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closing the loop
Manage your vitamin supply Knowing the facts will help you strengthen one of the most important links in your supply chain
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2018 Vol. 20
Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd Plas Y Coed Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 Web site: www.feedcompounder.com E-mail: email@example.com
Contents Pet Topics
By Roger W Dean
Understanding Why Managing Your Vitamin and Premix Supply Delivers Consumer Assurance The Role of Technology for Optimized Pet Food Processing
By Marci L. Howes
How to Measure Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidant Efficacy in Pet Food
Editorial assistant: Ryan Mounsey
By Sarah-Jane Godfrey
By Dr Cristina Murcia GarcĂ?a and Tanja Kowalewsky
Yeast Extracts: Prebiotic, Supporting Gut Health and Anti-Allergenic
By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen
Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) in Extrusion
By Gordon Young and Dennis Forte
Subscription rates: Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit www.pentlandspublishing.com/pfs. htm#register
Insulin Resistance in Obese Dogs: Proven Effects of Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucans on Metabolism
By Thiago Henrique Vendramini, Andressa Rodrigues do Amaral & Marcio Antonio Brunetto
Delivering Nutrients: Focus on Fatty Acids
By Victoria Thornber
Pet Foods Need Protection, Too!
An Ethical Approach: What the Pet Food Industry Can Expect From 2018
By Ashley Burdock ISSN 0950-771X Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publisher. ÂŠ Feed Compounder 2018
Pet Food Integrity: Why We Need to Focus on Authenticity, Food Safety and Quality
By David Primrose
Dinnissen HAMEX Hammer Mill With Automatic Screen Changer
Pet Food Supplement 2018
PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean
UK Pets Roundup
owners’ minds. One of the most obvious choices for a new pet is a
The five weeks constituted by April and the first week of May have been
cat. It is possible, though not necessarily recommended, unless they
designated as National Pet Month in the UK.
have a medical problem or disability, to keep cats indoors. The RSPCA
National Pet Month is a registered charity, unique in bringing together
recommends that indoor cats should have access to several rooms,
animal welfare charities, professional bodies, pet businesses, schools,
including opportunities to climb, ‘stimulating’ toys and lots of interaction
youth groups and pet lovers. The trustees are National Office of Animal
with their keepers to stop them getting bored. They will also – and this is
Health (NOAH) and Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association (PFMA). The
important in the context of increasing pet obesity – need enough exercise
charity’s key aims are to promote responsible pet ownership, increase
to stop them putting on unnecessary weight.
people’s understanding of the mutual benefits of living with pets, increase
However, if an obvious choice such a cat is not to the prospective
public knowledge of the role played by pet care specialists and to raise
owners’ taste, then what about chickens? Think of the eggs. Contrary
awareness of the value of working and assistance companion animals.
to popular opinion, possession of a farm or smallholding is not an
National Pet Month promotes a wide range of activities and is fully
imperative to keeping chickens, although they would be happier with
mobilized, as one would expect, on social media channels.
as much space as possible to roam. The recommended minimum for a
The Guardian newspaper marked the occasion by publishing a
chicken run is one metre2 and preferably two metres2 per hen. It should
piece entitled ‘Is your pet too big for your home?’. The Kennel Club
be remembered that chickens like company, and three are recommended
led off with the fact that there were 9,000 new Dachshund registrations
for a small garden.
in 2017, up by a whopping 40 per cent from 2015. The increase was
Rabbits? Arguably a very much more practical choice and, indeed,
reportedly driven partly by fashion but also by the fact that ‘homes are
the present author remembers the family rabbit of yesteryear with
fondness. However, things have moved on in the past half-century. The
The standard size dachshund was developed to scent, chase,
Rabbit Welfare Association and Fund (RWAF) stresses that while they
and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the
can make good house pets, having a rabbit as a pet is not as simple an
miniature dachshund was bred to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In
undertaking as it might at first appear.
the United States, they have also been used, according to Wikipedia,
Rabbits need sufficient space; at a minimum three metres by two
‘to track wounded deer and hunt prairie dogs’. However, the point, that
metres, perhaps as much as the size of an entire room. In addition, the
the increased popularity of the breed reflects its suitability for many
RWAF stresses that rabbits are highly social creatures and that this
contemporary dwelling homes, is well made. The author recalls, many
means that they need company – and that company should be from other
years ago, visiting a house where, on the front door being opened, he
rabbits. No matter how hard the pet owner tries, it is impossible to give a
was confronted by a Saint Bernard whose dimensions suggested that it
pet rabbit as much company as can another rabbit. Busy lives mean that
might well be the sole occupant of the premises in question – and, if it
even if the pet owner spends three or four hours a day with their rabbit,
were not, then it ought to be!
the downside is that the rabbit spends twenty hours or more alone.
However, having made its initial point, the Guardian went on to note
Once considered to be an easy first pet, ‘goldfish need more than
the space requirements for other types of pets. This is an interesting
a bowl and a few fish flakes’. Bowls are a terrible choice – they are too
aspect as it is probably not the primary question in prospective pet
cramped, oxygen-poor and basically mean the poor fish is swimming around in its own filth. It is a myth that goldfish grow to ‘fit’ the tank, but the small fish you get from a pet shop will get bigger – up to 30 cm – and they need space. They are also social, so they need friends – and therefore they need even more space. The ‘It’s Not Just a Fish’ campaign group suggests a tank that is a minimum of 120 cm long for the fancier varieties of goldfish. Meanwhile, the next big pet-related event in the UK is the National Pet Show which will take place at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham on 3rd and 4th November. For those with an inclination Left: A huge rise in the number of Dachshunds registered in the UK in recent years is explained partly by the fact that homes are becoming smaller, according the The Kennel Club
Pet Food Supplement 2018
35. International Trade Fair for Pet Supplies
Nuremberg, Germany: 8–11.5.2018 New schedule! Tuesday to Friday
World’s largest choice of pet supplies The latest trends and a wide range of products: at the world’s leading trade fair for pet supplies, you can join 40,000 trade visitors to gain a unique overview of the innovative products and services available – exactly what you need to enrich your product line and increase your revenues.
Dynamic B2B marketplace: ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚ ˚
1,800 exhibitors (82% international) Newcomers, niche brands Market-leading brands Valuable business contacts Exchange of experiences 115,000 m² of exhibition area
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towards voyaging farther afield, Petfood Forum 2018 took place in
while the US is still the largest market for food for pets, other countries
Kansas City, Missouri on 23rd to 25th April, with sponsors including Alltech,
are growing faster; Brazil heads the pursuing pack with its pet food
Kemin and Trouw Nutrition.
market growing at 10 per cent a year. The Russian Federation, the seventh largest pet food market is seen as growing at almost 15 per cent
Global Petfood Market 2017
a year while China, the twelfth largest market for pet food is growing at
How did the world market for petfoods develop in 2017?
a whopping 28 per cent.
According to Euromonitor International, the global market for pet
Usefully, WATT Global Media have put together a practical infomatic
food is still growing both in terms of sales and production. Sales in 2017
to illustrate changes in Euromonitor’s analysis of global pet food sales
reached $75 billion while production of dried pet foods grew by 12 per
between 2012 and 2017. The US is the only market that has retained
cent to 28.1 million tonnes, according to Alltech’s Global Feed Survey.
its predominant position in sales of pet food between the years under
The data was presented at the American Feed Industry’s annual pet food
review. Elsewhere, all is change to a lesser or greater extent. The UK
conference that took place in Atlanta, Georgia during January.
has dropped from second to third. Germany remains in fourth place while
As might be intuitively expected, dried food for dogs was the
France has dropped from fifth to sixth and Italy from seventh to eighth.
largest product category at $32 billion, almost as large as all the other
Growth in Brazil has been little short of explosive; from sixth in 2012,
categories combined. However, while production of dried dog food was
Brazilian pet owners have driven their market to second place in 2017.
reported as growing at 5 per cent a year, treats for dogs and cats were
Also moving sharply ahead is the Peoples Republic of China, moving
reported as growing at 6 per cent and 11 per cent, albeit from a smaller
from nineteenth to twelfth. The Russian Federation moves from ninth to
base. This is illustrative of a well-established trend in the more mature
seventh while Japan is down from third to fifth.
markets of North America and Western Europe in that pets are seen as members of the family who are as entitled to receive ‘treats’ as any of
What appears to be driving the expansion of markets in what were once regarded as developing economies?
their human counterparts. However, there is plenty of evidence to show
A market that is, for understandable reasons, attracting a great deal
that this trend is also emerging in what may be described as developing
of attention is the one in China. It is becoming clear that the Chinese pet
pet food markets.
food market is adopting – and adapting to local conditions – many of
As far as markets for dry pet food are concerned, North America
the pet food trends seen globally and in mature markets. Products from
and Europe remain the largest regions for production but it is in Pacific
domestic pet food companies, in addition to those from multinational
Asia and Latin America where production is increasing the most. And
companies, boasted claims like ‘natural’ and ‘grain free’ – these now reportedly constitute 27 per cent and 6 per cent respectively of the Chinese pet food market, as well as ones with labels such as ‘real’, ‘fresh’ and organic.
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One particularly interesting feature of the Pet Fair Asia event held in Shanghai last August were several companies that specialized in breedspecific dog foods: an illustration of the diversity and sophistication of the small but growing extent of pet ownership in China. Newer categories like freeze-dried pet foods were also represented, though most of those products on display at Pet Fair Asia came from outside China, mainly from Australia and New Zealand. Despite rapid growth in recent years, Chinese pet food brands still have some way to go when it comes to winning over Chinese pet owners. To that end, many of their packages, promotions and trade show stands
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feature Western models and photos, even of children – leading to the perception, presumably, that the brands are international and, as such, credible and trusted to be safe and of high quality. Although cultural differences will play a part, it is likely that companies hoping to capitalise on the emergence of new markets for pet food in developing countries will be watching China closely. At present, it does seem that many of the trends that have characterised
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‘Humanisation’ seems set to be a driving feature of emerging markets,
just as it is closer to home.
US Pet Owners Record Spend
Figures published recently in the US show that pet owners there spent
Page 4 Pet Food Supplement Feed Compounder quarter page vertical 86 x 124.indd 1
a record $69.36 billion on their animals in 2017, albeit the latter is, for
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the moment, a provisional estimate.
future, ‘some sort of send-off for their furry friends’. The article goes on
Predictably, the largest category was spent on food, $29.69 billion.
to report the activities of a gentleman named Mr Tulley and his wife who
At $16.62 billion, the second largest category was spent on veterinary
sells ‘Togetherness Resting Places’, in his green burial grounds where
care with an additional $14.71 billion spent on supplies and medicines
pets and humans can be reunited ‘when the time comes’.
that do not require the intervention of a veterinarian and can therefore be purchased over the counter.
On a more macabre note, in that many traits in western society are seen as originating in the United States, one recent development
Figures produced by the American Pet Products Association
supposedly seen by observers of the US pet food scene may be seen
(APPA) show that growth in the US market has been uninterrupted
as a less-than-desirable import from across the pond. It appears that
since APPA started detailed tracking of the statistics. Growth has, in fact,
a bill, introduced in the Ohio state legislature, would ban pet food from
been uninterrupted since 1994, resulting in a total growth in expenditure
containing ingredients derived from cats and dogs, as well as other
amounting to over 292 per cent. The current estimate for 2017 shows
animals ‘euthanized’ with drugs such as sodium pentobarbital.
spending up by $6 billion compared with 2016, $4 billion more than originally projected.
