Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 1


sharing and learning

trusted supply chain

closing the loop

food safety

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2018 Vol. 20

Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd Plas Y Coed Velfrey Road Whitland SA34 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1994 240002 Web site: E-mail:

Contents Pet Topics


By Roger W Dean

Understanding Why Managing Your Vitamin and Premix Supply Delivers Consumer Assurance The Role of Technology for Optimized Pet Food Processing


By Marci L. Howes

Andrew Mounsey

How to Measure Lipid Oxidation and Antioxidant Efficacy in Pet Food

Editorial assistant: Ryan Mounsey


By Sarah-Jane Godfrey



By Dr Cristina Murcia GarcĂ?a and Tanja Kowalewsky

Advertisement/Sales Manager:

Yeast Extracts: Prebiotic, Supporting Gut Health and Anti-Allergenic

Fiona Mounsey

By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen

Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) in Extrusion

18 19

By Gordon Young and Dennis Forte

Subscription rates: Pet Food Supplement is distributed free of charge, to individuals based in Europe and involved in the pet food sector who have registered to receive a copy. To register to receive future issues, please visit htm#register

Insulin Resistance in Obese Dogs: Proven Effects of Beta-1,3/1,6-Glucans on Metabolism


By Thiago Henrique Vendramini, Andressa Rodrigues do Amaral & Marcio Antonio Brunetto

Delivering Nutrients: Focus on Fatty Acids


By Victoria Thornber

Pet Foods Need Protection, Too!


An Ethical Approach: What the Pet Food Industry Can Expect From 2018


By Ashley Burdock ISSN 0950-771X Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publisher. Š Feed Compounder 2018

Pet Food Integrity: Why We Need to Focus on Authenticity, Food Safety and Quality


By David Primrose

Pet Subjects


Dinnissen HAMEX Hammer Mill With Automatic Screen Changer


Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 1

PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean

UK Pets Roundup

owners’ minds. One of the most obvious choices for a new pet is a

The five weeks constituted by April and the first week of May have been

cat. It is possible, though not necessarily recommended, unless they

designated as National Pet Month in the UK.

have a medical problem or disability, to keep cats indoors. The RSPCA

National Pet Month is a registered charity, unique in bringing together

recommends that indoor cats should have access to several rooms,

animal welfare charities, professional bodies, pet businesses, schools,

including opportunities to climb, ‘stimulating’ toys and lots of interaction

youth groups and pet lovers. The trustees are National Office of Animal

with their keepers to stop them getting bored. They will also – and this is

Health (NOAH) and Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association (PFMA). The

important in the context of increasing pet obesity – need enough exercise

charity’s key aims are to promote responsible pet ownership, increase

to stop them putting on unnecessary weight.

people’s understanding of the mutual benefits of living with pets, increase

However, if an obvious choice such a cat is not to the prospective

public knowledge of the role played by pet care specialists and to raise

owners’ taste, then what about chickens? Think of the eggs. Contrary

awareness of the value of working and assistance companion animals.

to popular opinion, possession of a farm or smallholding is not an

National Pet Month promotes a wide range of activities and is fully

imperative to keeping chickens, although they would be happier with

mobilized, as one would expect, on social media channels.

as much space as possible to roam. The recommended minimum for a

The Guardian newspaper marked the occasion by publishing a

chicken run is one metre2 and preferably two metres2 per hen. It should

piece entitled ‘Is your pet too big for your home?’. The Kennel Club

be remembered that chickens like company, and three are recommended

led off with the fact that there were 9,000 new Dachshund registrations

for a small garden.

in 2017, up by a whopping 40 per cent from 2015. The increase was

Rabbits? Arguably a very much more practical choice and, indeed,

reportedly driven partly by fashion but also by the fact that ‘homes are

the present author remembers the family rabbit of yesteryear with

getting smaller’.

fondness. However, things have moved on in the past half-century. The

The standard size dachshund was developed to scent, chase,

Rabbit Welfare Association and Fund (RWAF) stresses that while they

and flush out badgers and other burrow-dwelling animals, while the

can make good house pets, having a rabbit as a pet is not as simple an

miniature dachshund was bred to hunt smaller prey such as rabbits. In

undertaking as it might at first appear.

the United States, they have also been used, according to Wikipedia,

Rabbits need sufficient space; at a minimum three metres by two

‘to track wounded deer and hunt prairie dogs’. However, the point, that

metres, perhaps as much as the size of an entire room. In addition, the

the increased popularity of the breed reflects its suitability for many

RWAF stresses that rabbits are highly social creatures and that this

contemporary dwelling homes, is well made. The author recalls, many

means that they need company – and that company should be from other

years ago, visiting a house where, on the front door being opened, he

rabbits. No matter how hard the pet owner tries, it is impossible to give a

was confronted by a Saint Bernard whose dimensions suggested that it

pet rabbit as much company as can another rabbit. Busy lives mean that

might well be the sole occupant of the premises in question – and, if it

even if the pet owner spends three or four hours a day with their rabbit,

were not, then it ought to be!

the downside is that the rabbit spends twenty hours or more alone.

However, having made its initial point, the Guardian went on to note

Once considered to be an easy first pet, ‘goldfish need more than

the space requirements for other types of pets. This is an interesting

a bowl and a few fish flakes’. Bowls are a terrible choice – they are too

aspect as it is probably not the primary question in prospective pet

cramped, oxygen-poor and basically mean the poor fish is swimming around in its own filth. It is a myth that goldfish grow to ‘fit’ the tank, but the small fish you get from a pet shop will get bigger – up to 30 cm – and they need space. They are also social, so they need friends – and therefore they need even more space. The ‘It’s Not Just a Fish’ campaign group suggests a tank that is a minimum of 120 cm long for the fancier varieties of goldfish. Meanwhile, the next big pet-related event in the UK is the National Pet Show which will take place at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham on 3rd and 4th November. For those with an inclination Left: A huge rise in the number of Dachshunds registered in the UK in recent years is explained partly by the fact that homes are becoming smaller, according the The Kennel Club

Page 2

Pet Food Supplement 2018

35. International Trade Fair for Pet Supplies

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towards voyaging farther afield, Petfood Forum 2018 took place in

while the US is still the largest market for food for pets, other countries

Kansas City, Missouri on 23rd to 25th April, with sponsors including Alltech,

are growing faster; Brazil heads the pursuing pack with its pet food

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market growing at 10 per cent a year. The Russian Federation, the seventh largest pet food market is seen as growing at almost 15 per cent

Global Petfood Market 2017

a year while China, the twelfth largest market for pet food is growing at

How did the world market for petfoods develop in 2017?

a whopping 28 per cent.

According to Euromonitor International, the global market for pet

Usefully, WATT Global Media have put together a practical infomatic

food is still growing both in terms of sales and production. Sales in 2017

to illustrate changes in Euromonitor’s analysis of global pet food sales

reached $75 billion while production of dried pet foods grew by 12 per

between 2012 and 2017. The US is the only market that has retained

cent to 28.1 million tonnes, according to Alltech’s Global Feed Survey.

its predominant position in sales of pet food between the years under

The data was presented at the American Feed Industry’s annual pet food

review. Elsewhere, all is change to a lesser or greater extent. The UK

conference that took place in Atlanta, Georgia during January.

has dropped from second to third. Germany remains in fourth place while

As might be intuitively expected, dried food for dogs was the

France has dropped from fifth to sixth and Italy from seventh to eighth.

largest product category at $32 billion, almost as large as all the other

Growth in Brazil has been little short of explosive; from sixth in 2012,

categories combined. However, while production of dried dog food was

Brazilian pet owners have driven their market to second place in 2017.

reported as growing at 5 per cent a year, treats for dogs and cats were

Also moving sharply ahead is the Peoples Republic of China, moving

reported as growing at 6 per cent and 11 per cent, albeit from a smaller

from nineteenth to twelfth. The Russian Federation moves from ninth to

base. This is illustrative of a well-established trend in the more mature

seventh while Japan is down from third to fifth.

markets of North America and Western Europe in that pets are seen as members of the family who are as entitled to receive ‘treats’ as any of

What appears to be driving the expansion of markets in what were once regarded as developing economies?

their human counterparts. However, there is plenty of evidence to show

A market that is, for understandable reasons, attracting a great deal

that this trend is also emerging in what may be described as developing

of attention is the one in China. It is becoming clear that the Chinese pet

pet food markets.

food market is adopting – and adapting to local conditions – many of

As far as markets for dry pet food are concerned, North America

the pet food trends seen globally and in mature markets. Products from

and Europe remain the largest regions for production but it is in Pacific

domestic pet food companies, in addition to those from multinational

Asia and Latin America where production is increasing the most. And

companies, boasted claims like ‘natural’ and ‘grain free’ – these now reportedly constitute 27 per cent and 6 per cent respectively of the Chinese pet food market, as well as ones with labels such as ‘real’, ‘fresh’ and organic.

Digital Moisture Sensors for Animal Feed

One particularly interesting feature of the Pet Fair Asia event held in Shanghai last August were several companies that specialized in breedspecific dog foods: an illustration of the diversity and sophistication of the small but growing extent of pet ownership in China. Newer categories like freeze-dried pet foods were also represented, though most of those products on display at Pet Fair Asia came from outside China, mainly from Australia and New Zealand. Despite rapid growth in recent years, Chinese pet food brands still have some way to go when it comes to winning over Chinese pet owners. To that end, many of their packages, promotions and trade show stands

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feature Western models and photos, even of children – leading to the perception, presumably, that the brands are international and, as such, credible and trusted to be safe and of high quality. Although cultural differences will play a part, it is likely that companies hoping to capitalise on the emergence of new markets for pet food in developing countries will be watching China closely. At present, it does seem that many of the trends that have characterised

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mature markets such as those in North America and Western Europe

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are being replicated in the emerging markets of Asia and Latin America.

Not affected by dust or colour

‘Humanisation’ seems set to be a driving feature of emerging markets,

Temperature stable

just as it is closer to home.

US Pet Owners Record Spend

Figures published recently in the US show that pet owners there spent

Page 4 Pet Food Supplement Feed Compounder quarter page vertical 86 x 124.indd 1


a record $69.36 billion on their animals in 2017, albeit the latter is, for

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the moment, a provisional estimate.

future, ‘some sort of send-off for their furry friends’. The article goes on

Predictably, the largest category was spent on food, $29.69 billion.

to report the activities of a gentleman named Mr Tulley and his wife who

At $16.62 billion, the second largest category was spent on veterinary

sells ‘Togetherness Resting Places’, in his green burial grounds where

care with an additional $14.71 billion spent on supplies and medicines

pets and humans can be reunited ‘when the time comes’.

that do not require the intervention of a veterinarian and can therefore be purchased over the counter.

On a more macabre note, in that many traits in western society are seen as originating in the United States, one recent development

Figures produced by the American Pet Products Association

supposedly seen by observers of the US pet food scene may be seen

(APPA) show that growth in the US market has been uninterrupted

as a less-than-desirable import from across the pond. It appears that

since APPA started detailed tracking of the statistics. Growth has, in fact,

a bill, introduced in the Ohio state legislature, would ban pet food from

been uninterrupted since 1994, resulting in a total growth in expenditure

containing ingredients derived from cats and dogs, as well as other

amounting to over 292 per cent. The current estimate for 2017 shows

animals ‘euthanized’ with drugs such as sodium pentobarbital.

spending up by $6 billion compared with 2016, $4 billion more than originally projected.

