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Pet Topics........................................................1 By Roger W Dean

PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean

Satiety – A Proven Weight Management Concept....................................9

Pet Food and Recession

By Dr Martin Karutz

in the aftermath of the deepest recession in two generations, how have

Seven Common Elevator Leg Problems That Cause Abnormal Bucket Wear.............12 By Carl Swisher

With a large part although not the entirety of the industrial world mired petfoods and pet products been faring? On the one hand, there have been plenty of horror stories. In the UK, there were widespread reports of pets being abandoned in the Midlands, an industrial area which has been heavily hit by the downturn. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)

L-Carnitine – Vital For Health And Well-Being Of People And Pets....................14

reported in April 2009 that the charity had dealt with 11,586 ‘dumped’ animals in 2008, an average of more than 30 each day and a figure

By David Beaumont

that was fifty-seven per cent higher than the equivalent figure for 2007.

The Importance Of Packaging......................18

voluntarily taken in by the RSPCA.

By Dr Riccardo Concetti and Graham Rawlings

Carbohydrates – The Good, The Bad … And The Physiology..........................20 By David Southey

Andritz Feed & Biofuel China Successfully Launches Combi Zone Dryer In The Asian Market............................22

Moreover, that figure represents just pets illegally dumped, not those According to Wealden District Council in Sussex, pet dogs are ‘becoming the innocent victims of the recession’. Its animal wardens picked up two hundred and six stray dogs in the area last year with more than 2,100 being collected across Sussex as a whole, a relatively prosperous part of England’s southeast. A Council spokesman was reported as warning that dogs could be expensive to keep and, as a result of the recession, more animals were being abandoned across the county. She added that it was around March that dogs given as presents at Christmas were coming under threat as the novelty of a new pet wore off and urged pet owners having difficulty looking after a pet to ‘talk to our animal welfare service or the RSPCA.’

The New Economic Reality............................23 By Dr Mukund Parthasarathy

In the US, of course, where the recession has struck with particular severity at homeowners, pets have either been consigned to shelters because their owners have been forced to move to apartments where

Pegasus Paddle Mixer From Dinnissen Significantly Improves The Taste Of Cat Food..................................25 

it is not possible, for whatever reason to keep a pet or, incredibly, have been left unattended at foreclosed properties. A spokesman for the Humane Society in Georgia said the abandonment rate was ten times that of two or three years earlier, before a wave of foreclosures started hitting neighborhoods throughout the State. With more pets

Published by: Pentlands Publishing Ltd, Station Road, Great Longstone, Bakewell DE45 1TS. United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1629 640941 Fax: +44 (0)1629 640588 E-mail: Web:

Editor: Andrew D. Mounsey

coming in and fewer people with the resources to pay for adopting a pet, nearly all animal shelters there were being stretched to their limits and, in many cases, beyond. In New York, hard hit by the collapse on Wall Street and the loss of highly paid jobs in finance, the New York Times reported that, until comparatively recently, one way the wealthy ‘flashed their fortunes’ was ‘by decking their dogs in Burberry collars and sending them for spa services’. But the recession had meant that even the city’s wealthiest dog owners had cut their budgets and sometimes abandoned their

Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publisher.

dogs entirely. The co-founder of a Manhattan ‘Doggie Gym’ was

© Pentlands Publishing Ltd 2010

owners who had quite recently been accustomed to spend thousands

reported as saying that he had never seen so many dogs abandoned by

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 1

of dollars on purchasing and maintaining them. And those wealthy

Changing Culture

pet owners who were holding on to their dogs are reportedly cutting

The life of cats and dogs, prior to their transition to the status of what

back hard. The owner of a Dog Parlour on New York’s Upper East Side

is frequently termed as ‘full family members’, was largely defined by

reported that demand had shrunk by half for day care, grooming and

utilitarian considerations.