Other media outlets have reported that pet foods may contain euthanized cats and dogs, despite no evidence of this as well as federal
Data provided by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty
regulations prohibiting it. For example, the magazine Newsweek stated
to Animals shows that, predictably, the first year of owning a pet is the
that ‘the body of a stray dog killed in a shelter may be ground up into
most expensive. Spaying and neutering, vaccinations, and what APPA
describe as ‘setting up a household for a pet’s lifestyle’ costs on average
The Ohio House Bill would, ‘prohibit pet food from containing
$1,314 in the first year for a small dog with a medium-sized dog setting
remains from an animal that was euthanized by the use of any drug
the pet owner back $1,580. The costs in the first year of owning a large
injected intravenously or through another nonvascular route or remains
dog are estimated at $1,843. Again, predictably, these numbers shrink
from any dog or cat.’ It is also reported that, in a little more than a year,
in later years after all preliminary veterinarian costs have been taken
numerous pet food products were recalled after testing found sodium
pentobarbital residues in dog or cat foods.
APPA notes that for anyone who owns a dog or has taken a stroll
On March 2, the United States Food and Drug Administration
down the pet aisle at the grocery store, it’s clear the reasons why the pet
informed one US company that its voluntary withdrawal, in February, of
industry keeps swelling. In a nutshell, everyone loves their pets. Detailed
a range of pet food products from the marketplace was now considered
pet ownership statistics show that 65 per cent of American households
as ‘a recall’. The administration based this decision on a test, paid for
own a pet. An increasingly elderly population and what APPA call ‘the
by the company concerned, that confirmed the presence of sodium
cultural shift’ from dogs being in the backyard to being part of the family
pentobarbital in the tallow ingredient used in the affected products.
are to thank for this. National pet ownership statistics show that the
I am not sure what the legislative situation is regarding such
majority of US households consider pets to be an integral part of the
matters in the UK; I hope to shed more light on this in subsequent
family. Pet parents buy Christmas gifts, accessories, and the healthiest
issues of this publication. However, it is a story that rings strangely in
food possible to keep their pets happy.
your correspondent’s ears and, I am sure, in the ears of our readers
However, recent statistics of pet expenditure in the run-up to Valentine’s Day illustrate the downside of this aspect of growing pet
ownership. A recent post on the internet besought its readers not to forget
Insects and Pets?
‘the furry family member’ who, between all the paper hearts, bouquets
There has been a great deal of speculation in recent years about the role
of roses, and boxes of chocolate, ‘loves you unconditionally’. However,
that insects might play in the context of animal feed for human livestock
and specifically in this context, the advice given by the American Society
products but, more recently, discussion has begun to intensify about the
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is all too relevant: what are
use of such insects in the product of foods for pets. At the recent Petfood
defined as ‘seasoned pet lovers’ know that ‘all types of chocolate are
Forum 2018, held in Kansas City, Missouri, delegates were offered the
potentially life-threatening when ingested by pets. Methylxantines are
opportunity to learn more about insect inclusion in dog and cat diets.
caffeine-like stimulants that affect gastrointestinal, neurologic and cardiac
Petfood Industry.com reports that, although many pet owners have
function—they can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperactivity, seizures
anecdotal stories of dogs and cats eating insects, scientists have not,
and an abnormally elevated heart rate’.
as yet, fully studied insects’ nutritional and health effects on dogs and
The bottom-line? By all means give your pet a squeaky toy or a
cats. However, basic analysis of many insects, such as black soldier
bag of treats and even a card for Valentines, birthday or Christmas. But
fly larvae and crickets, suggest that they are packed with proteins and
flowers, Champagne and chocolates are a definite no-no!
generally good sources of protein, b-vitamins and trace minerals. In the
Following on, if obliquely, from the previous section, an interesting if
final analysis, much depends on exactly what they are to be used for – in
somewhat macabre article in a recent edition of the Economist magazine
other words, their primary role in a complete and balanced pet food. Black
reported that one in five American undertakers now offer dead pet
soldier fly larvae, the insect most favoured by those currently looking
cremations. The British market research firm, Mintel, says that one in
at insects’ potential as a livestock feed ingredient, would constitute an
four British pet owners either have already arranged, or would like to in
excellent source of calcium as well, while crickets are relatively high in
Pet nutrition consultant Dr Mark Finke says that all insects are
Pet Food Supplement 2018
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cats was lagging. Dr Finke went on the observe that all the indications were that they would be excellent sources of high quality protein, as well as many other essential nutrients ‘but we are in the very infancy of this mostly as a result of lagging regulations and, in some cases, costs are not competitive with more traditional protein sources.’ There will be considerable interest in the papers delivered at Petfood Forum 2018 as regards the use of insects in petfoods, including a paper by Dr Liz Koutsos which will update delegates on the latest research and development in the use of insects as pet food ingredients. However, there is also the question of consumers’ reactions to the prospect of insects being included in their pets’ diet. A recent posting on Above: Insect larvae are packed with protein and other nutrients and
the South West Farmer web site asked the question ‘Are there insects
have great potential as ingredients for pet foods – but what will be the
in your dog’s food?’ and outlined what it described as an exposé by pet
reaction of consumers?
food brand Pooch & Mutt which claimed that a major dog food brand was including, amongst other ingredients, crushed insects in its popular
taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. However, he went on to note that some nutrients can easily be manipulated by diet so in some cases blanket statements should be made with great care. Dr Finke was also quoted as saying that there was much we do not yet know about feeding insects to dogs and cats and that while they would likely be fine and, indeed, many species of wild canine and felines typically include insects in their diets, ‘we just don’t know much yet’. There was a great deal of good research using insects in the diets of fish, poultry and rats together with a lesser degree of research into their use in swine but research into insects use in diets for dogs and
dog food brands. Pet food manufacturers, as well as their colleagues in the commercial livestock industry, will be looking closely at the technical opportunities offered by the use of insects in their products while keeping an equally close eye on possible consumer reactions. The prospect of insects in animal feed let alone human food appalls some consumers – the ‘Yuck’ factor and there is little sign of it moderating or becoming less persuasive as regards the general public.
The Cat as Criminal Of all pets, cats are most frequently associated with old women with magical powers performing at pantomimes around Christmas time. However, a story that was recently picked up for real concerned an eighty-three-year-old lady in Columbus, Ohio who was arrested and charged with training dozens of cats to steal jewellery and other valuables from her neighbours. Several victims reported being visited by Ms. Gregson’s cats before noticing the disappearance of several shiny objects, such as valuable cutlery and pieces of jewellery. Despite their understandable scepticism,
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investigators began a surveillance operation - and were amazed by what they discovered. According to Columbus Police Chief Kim Jacobs, dozens of cats were constantly coming and going, bringing home ‘anything that shined’. Upon searching Ms. Gregson’s house, investigators found $650,000 worth of jewellery and precious metal among piles of worthless shiny baubles. A total of sixty-five adult cats and seventeen kittens were found on the site and entrusted to the Columbus Humane Society. Chief Jacobs says the elderly woman confessed to training her cats to steal, saying the felines had to ‘earn their meals’. While Ms. Gregson was the first person in American history to be accused of training cats to steal, this was not the first time that animals have been trained to commit crimes. In 2009, a surveillance camera caught a monkey stealing hundreds of dollars’ worth of plants from a Texas nursery. At the time, the police and store owners hypothesized that the monkey had been trained to take the plants and hand them over
Telephone: +44 (0)1522 868 021 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www. game-engineering.com
a fence to a waiting human accomplice. In 2013, a Chicago court sentenced a man to five years in prison for training ferrets to steal mobile phones from people on the street and on public buses. Sometimes truth really is stranger than fiction.
game 11.indd Page1
Pet Food Supplement 2018
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Pet Food Supplement 2018
Understanding why managing your vitamin and premix supply delivers consumer assurance By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products UK Ltd Ensuring delivery of your pet foods brand promise of quality is vital for
Figure 1: Pet owner agreement with the statement “I am concerned
consumer assurance. Whilst there are many aspects used to assess
about the traceability and origin of ingredients used to make my
quality, the expectation is that the food is safe when consumed and
cat’s or dog’s food”
it is what it claims to be on the label. By fully understanding vitamins, vitamin product forms, their application in pet food formulation and ensure the correct and safe supplementation of their products, which in turn helps to protect brand equity, a company’s most valuable asset.
What do vitamins have to do with consumer assurance? Food quality is high on the consumers’ agenda, not only for themselves but also for their animal companions due to highly publicized food fraud scandals, increased nutritional health awareness and pet humanization.
% Owners strongly agreeing with the statement
vitamin premix quality, manufacturers can take the right steps that will
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Spain
DSM’s pet owner survey data (2017), demonstrated that owners are
concerned about the traceability and origin of ingredients used to make
* Top 2 box score shown (combined score of boxes 1 and 2: 1= Agree
their pets food (Figure1). It therefore makes sense to learn more about
Very Strongly 1, 2 = Agree Strongly)
your ingredient supply chain to fulfil the consumer need for ingredient sourcing transparency.
to navigate. One ingredient that does however remain constant in pet
As an additional consideration, pet parents now seek foods that
food recipes is the vitamin premix. It is often overlooked as one simple
reflect current human food, nutrition, and health trends. This has
commodity ingredient. The premix is actually a complex blend of many
increased the complexity of pet food recipes as novel and humanized
other ingredients, and should therefore receive individual attention to
ingredients are required to meet the demands of increasingly discerning
ensure it is fit for purpose, ensuring safe pet food supplementation
pet owners. Management of complex ingredient supply chains to
(Table 1). Dedicated pet food ingredient and premix manufacturers
source these new ingredients is resource intensive and often difficult
will help you manage this complexity.
Table 1: A vitamin premix is one ingredient in a formulation, yet it is easy to forget premixes too are complex recipes, sometimes containing more raw materials than the base pet food
Traditional Recipe Example
Humanized Style Recipe Example
The Vitamin Premix *
Wheat Maize Meat Meal Soya Protein Wheat Midlings Poultry Fat Flavor Vitamin Premix Blend * Mineral Premix Blend
Fresh Free-Range Chicken Fresh Duck Fresh Salmon Sweet Potato Tapioca Lentil Chick Pea Salmon Oil Chicken Fat Dried Carrots Dried Papaya Dried Apples Seaweed Dried Algae Prebiotic FOS Glucosamine Vitamin Premix Blend * Mineral Premix Blend
Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K3 Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Niacin Pantothenic Acid Biotin Folic Acid
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Proper dosing of vitamins using a premix is directly linked to pet food safety
Figure 2: Adding the small amount of vitamins required in pet
Vitamins are only needed in micro amounts by the animal. Individually
distribution throughout the food, ensuring nutritional adequacy
weighing and adding vitamins separately during the food production
and safety for the end user
food via a high quality premix ensures accurate vitamin addition
process carries a high risk. If done incorrectly, nutritional quality or even food safety at the point of consumption will be compromised and can have far reaching consequences (Figure 2). It is therefore essential that they are accurately added to the food. By blending the small amounts of vitamins, or other micronutrients required onto a carrier to create one ingredient, the premix, means they can be safely added to and distributed uniformly throughout the final pet food product. Proactively managing the vitamin sources used in your premix and final premix formulation quality with your supplier is one way to help mitigate the risk of a complex ingredient harming your pet food brand.
High vitamin form quality delivers nutritional safety
Table 2: Many environmental factors can affect stability of the basic vitamin
For commercially produced pet nutrition products, the vitamins used within them must be safely produced and formulated into specialized forms. These forms must be selected and applied consistently throughout the supply and production chain, from storage and handling to their proper inclusion in a premix, considering the pet food type, production process, and finished food product storage. It is therefore necessary first to understand the importance of vitamin forms, premix formulation considerations, and their application.