Other media outlets have reported that pet foods may contain euthanized cats and dogs, despite no evidence of this as well as federal

Data provided by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty

regulations prohibiting it. For example, the magazine Newsweek stated

to Animals shows that, predictably, the first year of owning a pet is the

that ‘the body of a stray dog killed in a shelter may be ground up into

most expensive. Spaying and neutering, vaccinations, and what APPA

dog food’.

describe as ‘setting up a household for a pet’s lifestyle’ costs on average

The Ohio House Bill would, ‘prohibit pet food from containing

$1,314 in the first year for a small dog with a medium-sized dog setting

remains from an animal that was euthanized by the use of any drug

the pet owner back $1,580. The costs in the first year of owning a large

injected intravenously or through another nonvascular route or remains

dog are estimated at $1,843. Again, predictably, these numbers shrink

from any dog or cat.’ It is also reported that, in a little more than a year,

in later years after all preliminary veterinarian costs have been taken

numerous pet food products were recalled after testing found sodium

care of.

pentobarbital residues in dog or cat foods.

APPA notes that for anyone who owns a dog or has taken a stroll

On March 2, the United States Food and Drug Administration

down the pet aisle at the grocery store, it’s clear the reasons why the pet

informed one US company that its voluntary withdrawal, in February, of

industry keeps swelling. In a nutshell, everyone loves their pets. Detailed

a range of pet food products from the marketplace was now considered

pet ownership statistics show that 65 per cent of American households

as ‘a recall’. The administration based this decision on a test, paid for

own a pet. An increasingly elderly population and what APPA call ‘the

by the company concerned, that confirmed the presence of sodium

cultural shift’ from dogs being in the backyard to being part of the family

pentobarbital in the tallow ingredient used in the affected products.

are to thank for this. National pet ownership statistics show that the

I am not sure what the legislative situation is regarding such

majority of US households consider pets to be an integral part of the

matters in the UK; I hope to shed more light on this in subsequent

family. Pet parents buy Christmas gifts, accessories, and the healthiest

issues of this publication. However, it is a story that rings strangely in

food possible to keep their pets happy.

your correspondent’s ears and, I am sure, in the ears of our readers

However, recent statistics of pet expenditure in the run-up to Valentine’s Day illustrate the downside of this aspect of growing pet

as well.

ownership. A recent post on the internet besought its readers not to forget

Insects and Pets?

‘the furry family member’ who, between all the paper hearts, bouquets

There has been a great deal of speculation in recent years about the role

of roses, and boxes of chocolate, ‘loves you unconditionally’. However,

that insects might play in the context of animal feed for human livestock

and specifically in this context, the advice given by the American Society

products but, more recently, discussion has begun to intensify about the

for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is all too relevant: what are

use of such insects in the product of foods for pets. At the recent Petfood

defined as ‘seasoned pet lovers’ know that ‘all types of chocolate are

Forum 2018, held in Kansas City, Missouri, delegates were offered the

potentially life-threatening when ingested by pets. Methylxantines are

opportunity to learn more about insect inclusion in dog and cat diets.

caffeine-like stimulants that affect gastrointestinal, neurologic and cardiac

Petfood reports that, although many pet owners have

function—they can cause vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperactivity, seizures

anecdotal stories of dogs and cats eating insects, scientists have not,

and an abnormally elevated heart rate’.

as yet, fully studied insects’ nutritional and health effects on dogs and

The bottom-line? By all means give your pet a squeaky toy or a

cats. However, basic analysis of many insects, such as black soldier

bag of treats and even a card for Valentines, birthday or Christmas. But

fly larvae and crickets, suggest that they are packed with proteins and

flowers, Champagne and chocolates are a definite no-no!

other nutrients.

Pet Send-Offs

generally good sources of protein, b-vitamins and trace minerals. In the

Following on, if obliquely, from the previous section, an interesting if

final analysis, much depends on exactly what they are to be used for – in

somewhat macabre article in a recent edition of the Economist magazine

other words, their primary role in a complete and balanced pet food. Black

reported that one in five American undertakers now offer dead pet

soldier fly larvae, the insect most favoured by those currently looking

cremations. The British market research firm, Mintel, says that one in

at insects’ potential as a livestock feed ingredient, would constitute an

four British pet owners either have already arranged, or would like to in

excellent source of calcium as well, while crickets are relatively high in

Pet nutrition consultant Dr Mark Finke says that all insects are

Page 6

Pet Food Supplement 2018



Amsterdam 30 min

JUNE 20-22



cats was lagging. Dr Finke went on the observe that all the indications were that they would be excellent sources of high quality protein, as well as many other essential nutrients ‘but we are in the very infancy of this mostly as a result of lagging regulations and, in some cases, costs are not competitive with more traditional protein sources.’ There will be considerable interest in the papers delivered at Petfood Forum 2018 as regards the use of insects in petfoods, including a paper by Dr Liz Koutsos which will update delegates on the latest research and development in the use of insects as pet food ingredients. However, there is also the question of consumers’ reactions to the prospect of insects being included in their pets’ diet. A recent posting on Above: Insect larvae are packed with protein and other nutrients and

the South West Farmer web site asked the question ‘Are there insects

have great potential as ingredients for pet foods – but what will be the

in your dog’s food?’ and outlined what it described as an exposé by pet

reaction of consumers?

food brand Pooch & Mutt which claimed that a major dog food brand was including, amongst other ingredients, crushed insects in its popular

taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. However, he went on to note that some nutrients can easily be manipulated by diet so in some cases blanket statements should be made with great care. Dr Finke was also quoted as saying that there was much we do not yet know about feeding insects to dogs and cats and that while they would likely be fine and, indeed, many species of wild canine and felines typically include insects in their diets, ‘we just don’t know much yet’. There was a great deal of good research using insects in the diets of fish, poultry and rats together with a lesser degree of research into their use in swine but research into insects use in diets for dogs and

dog food brands. Pet food manufacturers, as well as their colleagues in the commercial livestock industry, will be looking closely at the technical opportunities offered by the use of insects in their products while keeping an equally close eye on possible consumer reactions. The prospect of insects in animal feed let alone human food appalls some consumers – the ‘Yuck’ factor and there is little sign of it moderating or becoming less persuasive as regards the general public.

The Cat as Criminal Of all pets, cats are most frequently associated with old women with magical powers performing at pantomimes around Christmas time. However, a story that was recently picked up for real concerned an eighty-three-year-old lady in Columbus, Ohio who was arrested and charged with training dozens of cats to steal jewellery and other valuables from her neighbours. Several victims reported being visited by Ms. Gregson’s cats before noticing the disappearance of several shiny objects, such as valuable cutlery and pieces of jewellery. Despite their understandable scepticism,

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investigators began a surveillance operation - and were amazed by what they discovered. According to Columbus Police Chief Kim Jacobs, dozens of cats were constantly coming and going, bringing home ‘anything that shined’. Upon searching Ms. Gregson’s house, investigators found $650,000 worth of jewellery and precious metal among piles of worthless shiny baubles. A total of sixty-five adult cats and seventeen kittens were found on the site and entrusted to the Columbus Humane Society. Chief Jacobs says the elderly woman confessed to training her cats to steal, saying the felines had to ‘earn their meals’. While Ms. Gregson was the first person in American history to be accused of training cats to steal, this was not the first time that animals have been trained to commit crimes. In 2009, a surveillance camera caught a monkey stealing hundreds of dollars’ worth of plants from a Texas nursery. At the time, the police and store owners hypothesized that the monkey had been trained to take the plants and hand them over

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a fence to a waiting human accomplice. In 2013, a Chicago court sentenced a man to five years in prison for training ferrets to steal mobile phones from people on the street and on public buses. Sometimes truth really is stranger than fiction.

game 11.indd Page1


Pet Food Supplement 2018

12/12/2017 16:34:14



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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 9

Understanding why managing your vitamin and premix supply delivers consumer assurance By Sarah-Jane Godfrey, DSM Nutritional Products UK Ltd Ensuring delivery of your pet foods brand promise of quality is vital for

Figure 1: Pet owner agreement with the statement “I am concerned

consumer assurance. Whilst there are many aspects used to assess

about the traceability and origin of ingredients used to make my

quality, the expectation is that the food is safe when consumed and

cat’s or dog’s food”

it is what it claims to be on the label. By fully understanding vitamins, vitamin product forms, their application in pet food formulation and ensure the correct and safe supplementation of their products, which in turn helps to protect brand equity, a company’s most valuable asset.

What do vitamins have to do with consumer assurance? Food quality is high on the consumers’ agenda, not only for themselves but also for their animal companions due to highly publicized food fraud scandals, increased nutritional health awareness and pet humanization.

% Owners strongly agreeing with the statement

vitamin premix quality, manufacturers can take the right steps that will

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Spain

DSM’s pet owner survey data (2017), demonstrated that owners are


Cat Owner


Dog Owner

concerned about the traceability and origin of ingredients used to make

* Top 2 box score shown (combined score of boxes 1 and 2: 1= Agree

their pets food (Figure1). It therefore makes sense to learn more about

Very Strongly 1, 2 = Agree Strongly)

your ingredient supply chain to fulfil the consumer need for ingredient sourcing transparency.

to navigate. One ingredient that does however remain constant in pet

As an additional consideration, pet parents now seek foods that

food recipes is the vitamin premix. It is often overlooked as one simple

reflect current human food, nutrition, and health trends. This has

commodity ingredient. The premix is actually a complex blend of many

increased the complexity of pet food recipes as novel and humanized

other ingredients, and should therefore receive individual attention to

ingredients are required to meet the demands of increasingly discerning

ensure it is fit for purpose, ensuring safe pet food supplementation

pet owners. Management of complex ingredient supply chains to

(Table 1). Dedicated pet food ingredient and premix manufacturers

source these new ingredients is resource intensive and often difficult

will help you manage this complexity.

Table 1: A vitamin premix is one ingredient in a formulation, yet it is easy to forget premixes too are complex recipes, sometimes containing more raw materials than the base pet food

Page 10

Traditional Recipe Example

Humanized Style Recipe Example

The Vitamin Premix *

Wheat Maize Meat Meal Soya Protein Wheat Midlings Poultry Fat Flavor Vitamin Premix Blend * Mineral Premix Blend

Fresh Free-Range Chicken Fresh Duck Fresh Salmon Sweet Potato Tapioca Lentil Chick Pea Salmon Oil Chicken Fat Dried Carrots Dried Papaya Dried Apples Seaweed Dried Algae Prebiotic FOS Glucosamine Vitamin Premix Blend * Mineral Premix Blend

Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K3 Vitamin B1 Vitamin B2 Vitamin B6 Niacin Pantothenic Acid Biotin Folic Acid

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Proper dosing of vitamins using a premix is directly linked to pet food safety

Figure 2: Adding the small amount of vitamins required in pet

Vitamins are only needed in micro amounts by the animal. Individually

distribution throughout the food, ensuring nutritional adequacy

weighing and adding vitamins separately during the food production

and safety for the end user

food via a high quality premix ensures accurate vitamin addition

process carries a high risk. If done incorrectly, nutritional quality or even food safety at the point of consumption will be compromised and can have far reaching consequences (Figure 2). It is therefore essential that they are accurately added to the food. By blending the small amounts of vitamins, or other micronutrients required onto a carrier to create one ingredient, the premix, means they can be safely added to and distributed uniformly throughout the final pet food product. Proactively managing the vitamin sources used in your premix and final premix formulation quality with your supplier is one way to help mitigate the risk of a complex ingredient harming your pet food brand.

High vitamin form quality delivers nutritional safety

Table 2: Many environmental factors can affect stability of the basic vitamin

For commercially produced pet nutrition products, the vitamins used within them must be safely produced and formulated into specialized forms. These forms must be selected and applied consistently throughout the supply and production chain, from storage and handling to their proper inclusion in a premix, considering the pet food type, production process, and finished food product storage. It is therefore necessary first to understand the importance of vitamin forms, premix formulation considerations, and their application.

