
In recognition of the growing threat from EMA, independent third
In the context of pet food, examples of TACCP threats that can
party food safety certification schemes like BRC and FSSC22000, which
result in a food safety issue of food fraud include: addition of rat poison
are both widely used in the pet food industry, now have clauses related
into pet food by a disgruntled employee (food safety); raw material buyer
to food fraud. Satisfying these clauses in these standards requires the
collaborates with supplier to substitute “named” fish species with cheaper
use of a tool called VACCP (Vulnerability Assessment Critical Control
species with the supplier invoicing for the more expensive species and
Point) and has a similar risk based approach to HACCP. For the VACCP
they share the price difference i.e. fraud.
process, the requirement is to identify which ingredients might be
It should be noted that that whilst TACCP is essentially inward
susceptible to EMA, where in the supply chain adulteration might happen
looking (internal assessment of what happens inside the business) it can
and what controls are needed to control the risk. It is important to realise
also have links with the supply chain e.g. the “fake” fish example and
that “food fraud” controls identified for VACCP might be closely linked to
therefore also involves VACCP. For this reason, TACCP should also be
HACCP controls to ensure food safety e.g. supplier quality assurance. It
considered with both HACCP and VACCP.
is important therefore not to think of these processes in isolation. A starting point for carrying out a VACCP study is to “think like a criminal”! Another key point is to ensure that all your workforce are your
Food Protection – A new concept for the pet food industry in the 21st Century
eyes and ears and that they look for anything unusual / suspicious about
Arising from the perceived threats to the US food supply through
incoming raw material deliveries.
terrorism, the US Food Defense and Protection Institute defines “food
Another example of food fraud in the pet food industry is “fake”
protection” as “an umbrella term encompassing both “Food Defense”
product i.e. product that is not genuine being packed into packaging
and “Food Safety” where food defense and food safety are themselves
that makes it look like the genuine product e.g. counterfeit Orijen
defined as follows:
Pet Food Supplement 2017
• Food Defense – “is the sum of actions and activities related to
the corner using a process of horizon scanning.
prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery of the
As we think about evolving our 21st century approach to ensuring
food system from intentional acts of adulteration. This includes
safe food for our pets, to encompass the wider concept of food protection,
intentional adulteration from both terrorism and criminal activities.
we should remember the words of the 19th Century British naturalist
Criminal activities include economically motivated adulteration, as
well as acts by disgruntled employees, consumers, or competitors intending to cause public health harm or business disruption.” i.e. it controls deliberate contamination
“It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin 1809 - 1852
• Food Safety – “food system reliability — reducing exposure to natural hazards, errors, or failures in the food system” i.e. it controls accidental contamination Food protection is used globally in the human food chain to ensure safe food supply based on both food defense and food safety principles.
Take time out and think about your own approach to food protection. Are you responsive to change? Are you meeting the expectations of today’s pet owners on pet food safety?
It is also an important concept for the pet food industry in the 21st Century. Initially you might raise the question “Why?”
To learn more about innovations for growth in the pet food
However, if you consider the link between humanization of pet food
industry and emerging threats (including food fraud), you
combined with the beliefs and expectations of pet owners based on the
are invited to attend Nordic Pet Food Events “Health and
strength of the pet-owner bond, the importance of food protection in the
Wellbeing” seminar in Copenhagen, 9 – 10 October 2017.
pet food industry becomes clearer. Put simply, pet owners want food that is safe for their pets to eat; in this context it should be free from both malicious/intentional and accidental contamination. To achieve this, raw material suppliers, pet food manufacturers and, indeed, retailers need to consider HACCP, VACCP and TACCP in their food protection plans. The discussion so far has focused on pet food safety from the perspective of ensuring the health and wellbeing of our pets. However, further justification for adoption of an integrated pet food protection
Please visit www.norpetfood.com for more details.