Understanding production of the basic vitamins The basic active vitamins are produced by chemical synthesis, fermentation, extraction (often from a natural source) or by a combination of technologies. During their production there is a possible quality risk based on exposure to chemical solvents, unreacted intermediates and the introduction of other contaminants. The vitamin
animal. In addition, vitamin forms are optimized to ensure regulatory
active producer, such as DSM, will therefore control this risk using
compliance, good handling properties and optimal mixability in premixes
proper chemistry, enforcing strict incoming raw material sourcing
and dispersion in the food. Many forms of vitamins are produced
programs with their suppliers and operate to robust outgoing finished
ensuring many pet nutrition products can be supplemented with
product quality control protocols.
vitamins, for example DSM produces a special water-soluble form of the fat-soluble vitamin A (Table 3).
Why do we need formulated vitamins? In the basic form, various environmental factors affect vitamin active
Table 3: The vitamin form chosen to supplement the pet nutrition
stability to varying degrees (Table 2). Taking their environmental
product will depend on how that product is processed and its
sensitivities into account to improve their intrinsic stability, the basic
vitamin actives undergo a process of chemical modification. This includes esterification, phosphorylation or crystallization of the organic salt to create a more stable vitamin compound.
The importance of working with the appropriate vitamin formulation The vitamin compounds are finally formulated into specific vitamin forms to make them suitable for use in a variety of pet food, treat, drink, and supplement products. The formulation process ensures basic vitamin stability â€œas-isâ€? during storage, when used during processing and storage of the final product, whilst remaining bioavailable to the
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Many form technologies can be used to stabilize the vitamin
a health risk to handlers and can also be lost, consequently reducing
compound by controlling oxidation, minimizing contact with hostile
the amount added to the food. Poor product forms with hydroscopic
compounds, or shielding them from high heat processing. Cross-linked
tendencies cause lumping, poor premix flowability and issues with the
beadlet technology for example, is used to create another stabilized
entire premix stability.
vitamin A form, this time insoluble, for in food use (Figure 3). During
It is now easy to conceive that sourcing your vitamins from
this process the vitamin A compound, vitamin A acetate, is emulsified
an experienced vitamin producer helps maintain the necessary
in a gelatin (protein), starch and glycerin matrix, with an antioxidant.
consistency to ultimately produce a best quality vitamin premix for
During the formation of the beadlet, chemical reactions occur that create
your pet foods.
crosslinked bonds between the amino acid chains thereby creating used to protect nutrients sensitive to high temperature processing and
Developing a quality premix: how does your vitamin premix affect the quality of pet foods
oxygen. The protein based vitamin coating is easily digested, ensuring
Many factors need to be considered when designing a vitamin premix
the vitamin remains bioavailable to the animal upon consumption.
specification and selecting vitamin forms to deliver the desired nutrient
a rigid structure. This technology provides excellent stability and is
levels in the pet food at the point of consumption. These include the Figure 3: Micrograph and cross-section of Vitamin A 1000
species to be fed, label or functionality claims that must be fulfilled and
the type of product requiring fortification. Expected vitamin loss during Silicon Dioxide Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vitamin A 1000 beadlets
production and storage should also be reflected in the specification,
Vitamin A Acetate
with vitamin activity overages calculated accordingly. . . .
Importance of the vitamin premix carrier
. . . . . . . .
Encapsulation matrix of gelatin, with glycerine, carbohydrate and antioxidant
The cross-linked gelatin based matrix creates a ridged structure that protects the vitamin A inside the beadlet
The correct premix dilution rate with a suitable carrier is required to ensure premix flowability, ease of handling and final weighment at the food production plant. The carrier also supports proper distribution of the vitamin forms within the food mix. The quality of carrier used as the
Vitamin form potency is also considered during its development.
premix base is just as important as the vitamin forms used. Carriers
This is important, especially when very small amounts are required to
help bridge the often-unavoidable differences in micro-ingredient
be homogeneously distributed throughout the food. A spray dried biotin
product form size, shape and density. Organic carriers such as rice
form, for example results in more homogenous distribution of the active
hulls, pea fiber, maize and wheat middlings provide a large surface
biotin particles than if an unformulated, triturate biotin source is used
area or pockets for the nutrient ingredient forms to adhere to, whilst
(Figure 4). Homogeneity of vitamin distribution is linked to safety of
calcium carbonate increases bulk density of the premix and improves
the pet food, as each bite must not over- or under-deliver any vitamin,
flowability. A combination of inorganic and organic carriers is often
which may result in toxicity or deficiencies respectively.
used to help improve the homogeneity of micro-ingredient distribution within the premix. Carrier ratios can be modified to manipulate premix
Figure 4: Spray dried biotin form vs biotin triturate Rovimix Biotin HP
Biotin Triturate 2%
bulk density to specific handling needs if necessary. Another important consideration to discuss with your premix supplier is the final pet foods’ marketing claims, for example grain free. This means the premix carrier should also be grain free. Premixes are a critical link in the pet food supply chain and allow accurate, safe, and homogeneous micronutrient and functional ingredient inclusion into pet food products. By working together with your vitamin producer and premix supplier a successful and safe pet
• Spray dried form • 40 million particles per gram • All particles contain d-Biotin • Minimum d-Biotin 10% • Dispersible in cold water
• Only about 2% of the particles are biotin on an inert carrier material e.g maize starch, soya flour, silicates or calcium salts, dextrin • Biotin crystals insoluble in water • High tendency to cake
• Low caking tendency
food product can be achieved.
The importance of quality programs and culture Pet food manufacturers can help manage their vitamin supply quality by selecting vitamin producers and blenders that are reputable, can
Vitamin forms are also produced in a way to manage their
demonstrate that they have an employee culture living quality and
electrostaticity, dustiness and hydroscopicity. These can all differ
safety conciously and also have brand equity to protect. Food safety
between manufacturers. Particles that are highly electrostatic can
is key. A quality and safety program designed around food safety
migrate towards attractive surfaces or separate from the premix during
standards, integrating all business processes, managed by a team of
transport reducing levels in the food. Dusty product forms may pose
qualified quality and safety managers is essential (Figure 5).
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Figure 5: A quality program, designed around food safety must
needs. Due to this complexity, and the safety concerns associated
integrate the whole business, its processes and people
with these types of retail products, it makes sense that ingredient traceability is vital. A trusted supply chain is therefore needed. A food safety program in line with food safety standards is the basis for this, starting with strict ingredient vendor qualification and management processes. Robust and integrated documentation, goods receipt, and warehouse management systems are required, which should be open to interrogation. The process of manufacturing bioactive micro-nutrients, and blends of micro ingredients, is complex from a quality assurance perspective. Through involvement in all three steps of the nutritional ingredient chain – the production of pure active ingredients, their incorporation into sophisticated forms, and the provision of tailored premixes – integrated premix and micro-ingredient producers, such as DSM, offer unrivalled traceability to the pet food industry. Traceability, supported by rapid global track & trace systems provides an additional assurance of safety.
Being a dedicated supplier to the pet food industry Suppliers that understand the needs of pet food brand owners will not only have a robust market-specific continual improvement program in Central to quality and safety programs is the correct implementation
place, but will also continue to invest in providing additional solutions to
of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP). This works
manage risk and create points of differentiation for pet brands. They do
within World Health Organization standards and comprises sanitation
this by having dedicated pet food and regulatory specialists that live the
standards, pest control systems, and minimizing cross-contamination
needs of the pet food manufacturing industry. As an outcropping of this
during production. A sharing and learning culture ensures that all
dedication at DSM, a pioneer in vitamin and vitamin form production,
within a company become integrated into the company’s quality and
innovative ingredients have been developed to solve issues associated
safety program. Through a living consciousness of quality and safety
with pet food production vitamin stability, or to provide functional
across all employees, it becomes part of your company’s culture, and
health benefits for pets. Our vitamin C form, STAY-C® 35 was the first
empowers all to fulfil promised food safety and quality behaviour and
stabilized vitamin C form available to the pet food market. Following
embrace well-designed Standard Operating Procedures. Working
this, by harnessing our expertise in both human and animal nutrition,
with companies that invest in their employees’ ongoing development
further developments in vitamin form production led to the production of
and quality training is one way to ensure this is the case. On a global
STAY-C® 50, a specialist soluble vitamin C form that can be used in pet
scale, DSM uses Compliance Quality Management (CQM) TrackWise
foods to support dental health. Our ROVIMIX® Beta-Carotene 10% P,
system and other companywide web-based training tools, to ensure
was specially developed for the pet food market and is the only extrusion
every DSM employee becomes integrated into our global quality culture
and storage stable beta-carotene form available to the market today.
and safety program. An important part of quality control is change management.
Change management systems must be in place and be robust. A
Understanding the complexity of essential ingredients like vitamins, and
supplier’s mindful knowledge of the risks to their customers and the
vitamin premixes, underscores the importance of understanding what
sustainability of their businesses is essential. Leading ingredient
contributes to your product’s quality, nutritional safety and ultimately
suppliers will be perpetually working to improve their food safety
supplier selection. We also recognize that beyond the growing
program. This is part of DSM’s business strategy we call this “closing
concerns surrounding managing your products quality and safety, it is
the loop”. Through this system, root cause analysis on deviations can
an increasingly more difficult task for brand managers to create points
be carried out and, management of change tools implemented which
of differentiation based on nutritional claims, considering regulatory
covers not only the practical issues, but most importantly how best to
and economic constraints. Leveraging our own broad portfolio of health
manage the people side of change.
ingredients, working with other leading ingredient manufacturers, applying years of pet nutrition knowledge and experience, combined
Integrated supply chain and traceability
with our own market research of pet consumer perceptions, allows
Pet retail products range from concentrated dietary supplements to
DSM to be a partner that helps strengthen the quality of your supply
pet foods designed to deliver 100% of the animal’s daily nutritional
chain whilst providing quality solutions for your brand.
Pet Food Supplement 2018
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel conditioner
THE ROLE of TECHNOLOGY for OPTIMIZED PET FOOD PROCESSING By Marci L. Howes, ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel The Pet Food Manufacturer’s Association’s (PFMA) 2017 Annual
destroy harmful agents such as bacteria and other microorganisms
Pet Population report states that 44% of all households worldwide
while maintaining the integrity of fats and proteins.
own a cat, dog, bird, fish or another small animal. The estimations
If excessive heat is used in processing, proteins can be destroyed,
put the global pet population somewhere around 400 million and
and essential amino acids become unavailable for digestion and
as human populations continue to skyrocket, so will the number of
absorption. Extrusion technology that provides variable temperature
control helps to maintain the amino acids that are essential in the
The nutritional and digestive requirements for these animals
diet of both dogs and cats. Additionally, extrusion adds to the overall
varies greatly depending, not only on the species of the pet being
energy value of the end product by opening the walls of fat cells,
fed, but also upon their age, activity level, temperament, and health.
releasing their contents and increasing the energy concentration of
Additionally, pet owners expect their pet’s food to come in many
different shapes, colours, and flavours and the demand for high-
Uncooked starches consumed by both dogs and cats remain
quality pet food, with a pleasing visual appearance as well as the right
undigested in their systems and can result in flatulence or diarrhea.
nutritional benefits, requires advanced, multifunctional equipment.
As a part of the extrusion process, starch contained in the feed ingredients are cooked, transforming them into their simplest form so
that digestive issues are avoided, less energy is spent on digestion,
The preconditioner treats feed ingredients with heat and moisture
and more energy is available to the animal.
through the application of steam to assure that ingredients are safely pasteurized and evenly moisturized, resulting in a hygienic and
homogeneous feed mixture.