Understanding production of the basic vitamins The basic active vitamins are produced by chemical synthesis, fermentation, extraction (often from a natural source) or by a combination of technologies. During their production there is a possible quality risk based on exposure to chemical solvents, unreacted intermediates and the introduction of other contaminants. The vitamin

animal. In addition, vitamin forms are optimized to ensure regulatory

active producer, such as DSM, will therefore control this risk using

compliance, good handling properties and optimal mixability in premixes

proper chemistry, enforcing strict incoming raw material sourcing

and dispersion in the food. Many forms of vitamins are produced

programs with their suppliers and operate to robust outgoing finished

ensuring many pet nutrition products can be supplemented with

product quality control protocols.

vitamins, for example DSM produces a special water-soluble form of the fat-soluble vitamin A (Table 3).

Why do we need formulated vitamins? In the basic form, various environmental factors affect vitamin active

Table 3: The vitamin form chosen to supplement the pet nutrition

stability to varying degrees (Table 2). Taking their environmental

product will depend on how that product is processed and its

sensitivities into account to improve their intrinsic stability, the basic

physical characteristics

vitamin actives undergo a process of chemical modification. This includes esterification, phosphorylation or crystallization of the organic salt to create a more stable vitamin compound.

The importance of working with the appropriate vitamin formulation The vitamin compounds are finally formulated into specific vitamin forms to make them suitable for use in a variety of pet food, treat, drink, and supplement products. The formulation process ensures basic vitamin stability “as-is� during storage, when used during processing and storage of the final product, whilst remaining bioavailable to the

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 11

Many form technologies can be used to stabilize the vitamin

a health risk to handlers and can also be lost, consequently reducing

compound by controlling oxidation, minimizing contact with hostile

the amount added to the food. Poor product forms with hydroscopic

compounds, or shielding them from high heat processing. Cross-linked

tendencies cause lumping, poor premix flowability and issues with the

beadlet technology for example, is used to create another stabilized

entire premix stability.

vitamin A form, this time insoluble, for in food use (Figure 3). During

It is now easy to conceive that sourcing your vitamins from

this process the vitamin A compound, vitamin A acetate, is emulsified

an experienced vitamin producer helps maintain the necessary

in a gelatin (protein), starch and glycerin matrix, with an antioxidant.

consistency to ultimately produce a best quality vitamin premix for

During the formation of the beadlet, chemical reactions occur that create

your pet foods.

crosslinked bonds between the amino acid chains thereby creating used to protect nutrients sensitive to high temperature processing and

Developing a quality premix: how does your vitamin premix affect the quality of pet foods

oxygen. The protein based vitamin coating is easily digested, ensuring

Many factors need to be considered when designing a vitamin premix

the vitamin remains bioavailable to the animal upon consumption.

specification and selecting vitamin forms to deliver the desired nutrient

a rigid structure. This technology provides excellent stability and is

levels in the pet food at the point of consumption. These include the Figure 3: Micrograph and cross-section of Vitamin A 1000

species to be fed, label or functionality claims that must be fulfilled and


the type of product requiring fortification. Expected vitamin loss during Silicon Dioxide Coating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Vitamin A 1000 beadlets

production and storage should also be reflected in the specification,

Vitamin A Acetate


with vitamin activity overages calculated accordingly. . . .


Importance of the vitamin premix carrier

. . . . . . . .

Encapsulation matrix of gelatin, with glycerine, carbohydrate and antioxidant

The cross-linked gelatin based matrix creates a ridged structure that protects the vitamin A inside the beadlet

The correct premix dilution rate with a suitable carrier is required to ensure premix flowability, ease of handling and final weighment at the food production plant. The carrier also supports proper distribution of the vitamin forms within the food mix. The quality of carrier used as the

Vitamin form potency is also considered during its development.

premix base is just as important as the vitamin forms used. Carriers

This is important, especially when very small amounts are required to

help bridge the often-unavoidable differences in micro-ingredient

be homogeneously distributed throughout the food. A spray dried biotin

product form size, shape and density. Organic carriers such as rice

form, for example results in more homogenous distribution of the active

hulls, pea fiber, maize and wheat middlings provide a large surface

biotin particles than if an unformulated, triturate biotin source is used

area or pockets for the nutrient ingredient forms to adhere to, whilst

(Figure 4). Homogeneity of vitamin distribution is linked to safety of

calcium carbonate increases bulk density of the premix and improves

the pet food, as each bite must not over- or under-deliver any vitamin,

flowability. A combination of inorganic and organic carriers is often

which may result in toxicity or deficiencies respectively.

used to help improve the homogeneity of micro-ingredient distribution within the premix. Carrier ratios can be modified to manipulate premix

Figure 4: Spray dried biotin form vs biotin triturate Rovimix Biotin HP

Biotin Triturate 2%

bulk density to specific handling needs if necessary. Another important consideration to discuss with your premix supplier is the final pet foods’ marketing claims, for example grain free. This means the premix carrier should also be grain free. Premixes are a critical link in the pet food supply chain and allow accurate, safe, and homogeneous micronutrient and functional ingredient inclusion into pet food products. By working together with your vitamin producer and premix supplier a successful and safe pet

• Spray dried form • 40 million particles per gram • All particles contain d-Biotin • Minimum d-Biotin 10% • Dispersible in cold water

• Only about 2% of the particles are biotin on an inert carrier material e.g maize starch, soya flour, silicates or calcium salts, dextrin • Biotin crystals insoluble in water • High tendency to cake

• Low caking tendency

food product can be achieved.

The importance of quality programs and culture Pet food manufacturers can help manage their vitamin supply quality by selecting vitamin producers and blenders that are reputable, can

Vitamin forms are also produced in a way to manage their

demonstrate that they have an employee culture living quality and

electrostaticity, dustiness and hydroscopicity. These can all differ

safety conciously and also have brand equity to protect. Food safety

between manufacturers. Particles that are highly electrostatic can

is key. A quality and safety program designed around food safety

migrate towards attractive surfaces or separate from the premix during

standards, integrating all business processes, managed by a team of

transport reducing levels in the food. Dusty product forms may pose

qualified quality and safety managers is essential (Figure 5).

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Figure 5: A quality program, designed around food safety must

needs. Due to this complexity, and the safety concerns associated

integrate the whole business, its processes and people

with these types of retail products, it makes sense that ingredient traceability is vital. A trusted supply chain is therefore needed. A food safety program in line with food safety standards is the basis for this, starting with strict ingredient vendor qualification and management processes. Robust and integrated documentation, goods receipt, and warehouse management systems are required, which should be open to interrogation. The process of manufacturing bioactive micro-nutrients, and blends of micro ingredients, is complex from a quality assurance perspective. Through involvement in all three steps of the nutritional ingredient chain – the production of pure active ingredients, their incorporation into sophisticated forms, and the provision of tailored premixes – integrated premix and micro-ingredient producers, such as DSM, offer unrivalled traceability to the pet food industry. Traceability, supported by rapid global track & trace systems provides an additional assurance of safety.

Being a dedicated supplier to the pet food industry Suppliers that understand the needs of pet food brand owners will not only have a robust market-specific continual improvement program in Central to quality and safety programs is the correct implementation

place, but will also continue to invest in providing additional solutions to

of Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP). This works

manage risk and create points of differentiation for pet brands. They do

within World Health Organization standards and comprises sanitation

this by having dedicated pet food and regulatory specialists that live the

standards, pest control systems, and minimizing cross-contamination

needs of the pet food manufacturing industry. As an outcropping of this

during production. A sharing and learning culture ensures that all

dedication at DSM, a pioneer in vitamin and vitamin form production,

within a company become integrated into the company’s quality and

innovative ingredients have been developed to solve issues associated

safety program. Through a living consciousness of quality and safety

with pet food production vitamin stability, or to provide functional

across all employees, it becomes part of your company’s culture, and

health benefits for pets. Our vitamin C form, STAY-C® 35 was the first

empowers all to fulfil promised food safety and quality behaviour and

stabilized vitamin C form available to the pet food market. Following

embrace well-designed Standard Operating Procedures. Working

this, by harnessing our expertise in both human and animal nutrition,

with companies that invest in their employees’ ongoing development

further developments in vitamin form production led to the production of

and quality training is one way to ensure this is the case. On a global

STAY-C® 50, a specialist soluble vitamin C form that can be used in pet


scale, DSM uses Compliance Quality Management (CQM) TrackWise

foods to support dental health. Our ROVIMIX® Beta-Carotene 10% P,

system and other companywide web-based training tools, to ensure

was specially developed for the pet food market and is the only extrusion

every DSM employee becomes integrated into our global quality culture

and storage stable beta-carotene form available to the market today.

and safety program. An important part of quality control is change management.

Trusted partner

Change management systems must be in place and be robust. A

Understanding the complexity of essential ingredients like vitamins, and

supplier’s mindful knowledge of the risks to their customers and the

vitamin premixes, underscores the importance of understanding what

sustainability of their businesses is essential. Leading ingredient

contributes to your product’s quality, nutritional safety and ultimately

suppliers will be perpetually working to improve their food safety

supplier selection. We also recognize that beyond the growing

program. This is part of DSM’s business strategy we call this “closing

concerns surrounding managing your products quality and safety, it is

the loop”. Through this system, root cause analysis on deviations can

an increasingly more difficult task for brand managers to create points

be carried out and, management of change tools implemented which

of differentiation based on nutritional claims, considering regulatory

covers not only the practical issues, but most importantly how best to

and economic constraints. Leveraging our own broad portfolio of health

manage the people side of change.

ingredients, working with other leading ingredient manufacturers, applying years of pet nutrition knowledge and experience, combined

Integrated supply chain and traceability

with our own market research of pet consumer perceptions, allows

Pet retail products range from concentrated dietary supplements to

DSM to be a partner that helps strengthen the quality of your supply

pet foods designed to deliver 100% of the animal’s daily nutritional

chain whilst providing quality solutions for your brand.

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ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel conditioner

THE ROLE of TECHNOLOGY for OPTIMIZED PET FOOD PROCESSING By Marci L. Howes, ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel The Pet Food Manufacturer’s Association’s (PFMA) 2017 Annual

destroy harmful agents such as bacteria and other microorganisms

Pet Population report states that 44% of all households worldwide

while maintaining the integrity of fats and proteins.

own a cat, dog, bird, fish or another small animal. The estimations

If excessive heat is used in processing, proteins can be destroyed,

put the global pet population somewhere around 400 million and

and essential amino acids become unavailable for digestion and

as human populations continue to skyrocket, so will the number of

absorption. Extrusion technology that provides variable temperature

household pets.

control helps to maintain the amino acids that are essential in the

The nutritional and digestive requirements for these animals

diet of both dogs and cats. Additionally, extrusion adds to the overall

varies greatly depending, not only on the species of the pet being

energy value of the end product by opening the walls of fat cells,

fed, but also upon their age, activity level, temperament, and health.

releasing their contents and increasing the energy concentration of

Additionally, pet owners expect their pet’s food to come in many

the product.

different shapes, colours, and flavours and the demand for high-

Uncooked starches consumed by both dogs and cats remain

quality pet food, with a pleasing visual appearance as well as the right

undigested in their systems and can result in flatulence or diarrhea.

nutritional benefits, requires advanced, multifunctional equipment.

As a part of the extrusion process, starch contained in the feed ingredients are cooked, transforming them into their simplest form so

The Preconditioner

that digestive issues are avoided, less energy is spent on digestion,

The preconditioner treats feed ingredients with heat and moisture

and more energy is available to the animal.

through the application of steam to assure that ingredients are safely pasteurized and evenly moisturized, resulting in a hygienic and

The Coater

homogeneous feed mixture.