system is seen when we consider the damaging financial effects of food safety failure on our industry. This is illustrated in Table 2. Whilst this table shows elements of the financial cost it does not show the recall and disposal costs, the damage to the Brand Equity of the company and the reputational damage to the pet food industry. The overall “cost” of failure is therefore significantly greater than these figures indicate. When carrying out routine food safety / quality audits at one of my pet food ingredients clients, I am occasionally asked by the managing director “Are we there yet?” I am always sorry to disappoint this senior manager, that due to emerging threats there is no defined destination and that on-going support from senior management is required. Historically the destination might have referred to safe food / ingredients produced using HACCP as the management system. However, the world we live in is constantly changing as new threats and opportunities arise. To respond to this changing environment, we need to evolve our strategy to encompass HACCP, VACCP and TACCP. Importantly we also need to be aware of threats that might be just around Table 2: The cost of food safety failure in the pet food industry (Source pet food industry trade press)
References Homemade dog food – is it really that hard? http://www.petfoodindustry.com/ blogs/8-dishing-on-pet-food/post/5711-homemade-dog-food-is-it-really-thathard Melamine recalls shaped pet food trends, safety programs http://www. petfoodindustry.com/articles/6260-melamine-recalls-shaped-pet-food-trendssafety-programs 2014 Emerging Trends and Key Issues Report Product Recall and Contamination Risk Management http://www.aon.com/attachments/risk-services/2014Emerging-Trends-Final.pdf MSU survey determines that more than 300 pets may have died from contaminated pet food; culprit may be lethal combination of contaminants http:// msutoday.msu.edu/news/2007/msu-survey-determines-that-more-than-300-petsmay-have-died-from-contaminated-pet-food-culprit-/ Pet owners receive $12.4 million in melamine case http://news.vin.com/vinnews. aspx?articleId=20025 Two Chemnutra officials sentenced to probation for role in 2007 pet food recall http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/two-chemnutra-officials-sentenced-probationrole-2007-pet-food-recall MORE COUNTERFEIT FOOD: ORIJEN SIX FISH CAT FOOD (2.27KG) http://www.championpetfoods.com/counterfeit-orijen-in-china/ What is food protection https://foodprotection.umn.edu/about/overview/whatfood-protection
David Primrose has an MSc in Food Safety Management and is founder of “Synergy Food Ingredients Ltd” (SFI) a UK based technical consultancy for the global pet food industry manufacturing and raw material supply chain. Based on over 37
years’ global experience, SFI provides a confidential mentoring,
Royal Canin; 2007; excess Vitamin D
$50m class action lawsuit
training and consultancy service for clients specialising in food
Proctor & Gamble 2013; Salmonella contamination
Sales ↓ 1% Q3; Global market share ↓ 0.5%; $2m class action lawsuit settlement
protection (food safety management systems, TACCP, VACCP
Pet Food Supplement 2017
and horizon scanning), quality risk management and product innovation linked to the pet food supply chain.
Hydronix launches two new digital moisture sensors Hydronix is delighted to have launched two brand new microwave moisture sensors. Using our already proven digital technology, our new sensors are manufactured from food safe materials specifically for use in Animal Feed, Grain, Rice, Nuts and Liquids. The Hydro-Mix HT is a high temperature sensor that will measure moisture in materials that have a process temperature of up to 120°C. This makes it ideal for installation before or after dryers or in mixing systems.
The Hydro-Mix XT is a digital moisture sensor that unlike other systems available in the market comprises a single unit that contains all on-board functionality such as signal processing, smoothing and averaging. This sensor has an external seal enabling it to be installed in dusty or liquid processes or applications, from 1 Bar Vacuum to 5 Bar pressure. Both of our new sensors come with fixing plates that makes them easy to install flush with the internal wall in drying, ducting, conveying and mixing systems. Hydronix also offers the Hydro-Probe XT sensor. This is designed
for applications that require the sensor to be placed into the flowing material such as at the outlet of a silo or in the neck of a storage bin. All Hydronix sensors are designed for use in flowing materials with readings being taken 25 times per second as the material passes across the ceramic sensing face. With Digital Inputs/Output, a choice of measurement modes, free configuration and calibration software and a global sales and support network, Hydronix is already the supplier of choice for many OEM equipment manufacturers, system integrators and end-users. Please visit our website for further details: www.hydronix.com Email us on email@example.com Tel: +44 1483 468900
Digital Moisture Sensors for Animal Feed, Grain & Rice
NEW Moisture Sensors from Hydronix NEW
Hydro-Mix HT Sensor
Hydro-Mix XT Sensor Visit our Website for further details
• • • • • •
Each sensor is a single, self-contained unit incorporating all functionality. Manufactured from food safe materials. Easy to install in drying, ducting, conveying or mixing systems. Hydronix digital technology with precise linear output. Wide moisture measurement range. Not affected by dust or colour.