For pet food to be labelled with the moniker “high quality” the end
Adding preconditioning technology also significantly reduces the
product must ultimately appeal to the end user – consumers who
overall cost of ownership of the feed processing equipment. By heating
have particular tastes and highly evolved senses. Cats prefer more
and moisturizing the raw ingredients prior to extruding, the ingredients
acidic flavours while dogs like their food on the sweeter side. After
become more malleable and, as a result, less energy is needed to
pet food has been mixed, cooked, and dried it is a standard practice
process them. In the long run, overall production is increased because
to coat kibbles with fats and flavourings that will satisfy even the
processing equipment encounters less wear and lasts longer.
pickiest of pallets.
typically occurs in a drum coating system, which fulfils standard
In the next stage, the extruder compresses, mixes, and heats the raw
processing requirements. However, several benefits can be achieved
materials with just the right amount of pressure and temperature to
with vacuum coating that are not possible with ordinary atmospheric
The application of oils and flavourings in the pet food industry
Pet Food Supplement 2018
coating. The benefit of vacuum coating technology comes from the
Control Management System (ECMS) where operational control,
application of a pressure differential to force liquids through the outer
trending, and logging of the whole processing line are managed.
layer, penetrating deeply into the porous area of the pet food pellet. Vacuum coating provides accurate control of the liquid addition,
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel vertical coater
improves cycle time flexibility and increases the ability to reproduce
Vertical mixers have historically been a popular choice in the processing
of animal feed due to their ability to mix ingredients thoroughly yet gently,
When considering processing equipment for the manufacturing of
without damaging the product. ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel adopted
high-quality pet food, it is important to weigh factors such as equipment
this vertical mixing technology and applied it to the coating stage of
quality, versatility, and efficiency as well as the primary feed quality
production, which increases the overall output of flavourful kibbles at
indicators, to determine the total cost of ownership.
lower energy inputs, simultaneously reducing costs and enhancing
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel manufactures the advanced
machines and technologies that enable pet food processors to meet
The use of a
the varying nutritional needs of a wide variety of breeds while also
achieving the demands of discerning pet food consumers.
screw inside t h e ANDRITZ
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel conditioners
Our conditioners can be set up as single or dual systems, mounted
directly above the extruder for optimum energy efficiency. ANDRITZ
Feed and Biofuel Preconditioning offers flexible retention times.
can be used
Depending on the requirements of the product, retention times can
with or without
be held up to 400 seconds while mixing efficiency remains constant
regardless of where the retention time is set – allowing for optimal
means that all
of the product
is exposed at
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel extruders
the top of the
Our extruders offer the ability to produce a wide variety of shapes,
mixing vessel, ensuring the uniform application of liquid or powder
sizes, and textures while also controlling the digestibility and
palatability of the processer’s unique pet food blend. ANDRITZ Feed
Performing trials can help determine process parameters to
and Biofuel extruders utilize the advanced patented technology of
achieve finished product quality as well as help with equipment sizing
the Expansion Control System (ECS) which provides online control
and power requirements to assure optimum output of high-quality pet
of product density by managing overpressure in the knife house and
foods. ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel has several pilot plants outfitted
The Flextex System which maintains said density while providing
with our key process equipment to ensure safe upscaling. Pilot plants
precision control over the specific mechanical energy taking place
are open and available to customers and project departments all
during the cooking of starches.
around the world.
Product traceability comes from utilization of the Extrusion
ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel is unique in their ability to manufacture and supply every machine in the feed pelleting line. With in-depth knowledge of each essential process, we provide a compatible and advantageous solution, from raw material intake to finished feed bulk loading as well as, after the sale, parts and service. With a network of global aftermarket service centres, we have expert staff at a local level ready to help at a moment’s notice.
Sources: Pet Food Manufacturer’s Association, Pet Population 2017 https://www.pfma.org.uk/pet-population-2017
Above: The advanced single screw extrusion
Merck Manual Vet Manual, Nutritional Requirements and Related Diseases of Small Animals By Sherry Lynn Sanderson, BS, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN, Associate Professor, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia https://www. merckvetmanual.com/management-and-nutrition/nutrition-smallanimals/nutritional-requirements-and-related-diseases-of-smallanimals#v3328622
Pet Food Supplement 2018
How to measure lipid oxidation and antioxidant efficacy in pet food Dr. Cristina Murcia García and Tanja Kowalewsky, Technical Marketing Manager, Kaesler Nutrition GmbH
Pet food contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and a high amount
Figure 1: Lipid oxidation process: at an early stage of oxidation,
of proteins, fats and oils. Lipids and proteins in particular suffer from the
the peroxide value increases but at a certain point peroxides
effects of oxidation. They then deteriorate and are no longer available
degrade to secondary oxidation products and the peroxide
for the animal. Maintaining the quality of fats is the key aspect as they
value decreases. An additional measurement of the secondary
are the most important source of energy; they allow the incorporation of
oxidation products is a must to confirm that a low peroxide value
fat-soluble nutrients and are excellent carriers for flavours.1 If lipids turn
corresponds to a fresh product.5
rancid, the quality of the entire pet food is degraded. This leads to reduced attractiveness and health risks resulting from the uptake of toxic oxidation Antioxidants in pet food prevent lipid oxidation and are thereby able to assure high pet food quality over a shelf life of 12 to 24 months.3 The determination of antioxidant efficacy and minimum durability is a complicated and tedious process. It strongly depends on the composition of the product, the production conditions, the packaging, the
products and free radicals while the shelf life is drastically reduced.2
presence or absence of adequate antioxidants and the storage conditions (temperature, light, humidity). There are a number of different methods to estimate antioxidant efficacy and product storage life. This article focusses on storage trials (at room temperature and with moderate acceleration) and accelerated
Schaal Oven Test can be extrapolated to months.7 For example if a
quick tests like RancimatTM and oxygen bomb/OxipresTM.
product stored over 12 weeks at moderated high temperatures shows values of peroxide and secondary oxidation products within the accepted
Storage trials at room temperature
limits after the 12 weeks, one could roughly estimate the storage life of
Storage trials performed under normal conditions (25°C and atmospheric
this product as being 12 months.
pressure) give realistic data on the durability of a product or raw material.
Figure 2 shows the measurements of peroxide value and non-
To determine the storage life the key parameters of oxidation, peroxides
volatile secondary oxidation products of native soybean oil during a
and secondary oxidation products are measured at regular intervals.
storage trial at 41°C.
Peroxides are formed in the early stages of lipid oxidation, and they
If we set the peroxide value limit at 15 meqO2/kg, right after 2 weeks
are subjected to further oxidation reactions generating volatile (aroma
of storage at 41°C, the sample of native soybean oil without antioxidants
active) and non-volatile secondary products, such as aldehydes and ketones.4 The peroxide value (PV) is one of the most widely used fat
Figure 2: Storage trial, untreated native soybean oil (as model fat)
quality indicators in the food and feed industry. However, as peroxides are
was supplemented with the antioxidant blend Loxidan E 20 dry
susceptible to further reactions (see Figure 1), it is highly recommended
(Kaesler Nutrition GmbH) and subsequently stored at 41°C for 28
to give an additional and meaningful secondary oxidation parameter to
days. The peroxide value (left), as an indicator of the formation
complete the picture of lipid oxidation status.
of primary oxidation products and non-volatile secondary
Such a storage trial under realistic conditions needs to be conducted
oxidation products (right) were determined at regular intervals.
over the entire target shelf life. This means that such studies are very
In comparison with the control sample, the sample with Loxidan
time consuming, expensive and mostly not done in practice.
considerably reduced the formation of oxidation products.
Moderate accelerated storage trials (Schaal Oven Test) A moderately accelerated storage trial was developed for a more rapid estimation of durability. This is the so-called Schaal Oven Test, in which the product is stored typically at 61°C and the peroxide value and secondary oxidation products are measured at regular intervals, e.g. once a week. 6 The temperature can be adjusted to 51 or 41°C according to the materials and conditions. The storage at temperatures above the standard 25°C allows a moderated acceleration of the oxidation of the components present in a product. As a rule, the weekly results of the
Pet Food Supplement 2018
is already above the limit and we could give a prediction of its durability
the predicted durability obtained with the Rancimat differs greatly from
as being less than 2 months at room temperature. On the contrary, the
the one obtained in more realistic conditions.
sample of soybean oil supplemented with Loxidan E20 dry could increase the storage life to 4 months.
In summary, the Rancimat test is suitable for a quick and costeffective, qualitative comparison of antioxidant efficacy in fats and oils. It is not possible, however, to obtain a plausible estimation of storage life.
Quick test: RancimatTM In the RancimatTM method, the conditions for a rapid oxidation, i.e. high
Quick test: Oxygen bomb and OxipresTM
temperatures and continuous oxygen flow, are applied to the sample.
Oxygen bomb and OxipresTM (a modification of the oxygen bomb method,
These conditions considerably accelerate the oxidation of fatty acids
not to be confused with an oxygen bomb calorimeter) are used to estimate
and consequently the formation of peroxides and secondary oxidation
the antioxidative resistance of oils, fats or food products containing
fats and have the advantage that no sample preparation is needed.6
The Rancimat method is based on the fact that chemical reactions
In general, these methods are based on the oxidation of a sample
− in this case the oxidation of fatty acids – depend on temperature.
under pressure and at high temperatures. The oxygen consumption
However, under high temperatures further chemical reactions, other than
is monitored and results in a pressure drop in the vessel during the
the ones expected at room temperature may take place. This means,
experiment.10 The pressure in the cell is measured electronically and
e.g. some antioxidants which degrade at temperatures above 100°C
the time needed until the pressure drops is called induction time. As in
may no longer be effective in the prevention of lipid oxidation or even
the case of Rancimat, it indicates the time elapsing until a sample turns
be swept out of the oil by the air flow. In addition, only one parameter
rancid under the corresponding experimental conditions.
is measured in Rancimat trials, the induction time. This parameter gives
Trials at high pressures and temperature do not correspond to
the time that elapses until the sample gets rancid. This value, usually
the real storage conditions and the mode of action of antioxidants can
given in hours, characterizes the resistance of the sample to oxidation.
be different. Only one parameter is measured, which gives no further
The longer the induction time, the more stable a sample is. No further
information about the oxidative status of the sample.
information is obtained about the oxidative status of a sample before
Like data obtained from Rancimat, the oxygen bomb and OxipresTM
or after the trial. The fats are severely deteriorated when the end-point
methods are intended to give a first indication of the oxidative stability of
is reached. Furthermore, it must be kept in mind that mathematical
a product and must be used with care. A recommendation for storage
extrapolation of hours to months and years involves a high degree of
life cannot be given by these methods.
statistical uncertainty. As an experimental case, a Rancimat trial was performed again on
native soybean oil with and without Loxidan, an antioxidant blend from
A number of different methods are available with the aim of providing
Kaesler Nutrition GmbH (Figure 3).
quick and realistic results to estimate the storage life of feedstuffs and pet food and to prove the efficacy of antioxidants. Quick tests have
Figure 3: Results obtained with the Rancimat method to determine
many benefits: they are easy to handle and less time consuming while
the oxidative stability of native soybean oil (as model fat) without
providing cost-efficient results. For a first indication these methods are
and with the antioxidant blend Loxidan E 20 dry (Kaesler Nutrition
interesting but for a realistic estimation of the efficacy of antioxidants and
GmbH) at 100°C and 20 l/h air flow.
the storage life of pet food these methods are too inaccurate. For a more reliable determination of shelf life it is advisable to invest time and money in accelerated storage trials under moderate conditions. The experimental conditions are very close to reality and the regular measurements of oxidation relevant parameters make them suitable in determining the durability of complex pet food matrices.