For pet food to be labelled with the moniker “high quality” the end

Adding preconditioning technology also significantly reduces the

product must ultimately appeal to the end user – consumers who

overall cost of ownership of the feed processing equipment. By heating

have particular tastes and highly evolved senses. Cats prefer more

and moisturizing the raw ingredients prior to extruding, the ingredients

acidic flavours while dogs like their food on the sweeter side. After

become more malleable and, as a result, less energy is needed to

pet food has been mixed, cooked, and dried it is a standard practice

process them. In the long run, overall production is increased because

to coat kibbles with fats and flavourings that will satisfy even the

processing equipment encounters less wear and lasts longer.

pickiest of pallets.

The Extruder

typically occurs in a drum coating system, which fulfils standard

In the next stage, the extruder compresses, mixes, and heats the raw

processing requirements. However, several benefits can be achieved

materials with just the right amount of pressure and temperature to

with vacuum coating that are not possible with ordinary atmospheric

The application of oils and flavourings in the pet food industry

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

coating. The benefit of vacuum coating technology comes from the

Control Management System (ECMS) where operational control,

application of a pressure differential to force liquids through the outer

trending, and logging of the whole processing line are managed.

layer, penetrating deeply into the porous area of the pet food pellet. Vacuum coating provides accurate control of the liquid addition,

ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel vertical coater

improves cycle time flexibility and increases the ability to reproduce

Vertical mixers have historically been a popular choice in the processing

high-quality results.

of animal feed due to their ability to mix ingredients thoroughly yet gently,

When considering processing equipment for the manufacturing of

without damaging the product. ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel adopted

high-quality pet food, it is important to weigh factors such as equipment

this vertical mixing technology and applied it to the coating stage of

quality, versatility, and efficiency as well as the primary feed quality

production, which increases the overall output of flavourful kibbles at

indicators, to determine the total cost of ownership.

lower energy inputs, simultaneously reducing costs and enhancing

ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel manufactures the advanced

product quality.

machines and technologies that enable pet food processors to meet

The use of a

the varying nutritional needs of a wide variety of breeds while also

vertical transport

achieving the demands of discerning pet food consumers.

screw inside t h e ANDRITZ

ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel conditioners


Our conditioners can be set up as single or dual systems, mounted

Biofuel vertical

directly above the extruder for optimum energy efficiency. ANDRITZ

coater, which

Feed and Biofuel Preconditioning offers flexible retention times.

can be used

Depending on the requirements of the product, retention times can

with or without

be held up to 400 seconds while mixing efficiency remains constant


regardless of where the retention time is set – allowing for optimal

means that all

starch cooking.

of the product



is exposed at

ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel extruders

the top of the

Our extruders offer the ability to produce a wide variety of shapes,

mixing vessel, ensuring the uniform application of liquid or powder

sizes, and textures while also controlling the digestibility and


palatability of the processer’s unique pet food blend. ANDRITZ Feed

Performing trials can help determine process parameters to

and Biofuel extruders utilize the advanced patented technology of

achieve finished product quality as well as help with equipment sizing

the Expansion Control System (ECS) which provides online control

and power requirements to assure optimum output of high-quality pet

of product density by managing overpressure in the knife house and

foods. ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel has several pilot plants outfitted

The Flextex System which maintains said density while providing

with our key process equipment to ensure safe upscaling. Pilot plants

precision control over the specific mechanical energy taking place

are open and available to customers and project departments all

during the cooking of starches.

around the world.

Product traceability comes from utilization of the Extrusion

ANDRITZ Feed and Biofuel is unique in their ability to manufacture and supply every machine in the feed pelleting line. With in-depth knowledge of each essential process, we provide a compatible and advantageous solution, from raw material intake to finished feed bulk loading as well as, after the sale, parts and service. With a network of global aftermarket service centres, we have expert staff at a local level ready to help at a moment’s notice.

Sources: Pet Food Manufacturer’s Association, Pet Population 2017

Above: The advanced single screw extrusion

Merck Manual Vet Manual, Nutritional Requirements and Related Diseases of Small Animals By Sherry Lynn Sanderson, BS, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN, Associate Professor, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia https://www.

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 15

How to measure lipid oxidation and antioxidant efficacy in pet food Dr. Cristina Murcia García and Tanja Kowalewsky, Technical Marketing Manager, Kaesler Nutrition GmbH

Pet food contains valuable nutrients such as vitamins and a high amount

Figure 1: Lipid oxidation process: at an early stage of oxidation,

of proteins, fats and oils. Lipids and proteins in particular suffer from the

the peroxide value increases but at a certain point peroxides

effects of oxidation. They then deteriorate and are no longer available

degrade to secondary oxidation products and the peroxide

for the animal. Maintaining the quality of fats is the key aspect as they

value decreases. An additional measurement of the secondary

are the most important source of energy; they allow the incorporation of

oxidation products is a must to confirm that a low peroxide value

fat-soluble nutrients and are excellent carriers for flavours.1 If lipids turn

corresponds to a fresh product.5

rancid, the quality of the entire pet food is degraded. This leads to reduced attractiveness and health risks resulting from the uptake of toxic oxidation Antioxidants in pet food prevent lipid oxidation and are thereby able to assure high pet food quality over a shelf life of 12 to 24 months.3 The determination of antioxidant efficacy and minimum durability is a complicated and tedious process. It strongly depends on the composition of the product, the production conditions, the packaging, the


products and free radicals while the shelf life is drastically reduced.2

presence or absence of adequate antioxidants and the storage conditions (temperature, light, humidity). There are a number of different methods to estimate antioxidant efficacy and product storage life. This article focusses on storage trials (at room temperature and with moderate acceleration) and accelerated

Schaal Oven Test can be extrapolated to months.7 For example if a

quick tests like RancimatTM and oxygen bomb/OxipresTM.

product stored over 12 weeks at moderated high temperatures shows values of peroxide and secondary oxidation products within the accepted

Storage trials at room temperature

limits after the 12 weeks, one could roughly estimate the storage life of

Storage trials performed under normal conditions (25°C and atmospheric

this product as being 12 months.

pressure) give realistic data on the durability of a product or raw material.

Figure 2 shows the measurements of peroxide value and non-

To determine the storage life the key parameters of oxidation, peroxides

volatile secondary oxidation products of native soybean oil during a

and secondary oxidation products are measured at regular intervals.

storage trial at 41°C.

Peroxides are formed in the early stages of lipid oxidation, and they

If we set the peroxide value limit at 15 meqO2/kg, right after 2 weeks

are subjected to further oxidation reactions generating volatile (aroma

of storage at 41°C, the sample of native soybean oil without antioxidants

active) and non-volatile secondary products, such as aldehydes and ketones.4 The peroxide value (PV) is one of the most widely used fat

Figure 2: Storage trial, untreated native soybean oil (as model fat)

quality indicators in the food and feed industry. However, as peroxides are

was supplemented with the antioxidant blend Loxidan E 20 dry

susceptible to further reactions (see Figure 1), it is highly recommended

(Kaesler Nutrition GmbH) and subsequently stored at 41°C for 28

to give an additional and meaningful secondary oxidation parameter to

days. The peroxide value (left), as an indicator of the formation


complete the picture of lipid oxidation status.

of primary oxidation products and non-volatile secondary

Such a storage trial under realistic conditions needs to be conducted

oxidation products (right) were determined at regular intervals.

over the entire target shelf life. This means that such studies are very

In comparison with the control sample, the sample with Loxidan

time consuming, expensive and mostly not done in practice.

considerably reduced the formation of oxidation products.

Moderate accelerated storage trials (Schaal Oven Test) A moderately accelerated storage trial was developed for a more rapid estimation of durability. This is the so-called Schaal Oven Test, in which the product is stored typically at 61°C and the peroxide value and secondary oxidation products are measured at regular intervals, e.g. once a week. 6 The temperature can be adjusted to 51 or 41°C according to the materials and conditions. The storage at temperatures above the standard 25°C allows a moderated acceleration of the oxidation of the components present in a product. As a rule, the weekly results of the

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

is already above the limit and we could give a prediction of its durability

the predicted durability obtained with the Rancimat differs greatly from

as being less than 2 months at room temperature. On the contrary, the

the one obtained in more realistic conditions.

sample of soybean oil supplemented with Loxidan E20 dry could increase the storage life to 4 months.

In summary, the Rancimat test is suitable for a quick and costeffective, qualitative comparison of antioxidant efficacy in fats and oils. It is not possible, however, to obtain a plausible estimation of storage life.

Quick test: RancimatTM In the RancimatTM method, the conditions for a rapid oxidation, i.e. high

Quick test: Oxygen bomb and OxipresTM

temperatures and continuous oxygen flow, are applied to the sample.

Oxygen bomb and OxipresTM (a modification of the oxygen bomb method,

These conditions considerably accelerate the oxidation of fatty acids

not to be confused with an oxygen bomb calorimeter) are used to estimate

and consequently the formation of peroxides and secondary oxidation

the antioxidative resistance of oils, fats or food products containing


fats and have the advantage that no sample preparation is needed.6

The Rancimat method is based on the fact that chemical reactions

In general, these methods are based on the oxidation of a sample

− in this case the oxidation of fatty acids – depend on temperature.

under pressure and at high temperatures. The oxygen consumption

However, under high temperatures further chemical reactions, other than

is monitored and results in a pressure drop in the vessel during the

the ones expected at room temperature may take place. This means,

experiment.10 The pressure in the cell is measured electronically and

e.g. some antioxidants which degrade at temperatures above 100°C

the time needed until the pressure drops is called induction time. As in

may no longer be effective in the prevention of lipid oxidation or even

the case of Rancimat, it indicates the time elapsing until a sample turns



be swept out of the oil by the air flow. In addition, only one parameter

rancid under the corresponding experimental conditions.

is measured in Rancimat trials, the induction time. This parameter gives

Trials at high pressures and temperature do not correspond to

the time that elapses until the sample gets rancid. This value, usually

the real storage conditions and the mode of action of antioxidants can

given in hours, characterizes the resistance of the sample to oxidation.

be different. Only one parameter is measured, which gives no further

The longer the induction time, the more stable a sample is. No further

information about the oxidative status of the sample.

information is obtained about the oxidative status of a sample before

Like data obtained from Rancimat, the oxygen bomb and OxipresTM

or after the trial. The fats are severely deteriorated when the end-point

methods are intended to give a first indication of the oxidative stability of

is reached. Furthermore, it must be kept in mind that mathematical

a product and must be used with care. A recommendation for storage

extrapolation of hours to months and years involves a high degree of

life cannot be given by these methods.

statistical uncertainty. As an experimental case, a Rancimat trial was performed again on


native soybean oil with and without Loxidan, an antioxidant blend from

A number of different methods are available with the aim of providing

Kaesler Nutrition GmbH (Figure 3).

quick and realistic results to estimate the storage life of feedstuffs and pet food and to prove the efficacy of antioxidants. Quick tests have

Figure 3: Results obtained with the Rancimat method to determine

many benefits: they are easy to handle and less time consuming while

the oxidative stability of native soybean oil (as model fat) without

providing cost-efficient results. For a first indication these methods are

and with the antioxidant blend Loxidan E 20 dry (Kaesler Nutrition

interesting but for a realistic estimation of the efficacy of antioxidants and

GmbH) at 100°C and 20 l/h air flow.

the storage life of pet food these methods are too inaccurate. For a more reliable determination of shelf life it is advisable to invest time and money in accelerated storage trials under moderate conditions. The experimental conditions are very close to reality and the regular measurements of oxidation relevant parameters make them suitable in determining the durability of complex pet food matrices.