Feed Compounder half page horizontal 124 x 178 plus 5mm bleed.indd 1
17/03/2017 09:06:27 Page
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Beta-glucans enhance the protection of puppies By Fernando Roberti* and Pauline Paap** * firstname.lastname@example.org ** email@example.com
First months of a puppy
These memory cells ensure long-term protection because, when in
The first months of life are critical for puppies, due to their fast body
close contact with the pathogen (recognized by the body through the
development and to the influence of their early experiences on their
antigen), they promote faster antibody production, thereby preventing
personality throughout their lives. Moreover, during this early age,
the development of the disease.
puppies are more susceptible to infections that may cause severe disease if not immediately treated. Some practices are essential to ensure the health status and the development of puppies, such as socialization with humans and
Despite being highly effective2, vaccination efficacy may vary according to antigen and vaccine types, pathogen, as well as to vaccine manufacturer3, resulting in variable responses and failing to ensure 100% protection of the animals.
other animals, proper nutrition to ensure the supply of their nutritional requirements, deworming to eliminate parasites, and vaccination to
Beta-glucans and immunity
prevent the development of diseases.
Beta-glucans are carbohydrates extracted from the cell wall of the
The diseases that commonly affect puppies may have bacterial
yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These compounds are not broken
(such as leptospirosis) or viral (such as rabies, parvovirus and
down in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, and have the capacity
distemper) origin. These diseases may cause death or sequelae,
to activate the immune cells present in the intestinal mucosa (e.g.
and therefore, intensive vaccination schemes are common practice
macrophages and dendritic cells), increasing their phagocytic
to prevent these diseases.
capacity. In addition, once activated, these cells are more efficient to signal the antigen to other cells of the immune system4. As a result,
Vaccination as a prophylactic measure
the response capacity of both the innate and the adaptive immune
Vaccination is a strategy used to promote an immune response
system is enhanced and better prepared to fight infections and to
similar to that produced by a natural infection without causing disease
promote longer lasting protection through the production of antibodies
or potential complications . Furthermore, vaccines are capable of
and memory cells5,6,7.
producing an immune memory that ensures protection against one or more diseases for a certain period of time.
Study in dogs
There are essentially two types of vaccines. Live attenuated
A study8 was conducted at the University of Louisville (USA) to
vaccines are typically used against viral diseases, and are produced
evaluate the effect on beta-glucans on the innate and adaptive
by changing the pathogenic agent to prevent it from causing the
immunity of dogs. In total, 18 male and female dogs, considered
disease, but still allowing it to replicate and to elicit an immune
healthy after clinical examination, were divided into 2 experimental
response. Killed or inactivated vaccines consist of virus or bacteria
groups: Control and Treatment. The Treatment dogs were fed a
fragments, and their immunization principle is related with the
diet supplemented with 0.1% MacroGardÂŽ (purified beta-glucans,
proteins and polysaccharides with antigenic potential present in
Biorigin, Brazil). The dogs were fed their respective diets for a period
of 21 days. On days 0 and 14, the dogs were challenged with the
After inoculation, the antigens present in the vaccine trigger a
antigen ovalbumin, which is capable of triggering immune response
response that results in the production of antibodies and memory cells.
and antibody production. On days 16 and 21, blood samples were
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Figure 1. Effect of beta-glucans on the phagocytic activity of
Figure 2. Effect of beta-glucans on the production of specific
collected to assess the phagocytic capacity and the production of specific antibodies, respectively. The results showed that the beta-glucans were able to enhance both phagocytosis, as shown by the higher activity of monocytes and neutrophils in the supplemented group (Figure 1), and to increase the
production of specific antibodies (Figure 2).
Considering that the immune system of puppies is still immature, the
Together, these results demonstrate the capacity of beta-glucans to enhance the body’s first line of defence, which includes innate
supply of beta-glucans to these animals to maximize their natural defences and the protection obtained is highly recommended.
immunity mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, and to support the
Moreover, due to the action of beta-glucans on adaptive immunity
maintenance of long-lasting protection. It should be emphasized that in
mechanisms, these compounds may act in synergy with vaccines,
order to be bioactive, beta-glucans should be obtained by a purification
potentiating their action.
process to ensure their high concentration in the supplemented
Therefore, the continuous inclusion of beta-glucans in puppy
product (concentration ≥ 60%) and that the beta-1,3/1,6-glucan
diets during the first months of life and until vaccine protocols are
structure is not damaged in the purification process.
completed is recommended.