In this case an improvement in the oxidative stability of an oil by incorporating antioxidants was also observed. For data extrapolation the empirical Q10 approach can be used, which is based on the observation that the induction time approximately doubles with each 10°C reduction in sample temperature.8 However in the presented case the Rancimat extrapolated data obtained give a shelf life at 25°C of roughly 4 ½ months for the native soybean oil without antioxidants and of 6 months for the sample with the Loxidan. From the shelf life prediction of the storage trial, and thanks to the measurements of reliable parameters of lipid oxidation, it is known that after 2 weeks at 41°C or extrapolated after 2 months storage at 25°C the oil is already rancid. Taking this data into account,
1. Duthie G. G. Lipid peroxidation. European J. Clinical Nut. 1993; 47: 759 – 764. 2. Benzie I. F. F. Lipid peroxidation: a review of causes, consequences, measurement and dietary influences. Internat. J. Food Sciences and Nut. 1996; 47: 233-261. 3. J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva. Antioxidants in Food: practical applications. CRC Press, WP, 2001 4. J. Velasco, C. Dobarganes. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2002; 104: 661 – 676. 5. T. P. Labuza. Kinetics of Lipid Oxidation in Foods, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Technol. 1971; 2: 355 – 405. 6. M. Hu, C. Jacobsen, Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats. Elsevier 2016. 7. Y. Pomeranz, C. Meloan. Lipids. In: Food Analysis: Theory and Practice, third ed. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, 2000; 678–732. 8. a) J. Sanhueza. Comparison of Rancimat Evaluation Modes to Assess Oxidative Stability of fish Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1997; 74: 331– 332. b) Product Information Rancimat 892 by Metrohm AG, CH-9100 Herisau (accessed on 23.03.2018) 9. S. Sanhueza. Thermal Stability of Some Commercial Synthetic Antioxidants, JAOCS. 2000; 77: 9. 10. R. P. Singh. Understanding and Measuring the Shelf-Life of Food. CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, 2004.
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Yeast extracts: Prebiotic, supporting gut health and anti-allergenic By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen, Barentz Animal Nutrition
Yeast is a product that is regularly discussed in the pet food industry and this article will point out the benefits of different yeast products. Some yeasts have a prebiotic effect and support gut health. Other yeasts are an excellent anti-allergenic protein source.
Brewers’ yeast Brewers’ yeast is regularly used in pet food. This yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in the brewery process. Brewers’ yeast is well-known as a palatability enhancer and as an ingredient rich in B-vitamins and minerals. Brewers’ yeast is a source of good quality protein, with a level of approximately 40% protein, and it contains nine of the essential amino acids needed by dogs. Brewers’ yeast is a well-known ingredient with many nutritional benefits for dogs and cats. Availability of brewers’ yeast can be problematic, therefore molasses yeast is a good alternative. Molasses yeast is also Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it is derived from sugar cane molasses fermentation obtained during the ethanol production process. system, helping with stress management, aiding digestion and keeping
Yeast cell walls and hydrolysed yeast Beside brewers’ yeast and molasses yeast, there are more yeast
coat, skin, eyes and liver healthy.
products on the market. In some cases pets have some extra challenges
to deal with: health and allergies. Yeast cell walls or hydrolysed
Barentz Animal Nutrition has a complete portfolio with different yeast
yeast are two products that can be very helpful when facing those
products, as mentioned above. Beside brewers’ yeast, molasses yeast,
yeast cell wall and hydrolysed yeast, the Barentz’ yeast range extends to autolyzed yeast, and different combinations of yeast products. Different
animal species with different ages require different yeast products.
Yeast cell walls, obtained from mature yeast with thick walls, contain high levels of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) and B-glucans. MOS bind pathogens and supports intestinal health. B-glucans act as a prebiotic by promoting the reproduction of beneficial bacteria and B-glucans stimulate the immune system.
Barentz Animal Nutrition: Your Ingredients Partner Barentz is a global distributor of ingredients in the animal nutrition, food & nutrition, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. At Barentz Animal Nutrition we are active in technical
ingredients and additives for the feed and pet food industry. We
Hydrolysed yeast is yeast treated with enzymes and as a result, the
have a big portfolio of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, anti-
protein is split into short-chain peptides and amino acids. When intact
oxidants, yeast and novelty ingredients such as insect protein
proteins are broken down into small molecules, the immune system
and sea weed. Our ingredients experts support our customers
is no longer able to recognize them as allergens, with the result of
in making the right ingredients choices for their new and existing
eliminating the possibility of an adverse reaction. Hydrolysed yeast
products. We strongly believe that by acting as an ingredients
has lower molecular weight peptides compared to brewers’ yeast.
partner, rather than merely a distributor, we can provide our
Hydrolysed yeast contains not only MOS and B-glucans, but also
clients with complementary high quality products that add value
nucleotides. This is essential for growing animals. Therefore the product
to their formulations or processes: from source to solution.
is very suitable for puppies and kittens. Hydrolysed yeast is also a product with high palatability and is a source of various B-vitamins and minerals. B-vitamins play an important role in supporting the nervous
Pet Food Supplement 2018
For further information please contact: email@example.com
Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) in Extrusion By Gordon Young, Food Industry Engineering, Australia and Dennis Forte, Dennis Forte & Associates, Australia
The shear stress applied to the product is dissipated through the
In the most simple of terms, the transformation of Raw Materials into
viscous fluid movement of the melt (“Viscous Dissipation”) leading to
a Product, involves the input of Energy. The means by which the
an increase in the temperature of the material. The bulk effect of SME
energy is imparted, is defined by the physical design of the equipment
is noted as a temperature rise (additional to temperature rise due to
and operational parameters of the process. The type of energy has a
direct influence upon the Product Characteristics (e.g, Colour, Texture, Flavour, etc.).
This temperature increase directly drives the cooking reactions that occur. But SME also affects the feed at the molecular level. Figure
Let us consider a Generic Cooking Process, shown schematically
2 shows measured effect of SME on Mean Molecular Weight of the
in Figure 1. There are three mechanisms for Energy Transfer. These
Starch Fraction in an extrusion operation. The shear generated in the
process breaks down molecules – the higher the SME, the smaller
o Mechanical Energy (also referred to as Viscous Dissipation)
o Convection Energy (associated with latent heat transfer – Steam Injection) o Conduction Energy (associated with indirect heat transfer – Conduction from the Vessel Wall)
is the average molecule size. Break-down of proteins results in the generation of peptides and changes to fatty acids. When starches are broken down, dextrins (long-chain sugars) are produced. Figure 2: Effect of SME on Mean Molecular Weight in starch extrusion
Figure 1 – The Generic Cooking Process
In large-scale extrusion, Conduction Energy is relatively insignificant – as size of the extruder increases, the reduced surface area to volume ratio in the barrel reduces heat transfer from the barrel wall. Some of the energy in extrusion is commonly added through
This break-down of molecules affects product characteristics in a
steam, especially via the preconditioner, so Convection Energy can
number of ways:
be significant. But the nature of the process means that a lot of the heating during extrusion is due to Mechanical Energy.
1. Flavour and nutritional profile – changed amino acids due to break-down of proteins, bitter notes from peptides, sweeter taste from dextrins. The digestibility of certain components can
SME (Specific Mechanical Energy) and Extrusion
2. Pellet durability – sufficient “cook” is essential to the development
This mechanical energy input, often specified as Specific Mechanical
of structure via the starches (present in very limited quantities
Energy (SME) is critical to the quality characteristics of the extruded
in many aquafeeds) and any functional proteins. However,
feed. The stresses developed in the material (“Shear Stress”) not only
excessive breakdown of the molecules destroys binding.
convey the product along the barrel, but cause mixing, and under the
Therefore with respect to pellet durability, there must be sufficient
correct conditions, can break down starches and re-align proteins and
SME to promote the correct Degree of Cook, but too much SME
develop structure within the dough or melt. But intense shear stress
will weaken the pellet structure.
can also cause breakdown at a molecular level, as will be discussed later.
be enhanced (for certain species).
3. Water stability - The formation of dextrins lead to a reduction in the gel forming capability of any starch present, hence, a
Pet Food Supplement 2018
reduction in the Water Absorption Index (WAI). WAI is often
the effect of SME on digestibility of an extruded starched-based
used as a means of quantifying the water stability of a product.
product (in this case in cats).
Some data for an extrusion process is shown in Figure 3. Note that the most significant changes to WAI occur within the same
Figure 5: Example of the effect of SME on Digestibility (starch-
range of SMEs that cause a major change in molecular weight
based cat food).
(Figure 2). Figure 3: Effect of SME on WAI (Water Absorption Index) in a starch-based extrusion process.
Smaller molecules also tend to be more water-soluble, the Water Solubility of the product increases (as measured by the Water Solubility Index WSI). The data for the test samples is presented in Figure 4.
How is SME Measured/Calculated
An increase in water solubility in aquafeed corresponds to a reduction
Remember that SME is about the mechanical energy going into the
in water stability.
product, not Total Energy – it is important to subtract the No-Load Energy.
Figure 4: Effect of SME on WSI (Water Solubility Index) in a starchbased extrusion process.
If the extruder is instrumented to provide a direct measure of Screw Torque, then record the torque when no product is passing through, and Net Power Input is given by: Pnet = 2 π (τ – τ0) N / 60000(kW) where, τ = Torque (Nm) τ0 = Torque under no load (Nm) N = Screw speed (rpm) If a torque measurement is not available, power can be calculated from amps drawn by the drive motor. For AC drives the Net Power Input (kW) can be estimated via: Pnet = √3 V [ (f η I ) - (f0 η0 I0 ) ] / 1000 (kW) where,
4. Digestibility – Change in level of “cook” and in the molecular weight also affects digestibility. Typically, uncooked material
f = Power Factor ( - )
has low digestibility. As level of cook increases, digestibility
η = Efficiency (%)
increases – up to a maximum. However, at higher SME levels,
V = Supply Voltage (V)
digestibility again decreases – over-sheared product is not readily
I = Current (Amps)
absorbed by the animal. By way of example, Figure 5 shows
(Subscript 0 refers to no-load conditions)
Pet Food Supplement 2018
For DC drives the Net Energy Input (kW) can be estimated via:
Table 1: Specific Energy Inputs for the manufacture of Aquatic Feeds
Pnet = V [ (η I ) - (η0 I0) ] / 1000(kW) The SME is then readily calculated as: SME = Pnet / MTotal (kWhr/kg) where,
Specific Convective Energy, SCE
0.040 to 0.060 kWhr/kg
Specific Thermal Energy, STE
-0.002 to 0.007 kWhr/kg
Specific Mechanical Energy, SME
0.025 to 0.045 kWhr/kg
Total Specific Energy, TSE
0.063 to 0.112 kWhr/kg
MTotal = Total Throughput Rate (kg/hr). Note: MTotal is the Total Melt Flow through the extruder – not after drying – and is the flow rate of Powder, Water, Steam, Oil and any other Additives.
(This paper draws from a book by the same authors: “Food and Feed Extrusion Technology: An Applied Approach to Extrusion Theory”, ISBN 978-0-9945433-0-1. See www.fie.com.au/books)
Some Guidelines for SME in Aquafeed Extrusion A very broad range of Aquatic Feeds, with vastly different characteristics (both Floating and Sinking) for a large number of species are prepared via Extrusion Cooking using a diverse raw material base. It is therefore
The authors are presenting short courses on “Aquafeed
impossible to define a single target value for the magnitude of the SME
Extrusion Technology”, “Petfood Extrusion Technology” and
(or any of the other energy inputs). A typical range for the Specific
“Drying Technology” at Centre for Feed Technology, FôrTek,
Energy Inputs can be presented, however (see Table 1).