In this case an improvement in the oxidative stability of an oil by incorporating antioxidants was also observed. For data extrapolation the empirical Q10 approach can be used, which is based on the observation that the induction time approximately doubles with each 10°C reduction in sample temperature.8 However in the presented case the Rancimat extrapolated data obtained give a shelf life at 25°C of roughly 4 ½ months for the native soybean oil without antioxidants and of 6 months for the sample with the Loxidan. From the shelf life prediction of the storage trial, and thanks to the measurements of reliable parameters of lipid oxidation, it is known that after 2 weeks at 41°C or extrapolated after 2 months storage at 25°C the oil is already rancid. Taking this data into account,

1. Duthie G. G. Lipid peroxidation. European J. Clinical Nut. 1993; 47: 759 – 764. 2. Benzie I. F. F. Lipid peroxidation: a review of causes, consequences, measurement and dietary influences. Internat. J. Food Sciences and Nut. 1996; 47: 233-261. 3. J. Pokorny, N. Yanishlieva. Antioxidants in Food: practical applications. CRC Press, WP, 2001 4. J. Velasco, C. Dobarganes. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 2002; 104: 661 – 676. 5. T. P. Labuza. Kinetics of Lipid Oxidation in Foods, CRC Crit. Rev. Food Technol. 1971; 2: 355 – 405. 6. M. Hu, C. Jacobsen, Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats. Elsevier 2016. 7. Y. Pomeranz, C. Meloan. Lipids. In: Food Analysis: Theory and Practice, third ed. Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, 2000; 678–732. 8. a) J. Sanhueza. Comparison of Rancimat Evaluation Modes to Assess Oxidative Stability of fish Oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 1997; 74: 331– 332. b) Product Information Rancimat 892 by Metrohm AG, CH-9100 Herisau (accessed on 23.03.2018) 9. S. Sanhueza. Thermal Stability of Some Commercial Synthetic Antioxidants, JAOCS. 2000; 77: 9. 10. R. P. Singh. Understanding and Measuring the Shelf-Life of Food. CRC Press LLC, Cambridge, 2004.

Pet Food Supplement 2018

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Yeast extracts: Prebiotic, supporting gut health and anti-allergenic By Catharina Nieuwenhuizen, Barentz Animal Nutrition

Yeast is a product that is regularly discussed in the pet food industry and this article will point out the benefits of different yeast products. Some yeasts have a prebiotic effect and support gut health. Other yeasts are an excellent anti-allergenic protein source.

Brewers’ yeast Brewers’ yeast is regularly used in pet food. This yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used in the brewery process. Brewers’ yeast is well-known as a palatability enhancer and as an ingredient rich in B-vitamins and minerals. Brewers’ yeast is a source of good quality protein, with a level of approximately 40% protein, and it contains nine of the essential amino acids needed by dogs. Brewers’ yeast is a well-known ingredient with many nutritional benefits for dogs and cats. Availability of brewers’ yeast can be problematic, therefore molasses yeast is a good alternative. Molasses yeast is also Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but it is derived from sugar cane molasses fermentation obtained during the ethanol production process. system, helping with stress management, aiding digestion and keeping

Yeast cell walls and hydrolysed yeast Beside brewers’ yeast and molasses yeast, there are more yeast

coat, skin, eyes and liver healthy.

products on the market. In some cases pets have some extra challenges

Yeast portfolio

to deal with: health and allergies. Yeast cell walls or hydrolysed

Barentz Animal Nutrition has a complete portfolio with different yeast

yeast are two products that can be very helpful when facing those

products, as mentioned above. Beside brewers’ yeast, molasses yeast,


yeast cell wall and hydrolysed yeast, the Barentz’ yeast range extends to autolyzed yeast, and different combinations of yeast products. Different

Intestinal health

animal species with different ages require different yeast products.

Yeast cell walls, obtained from mature yeast with thick walls, contain high levels of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) and B-glucans. MOS bind pathogens and supports intestinal health. B-glucans act as a prebiotic by promoting the reproduction of beneficial bacteria and B-glucans stimulate the immune system.

Barentz Animal Nutrition: Your Ingredients Partner Barentz is a global distributor of ingredients in the animal nutrition, food & nutrition, pharmaceutical, and personal care industries. At Barentz Animal Nutrition we are active in technical


ingredients and additives for the feed and pet food industry. We

Hydrolysed yeast is yeast treated with enzymes and as a result, the

have a big portfolio of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, anti-

protein is split into short-chain peptides and amino acids. When intact

oxidants, yeast and novelty ingredients such as insect protein

proteins are broken down into small molecules, the immune system

and sea weed. Our ingredients experts support our customers

is no longer able to recognize them as allergens, with the result of

in making the right ingredients choices for their new and existing

eliminating the possibility of an adverse reaction. Hydrolysed yeast

products. We strongly believe that by acting as an ingredients

has lower molecular weight peptides compared to brewers’ yeast.

partner, rather than merely a distributor, we can provide our

Hydrolysed yeast contains not only MOS and B-glucans, but also

clients with complementary high quality products that add value

nucleotides. This is essential for growing animals. Therefore the product

to their formulations or processes: from source to solution.

is very suitable for puppies and kittens. Hydrolysed yeast is also a product with high palatability and is a source of various B-vitamins and minerals. B-vitamins play an important role in supporting the nervous

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

For further information please contact:

Specific Mechanical Energy (SME) in Extrusion By Gordon Young, Food Industry Engineering, Australia and Dennis Forte, Dennis Forte & Associates, Australia


The shear stress applied to the product is dissipated through the

In the most simple of terms, the transformation of Raw Materials into

viscous fluid movement of the melt (“Viscous Dissipation”) leading to

a Product, involves the input of Energy. The means by which the

an increase in the temperature of the material. The bulk effect of SME

energy is imparted, is defined by the physical design of the equipment

is noted as a temperature rise (additional to temperature rise due to

and operational parameters of the process. The type of energy has a

added steam).

direct influence upon the Product Characteristics (e.g, Colour, Texture, Flavour, etc.).

This temperature increase directly drives the cooking reactions that occur. But SME also affects the feed at the molecular level. Figure

Let us consider a Generic Cooking Process, shown schematically

2 shows measured effect of SME on Mean Molecular Weight of the

in Figure 1. There are three mechanisms for Energy Transfer. These

Starch Fraction in an extrusion operation. The shear generated in the


process breaks down molecules – the higher the SME, the smaller

o Mechanical Energy (also referred to as Viscous Dissipation)

o Convection Energy (associated with latent heat transfer – Steam Injection) o Conduction Energy (associated with indirect heat transfer – Conduction from the Vessel Wall)

is the average molecule size. Break-down of proteins results in the generation of peptides and changes to fatty acids. When starches are broken down, dextrins (long-chain sugars) are produced. Figure 2: Effect of SME on Mean Molecular Weight in starch extrusion

Figure 1 – The Generic Cooking Process

In large-scale extrusion, Conduction Energy is relatively insignificant – as size of the extruder increases, the reduced surface area to volume ratio in the barrel reduces heat transfer from the barrel wall. Some of the energy in extrusion is commonly added through

This break-down of molecules affects product characteristics in a

steam, especially via the preconditioner, so Convection Energy can

number of ways:

be significant. But the nature of the process means that a lot of the heating during extrusion is due to Mechanical Energy.

1. Flavour and nutritional profile – changed amino acids due to break-down of proteins, bitter notes from peptides, sweeter taste from dextrins. The digestibility of certain components can

SME (Specific Mechanical Energy) and Extrusion

2. Pellet durability – sufficient “cook” is essential to the development

This mechanical energy input, often specified as Specific Mechanical

of structure via the starches (present in very limited quantities

Energy (SME) is critical to the quality characteristics of the extruded

in many aquafeeds) and any functional proteins. However,

feed. The stresses developed in the material (“Shear Stress”) not only

excessive breakdown of the molecules destroys binding.

convey the product along the barrel, but cause mixing, and under the

Therefore with respect to pellet durability, there must be sufficient

correct conditions, can break down starches and re-align proteins and

SME to promote the correct Degree of Cook, but too much SME

develop structure within the dough or melt. But intense shear stress

will weaken the pellet structure.

can also cause breakdown at a molecular level, as will be discussed later.

be enhanced (for certain species).

3. Water stability - The formation of dextrins lead to a reduction in the gel forming capability of any starch present, hence, a

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 19

reduction in the Water Absorption Index (WAI). WAI is often

the effect of SME on digestibility of an extruded starched-based

used as a means of quantifying the water stability of a product.

product (in this case in cats).

Some data for an extrusion process is shown in Figure 3. Note that the most significant changes to WAI occur within the same

Figure 5: Example of the effect of SME on Digestibility (starch-

range of SMEs that cause a major change in molecular weight

based cat food).

(Figure 2). Figure 3: Effect of SME on WAI (Water Absorption Index) in a starch-based extrusion process.

Smaller molecules also tend to be more water-soluble, the Water Solubility of the product increases (as measured by the Water Solubility Index WSI). The data for the test samples is presented in Figure 4.

How is SME Measured/Calculated

An increase in water solubility in aquafeed corresponds to a reduction

Remember that SME is about the mechanical energy going into the

in water stability.

product, not Total Energy – it is important to subtract the No-Load Energy.

Figure 4: Effect of SME on WSI (Water Solubility Index) in a starchbased extrusion process.

If the extruder is instrumented to provide a direct measure of Screw Torque, then record the torque when no product is passing through, and Net Power Input is given by: Pnet = 2 π (τ – τ0) N / 60000(kW) where, τ = Torque (Nm) τ0 = Torque under no load (Nm) N = Screw speed (rpm) If a torque measurement is not available, power can be calculated from amps drawn by the drive motor. For AC drives the Net Power Input (kW) can be estimated via: Pnet = √3 V [ (f η I ) - (f0 η0 I0 ) ] / 1000 (kW) where,

4. Digestibility – Change in level of “cook” and in the molecular weight also affects digestibility. Typically, uncooked material

f = Power Factor ( - )

has low digestibility. As level of cook increases, digestibility

η = Efficiency (%)

increases – up to a maximum. However, at higher SME levels,

V = Supply Voltage (V)

digestibility again decreases – over-sheared product is not readily

I = Current (Amps)

absorbed by the animal. By way of example, Figure 5 shows

(Subscript 0 refers to no-load conditions)

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

For DC drives the Net Energy Input (kW) can be estimated via:

Table 1: Specific Energy Inputs for the manufacture of Aquatic Feeds

Pnet = V [ (η I ) - (η0 I0) ] / 1000(kW) The SME is then readily calculated as: SME = Pnet / MTotal (kWhr/kg) where,

Specific Convective Energy, SCE

0.040 to 0.060 kWhr/kg

Specific Thermal Energy, STE

-0.002 to 0.007 kWhr/kg

Specific Mechanical Energy, SME

0.025 to 0.045 kWhr/kg

Total Specific Energy, TSE

0.063 to 0.112 kWhr/kg

MTotal = Total Throughput Rate (kg/hr). Note: MTotal is the Total Melt Flow through the extruder – not after drying – and is the flow rate of Powder, Water, Steam, Oil and any other Additives.

(This paper draws from a book by the same authors: “Food and Feed Extrusion Technology: An Applied Approach to Extrusion Theory”, ISBN 978-0-9945433-0-1. See

Some Guidelines for SME in Aquafeed Extrusion A very broad range of Aquatic Feeds, with vastly different characteristics (both Floating and Sinking) for a large number of species are prepared via Extrusion Cooking using a diverse raw material base. It is therefore

The authors are presenting short courses on “Aquafeed

impossible to define a single target value for the magnitude of the SME

Extrusion Technology”, “Petfood Extrusion Technology” and

(or any of the other energy inputs). A typical range for the Specific

“Drying Technology” at Centre for Feed Technology, FôrTek,

Energy Inputs can be presented, however (see Table 1).