References Plotkin. Vaccines, vaccination, and vaccionology. Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 187, p. 1347-1359, 2003. 1
Abdelmagid et al. Evaluation of the efficacy and duration of immunity of a canine combination vaccine against virulent parvovirus, infectious canine hepatitis virus, and distemper virus experimental challenges. Veterinary Therapeutics, v. 5, p. 173-186, 2004. 2
Durrani et al. Comparison of immunogenic efficacy of mono- and polyvalent rabies vaccines in dogs. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, v. 44, p. 291-296, 2016. 3
Sonck et al. Varying effects of different ß-glucans on the maturation of porcine monocyte- derived dendritic cells. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 18, p. 18, 2011. 4
Siwicki et al. The effect of beta-1.3/1.6-glucan in diets on the effectiveness of anti-Yersinia ruckeri vaccine – an experimental study in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, v. 13/54, p. 59-61, 2004. 5
Vetvicka & Oliveira. ß(1-3)(1-6)-D-glucans modulate immune status in pigs: potential importance for efficiency of commercial farming. Annals of Translational Medicine, v. 2, p. 1-6, 2014. 6
Leleu et al. Immune effects and safety of an oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucans derived from yeast in racehorses. Proceedings of the 6th Equine Health & Nutrition Congress, 2015. 7
Vetvicka & Oliveira. Β(1,3)(1-6)-D-glucans modulate immune status and blood glucose levels in dogs. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, v. 4, p. 981-991, 2014. 8
Pet Food Supplement 2017
High efficiency palletising for Inspire Pet Nutrition System designed to meet the specific needs of discount supermarkets By Graham Rawlings, Senior Packaging Expert at Concetti Inspire Pet Nutrition (IPN) is the UK’s largest independent manufacturer
The new integrated system consists of an Okura A-1600 robot
of dry petfoods. The family owned business (formerly Wagg Foods),
depalletiser, connecting belt conveyors, a Concetti PS-4A/10S-P
based in Thirsk, North Yorkshire, has seen over £20m of new investment
gantry bag-in-box palletiser with pallet dispenser, connecting roller
over the past five years and now has a market share in the UK dry dog
conveyors, an automatic pallet stretch wrapper and a slave pallet
food sector of 34.5%. IPN are owners of the Wagg and Harringtons
dispenser. Products handled include large bags in a nominal range
brands, which according to Kantar data are, respectively, the UK’s
of 10-17kg, smaller 3kg bags and shrink wrapped bundles of cat food
number one dry dog food and the fastest growing dry petfood brand.
in cartons (5-6 cartons per bundle) with and without trays. Both paper
Among the most recent investments at Thirsk is a particularly
and plastic bags can be handled.
innovative and specialised de-palletising and re-palletising system
The larger bags and bundled cartons are simply depalletised
provided by Concetti of Bastia Umbra, Italy. Concetti, an ISO 9001
from stock pallets and restacked but in a mixed format on half Euro,
approved company and widely known for distinctive bag filling and
Düsseldorfer pallets. The smaller 3kg bags, fed manually at present
palletising systems have long experience in the dry petfood market in
although in future directly from production lines, are stacked six per
Europe. The order is the first for Concetti from IPN and the installation
layer inside a box on each half Euro pallet for maximum load security.
is the first of its kind in the UK. It is a demonstration, if one were
Again, the bags in each box layer can be mixed and are arranged in
needed, of the kind of forward thinking behind IPN’s recent accelerated
the order they arrive at the palletiser.