$15 bags of dog food. Owners had also started to stretch out their

Dogs were protectors and guardians of both domesticated

dog’s grooming services from every four to every eight weeks. ‘The

livestock and human beings against marauders, both human and

dogs look ragged,’ she said. But the owners say that they are ‘sorry

animal. Cats existed primarily as a pest control agency with regard

my dog is a mess. But I don’t have a job.’

to rodents threatening human food supplies although they did have

On the west coast, the State of California has been undergoing

an additional function as objects of religious veneration in Pharonic

a serious financial budgetary crisis of its own and the recession has

Egypt. As such, dogs received such food as to keep them alive, largely

come as a double whammy on top of the State’s seemingly unsolvable

consisting of scraps. Cats were expected to forage for their own food

fiscal difficulties. According to the Los Angeles County Department

in the form of mice and rats caught, as one might say, in the course

of Health Services, animal control agencies are already ‘processing’

of duty.

well over half-a-million homeless pets each year. Only 25 per cent of

Increasing disposable incomes in many countries have meant an

these animals are adopted or placed into a safe environment with the

improvement in the quality of life for many pets but, as the Economist

majority, including those with a registered pedigree being, to use that

newspaper recently pointed out, dogs’ and cats’ lives assume a more

dreadful expression, ‘euthanized’.

sombre hue in some parts of the world.

In the context of the overall US economy, although economists

The Economist reported that dog meat is a popular dish in many

feel that the recession is nearing its end, recovery will be tentative well

parts of China, particularly amongst ethnic Koreans in the north-east

into the second and, perhaps, the third quarter of 2010 as the economy

of the country and that restaurants serving dog are also common in

recovers from a severe downturn. But, due to California’s fierce budget-

Beijing. Cats are reportedly a popular dish in southern China.

cutting which has seen the State issuing IOU’s to its own employees,

It now appears that China is ready to end a centuries-old custom

shelter animals are only allowed to remain on death row for three days,

and remove cat and dog from the menu. According to local state-run

half what they were once allowed. And animal rights activists say that

media, a draft law was expected to have been presented to the National

seventy-two hours is simply not enough time for them to locate the

People’s Congress in April. This would be China’s first law against

owner of a lost or runaway pet with no ID such as a microchip.

animal abuse. Anyone caught eating cat or dog meat would face a

Against such a background, insistence on the part of the pet food

fine of as much as 5,000 yuan, equivalent roughly to £450 and be

and products industry that pet owners are riding out the recession

sentenced to up to fifteen days in jail. Organizations involved in selling

with no discernable signs of retrenching their expenditure may look a

cats or dogs or their meat for consumption could be fined between

little like whistling in the wind. According to the American Pet Products

10,000 and 500,000 yuan.

Association, US spending on pets continues to grow despite the downturn. Spending on pet food, a range of other supplies, veterinary

Attitudes towards pets in China have been changing rapidly in recent years.

treatment along with services such as grooming and boarding

Under Chairman Mao, pets were considered ‘a bourgeois

increased by 5.4 per cent in 2009 compared with the previous year,

affectation’ and banned but, with the emergence of a growing urbanized

reaching a total 0f $45.5 billion and the APPA is predicting that spending

and increasingly affluent population, pet ownership has become more

in 2010 will increase again by up to five per cent.

popular. In 2008, according to Euromonitor, Chinese consumers spent

It appears that, while US pet spending is increasing in all market

5.73 billion yuan (approximately £564.5 million) on pet food and pet-

sectors, spending on veterinary services showed the biggest increase;

care products, a 6.9 per cent increase on the previous year. Euromonitor

up by 8.5 per cent in 2009. This reflects veterinary care advances which

went on to predict that the market would rise 5.6 percent in 2009, to

have greatly advanced the range of services available. Pets are now

6.05 billion yuan (£596 million).

undergoing CT scans, root canal procedures and cancer surgery. The

But if Chinese consumers are turning increasingly towards pet

APPA is looking for a further six per cent increased spend on veterinary

ownership, a ubiquitous officialdom still intrudes into what would seem

care in 2010.

essentially to be an individual lifestyle choice.