Norway, in April/May 2018 (

This article was previously published in Feed Compounder magazine, March/April 2018 issue



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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 21

Insulin resistance in obese dogs Proven effects of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans on metabolism By Thiago Henrique Vendramini, Chayanne Ferreira, Andressa Rodrigues do Amaral & Marcio Antonio Brunetto School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo/Pirassununga, São Paulo, Brazil

The mechanism involved in the development of many of the mentioned alterations relies on the characterization of adipocytes as members of an active endocrine tissue (Balistreri et al., 2010). Therefore, adipose tissue also participates in mechanisms of inflammation and immunity, with production and release of a wide range of pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and suppression of anti-inflammatory factors such as adiponectin, as well as other cytokines. Weight loss is able to reduce these changes, the severity of complications, and even normalize the alterations acquired by overweight status. The success of the treatment depends on the promotion of weight loss and effective maintenance of lean weight, thus it is necessary to induce a negative energy balance state by Throughout the last decades, obesity has been becoming the main

means of caloric restriction (Cloetens et al., 2012; Floerchinger et

nutritional health issue not only in humans, but also in companion

al., 2015). For such, satiety plays a major role during this process

animals. Over the past years, some studies have reported values

concerning the animal and its owner, since the manifestation of

between 20-40% of obesity in the studied population (McGreevy et

hunger, which consequently leads the animal to seek and beg for

al., 2005 Gossellin et al., 2007). More recent studies have already

food, often compromises the continuation of the program (Weber

reported percentages of approximately 44% of obesity in dogs (Mao

et al., 2007).

et al., 2013; Alonso et al., 2017), demonstrating a progressive and disturbing increase of this condition.

Beta-1,3/1,6-glucans are polysaccharides composed of glucose monomers linked together by β-glycosidic bonds. Due to their

Its development is directly or indirectly associated with increased

complex mechanism of action in the organism, several effects have

risk of other conditions such as: cardiorespiratory, orthopedic

already been associated with their supplementation: modulation of

alterations and metabolic disorders such as reduced glucose

the immune response (Li et al., 2006; Zaine, 2014), reduction of the

tolerance, type 2 diabetes in felines, hyperlipidemia (Gayet et al.,

inflammatory response (Beynen and Legerstee, 2010; Beynen et al.,

2004; Brunetto et al., 2011) and reduced life expectancy (Kealy et

2011; Silva et al., 2015) and modulation of glucose (Vetvicka and

al., 2002).

Oliveira, 2014; Silva et al., 2015) and lipids (Andrade et al., 2016)

Figure 1. Trial set up

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Figure 2: Serum GLP-1 concentrations of experimental groups

a,b - Equal letters do not differ according to t-Student test (p<0.05)

metabolism. However, the effects of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans on glycemic

triglycerides significantly lower compared to the initial values of the

control are poorly understood in dogs, and no studies that evaluated

obese dogs (group A), and did not present any statistical difference

the addition of this polysaccharide in glycemic parameters of obese

with the lean dogs (group B). The addition of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans

dogs are available.

have also promoted a reduction of basal insulin concentrations in the

A recent study carried out at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science - University of São Paulo (Brazil) evaluated

obese group (C), although these values remained higher than those found in group B (P < 0.05).

the effects of purified beta-1,3/1,6-glucans from yeast S. cerevisiae

Appetite regulating hormone GLP-1 (Figure 2) was affected by

(MacroGard, Biorigin, Brazil) on metabolic parameters and hormones

the supplementation with beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. The lean and obese

related to satiety of obese dogs. Fourteen privately owned dogs were

dogs (before supplementation) had lower circulating concentrations

split into two experimental groups: obese dogs (group A) with body

of GLP-1 (P < 0.05). The higher GLP-1 in obese dogs receiving beta-

condition score (BCS) 8 or 9/9 and lean dogs with BCS 5/9 (group

1,3/1,6-glucans in their diet (group C) could explain why some dogs

B), according to the Laflamme (1997) scoring system. For a period

of group C presented leftovers throughout the study and decreased

of two weeks, both groups received a control diet (no beta-1,3/1,6-

begging behaviour for food, as reported by the owners.

glucans). After two weeks, group A became group C, and received a

In conclusion, these pioneering results are highly relevant for the

diet with beta-1,3/1,6-glucans (MacroGard ) for a period of 90 days.

use of beta-glucans in diet formulations for obesity control, as well

The trial set up is shown in Figure 1.

as for maintenance after weight loss, due to the beta-1,3/1,6-glucans


Dietary beta-1,3/1,6-glucans led to important changes – after

effect on metabolism and appetite control.

supplementation, the obese dogs (group C) presented glycemic variables (basal and mean blood glucose), cholesterol and


References available upon request

Best documented beta-1,3/1,6-glucan

Produced by

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 23

Delivering Nutrients

Focus on Fatty Acids By Victoria Thornber, Devenish Nutrition Ltd

Food and nutrition is no longer just about supplying nutrients, there is

well referenced. There are a number of scientific peer-reviewed journals

now a focus on supplying essential ingredients in an effective way and in

that have found causal links between senior dog consumption of DHA

forms accepted and liked by the consumer, be that human, farm animal

and EPA and benefits to brain, eye and joint health as well as healthy

or pet! The nutrient must not only be consumed but also delivered to

skin and coat. As with human (and indeed chicken) nutrition, delivery

the relevant site in the body in a bioavailable form.

of the Omega 3- PUFAs within the diet in a consistent, bioavailable format is key. Devenish utilised the ingredients and technology used

Delivering health benefits through Omega-3 fatty acids

in the human study to produce a unique blend of Omega 3 PUFAs to

Devenish have focused on exactly this approach to nutrition in its R&D

Omega 3 Index!

provide guaranteed levels of EPA and DHA to the pet and boost their

programmes. In human nutrition, our principle has been ‘you are what you eat, eats’. Our recent work with the Royal College of Surgeons

Utilising fatty acids to support gut health

in Ireland has focused on the health benefits to the human from the

Essential nutrients have to be effectively absorbed within the digestive

consumption of long chain omega 3 fatty acids. Rather than a pill or

system to maximise their benefits. This is key to optimizing feed

pellet, the omega 3 fatty acids were supplied in a natural way within

utilization in production animals.

the fat naturally contained within chicken meat, or eggs consumed as part of an individual’s daily meal.

At Devenish, our research with production animals has looked at optimising the delivery in the digestive tract of key short and

The research resulted in the world’s first naturally enriched omega

medium chain fatty acids to promote gastrointestinal health. Unique

3 chicken and eggs with proven health claims likely to reduce risk of

encapsulation of the fatty acids in a specialised, protective matrix allows

heart attack, stroke, dementia and depression.

targeted delivery of fatty acids along the entire length of the digestive

The chicken meat and eggs used in the study came from birds

tract. Devenish have applied the same knowledge and technology to

offered a diet containing a unique and sustainable algae based source

develop a fatty acid complex that promotes gastrointestinal health in

of omega 3 PUFA’s developed by Devenish. The results from the clinical


study saw an increase in omega-3-PUFA levels in blood, and a positive

When incorporated in the feed, specific fatty acids are absorbed

shift in what is described as the ‘omega-3 Index’ . Low levels of this

in the small intestine where they assist with the proliferation and

index (<4%) indicate a heightened risk of heart and brain disease. The

maturation of the gut resulting in an increase in villi height and crypt

Omega-3 enriched chicken and eggs offer consumers an attractive

depth. This has the impact of increasing the surface area available for

alternative to eating oily fish or to the lifelong taking of supplements,

the absorption of nutrients and water, improving feed digestibility. In

with the potential for substantial health benefits.

the large intestine the slow releasing fatty acids positively influence gut microflora and support the gut as the first line of defence.

In pets, the benefits of the Omega 3 fatty acids DHA

Strong gastrointestinal health and effective absorption of nutrients

(docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) have been

and water supports good stool quality. In owner perception studies,

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

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when the fatty acid complex was fed by owners to their dogs, they reported a significant improvement in stool quality and a reduction in stool odour – all signs of a positive impact on digestive health. Use of specific fatty acids in pet food can contribute positively to pet health and well-being through their impact on digestive health, immune function, brain, eye and joint health. Consideration needs to be given to the types of fatty acid used, source and physical format to ensure it is effectively digested and absorbed and benefits optimised. When using fatty acids in pet food, we can benefit from reviewing existing and developing science and expertise, within production animal nutrition. This knowledge can be adapted and applied within the development of pet food formulations to deliver healthy, satisfying and appetizing diets for our pets.

Pet Foods Need Protection, Too! New SubSTAR solutions for salmon oil protection in pet foods Oil from fatty fish, such as salmon, is one of the best sources of the

Figure 1: Rancimat test of salmon oil, performed at 90°C.

omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and is increasingly used in premium

Comparison of results for Control sample (without addition of

brands of pet foods due to its health benefits.

antioxidants), Competitor product (natural solution), SubSTAR

However, these fatty acids are unstable and can rapidly oxidize

ULTRA (302447; natural solution), SubSTAR Complex (302530;

and turn rancid. Salmon and other fish oil is especially challenging.

natural solution) and SubSTAR Complex (302554; semi natural

Unsaturated fatty acids, being so highly prone to oxidation, can lead

solution).Higher the induction time better the stability of the oil

to spoilage and loss of quality and reduced nutritional value, not to

and longer shelf life is indicated.

mention causing a rancid flavor and changes in colour. They can even develop toxic byproducts. Oxidation also leads to significant food waste due to shorter shelf-life, increased product losses, and interrupted production. When the fish oil is added to the outer layer of the kibble as palatant, it only increases application challenges in terms of oxidation risk versus when it is part of the kibble formulation. Frutarom’s new, all-natural SubSTAR formulations successfully protect salmon oil from oxidation, improve its overall stability, maintain product colour, and preserve the flavour and nutritional profile. “Available in liquid and powder form, the SubSTAR solutions are highly potent formulations, customized to fit the specific processing demands of pet food manufacturers and their raw material suppliers,”

concentrations add to their already impressive advantages, while FAMI

explains Ohad Cohan, General Manager of Frutarom’s Food Protection

- QS certification guarantees the highest level of vertically integrated

Division. “These formulations provide better stability and maintain oil

raw materials sourcing.

quality, even during warm weather and prolonged periods of storage

Frutarom Group’s Food Protection Division provides advanced,

at elevated temperatures. All SubSTAR formulations provide powerful

application-specific solutions based on natural extracts for food, pet

protection at low dosage. They are simple and easy to handle, added

food, cosmetic, and nutraceutical industries. Its extensive portfolio

as part of a kibble recipe.”

includes brands such as VivOX ®, INOLENS ®, AquaROX ® and

Providing extended shelf life and improved quality to the level

SyneROX®. These product lines have been complemented by the

of excellence, SubSTAR formulations outperform other solutions

innovative SubSTAR and SubSTAR Complex portfolio for pet food

traditionally offered in the industry. Reliability and efficacy, even at low

and rendering applications.

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

An ethical approach: What the pet food industry can expect from 2018 According to the latest market insight, the pet food industry is growing rapidly – 12 per cent in 2017 alone no less. While this presents a huge opportunity for producers, it seems with new customers comes increased expectations. Here, Ashley Burdock, Commercial Manager – Protein Ingredients – at SARVAL discusses how customers’ focus on ethics might impact the pet food industry in 2018.

Requirements that transcend species

processing facility at its dried product manufacturing site in Nottingham.

One of the key factors affecting the pet food supply chain is a change in

The £8m investment saw a purpose-built centre constructed to house

consumer perception. Gone are the days when owners took the health,

dedicated processing equipment for specialist poultry products. The

sustainability and ethical tracing of ingredients on face value. Today,

new lines utilise the latest technology to process up to 3,000 tonnes

consumers are increasingly aware of the supply chain – a mentality

of poultry every week.

that has filtered through to the appreciation of pet food. The industry has continued to keep abreast and quietly react to this. This is not a new concept for pet food producers, but a trend that will continue to drive industry practice in the year ahead.