Norway, in April/May 2018 (www.fie.com.au/events)
This article was previously published in Feed Compounder magazine, March/April 2018 issue
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Pet Food Supplement 2018
Insulin resistance in obese dogs Proven effects of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans on metabolism By Thiago Henrique Vendramini, Chayanne Ferreira, Andressa Rodrigues do Amaral & Marcio Antonio Brunetto School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo/Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil
The mechanism involved in the development of many of the mentioned alterations relies on the characterization of adipocytes as members of an active endocrine tissue (Balistreri et al., 2010). Therefore, adipose tissue also participates in mechanisms of inflammation and immunity, with production and release of a wide range of pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and suppression of anti-inflammatory factors such as adiponectin, as well as other cytokines. Weight loss is able to reduce these changes, the severity of complications, and even normalize the alterations acquired by overweight status. The success of the treatment depends on the promotion of weight loss and effective maintenance of lean weight, thus it is necessary to induce a negative energy balance state by Throughout the last decades, obesity has been becoming the main
means of caloric restriction (Cloetens et al., 2012; Floerchinger et
nutritional health issue not only in humans, but also in companion
al., 2015). For such, satiety plays a major role during this process
animals. Over the past years, some studies have reported values
concerning the animal and its owner, since the manifestation of
between 20-40% of obesity in the studied population (McGreevy et
hunger, which consequently leads the animal to seek and beg for
al., 2005 Gossellin et al., 2007). More recent studies have already
food, often compromises the continuation of the program (Weber
reported percentages of approximately 44% of obesity in dogs (Mao
et al., 2007).
et al., 2013; Alonso et al., 2017), demonstrating a progressive and disturbing increase of this condition.
Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans are polysaccharides composed of glucose monomers linked together by β-glycosidic bonds. Due to their
Its development is directly or indirectly associated with increased
complex mechanism of action in the organism, several effects have
risk of other conditions such as: cardiorespiratory, orthopedic
already been associated with their supplementation: modulation of
alterations and metabolic disorders such as reduced glucose
the immune response (Li et al., 2006; Zaine, 2014), reduction of the
tolerance, type 2 diabetes in felines, hyperlipidemia (Gayet et al.,
inflammatory response (Beynen and Legerstee, 2010; Beynen et al.,
2004; Brunetto et al., 2011) and reduced life expectancy (Kealy et
2011; Silva et al., 2015) and modulation of glucose (Vetvicka and
Oliveira, 2014; Silva et al., 2015) and lipids (Andrade et al., 2016)
Figure 1. Trial set up
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Figure 2: Serum GLP-1 concentrations of experimental groups
a,b - Equal letters do not differ according to t-Student test (p<0.05)
metabolism. However, the effects of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans on glycemic
triglycerides significantly lower compared to the initial values of the
control are poorly understood in dogs, and no studies that evaluated
obese dogs (group A), and did not present any statistical difference
the addition of this polysaccharide in glycemic parameters of obese
with the lean dogs (group B). The addition of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans
dogs are available.
have also promoted a reduction of basal insulin concentrations in the
A recent study carried out at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - University of São Paulo (Brazil) evaluated
obese group (C), although these values remained higher than those found in group B (P < 0.05).
the effects of purified beta-1,3/1,6-glucans from yeast S. cerevisiae
Appetite regulating hormone GLP-1 (Figure 2) was affected by
(MacroGard, Biorigin, Brazil) on metabolic parameters and hormones
the supplementation with beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. The lean and obese
related to satiety of obese dogs. Fourteen privately owned dogs were
dogs (before supplementation) had lower circulating concentrations
split into two experimental groups: obese dogs (group A) with body
of GLP-1 (P < 0.05). The higher GLP-1 in obese dogs receiving beta-
condition score (BCS) 8 or 9/9 and lean dogs with BCS 5/9 (group
1,3/1,6-glucans in their diet (group C) could explain why some dogs
B), according to the Laflamme (1997) scoring system. For a period
of group C presented leftovers throughout the study and decreased
of two weeks, both groups received a control diet (no beta-1,3/1,6-
begging behaviour for food, as reported by the owners.
glucans). After two weeks, group A became group C, and received a
In conclusion, these pioneering results are highly relevant for the
diet with beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (MacroGard ) for a period of 90 days.
use of beta-glucans in diet formulations for obesity control, as well
The trial set up is shown in Figure 1.
as for maintenance after weight loss, due to the beta-1,3/1,6-glucans
Dietary beta-1,3/1,6-glucans led to important changes – after
effect on metabolism and appetite control.
supplementation, the obese dogs (group C) presented glycemic variables (basal and mean blood glucose), cholesterol and
References available upon request
Best documented beta-1,3/1,6-glucan
Bala natura nce the l de systemfense
Engineering your feed solutions Find your Orffa specialist at www.orffa.com
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Focus on Fatty Acids By Victoria Thornber, Devenish Nutrition Ltd
Food and nutrition is no longer just about supplying nutrients, there is
well referenced. There are a number of scientific peer-reviewed journals
now a focus on supplying essential ingredients in an effective way and in
that have found causal links between senior dog consumption of DHA
forms accepted and liked by the consumer, be that human, farm animal
and EPA and benefits to brain, eye and joint health as well as healthy
or pet! The nutrient must not only be consumed but also delivered to
skin and coat. As with human (and indeed chicken) nutrition, delivery
the relevant site in the body in a bioavailable form.
of the Omega 3- PUFAs within the diet in a consistent, bioavailable format is key. Devenish utilised the ingredients and technology used
Delivering health benefits through Omega-3 fatty acids
in the human study to produce a unique blend of Omega 3 PUFAs to
Devenish have focused on exactly this approach to nutrition in its R&D
Omega 3 Index!
provide guaranteed levels of EPA and DHA to the pet and boost their
programmes. In human nutrition, our principle has been ‘you are what you eat, eats’. Our recent work with the Royal College of Surgeons
Utilising fatty acids to support gut health
in Ireland has focused on the health benefits to the human from the
Essential nutrients have to be effectively absorbed within the digestive
consumption of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. Rather than a pill or
system to maximise their benefits. This is key to optimizing feed
pellet, the omega 3 fatty acids were supplied in a natural way within
utilization in production animals.
the fat naturally contained within chicken meat, or eggs consumed as part of an individual’s daily meal.
At Devenish, our research with production animals has looked at optimising the delivery in the digestive tract of key short and
The research resulted in the world’s first naturally enriched omega
medium chain fatty acids to promote gastrointestinal health. Unique
3 chicken and eggs with proven health claims likely to reduce risk of
encapsulation of the fatty acids in a specialised, protective matrix allows
heart attack, stroke, dementia and depression.
targeted delivery of fatty acids along the entire length of the digestive
The chicken meat and eggs used in the study came from birds
tract. Devenish have applied the same knowledge and technology to
offered a diet containing a unique and sustainable algae based source
develop a fatty acid complex that promotes gastrointestinal health in
of omega 3 PUFA’s developed by Devenish. The results from the clinical
study saw an increase in omega-3-PUFA levels in blood, and a positive
When incorporated in the feed, specific fatty acids are absorbed
shift in what is described as the ‘omega-3 Index’ . Low levels of this
in the small intestine where they assist with the proliferation and
index (<4%) indicate a heightened risk of heart and brain disease. The
maturation of the gut resulting in an increase in villi height and crypt
Omega-3 enriched chicken and eggs offer consumers an attractive
depth. This has the impact of increasing the surface area available for
alternative to eating oily fish or to the lifelong taking of supplements,
the absorption of nutrients and water, improving feed digestibility. In
with the potential for substantial health benefits.
the large intestine the slow releasing fatty acids positively influence gut microflora and support the gut as the first line of defence.
In pets, the benefits of the Omega 3 fatty acids DHA
Strong gastrointestinal health and effective absorption of nutrients
(docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) have been
and water supports good stool quality. In owner perception studies,
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Suppliers of innovative nutritional solutions and technical expertise to petfood manufacturers nationally and internationally
T | +44(0) 2890 755566 E | firstname.lastname@example.org www.devenish.com
when the fatty acid complex was fed by owners to their dogs, they reported a significant improvement in stool quality and a reduction in stool odour – all signs of a positive impact on digestive health. Use of specific fatty acids in pet food can contribute positively to pet health and well-being through their impact on digestive health, immune function, brain, eye and joint health. Consideration needs to be given to the types of fatty acid used, source and physical format to ensure it is effectively digested and absorbed and benefits optimised. When using fatty acids in pet food, we can benefit from reviewing existing and developing science and expertise, within production animal nutrition. This knowledge can be adapted and applied within the development of pet food formulations to deliver healthy, satisfying and appetizing diets for our pets.
Pet Foods Need Protection, Too! New SubSTAR solutions for salmon oil protection in pet foods Oil from fatty fish, such as salmon, is one of the best sources of the
Figure 1: Rancimat test of salmon oil, performed at 90°C.
omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and is increasingly used in premium
Comparison of results for Control sample (without addition of
brands of pet foods due to its health benefits.
antioxidants), Competitor product (natural solution), SubSTAR
However, these fatty acids are unstable and can rapidly oxidize
ULTRA (302447; natural solution), SubSTAR Complex (302530;
and turn rancid. Salmon and other fish oil is especially challenging.
natural solution) and SubSTAR Complex (302554; semi natural
Unsaturated fatty acids, being so highly prone to oxidation, can lead
solution).Higher the induction time better the stability of the oil
to spoilage and loss of quality and reduced nutritional value, not to
and longer shelf life is indicated.
mention causing a rancid flavor and changes in colour. They can even develop toxic byproducts. Oxidation also leads to significant food waste due to shorter shelf-life, increased product losses, and interrupted production. When the fish oil is added to the outer layer of the kibble as palatant, it only increases application challenges in terms of oxidation risk versus when it is part of the kibble formulation. Frutarom’s new, all-natural SubSTAR formulations successfully protect salmon oil from oxidation, improve its overall stability, maintain product colour, and preserve the flavour and nutritional profile. “Available in liquid and powder form, the SubSTAR solutions are highly potent formulations, customized to fit the specific processing demands of pet food manufacturers and their raw material suppliers,”
concentrations add to their already impressive advantages, while FAMI
explains Ohad Cohan, General Manager of Frutarom’s Food Protection
- QS certification guarantees the highest level of vertically integrated
Division. “These formulations provide better stability and maintain oil
raw materials sourcing.
quality, even during warm weather and prolonged periods of storage
Frutarom Group’s Food Protection Division provides advanced,
at elevated temperatures. All SubSTAR formulations provide powerful
application-specific solutions based on natural extracts for food, pet
protection at low dosage. They are simple and easy to handle, added
food, cosmetic, and nutraceutical industries. Its extensive portfolio
as part of a kibble recipe.”
includes brands such as VivOX ®, INOLENS ®, AquaROX ® and
Providing extended shelf life and improved quality to the level
SyneROX®. These product lines have been complemented by the
of excellence, SubSTAR formulations outperform other solutions
innovative SubSTAR and SubSTAR Complex portfolio for pet food
traditionally offered in the industry. Reliability and efficacy, even at low
and rendering applications.
Pet Food Supplement 2018
An ethical approach: What the pet food industry can expect from 2018 According to the latest market insight, the pet food industry is growing rapidly – 12 per cent in 2017 alone no less. While this presents a huge opportunity for producers, it seems with new customers comes increased expectations. Here, Ashley Burdock, Commercial Manager – Protein Ingredients – at SARVAL discusses how customers’ focus on ethics might impact the pet food industry in 2018.
Requirements that transcend species
processing facility at its dried product manufacturing site in Nottingham.
One of the key factors affecting the pet food supply chain is a change in
The £8m investment saw a purpose-built centre constructed to house
consumer perception. Gone are the days when owners took the health,
dedicated processing equipment for specialist poultry products. The
sustainability and ethical tracing of ingredients on face value. Today,
new lines utilise the latest technology to process up to 3,000 tonnes
consumers are increasingly aware of the supply chain – a mentality
of poultry every week.
that has filtered through to the appreciation of pet food. The industry has continued to keep abreast and quietly react to this. This is not a new concept for pet food producers, but a trend that will continue to drive industry practice in the year ahead.
The site is capable of processing more than 200,000 tonnes of poultry by-products every year and the resulting high-quality poultry meat meal, hydrolysed feather meal and poultry fat is used by some of the world’s leading pet food manufacturers in the production of premium product lines.