It has to borne in mind, of course, that the APPA is a Trade

The residents of Guangzhou, an hour’s train journey from Hong

Association which was set up in 1958, to serve the interests of the pet

Kong and one of China’s most affluent cities with an expanding middle

products industry with a mission to promote, develop and advance pet

class, were confronted in June 2009 by a new city ordinance to the

ownership and the pet product industry. Amongst APPA’s promotional

effect that each household would be allowed only one dog, meaning

activities is the publication of the National Pet Owners Survey, the 2009-

that anybody owning more than one would be allowed to keep only

2010 edition of which states that 62 per cent of US households own

their favourite.

a pet, equating to a total of 71.4 million homes. This compares with

City officials justified this draconian ordinance with reference to

the situation in 1988, the first year in which the survey was conducted,

the city’s stray dog problem. As the middle class has grown, so has

when only 56 per cent of US households owned a pet. The estimated

the numbers owning dogs. I’m not sure what is the Chinese for ‘Dogs

spend in 2010 of $47.7 billion will break down 38.3 per cent on food,

are not just for Christmas’ but it seems that one consequence of many

26.8 per cent on veterinary care and 23.1 per cent on other supplies

owning dogs for the first time is that the pets are often abandoned

including over-the-counter medicines.

when the novelty wears off, a problem compounded by owners failing

Page 2

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

to neuter their pets. In addition, Guangzhou hosts the Asian Games

notes that, overall, both dog and cat food continue to enjoy strong

which take place in November 2010 and the authorities are attempting

growth [1]. The latter, however, has reflected to a very great extent the

to clean the city up before the Games take place.

performance of specific categories of pet food. In the UK cat food

The capital, Beijing, not only has a one-dog policy but also decrees

sector, wet food is the principal market driver with manufacturers

that they must not be taller than 35 cm, about fourteen inches. Since

emphasising the premium nature of their wet brands. Conversely, wet

2006, dogs have also been banned in public places. Part of Beijing’s

dog food is stagnating, with dry dog food making the running, reflecting

policy as regards dogs stems from the fact that China has a rabies rate

pet owners’ appreciation of the potential health benefits of feeding dry

which is second only to that of India. A cull in southwest China in 2006

dog food and of the comparative ease with which dry dog food can be

accounted for more than 50,500 dogs. In 2009, a similar cull accounted

purchased in bulk. Dry cat food, on the other hand is showing a much

for 33,000 dogs in Shaanxi province subsequent to an increase in the

more restrained rate of growth, although veterinarians stress the role of

number of rabies cases.

dry cat food in controlling gum disease in cats which show a surprising

In the build-up to the Beijing Olympics in 2008, one hundred and

degree of resistance to having their teeth brushed!

twelve ‘official’ restaurants were instructed to remove dog from their

On the subject of health, the problem of pet obesity continues to

menus in order to avoid offending tourists. However, the Olympics were

mount in the UK as in other industrialized countries, particularly the US.

not all good news for dogs. There was also a massive cull of pet dogs

According to one source, between twenty-five and forty per cent of dogs

in the run-up to the Games while, in addition, a government-inspired

in the US are obese. Nor are dogs the only species involved; cats and

campaign to associate cats with serious diseases including Serious

all domestic pets are at risk from this potentially fatal condition as the

Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), led to a major cull of cats under

photographs in my veterinary’s waiting room can testify. Overweight

frequently disturbing circumstances, much protested against by welfare

pets suffer more physical illness and do not live as long as animals of

groups both outside and within China.

recommended weight. Obesity can frequently affect pets’ quality of life

China, as well as, India displays all the symptoms of a clash between traditional attitudes to ‘domestic’ animals. The perception of pets has changed significantly in Indian households. As part of the so-called ‘humanisation’ trend, pets are

while the health risks associated with weight gain include cardiac and respiratory diseases, diabetes, liver disease, arthritis and spinal disc problem to name a few. Incidentally, these conditions apply equally to the human population.