The site is capable of processing more than 200,000 tonnes of poultry by-products every year and the resulting high-quality poultry meat meal, hydrolysed feather meal and poultry fat is used by some of the world’s leading pet food manufacturers in the production of premium product lines.

An ethical approach

The development exclusively processes poultry products,

Perhaps top of the consumer wish list is transparency regarding

responding directly to a growing market requirement for single source

ingredients. The term ‘clean label’ has been coined, whereby

meat protein products.

consumers want absolute clarity on what they’re feeding to their pets, in what quantities and where it’s come from. Producers are therefore

Thinking to the future

having to overhaul the way they package and present their products,

Brand loyalty in the pet food market is in jeopardy. With online

as well as take a closer look at their supply chain. There’s also a much

purchasing and the myriad of producers out there making the choice

bigger focus on providing pets with a balanced and nutritious diet. With

vast, consumers can easily chop and change. What’s clear is that pet

brands increasingly offering products that cater for special dietary needs

owners expect absolute transparency when it comes to every stage

or interests, the requirement for clarity on ingredients again becomes

of the production of pet food, and will scrutinise a brand’s response

more important.

to this. With millennials, who have grown up with this kind of practice

SARVAL, for example, has invested heavily in ensuring its

when it comes to their own food and other consumables, this trend

ingredients are ethically sourced, processed and delivered. This

will only continue. The industry needs to harness the opportunity to

includes only sourcing ingredients produced in the UK and having

create loyalty by embracing these requirements and becoming not

separate production lines to ensure that no cross-contamination of

only a trusted brand but the brand of choice for those that now have

meats takes place throughout the manufacturing process.

more choices than ever.

Alongside greater scrutiny on sourcing food, consumers also require reassurance regarding responsible manufacturing. This is a

Leading the way in high quality protein products

trend that’s been carried across from the mainstream grocery market

With a strong focus on research and development, SARVAL’s

and, with savvy shoppers to contend with, there’s no way of getting

plants have benefited from continuous investment in new

around this.

technology and environmental control systems to ensure that

Working with suppliers, such as SARVAL, the pet food industry

product quality, safety and emissions standards are consistently

is able to ensure the sustainability of the products used in their

second-to-none and comply with all relevant legislation and

supply chain. For example, SARVAL prides itself on delivering the

operating permits.

highest possible product quality, while delivering a clear commitment

SARVAL operates four pet food plants in the UK. Its

to traceability and ethical business practice. Using state-of-the-art

Nottingham and Widnes sites produce dried poultry materials,

processes, it ensures compliance to the highest industry standards and

while Doncaster (one of the most advanced preparation

manufactures superior products to respond to market requirements.

facilities of its kind in Europe) specialises in chilled and frozen

With this in mind, it’s channelling considerable investment into furthering

products. The newly-regenerated Hartshill plant produces a

its production processes and capabilities to leverage this opportunity.

range of dried mixed mammalian products, as well as high quality

As part of this, at the end of last year SARVAL invested in a new

animal fats for a wide variety of markets.

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 27

Pet food integrity Why we need to focus on authenticity, food safety and quality By David Primrose, Synergy Food Ingredients

Pet food in Europe – A growing pet population with demanding pet owners

factors, in addition to those listed above. This includes authenticity of

In 2017, FEDIAF (“The European Pet Food Industry Federation”)

species used for “super-premium” claims e.g. monkfish. Failure to

estimated that the European dog population and cat populations

ensure authenticity means that we are not meeting the claims we make

numbered over 82 million dogs and over 102 million cats. http://www.

and this might be deemed fraudulent or lead to a loss of trust. . These figures show both populations grew from 2014 (80 million dogs and 97 million cats). Although some pet owners might still feed kitchen scraps, feeding the European cat and dog population requires 8.5 million tonnes of prepared petfood equating to a sales value of over €19.5 billion.

identity preserved raw materials e.g. “organic” lamb and specific fish

Sadly, the global petfood industry is not immune from food fraud as evidenced by with melamine scandal of 2007 – 2008 and the existence of “fake” petfood in the market (counterfeit “Orijen” petfood packed into “look alike” packaging). These incidents demonstrate that we need to continue to evolve

In the pet owners’ eyes and minds, prepared petfood must

our approach to building and maintaining consumer trust. In doing so,

meet many criteria and these contribute to the essence of petfood

we also protect our pets, our brands and our businesses, by being

manufacturers’ brand values, including:

aware of emerging risks.

 Palatability  Digestibility

Consumer trust in the global food industry has been damaged by food fraud

 Deliver pet enjoyment

Food fraud is nothing new as examples go back thousands of years

 Affordable

to ancient civilisations where history shows examples of adulterated

 Safe and wholesome to eat

wine, oil and spices.

 Nutrition

 Product claims e.g. organic Failure to deliver these attributes might mean that our pets become ill or might not get the nutrients they require and as pet owners we

In recent years, consumers have seen several high-profile cases illustrating that economically motivated adulteration (EMA) is also a modern-day problem, for example:

might lose trust in a manufacturer and switch allegiance to a competitor

• Brazilian meat scandal (2017)


• European horsemeat scandal (2013)

To help ensure consumer (pet owner) trust, the petfood industry is highly regulated, both in terms of meeting statutory, regulatory requirements and in terms of self-regulation. In Europe, examples of the industry self-regulation are the FEDIAF guidelines on: • Safety - FEDIAF Guide to good practice for the manufacture of safe pet foods

• Czech alcohol adulteration (2012) – methanol adulteration of spirits; 42 deaths • Chinese melamine adulteration of milk powder (2008) – which killed 6 children and hospitalised 52,000. Move forwards 10 years and Chinese mothers still do not trust baby formula made with Chinese sourced ingredients. (1)

• Nutritional requirements - FEDIAF Nutritional Guidelines For

These cases illustrate some key points: EMA is global, it does not

Complete and Complementary Pet Food for Cats and Dogs

stop at borders and it can kill. EMA is not a small problem either and it

is estimated to cost the global economy around $49 billion / year.

• Labelling requirements - FEDIAF Code of Good Labelling

Even if food fraud does not kill anyone, it is a crime and one that

Practice for Pet Food

destroys consumer trust. However, as seen in the melamine scandal

labelling.html .

of 2007 – 2008, petfood fraud can result in the death of pets and loss

Voluntary adherence to these guidelines helps build trust amongst

of trust.

pet owners that the industry can deliver on the key brand values outlined above.

The melamine scandal of 2007 – 2008

However, in recent years food fraud scandals in human food

In 2007 – 2008, the global pet food market suffered its greatest

have damaged trust in a safe, legal and transparent food supply. This

challenge since commercial petfood was first invented in the mid-19th

now means that pet owners expect the industry also to consider other

century. The industry and pet owners were shocked when the US

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Pet Food Supplement 2018

Food & Drug Administration, announced that “On March 15, 2007, FDA

individual companies might win battles against food fraudsters, the

learned that certain pet foods were sickening and killing cats and dogs.”

industry must unite to share “Best Practice” and data collected using

This led to the largest ever recall in the history of the industry and a

a wide battery of analytical and investigative procedures.

complex, costly, lengthy investigation into the causes and the source

However, one of the essential tools that individual organisations

of the problem. The assignable cause of the illness and pet deaths was

should implement is called “Vulnerability Critical Control Point”

ultimately attributed to wheat gluten adulterated with melamine and

(VACCP). VACCP helps build trust in safe petfood and protects our

cyanuric acid. This was done to “trick” chemical analysis into thinking

pets, brands and our businesses. VACCP does not prevent food fraud

the material had a higher protein content and could therefore command

but it minimises the chance of adulterated food and ingredients entering

a greater selling price which is based on protein content.

the supply chain.

Whilst other examples of EMA might well have occurred previously, the melamine scandal was the first clear case, in the public domain, of

VACCP shares several similarities with “Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point” (HACCP): • Both use objective risk assessment to identify where the hazard

EMA related to petfood. Key facts around the melamine crisis are summarised in Table 1, but do not show the complete picture as they do not reflect the emotional suffering of pet owners and stress caused in the industry.

can be controlled, eliminated or reduced to an acceptable level; • Both consider the full raw materials supply chain from “fieldto-factory”.

Table 1 – Melamine Crisis (2007- 2008) Recall size

Around 100 brands, over 60 million cans of pet food (2)

Recall cost

$42 million (2)

Deaths from kidney failure

236 cats and 112 dogs (3)

Estimated pet deaths

1,950 cats and 2,200 dogs (2)

Quantity and value of adulterated wheat gluten

> 800 tons; market value US$850,000 (2)

US Class Action damages paid to pet owners by Chemnutra

$12,357,277 was paid on 20,229 claims (2)

Judicial findings against company supplying adulterated wheat gluten

2 owners of Chemnutra sentenced to three years of probation and fines of $5,000 each. Chemnutra fined $25,000 fine (4)

VACCP helps identify which raw materials might be susceptible to adulteration e.g. wheat gluten, where this might happen in the supply chain e.g. a trader and what controls are required e.g. supplier quality assurance and testing. Implementation of VACCP is not without problems and is not easy. It requires a skilled team with knowledge of food fraud, food safety, supplier risk assessment and an understanding of raw material supply chains. If in doubt seek external resources to help with the process. Supply chains in the petfood industry are often very complex and involve many countries and organisations which might include growers, primary processors, secondary processors and traders. Identifying the “Critical Control Point” (CCP) can therefore be difficult due to supply chain complexity and given that there is no formalised decision tree available for doing this (unlike HACCP which has well established decision trees). It is also important to “think like a criminal!” i.e. what

A further indication of the damage done to trust was the anecdotal evidence on social media, that pet owners subsequently showed greater

materials are worth adulterating for economic gain and where in the supply chain can this be most easily done.

interest in making their own “homemade” petfood.

Humanisation and the risk of pet food fraud The industry response to food fraud post – “Melamine scandal”

Evidence from the human food sector shows that EMA has been found

Following the melamine scandal, considerable effort has gone into

Whilst it might also indicate better reporting and identification of

enhancing control of both food safety and food fraud in the pet food

EMA, statistics from the EU RASFF database (Rapid Alert System for

supply chain. Examples of this are seen with the development of the

Food and Feed) indicate an increasing trend in potential cases of food

US “Food Safety Modernisation Act” (FSMA) and enhancement of

fraud recorded in the EU.

in every food ingredient group, “from salt to saffron” (5).

global 3 party food safety certification e.g. BRC to include food fraud rd

vulnerability assessment. FSMA will be a requirement for businesses in the US petfood sector and those exporting to the US (raw materials and finished product), whilst BRC is widely used within the global petfood industry. With FSMA, the focus is on extensive regulatory requirements including control of import safety and supplier verification, whereas BRCv7 focuses more on supplier management. To use a military analogy, the war against EMA will not be won using any individual tool nor by an individual organisation. Whilst

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 29

Humanisation of petfood is an important driver of market growth and innovation. It is also driven by the desire of pet owners (pet parents) to do the best to ensure the health and wellbeing of their pets. However, it might also increase the possibility of EMA in petfood, as “higher” value premium raw materials are used. Two real life scenarios illustrate this risk:

Table 2 illustrates the key steps in simple, generic terms that highlight the similarities with HACCP.

Pet food fraud - Sticking your head in the sand is not an option! Until the melamine crisis, most petfood manufacturers and pet owners

• Turmeric – Widely used in petfood and treats where it is beneficial

are unlikely to have given much thought to petfood industry food fraud.

both as a natural colour and for health (6). Between 2011 – 2016

However, the events of 2007 – 2008 changed that and the profile

US FDA issued 17 recalls for turmeric contaminated with lead

of petfood fraud was raised when the scandal hit the world news

(Lead chromate is the same colour as turmeric)


• Premium fish claims – Monkfish is an example of a “premium” fish

It is clear to see that the consumers expect more action to

used in super-premium dry petfood; with 1 in 5 seafood samples

prevent food fraud and this is evident through the latest GFSI food

mislabelled worldwide, 20% chance you might not be buying

safety management standards, including BRC, FSSC22000 and SQF

what you think! (7)

Code widely used in global pet food industry. These all now contain requirements covering food fraud.