In all cases the half pallets are separated, wrapped, automatically
The system is designed to meet the specific needs of the discount supermarkets where tight cost control, keen prices and a limited range
regrouped, placed on a slave pallet and handled subsequently as a full pallet load.
of quality products are always uppermost. Building on Concetti’s
The Okura A-1600 articulated robot depalletises from two pallet
experience in Germany, it meets two key requirements. Firstly, for
positions working at a rate of 600 bags per hour. Various programmes
half pallet loads that need absolutely minimal handling, both in the
allow different pallet layer formats to be unloaded, which when coupled
distribution channels and in-store. And secondly, but more importantly,
with the quick-change vacuum heads, allows product changeovers
for each half pallet load to contain a mix of two different products.
inside ten minutes. Alternate vacuum heads are stored on a rack inside
Like most dry petfood manufacturers, IPN are geared to the
the perimeter fencing. Two different products in identical or closely
demands of many customers from small retailers to the national
related pack sizes are placed by fork or pallet truck into the two pallet
supermarkets with high volumes and a wide range of products and
positions. Pallets can be EUR 1 or EUR 2 (1200 x 1000). These are
pack sizes offering maximum customer choice. Their Thirsk plant
depalletised, alternate products at a time, onto a belt conveyor feeding
has a number of existing packaging lines with automatic palletisers,
a Concetti PS-4A/10S-P gantry type bag-in-box palletiser equipped with
all operating conventionally and producing, at any one time, a single
a dispenser for Euro and half Euro pallets. The larger 10-17kg bags are
product and pack size stacked mainly onto standard Euro pallets (EUR
depalletised from two Euro pallets and restacked onto two half Euro
1) or 1200 x 1000 (EUR 2) Chep type pallets. These would normally
pallets with the same layer pattern but with a stack twice the height of
be broken down into different pack and product sizes in the customer’s
the originals and containing an equal mix of the two different products.
own distribution centres before being shipped in consolidated loads to
Cat food in carton bundles can be depalletised from two pallets and
the actual supermarket or petfood retailer.
restacked onto four Düsseldorfer pallets with the same height and the
However, the discount supermarkets have been looking for a different and more efficient solution, one that was more closely aligned to their business model, reducing manual handling and providing only a limited range of products. They wanted to have half Euro pallets (EUR
same or even a different stacking pattern but again, each with an equal mix of two different products. After depalletising the empty pallets are picked up by the robot and stacked centrally ready for removal by fork or pallet truck.
6) also known as Düsseldorfers, each containing mixed loads of two
Smaller 3kg bags are fed directly to the gantry robot, grouped
different products in similar pack sizes, and capable of being displayed
into rows and then layers and stacked inside full height boxes on two
and managed in store. The Concetti system is designed to satisfy this
Düsseldorfer pallets. With the appropriate gripper head six bags are
demand in a flexible way and without the need for any changes to the
picked simultaneously and in this configuration, the gantry robot can
existing production lines.
reach 3600 bags/hr. Pallets are dispensed automatically, two at a time,
Pet Food Supplement 2017
with a separate station provided for the operator to manually erect and place boxes on each Düsseldorfer. The boxes are designed with lugs to
allow easy and precise locating of the box on the pallet. A base sheet
can be placed inside the box if required. Two boxes are filled simultaneously layer by layer, and when complete, exit the gantry palletiser as a pair. They are subsequently separated and fed individually to an automatic rotating arm stretch wrapper equipped with a power pre-stretch film carriage and film tail gripping, heat sealing and cutting. Power pre-stretching of the wrap film is crucial on this application to allow careful control of both the wrapping and lay-on forces. Conveyors are equipped with inverter drives for controlled and gentle movement, particularly of taller, narrow loads. After individual wrapping, the two half Euro pallets are regrouped at the slave pallet station. The half pallets are raised together and a Euro pallet from a dispenser is placed beneath. The grouped load is then returned to the stretch wrapper and given a final wrap to secure and unitise the two half pallets as one load which is then conveyed to the unloading position for warehousing or distribution. The whole system is controlled by PLCs connected by a network, which allows programme selection for the whole line from one position. This simplifies the operator’s tasks, reduces the risk of set up errors and cuts the changeover time from one product to another. As is standard for Concetti the line was completely built and underwent a full factory
acceptance test in Italy before despatch. The unusual combination of mixed products and Düsseldorfer pallets has big advantages for the discounters. With minimal handling in store and safe and easy manoeuvring by pallet truck along narrow store aisles they contribute to efficiency and help to reduce stock management costs. Boxes can be printed in colours and carry a logo for great brand recognition. And be it bags or cartons the customer has a convenient choice of two products from the same stack. It’s an idea that could easily catch on. George Page, Production Director at IPN said, “The whole system has been a great success. It has eased workload, reduced stress, increased flexibility, given customers greater choice, and will eventually Above: A tailor-made palletising and de-palletising system
reduce packaging waste, which all helps”.