being increasingly treated as family members rather than working

Increasing awareness amongst pet owners of health aspects

animals, for example, as guard dogs for security purposes or cats

related to nutrition has encourage the development of markets for new

for pest control. Euromonitor as well as other sources takes the view

multi-functional foods aimed at improving general pet health, including

that many Indian pet owners now derive emotional satisfaction from

products focussed on improving the condition of paws, claws, eyes,

keeping a healthy and well-groomed pet, particularly those who may

coats, skin and teeth. Another aspect related to the drive to convenience

have studied for their masters degree or higher in a US or EU University

in a world where pet owners are increasingly time-pressured is the

and who have spent time working in the west before returning to their

continuing move away from the traditional canned presentation while,

native land.

on the other hand, pouches such as the Purina One Natural Balance,

These changes in attitudes seem set to continue to spur on the development of the Indian pet food and care products market in the

Whiskas and Felix brands plus an increasing range of supermarket own labels have increased their share of the market.

next five years as well as exerting an increasing influence on related

Despite what one source has called ‘a general stagnation’ in pet

industries such as pet grooming, already a significant business in

numbers in the UK, the petfood and pet care market is one of the most


robust in the EU. It appears that with anthropomorphism gathering pace,

Pet Trends in the UK

manufacturers are increasingly able to persuade pet owners to trade

The main body representing pet food manufacturers in the UK has

up to super premium and premium products which will drive value sales

recently completed its latest survey of the British pet population,

growth over the forecast period projected by the report. It appears that

showing that, in 2009, there were approximately eight million dogs and

UK pet owners are also increasingly willing to spend extra on food for

eight million cats in Britain. According to the Pet Foods Manufacturers’

their cats and dogs, according to data compiled by M&S Pet Insurance

Association (PFMA), more than two-thirds of the canine population

and reported on in late 2009.

consisted of pedigree breeds; the feline population was composed of more that four-fifths non-pedigree breeds.

In 2008, according to a Mintel Report, a total of £1.7 billion was spent in the UK on food for domestic animals. In a press release dated 5

Dogs and cats are not, of course, the only type of pet popular

October 2009, M&S Pet Insurance also quoted data from online retailer

in the UK and in this connection, I must congratulate the Guardian

and pharmacy Bestpet which reported a thirty per cent increase in sales

and Observer newspapers on their publication, in March 2010, of two

of premium food sales during a twelve month period running from the

supplements featuring, respectively, cats and dogs and a miscellany

last quarter of 2008 - a reflection of the fact that, with the recession

of other assorted birds, reptiles, fish and other livestock. I have often

biting, Bestpet sells pet medication and food costing up to fifty per

wondered about the relationship that may be struck off between a

cent less than buying at a vet.

human and a stick insect but if it teaches a young person how to care

Interestingly, the insurer made the point that UK owners were also

for an otherwise defenceless creature, then I suppose that this may be accounted another benefit of pet ownership. Meanwhile, a recent Euromonitor report on the UK pet food market

Page 4

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

[1] Pet Food and Pet Care Products in the United Kingdom - Euromonitor International published in September 2009.

increasingly ready to make the link between premium foods for their

It appears that a specialist in renal pathology at a Veterinary

pets and pet health; in the UK as well as in the US, pet obesity together

Diagnostic Laboratory in Athens, Georgia succeeded in tracking

with its attendant health problems is becoming a major concern of

down tissue samples from the pets that died in 2004. The samples

the veterinary profession. A spokesman for Bestpet Pharmacy noted

contained the same type of insoluble crystals found in US pets

that ‘Responsible pet owners who ensure their cats and dogs have a

during the 2007 outbreak. However, it also appears that the Georgia

healthy diet and regular exercise can help reduce expensive vet bills

researchers were not the first to link the two outbreaks; when it became

in the future.’ It seems that the message is getting through; a survey

known that melamine and cyanuric acid were the culprits behind

conducted in 2008 by the UK Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association

the US pet deaths, Mars scientists made the link and claim to have

showed that nine in ten pet owners claimed to be aware of the potential

‘shared this information with the veterinary community and regulators

health effects of various kinds of pet food.

in Asia and the US.’ However, while the Food and Drug Administration

Cats – or their Owners – are Cleverer? According to a study by Bristol University’s Department of Clinical

acknowledges it was informed, it appears that major veterinary and pet food organizations claim they were never told by Mars of any link between the two outbreaks.