What can you do to protect your brands and business against food fraud?

In the words of the 18th Century German writer and statesman, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe:

Although there is no accepted definition of “food fraud”, most have similar scope: “Deliberately placing on the market, for financial gain, foods that are falsely described or otherwise intended to deceive the consumer” (UK Food Fraud Task Force).

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.” — Goethe

Tackling food fraud is not easy but petfood manufacturers can take a pro-active stance by implementing VACCP to build trust and protect

Our industry knows about food fraud because it has already

pets, brands and your business. Based on its similarities to HACCP,

suffered its consequences. Linked to the on-going humanisation trend,

VACCP implementation and maintenance follows a similar process.

the demands from pet owners will continue to rise to and they will look to the industry to continue to build and maintain trust. Addressing food fraud

Table 2 – What is required to implement and maintain VACCP in a petfood company? Step

What needs to be done?


Understand different types of food fraud


Gain Senior Management commitment


Raise awareness of food fraud through employee engagement and awareness training across all areas of the company and start developing a culture of fraud awareness through leadership.

and authenticity will not be optional in future, now is the time to act. Extensive research shows that implementation of food safety management systems is more likely to be effective when it is driven internally i.e. from senior management within the business, rather than due to external pressure e.g. from retailers. (8) The same will be true of VACCP and implementation should be internally driven. Get expert help if required to help implement VACCP. Once implemented, communicate this publicly to demonstrate to pet owners your proactivity in combating food fraud.


Implement a cross-functional VACCP Team


Define the scope of the VACCP Plan (which raw materials and what types of EMA might we see)


Carry out Raw Materials Vulnerability Assessment (RMVA) – Similar process to HACCP using Likelihood of Occurrence and Severity of Effect


Based on RMVA identify control measures that prevent, detect and reduce the risk



Identify measures to verify and validate VACCP

growth, the risks around authenticity are likely to increase as the petfood


Implement control measures

industry uses more ingredients that have the potential for food fraud.


Maintain and develop VACCP – Similar process to HACCP for maintaining effectiveness (monitoring; corrective action; verification; documentation and record keeping; “Horizon Scanning” to identify new threats)

11 12

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Annual review of VACCP Plan and updating the Risk Register (Hazards; CCPs) Maintain awareness of food fraud through on-going communication, awareness and leadership across all areas of the company

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Food fraud is however only one element in the trust equation. The focus in the human food industry is now switching more to “food integrity” (5), defined by the EU as: - “the state of being whole, entire, or undiminished or in perfect condition” (9). This reflects the need for the food chain to focus not only on safety and quality but also on With on-going humanization of petfood as a key stimulus of market

To build and maintain trust in petfood, today and in the future, whether you are a raw material supplier or petfood manufacturer ask yourself: “Are you considering all aspects of food integrity (safety, quality and authenticity) or only part of it?” Failure to fully embrace the concept of food integrity puts your brands, profitability and business at greater risk.

Synergy Food Ingredients (SFI) is a specialist technical consultancy for the petfood industry and pet food supply chain. Our speciality is ensuring petfood integrity - Protecting your business, your brands and our pets by developing and implementing risk management systems to help ensure food safety, quality and authenticity of petfood and petfood ingredients. SFI have nearly 40 years’ experience in the global pet food industry including nearly 30 years’ in raw material risk management (food safety, raw materials risk assessment, supplier quality management and supply chain risk assessment). Humanization of petfood is not only about raw materials but includes how we manage food safety, quality and authenticity risks using food industry “Best Practice� to manage food integrity risks. Petfood integrity requires an integrated approach to food safety, quality and authenticity to help ensure that our petfood is safe and meets retailers and pet owners’ expectations on quality, claims and authenticity. SFI can help you protect and grow your business by providing mentoring, expertise and training in petfood integrity to implement “Best Practice� risk management systems. To discover more about our services and learn how SFI can help you to protect and grow your business please visit our website or email us at To learn more about petfood innovation, including pet food safety, you are invited to join industry colleagues for 2-days of networking and educational presentations from global experts, at the 4th Nordic Pet Food Seminar (4NPFS), Prague, Czech Republic, 2nd – 3rd October 2018. 4NPFS is organised by Nordic Pet Food Events and follows on from highly acclaimed seminars in Norway, Croatia and Denmark between 2015 – 2017. Please visit for more details.

References 1. The Chinese Food Market cserver/publication/free/market-study-china-food-report-20150828s-ge.pdf 2. MSU survey determines that more than 300 pets may have died from contaminated pet food; culprit may be lethal combination of contaminants 3. Pet owners receive $12.4 million in melamine case com/vinnews.aspx?articleId=20025 4. Two Chemnutra officials sentenced to probation for role in 2007 pet food recall

0 1 2 3

3 4 / 5 6 /

5. Professor Chris Elliott, Institute for Global Food Security - Food Fraud Conference 2018, London, 1/3/18 (Prof Elliott author of “Elliott Review into the Integrity and Assurance of Food Supply Networks� – UK Government response following 2013 Horsegate scandal) 6. Turmeric is beneficial both as a natural colour and for health http:// 7. Deceptive Dishes: Seafood Swaps Found Worldwide http://usa. 8. Technical barriers to Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP); Panisello and Quantick; Food Control, Volume 12, Issue 3, 2001, Pages 165-173 9. Food Integrity

Inovitec Ltd, Unit 5A Tarporley

Business Centre,

Nantwich Road, Tarporley, CW6 9UT !"#$ %&!'!% ( ) * !"#$ %&!'"! + , - . ./

Pet Food Supplement 2018

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… PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … PRODUCTS … NEWS… SERVICES … A BRAND NEW LOOK FOR BUTCHER’S Butcher’s Pet Care has been providing naturally nourishing food for dogs for over 30 years. The company has always been passionate about the ingredients that go into its products – it is deep rooted in its ethos and stems from its heritage in farming and butchery.

The number one canned dog food brand has introduced new on pack and digital communications to better help people to understand that Butcher’s only uses great ingredients to give dogs the nourishing food they would instinctively choose. Dialling up its existing messaging so that it’s easy to see that all the meat is sourced from British and Irish farms and that all recipes are free from any nasties. Every recipe is grain free with the exception of a few specially designed ‘sensitive’ products that use wholegrain rice. The new simple, modern blue design, revealed at Crufts 2018, focuses on the company’s farm to bowl ethos and ingredient benefits, helping dog owners to better understand the naturally nutritious food Butcher’s makes. The new packs better communicate the company’s heritage in farming and its passion for great ingredients that dogs love.

ZOOMARK, the International Trade Show for Pet Products and Accessories, presents the new features of the 2019 edition

and professionals from Italy and the rest of the

the past), enabling Italian and international

world, and respond to the growing number of

professionals to organise their visits on the day

applications from companies globally, Zoomark

they prefer, and distributing visitor numbers

International 2019 will feature new halls and

over four days.

extended exhibiting space. The event will

The previous edition, in 2017, marked a

Zoomark International, organized by

now cover a surface area of more than 53,000

new record, with the addition of a new hall to

Bolognafiere, is the most important professional

square metres, occupying not only hall 28 but

accommodate the high number of companies

pet industry event held in odd years in Europe.

also the brand new halls 29 and 30, which were

on the waiting list. A total of 735 exhibitors took

The last edition, in 2017, saw a 17% increase

inaugurated in 2018 to offer greater capacity

part in the show, 479 of whom were foreign,

in the number of exhibitors and a 25% rise in

and a more streamlined visitor experience.

from 42 countries, representing the leading

New show dates. To respond to the

edge in pet food, accessories, care and health.

The forthcoming event boasts two important

demand from exhibitors and visitors, Zoomark

The event attracted more than 27,000 buyers

new features:

International 2019 will run from Monday 6 May

and visitors (a 25% increase on the 2015

New exhibiting space. To offer the highest

to Thursday 9 May 2019 (no longer taking

event), and a third of visitors came from 100

level of service to the pet industry manufacturers

place at the weekend as was the case in

foreign countries.

the number of trade visitors.

CROSTON ENGINEERING Ltd Bulk Storage, Handling and Process Engineers to the Food, Animal feed, Brewery and Chemical Industries, Established 1976 Croston Engineering, since its formation in 1976, has specialised in the design and building of bulk storage, handling and process plants throughout the UK and Ireland. The company’s clients include many household names in the pet food, animal feed and human food industries from whom repeat contracts are received as a result of the prompt and personal service that is provided. Projects undertaken range from the intake and bulk storage of raw materials through processing that may include batch weighing, grinders, mixers, extrusion, pelleting and the out loading of finished products. The carrying out of improvements and extensions to existing production plants is part of the Company’s remit. Croston Engineering is an Approved SAFEContractor, a recognised standard of competence in the industry and is fully conversant with the requirements of DSEAR/ATEX Explosion Regulations where applicable. TARVIN MILL, BARROW LANE, TARVIN, CHESTER, CH3 8JF Telephone: 01829 741119 Website:

Page 32

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Fax: 01829 741169 Email:

Dinnissen HAMEX hammer mill with automatic screen changer Dinnissen Process Technology manufacturer and system integrator

Semi-automatic version

specializes in the development and production of process technologies

In addition to the automatic version of the screen exchanger, a semi-

for the food, feed and petfood industries. Dinnissen offers a complete

automatic version of the Hamex hammer mill is also available. With this

range of hammer mills for fine grinding various ingredients. The latest

basic unit all functionality is the same as with the fully automatic version

is the Hamex hammer mill fitted with an automatic screen changing

except that the screens have to be exchanged by hand. Also with this

system. The new hammer mill allows users to benefit from increased

system, the motor is not stopped to exchange the screens, and the

speed, convenience, and energy saving when changing screens, thus

screens can be exchanged fast without interfering with production.

increasing hourly grinding capacity.

Specially designed for the petfood industry

Extremely reliable, low-maintenance, and 20% increase in production capacity

At the moment Dinnissen already has delivered several new Hamex

The hammer mill with (semi-)automatic screen changing system has a

hammer mills systems in the petfood industry. Finer grinding, higher

completely new process design. This results in a 20% higher production

capacity, fast control of screen condition and fast exchange of screens

capacity at the same level of power consumption. The new Dinnissen

are key points for this.

hammer mill also has a very robust design and operates at a maximum speed of 1800 RPM, making it much less sensitive to vibrations and

Extreme quick changeover of screens, within 40 seconds!


The automatic screen changer allows the user to quickly change


screens without stopping the grinding rotor. This minimizes downtime

Designed for fatty products

during the grinding process and maximizes production capacity.

Optimal particle size

In addition, as the grinding rotor and the motor no longer have to

Less rejects

be repeatedly switched on and off, it also saves a great deal of

Higher end product quality


Better quality of kibble for coating

HAMEX hammer mill with automatic screen changer

For more information: Dinnissen BV, Netherlands (

Pet Food Supplement 2018

Page 33

Global leader in pet premix

World-beating food safety and peace of mind for your brand. Operating from our ISO22000:2005 accredited premix plant, Trouw Nutrition is acknowledged worldwide as the industry’s gold standard leader. Our unrivalled knowledge and expertise, supported by our unique NutraceŽ food safety and traceability system, make us your only choice of expert partner in developing and delivering nutritional solutions tailored to your specific requirements.

Contact Tony Hollett or Roderick Prince on: +44 (0)1335 341121 or visit

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