Above: Düsseldorfers with a mix of two different products
Above: Half Euro pallets (EUR 6) also known as Düsseldorfers
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Pet Foods and Extrusion By Mr. Galen Rokey – Process Technology Director, Wenger Manufacturing, Inc.
A summary of sales forecast market data for pet food volume and value
Table 2 shows a list of the pros and cons of each process method
is shown in Table 1. The market has typically responded beyond forecast
and includes the segment of homemade or home-prepared pet foods
expectations and resulted in a stronger surge in production and value
as placed in category 7 in the list above. The criteria used to evaluate
than anticipated. No explanation is given for this except it is somewhat
each processing method included food safety (biological hazard index
confirmed by newly installed lines beginning full production in the past
and method of preservation), price level, consumer perception, and
few years. Although the table summarizes United Stated data only,
sustainability. The biological hazard index rating is a subjective rating
similar strength is reported in Europe and Asia. Pet food market report
based on the ability of the process to pasteurize the product and the
publications generally confirm that the sales value of pet food in the
number of recalls in the last five years of products manufactured by that
United States also increase at a faster rate than volume. The value of
process. A low rating indicates there is only a small risk from biological
pet foods often grows at a faster rate due to a number factors including
hazards. The price index is also a subjective rating based on retail price
inflation and a higher value of deliverables such as function attributes
comparisons of a small samplings of products manufactured from a
of the product for the well-being and benefit of the pet.
The pet food processes can be divided into two categories – natural
The pet food market is rather fluid and consumer trends dictate, to
processing technologies and functional processing technologies.
a point, the processes required to manufacture the pet foods. Recent
Natural processing technologies maintain the food during process
trends in the market continue to point to the following:
so that its original form is recognizable. Example technologies are
Diversity: There is a huge number of options available when
dehydration, freezing, high pressure pasteurization, and irradiation.
selecting a pet food. This is a conundrum to the consumer and is
Many of the processing steps in these technologies are to extend shelf
only made more complex by the growing size of the retail outlets
life. Functional processing technologies alter the appearance of the food
and the growth of on-line marketing. This online marketing channel
from its original form and may offer additional benefits such as textural
will accelerate the move towards smaller package sizes – even
development resulting from gelatinization. Examples of functional processing technologies are extrusion, baking, and commercial retort
to the point of individual servings. 2.
Differentiation: There are already many choices for the consumer to select when choosing a pet food or treat. Each manufacturer is
The major categories of methods for processing pet foods are as
elbowing for room on the shelf and to make a clear differentiation
from the other products offered which only increases the diversity
a. Extrusion-cooked (extrusion step is the CCP via thermal
and wellness. This is partly due to humanization but is also driven
b. Extrusion-formed at low temperatures with no thermal kill step i. Humectants added as part of the recipe to control water activity ii. Downstream processes may be employed (such as High
Natural: Natural is still “king” with continuing emphasis on health by a more educated purchaser of the pet food products.
Gentle Processing: Whole foods and less processed foods also follow the human trends. The desire for natural cooking methods or more gentle processing is a consideration when purchasing.