An ethical approach
The development exclusively processes poultry products,
Perhaps top of the consumer wish list is transparency regarding
responding directly to a growing market requirement for single source
ingredients. The term ‘clean label’ has been coined, whereby
meat protein products.
consumers want absolute clarity on what they’re feeding to their pets, in what quantities and where it’s come from. Producers are therefore
Thinking to the future
having to overhaul the way they package and present their products,
Brand loyalty in the pet food market is in jeopardy. With online
as well as take a closer look at their supply chain. There’s also a much
purchasing and the myriad of producers out there making the choice
bigger focus on providing pets with a balanced and nutritious diet. With
vast, consumers can easily chop and change. What’s clear is that pet
brands increasingly offering products that cater for special dietary needs
owners expect absolute transparency when it comes to every stage
or interests, the requirement for clarity on ingredients again becomes
of the production of pet food, and will scrutinise a brand’s response
to this. With millennials, who have grown up with this kind of practice
SARVAL, for example, has invested heavily in ensuring its
when it comes to their own food and other consumables, this trend
ingredients are ethically sourced, processed and delivered. This
will only continue. The industry needs to harness the opportunity to
includes only sourcing ingredients produced in the UK and having
create loyalty by embracing these requirements and becoming not
separate production lines to ensure that no cross-contamination of
only a trusted brand but the brand of choice for those that now have
meats takes place throughout the manufacturing process.
more choices than ever.
Alongside greater scrutiny on sourcing food, consumers also require reassurance regarding responsible manufacturing. This is a
Leading the way in high quality protein products
trend that’s been carried across from the mainstream grocery market
With a strong focus on research and development, SARVAL’s
and, with savvy shoppers to contend with, there’s no way of getting
plants have benefited from continuous investment in new
technology and environmental control systems to ensure that
Working with suppliers, such as SARVAL, the pet food industry
product quality, safety and emissions standards are consistently
is able to ensure the sustainability of the products used in their
second-to-none and comply with all relevant legislation and
supply chain. For example, SARVAL prides itself on delivering the
highest possible product quality, while delivering a clear commitment
SARVAL operates four pet food plants in the UK. Its
to traceability and ethical business practice. Using state-of-the-art
Nottingham and Widnes sites produce dried poultry materials,
processes, it ensures compliance to the highest industry standards and
while Doncaster (one of the most advanced preparation
manufactures superior products to respond to market requirements.
facilities of its kind in Europe) specialises in chilled and frozen
With this in mind, it’s channelling considerable investment into furthering
products. The newly-regenerated Hartshill plant produces a
its production processes and capabilities to leverage this opportunity.
range of dried mixed mammalian products, as well as high quality
As part of this, at the end of last year SARVAL invested in a new
animal fats for a wide variety of markets.
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Pet food integrity Why we need to focus on authenticity, food safety and quality By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients
Pet food in Europe – A growing pet population with demanding pet owners
factors, in addition to those listed above. This includes authenticity of
In 2017, FEDIAF (“The European Pet Food Industry Federation”)
species used for “super-premium” claims e.g. monkfish. Failure to
estimated that the European dog population and cat populations
ensure authenticity means that we are not meeting the claims we make
numbered over 82 million dogs and over 102 million cats. http://www.
and this might be deemed fraudulent or lead to a loss of trust.
fediaf.org/who-we-are/facts-and-figures.html . These figures show both populations grew from 2014 (80 million dogs and 97 million cats). Although some pet owners might still feed kitchen scraps, feeding the European cat and dog population requires 8.5 million tonnes of prepared petfood equating to a sales value of over €19.5 billion.
identity preserved raw materials e.g. “organic” lamb and specific fish
Sadly, the global petfood industry is not immune from food fraud as evidenced by with melamine scandal of 2007 – 2008 and the existence of “fake” petfood in the market (counterfeit “Orijen” petfood packed into “look alike” packaging). These incidents demonstrate that we need to continue to evolve
In the pet owners’ eyes and minds, prepared petfood must
our approach to building and maintaining consumer trust. In doing so,
meet many criteria and these contribute to the essence of petfood
we also protect our pets, our brands and our businesses, by being
manufacturers’ brand values, including:
aware of emerging risks.
Consumer trust in the global food industry has been damaged by food fraud
Deliver pet enjoyment
Food fraud is nothing new as examples go back thousands of years
to ancient civilisations where history shows examples of adulterated
Safe and wholesome to eat
wine, oil and spices.
Product claims e.g. organic Failure to deliver these attributes might mean that our pets become ill or might not get the nutrients they require and as pet owners we
In recent years, consumers have seen several high-profile cases illustrating that economically motivated adulteration (EMA) is also a modern-day problem, for example:
might lose trust in a manufacturer and switch allegiance to a competitor
• Brazilian meat scandal (2017)
• European horsemeat scandal (2013)
To help ensure consumer (pet owner) trust, the petfood industry is highly regulated, both in terms of meeting statutory, regulatory requirements and in terms of self-regulation. In Europe, examples of the industry self-regulation are the FEDIAF guidelines on: • Safety - FEDIAF Guide to good practice for the manufacture of safe pet foods http://www.fediaf.org/self-regulation/safety.html
• Czech alcohol adulteration (2012) – methanol adulteration of spirits; 42 deaths • Chinese melamine adulteration of milk powder (2008) – which killed 6 children and hospitalised 52,000. Move forwards 10 years and Chinese mothers still do not trust baby formula made with Chinese sourced ingredients. (1)
• Nutritional requirements - FEDIAF Nutritional Guidelines For
These cases illustrate some key points: EMA is global, it does not
Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs
stop at borders and it can kill. EMA is not a small problem either and it
is estimated to cost the global economy around $49 billion / year.
• Labelling requirements - FEDIAF Code of Good Labelling
Even if food fraud does not kill anyone, it is a crime and one that
Practice for Pet Food http://www.fediaf.org/self-regulation/
destroys consumer trust. However, as seen in the melamine scandal
of 2007 – 2008, petfood fraud can result in the death of pets and loss
Voluntary adherence to these guidelines helps build trust amongst
pet owners that the industry can deliver on the key brand values outlined above.
The melamine scandal of 2007 – 2008
However, in recent years food fraud scandals in human food
In 2007 – 2008, the global pet food market suffered its greatest
have damaged trust in a safe, legal and transparent food supply. This
challenge since commercial petfood was first invented in the mid-19th
now means that pet owners expect the industry also to consider other
century. The industry and pet owners were shocked when the US
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Food & Drug Administration, announced that “On March 15, 2007, FDA
individual companies might win battles against food fraudsters, the
learned that certain pet foods were sickening and killing cats and dogs.”
industry must unite to share “Best Practice” and data collected using
This led to the largest ever recall in the history of the industry and a
a wide battery of analytical and investigative procedures.
complex, costly, lengthy investigation into the causes and the source
However, one of the essential tools that individual organisations
of the problem. The assignable cause of the illness and pet deaths was
should implement is called “Vulnerability Critical Control Point”
ultimately attributed to wheat gluten adulterated with melamine and
(VACCP). VACCP helps build trust in safe petfood and protects our
cyanuric acid. This was done to “trick” chemical analysis into thinking
pets, brands and our businesses. VACCP does not prevent food fraud
the material had a higher protein content and could therefore command
but it minimises the chance of adulterated food and ingredients entering
a greater selling price which is based on protein content.
the supply chain.
Whilst other examples of EMA might well have occurred previously, the melamine scandal was the first clear case, in the public domain, of
VACCP shares several similarities with “Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point” (HACCP): • Both use objective risk assessment to identify where the hazard
EMA related to petfood. Key facts around the melamine crisis are summarised in Table 1, but do not show the complete picture as they do not reflect the emotional suffering of pet owners and stress caused in the industry.
can be controlled, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level; • Both consider the full raw materials supply chain from “fieldto-factory”.
Table 1 – Melamine Crisis (2007- 2008) Recall size
Around 100 brands, over 60 million cans of pet food (2)
$42 million (2)
Deaths from kidney failure
236 cats and 112 dogs (3)
Estimated pet deaths
1,950 cats and 2,200 dogs (2)
Quantity and value of adulterated wheat gluten
> 800 tons; market value US$850,000 (2)
US Class Action damages paid to pet owners by Chemnutra
$12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims (2)
Judicial findings against company supplying adulterated wheat gluten
2 owners of Chemnutra sentenced to three years of probation and fines of $5,000 each. Chemnutra fined $25,000 fine (4)
VACCP helps identify which raw materials might be susceptible to adulteration e.g. wheat gluten, where this might happen in the supply chain e.g. a trader and what controls are required e.g. supplier quality assurance and testing. Implementation of VACCP is not without problems and is not easy. It requires a skilled team with knowledge of food fraud, food safety, supplier risk assessment and an understanding of raw material supply chains. If in doubt seek external resources to help with the process. Supply chains in the petfood industry are often very complex and involve many countries and organisations which might include growers, primary processors, secondary processors and traders. Identifying the “Critical Control Point” (CCP) can therefore be difficult due to supply chain complexity and given that there is no formalised decision tree available for doing this (unlike HACCP which has well established decision trees). It is also important to “think like a criminal!” i.e. what
A further indication of the damage done to trust was the anecdotal evidence on social media, that pet owners subsequently showed greater
materials are worth adulterating for economic gain and where in the supply chain can this be most easily done.
interest in making their own “homemade” petfood.
Humanisation and the risk of pet food fraud The industry response to food fraud post – “Melamine scandal”
Evidence from the human food sector shows that EMA has been found
Following the melamine scandal, considerable effort has gone into
Whilst it might also indicate better reporting and identification of
enhancing control of both food safety and food fraud in the pet food
EMA, statistics from the EU RASFF database (Rapid Alert System for
supply chain. Examples of this are seen with the development of the
Food and Feed) indicate an increasing trend in potential cases of food
US “Food Safety Modernisation Act” (FSMA) and enhancement of
fraud recorded in the EU.
in every food ingredient group, “from salt to saffron” (5).
global 3 party food safety certification e.g. BRC to include food fraud rd
vulnerability assessment. FSMA will be a requirement for businesses in the US petfood sector and those exporting to the US (raw materials and finished product), whilst BRC is widely used within the global petfood industry. With FSMA, the focus is on extensive regulatory requirements including control of import safety and supplier verification, whereas BRCv7 focuses more on supplier management. To use a military analogy, the war against EMA will not be won using any individual tool nor by an individual organisation. Whilst
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Humanisation of petfood is an important driver of market growth and innovation. It is also driven by the desire of pet owners (pet parents) to do the best to ensure the health and wellbeing of their pets. However, it might also increase the possibility of EMA in petfood, as “higher” value premium raw materials are used. Two real life scenarios illustrate this risk:
Table 2 illustrates the key steps in simple, generic terms that highlight the similarities with HACCP.
Pet food fraud - Sticking your head in the sand is not an option! Until the melamine crisis, most petfood manufacturers and pet owners
• Turmeric – Widely used in petfood and treats where it is beneficial
are unlikely to have given much thought to petfood industry food fraud.
both as a natural colour and for health (6). Between 2011 – 2016
However, the events of 2007 – 2008 changed that and the profile
US FDA issued 17 recalls for turmeric contaminated with lead
of petfood fraud was raised when the scandal hit the world news
(Lead chromate is the same colour as turmeric)
• Premium fish claims – Monkfish is an example of a “premium” fish
It is clear to see that the consumers expect more action to
used in super-premium dry petfood; with 1 in 5 seafood samples
prevent food fraud and this is evident through the latest GFSI food
mislabelled worldwide, 20% chance you might not be buying
safety management standards, including BRC, FSSC22000 and SQF
what you think! (7)
Code widely used in global pet food industry. These all now contain requirements covering food fraud.
What can you do to protect your brands and business against food fraud?