Pressure Processing (HPP), Dehydration, Freezing, etc.) as 2. Baked
Blends of Extrusion-Cooked and Extrusion-Formed Products
3. Wet (retort-stabilized)
Several products that couple multiple processes together have already
found their way into the market. Perhaps the oldest examples are dry-
expanded, extrusion-cooked and dried kibbles blended with extrusion-
formed soft moist chunks. There are a number of well-known examples
7. Blends of the above or home blends
of this blend. To be successful, the recipes and processing conditions
A category which is often not discussed could include homemade or
must be balanced to achieve the same water activity in each component
do-it-yourself (DIY) pet foods (part of category 7 above). It does comprise
in order to maintain product quality in the package. Without this step, the
more than just a small portion of the pet food consumed if you include
dried kibble component will absorb moisture from the soft moist chunks
table-scraps and food scavenged by the pets themselves. This segment
resulting in crumbly chunks that were once the soft, moist flexible,
should not be overlooked as in many countries the growing market of
meat-like component. This technology blend is well-known and likely
manufactured pet foods is coming from the pet owners in this segment
is stagnant in terms of growth, although it still has appeal in certain
switching to purchased pet foods.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Table 1: Forecast Sales for Pet Food in the United States (Source: Euromonitor International) Year Dog and Cat Food Volume Sales (metric ton) % increase over previous year Dog and Cat Food Value Sales (million dollars) % increase over previous year
Table 2: Comparison of Pet Foods from Various Manufacturing Processes Category
Preservation steps used
Biological Risk Hazard Index
Heat, Water activity
Low to medium
Ease to handle, many choices, processed
Flexible process altered to meet goals
Heat, water activity, preservatives
Low to medium
Mainly as a treat
Heat, water activity
Low to medium
Friendly process, easy to handle
Some flexibility to meet goals
Heat plus closed environment
High quality but messy to handle, expensive
High quality, maybe too expensive
Low temperature, HPP*
Expensive, storage difficulties, safety can be questionable
Water activity, irradiation
Medium to high
Questionable safety, more as a treat; less processing
Depends on process used
None (occasionally refrigeration or freezing)
Low to high
Not recommended by vets to be safe; can be labor intensive
*HPP (High Pressure Pasteurization); not all frozen/refrigerated products are subjected to HPP and thus may be contaminated. Even if HPP is employed, products can be re-contaminated after being removed from the pasteurization step. **The freeze-dried process would appear to yield good stable products with little concern about biological hazards. However, the freeze-drying process is very gentle and products rarely surpass 27°C which means potential survival of microorganisms as this process does not necessarily achieve sterilization.
Blends of Extrusion-Cooked and Other Components into Retort-Stable Products
divided into two general categories – natural processing technologies
Another well-known coupling of processes is extrusion-cooked products
Natural processing technologies maintain the food during the
– usually textured vegetable proteins or meat chunks – that are placed
process steps so that its original form is recognizable. Example
into a can or pouch with other components and then sealed and retorted.
technologies are dehydration, freezing, high pressure pasteurization,
These extruded products must maintain their texture and integrity through
and irradiation. Many of the processing steps in these technologies are
retort and in the sealed environment on the shelf. Although this is well-
to extend shelf life.
and functional processing technologies.
known technology with moderate opportunity for growth, the decision
Functional processing technologies, on the other hand, alter the
by many consumers to not purchase products containing wheat (or
appearance of the food from its original form and may offer additional
wheat gluten) and soy-based ingredients has created a challenge for
benefits such as textural development resulting from starch gelatinization.
processing of textured components. There are a number of extrusion-
Examples of functional processing technologies are extrusion, baking,
based processing technologies that have been developed to produce
and commercial retort sterilization.
this category of products.
Blending of extrusion-cooked pet foods with freeze-dried pet foods is an example of crossing-over and combining of natural processing
Blends of Extrusion-Cooked and Freeze-Dried Products
methods with functional processing methods.
A third coupling of processes is to blend dry-expanded kibbles with freezedried chunks of meat, vegetables, or fruit. Freeze-dried particulates are
very expensive and easily damaged (poor durability) but are extremely
Multiple trends populate the pet food market landscape today and there
palatable. Some firms actually freeze-dry meat in-house and use this
is no indication that this will not continue. Pet food manufacturers are
product as coatings on their dry-expanded kibbles creating an extremely
challenged to flex their process to meet the changing product demands.
palatable final product. This presentation is also a way to dilute the high
The flexibility of the extrusion process becomes even greater when
cost of the freeze-dried process. Recall that pet food processes can be
aligned with other processes for pet food production.
Pet Food Supplement 2017
Big brands already trust our premixes. Here’s why you should, too
Imagine how your brand would be affected if the
We have more accreditations than any other
premix in your pet food were to harm someone’s
premix supplier in the UK. And our unique food safety
system, Nutrace®, offers an unprecedented level of
And since every tonne of premix can reach as many as 20,000 animals*, choosing the right supplier of that premix is one of the most critical decisions you have to take. We’ve always understood this at Trouw Nutrition, which is why our dedicated production facilities operate to human food standards of quality control.
tracking, tracing, monitoring and management. So choose Trouw Nutrition premixes, and you can sleep easy at night. Because it’s not just for big brands, worrying about their reputation. It’s for everyone who cares about our little friend above.
*Estimate based on 1 tonne of premix being used at an inclusion rate of 5kg per tonne of dry dog food. The dog food is packed into 10kg bags and sold to 20,000 owners, who each own one dog.