In the words of the 18th Century German writer and statesman, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:
Although there is no accepted definition of “food fraud”, most have similar scope: “Deliberately placing on the market, for financial gain, foods that are falsely described or otherwise intended to deceive the consumer” (UK Food Fraud Task Force).
“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe
Tackling food fraud is not easy but petfood manufacturers can take a pro-active stance by implementing VACCP to build trust and protect
Our industry knows about food fraud because it has already
pets, brands and your business. Based on its similarities to HACCP,
suffered its consequences. Linked to the on-going humanisation trend,
VACCP implementation and maintenance follows a similar process.
the demands from pet owners will continue to rise to and they will look to the industry to continue to build and maintain trust. Addressing food fraud
Table 2 – What is required to implement and maintain VACCP in a petfood company? Step
What needs to be done?
Understand different types of food fraud
Gain Senior Management commitment
Raise awareness of food fraud through employee engagement and awareness training across all areas of the company and start developing a culture of fraud awareness through leadership.
and authenticity will not be optional in future, now is the time to act. Extensive research shows that implementation of food safety management systems is more likely to be effective when it is driven internally i.e. from senior management within the business, rather than due to external pressure e.g. from retailers. (8) The same will be true of VACCP and implementation should be internally driven. Get expert help if required to help implement VACCP. Once implemented, communicate this publicly to demonstrate to pet owners your proactivity in combating food fraud.
Implement a cross-functional VACCP Team
Define the scope of the VACCP Plan (which raw materials and what types of EMA might we see)
Carry out Raw Materials Vulnerability Assessment (RMVA) – Similar process to HACCP using Likelihood of Occurrence and Severity of Effect
Based on RMVA identify control measures that prevent, detect and reduce the risk
Identify measures to verify and validate VACCP
growth, the risks around authenticity are likely to increase as the petfood
Implement control measures
industry uses more ingredients that have the potential for food fraud.
Maintain and develop VACCP – Similar process to HACCP for maintaining effectiveness (monitoring; corrective action; verification; documentation and record keeping; “Horizon Scanning” to identify new threats)
Annual review of VACCP Plan and updating the Risk Register (Hazards; CCPs) Maintain awareness of food fraud through on-going communication, awareness and leadership across all areas of the company
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Food fraud is however only one element in the trust equation. The focus in the human food industry is now switching more to “food integrity” (5), defined by the EU as: - “the state of being whole, entire, or undiminished or in perfect condition” (9). This reflects the need for the food chain to focus not only on safety and quality but also on With on-going humanization of petfood as a key stimulus of market
To build and maintain trust in petfood, today and in the future, whether you are a raw material supplier or petfood manufacturer ask yourself: “Are you considering all aspects of food integrity (safety, quality and authenticity) or only part of it?” Failure to fully embrace the concept of food integrity puts your brands, profitability and business at greater risk.
Synergy Food Ingredients (SFI) is a specialist technical consultancy for the petfood industry and pet food supply chain. Our speciality is ensuring petfood integrity - Protecting your business, your brands and our pets by developing and implementing risk management systems to help ensure food safety, quality and authenticity of petfood and petfood ingredients. SFI have nearly 40 yearsâ€™ experience in the global pet food industry including nearly 30 yearsâ€™ in raw material risk management (food safety, raw materials risk assessment, supplier quality management and supply chain risk assessment). Humanization of petfood is not only about raw materials but includes how we manage food safety, quality and authenticity risks using food industry â€œBest Practiceâ€? to manage food integrity risks. Petfood integrity requires an integrated approach to food safety, quality and authenticity to help ensure that our petfood is safe and meets retailers and pet ownersâ€™ expectations on quality, claims and authenticity. SFI can help you protect and grow your business by providing mentoring, expertise and training in petfood integrity to implement â€œBest Practiceâ€? risk management systems. To discover more about our services and learn how SFI can help you to protect and grow your business please visit our website www.sfi-ltd.com or email us at email@example.com To learn more about petfood innovation, including pet food safety, you are invited to join industry colleagues for 2-days of networking and educational presentations from global experts, at the 4th Nordic Pet Food Seminar (4NPFS), Prague, Czech Republic, 2nd â€“ 3rd October 2018. 4NPFS is organised by Nordic Pet Food Events and follows on from highly acclaimed seminars in Norway, Croatia and Denmark between 2015 â€“ 2017. Please visit www.norpetfood.com for more details.
References 1. The Chinese Food Market https://www.s-ge.com/sites/default/files/ cserver/publication/free/market-study-china-food-report-20150828s-ge.pdf 2. MSU survey determines that more than 300 pets may have died from contaminated pet food; culprit may be lethal combination of contaminants http://msutoday.msu.edu/news/2007/msusurvey-determines-that-more-than-300-pets-may-have-died-fromcontaminated-pet-food-culprit-/ 3. Pet owners receive $12.4 million in melamine case http://news.vin. com/vinnews.aspx?articleId=20025 4. Two Chemnutra officials sentenced to probation for role in 2007 pet food recall http://veterinarynews.dvm360.com/two-chemnutraofficials-sentenced-probation-role-2007-pet-food-recall
0 12 3
3 4/ 5 6/
5. Professor Chris Elliott, Institute for Global Food Security - Food Fraud Conference 2018, London, 1/3/18 (Prof Elliott author of â€œElliott Review into the Integrity and Assurance of Food Supply Networksâ€? â€“ UK Government response following 2013 Horsegate scandal) 6. Turmeric is beneficial both as a natural colour and for health http:// www.petfoodindustry.com/articles/4816-adding-a-little-color-topetfoodsa-naturally 7. Deceptive Dishes: Seafood Swaps Found Worldwide http://usa. oceana.org/sites/default/files/global_fraud_report_final_low-res.pdf 8. Technical barriers to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP); Panisello and Quantick; Food Control, Volume 12, Issue 3, 2001, Pages 165-173 9. Food Integrity https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/foodintegrity/index.cfm
Inovitec Ltd, Unit 5A Tarporley
Nantwich Road, Tarporley, CW6 9UT !"#$ %&!'!% ( )* !"#$ %&!'"! + ,- . ./
Pet Food Supplement 2018
… PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … A BRAND NEW LOOK FOR BUTCHER’S Butcher’s Pet Care has been providing naturally nourishing food for dogs for over 30 years. The company has always been passionate about the ingredients that go into its products – it is deep rooted in its ethos and stems from its heritage in farming and butchery.
The number one canned dog food brand has introduced new on pack and digital communications to better help people to understand that Butcher’s only uses great ingredients to give dogs the nourishing food they would instinctively choose. Dialling up its existing messaging so that it’s easy to see that all the meat is sourced from British and Irish farms and that all recipes are free from any nasties. Every recipe is grain free with the exception of a few specially designed ‘sensitive’ products that use wholegrain rice. The new simple, modern blue design, revealed at Crufts 2018, focuses on the company’s farm to bowl ethos and ingredient benefits, helping dog owners to better understand the naturally nutritious food Butcher’s makes. The new packs better communicate the company’s heritage in farming and its passion for great ingredients that dogs love.
ZOOMARK, the International Trade Show for Pet Products and Accessories, presents the new features of the 2019 edition
and professionals from Italy and the rest of the
the past), enabling Italian and international
world, and respond to the growing number of
professionals to organise their visits on the day
applications from companies globally, Zoomark
they prefer, and distributing visitor numbers
International 2019 will feature new halls and
over four days.
extended exhibiting space. The event will
The previous edition, in 2017, marked a
Zoomark International, organized by
now cover a surface area of more than 53,000
new record, with the addition of a new hall to
Bolognafiere, is the most important professional
square metres, occupying not only hall 28 but
accommodate the high number of companies
pet industry event held in odd years in Europe.
also the brand new halls 29 and 30, which were
on the waiting list. A total of 735 exhibitors took
The last edition, in 2017, saw a 17% increase
inaugurated in 2018 to offer greater capacity
part in the show, 479 of whom were foreign,
in the number of exhibitors and a 25% rise in
and a more streamlined visitor experience.
from 42 countries, representing the leading
New show dates. To respond to the
edge in pet food, accessories, care and health.
The forthcoming event boasts two important
demand from exhibitors and visitors, Zoomark
The event attracted more than 27,000 buyers
International 2019 will run from Monday 6 May
and visitors (a 25% increase on the 2015
New exhibiting space. To offer the highest
to Thursday 9 May 2019 (no longer taking
event), and a third of visitors came from 100
level of service to the pet industry manufacturers
place at the weekend as was the case in
the number of trade visitors.
CROSTON ENGINEERING Ltd Bulk Storage, Handling and Process Engineers to the Food, Animal feed, Brewery and Chemical Industries, Established 1976 Croston Engineering, since its formation in 1976, has specialised in the design and building of bulk storage, handling and process plants throughout the UK and Ireland. The company’s clients include many household names in the pet food, animal feed and human food industries from whom repeat contracts are received as a result of the prompt and personal service that is provided. Projects undertaken range from the intake and bulk storage of raw materials through processing that may include batch weighing, grinders, mixers, extrusion, pelleting and the out loading of finished products. The carrying out of improvements and extensions to existing production plants is part of the Company’s remit. Croston Engineering is an Approved SAFEContractor, a recognised standard of competence in the industry and is fully conversant with the requirements of DSEAR/ATEX Explosion Regulations where applicable. TARVIN MILL, BARROW LANE, TARVIN, CHESTER, CH3 8JF Telephone: 01829 741119 Website: www.croston-engineering.co.uk
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Fax: 01829 741169 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dinnissen HAMEX hammer mill with automatic screen changer Dinnissen Process Technology manufacturer and system integrator
specializes in the development and production of process technologies
In addition to the automatic version of the screen exchanger, a semi-
for the food, feed and petfood industries. Dinnissen offers a complete
automatic version of the Hamex hammer mill is also available. With this
range of hammer mills for fine grinding various ingredients. The latest
basic unit all functionality is the same as with the fully automatic version
is the Hamex hammer mill fitted with an automatic screen changing
except that the screens have to be exchanged by hand. Also with this
system. The new hammer mill allows users to benefit from increased
system, the motor is not stopped to exchange the screens, and the
speed, convenience, and energy saving when changing screens, thus
screens can be exchanged fast without interfering with production.
increasing hourly grinding capacity.
Specially designed for the petfood industry
Extremely reliable, low-maintenance, and 20% increase in production capacity
At the moment Dinnissen already has delivered several new Hamex
The hammer mill with (semi-)automatic screen changing system has a
hammer mills systems in the petfood industry. Finer grinding, higher
completely new process design. This results in a 20% higher production
capacity, fast control of screen condition and fast exchange of screens
capacity at the same level of power consumption. The new Dinnissen
are key points for this.
hammer mill also has a very robust design and operates at a maximum speed of 1800 RPM, making it much less sensitive to vibrations and
Extreme quick changeover of screens, within 40 seconds!
The automatic screen changer allows the user to quickly change
screens without stopping the grinding rotor. This minimizes downtime
Designed for fatty products
during the grinding process and maximizes production capacity.
Optimal particle size
In addition, as the grinding rotor and the motor no longer have to
be repeatedly switched on and off, it also saves a great deal of
Higher end product quality
Better quality of kibble for coating
HAMEX hammer mill with automatic screen changer
For more information: Dinnissen BV, Netherlands (email@example.com)
Pet Food Supplement 2018
Global leader in pet premix
World-beating food safety and peace of mind for your brand. Operating from our ISO22000:2005 accredited premix plant, Trouw Nutrition is acknowledged worldwide as the industryâ€™s gold standard leader. Our unrivalled knowledge and expertise, supported by our unique NutraceÂŽ food safety and traceability system, make us your only choice of expert partner in developing and delivering nutritional solutions tailored to your specific requirements.
Contact Tony Hollett or Roderick Prince on: +44 (0)1335 341121 or visit trouwnutrition.co.uk/globalleader
2018 edition of the magazine for the European pet food sector