Veterinary Science published in the Veterinary Record, people who

The 2007 recall of pet foods in the US and Canada was the biggest

own a cat are more likely to have a university degree than those with

on record, reportedly affecting over one hundred brands and sixty

a pet dog [2]. The survey of 2,524 households found that 47.2 per cent

million packages of wet and dry dog and cat food.

of those with a cat had at least one person educated to degree level, compared with 38.4 per cent of homes with dogs! Interestingly, the study also found that UK pet ownership was much higher than previously thought.

There was, predictably, much speculation over what long-term impact the recall would have on the industry. However, industry sources seem to agree that the recall has had few long-lasting effects, with most pet owners returning to their regular brands soon afterwards.

Cat and dog numbers were last estimated in a peer-reviewed

Nonetheless, the recall did provide a boost for the already growing

scientific journal in 1989. This concluded that there were 6.2 million cats

demand for ‘super-premium’ dog and cat food with some consumers

and 6.4 million dogs in the UK. According to the Department of Clinical

looking to these brands in the expectation of higher-quality ingredients

Veterinary Science‘s study, however, current numbers are likely to be about 10.3 million and 10.5 million respectively. This is significantly

Pets and the Dentist

higher than the Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association estimate of around

I was not aware of the existence of the Feline Advisory Bureau (FAB)

eight million for each species in 2009

until my vet told me about it.

One of the study’s authors, Dr Jane Murray, a lecturer in feline epidemiology at Bristol University, said the variation in education levels between owners was the most striking difference. She added that researchers hoped to repeat the study using the results of the 2011 census to get a clearer idea of trends in UK pet ownership.

Pet Food Recalls In the last issue of this publication, I discussed the disastrous pet food recall episode in the US which was eventually traced back to contamination of ingredients with melamine. It further emerged that the contamination was deliberate, with a view to raising the protein analysis of the ingredient material concerned. I now understand that pathologists have recently determined that the US outbreak in 2007 was not the first chemical-related incident to occur this decade. An outbreak in 2004 also involved pet foods contaminated with industrial chemicals and affected more than six thousand dogs and a smaller number of cats across Asia, according to Asian press reports at the time, with renal failure in the animals linked to Pedigree dog foods and Whiskas cat foods manufactured in Thailand by Mars. In the US, it was publically assumed the outbreak was the first of its kind until a pet blog, Pet Connection, reported on the Asian incidents. Asian veterinarians initially ascribed the 2004 pet deaths to fungal toxins, one of the first suspicions in the context of the US recalls in 2007.

[2] Number and ownership profiles of cats and dogs in the UK, by Jane K Murray, William J Browne, Margaret A Roberts, Amber Whitmarsh and Timothy J Gruffydd-Jones, Veterinary Record, 6 February 2010.

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 5

Briefly and surprisingly, and as FAB’s own website notes, although

on the surfaces of the teeth around the gums. If this is allowed to

cats are ‘an endless source of fascination’, relatively little was known

accumulate, the bacteria in dental plaque irritates the gum tissue which,

about them or their veterinary needs when the Bureau was founded

in turn, often leads to infection in the bone surrounding the teeth.

by Joan Judd in 1958. Attracted to cats from childhood, her interest

Hard dental tartar consists of calcium salts from saliva deposited

developed further when she became the owner of two Siamese cats

on plaque. This starts to form within a few days on a tooth surface that is

which would, indeed, keep anybody in fulltime employment.

not kept free of plaque and provides a rough surface enhancing further

Unable to find answers to a vast array cat health problems, she set out to provide cat lovers with information based upon proven facts. In

build-up of plaque. Once established, tartar is difficult if not impossible to remove without dental instruments.

1958 she founded FAB, based upon a determination to generate and

Halitosis - bad breath - is the most common effect noted by pet

disseminate high quality scientific information to anyone involved with

owners; this, however, is frequently only the initial symptom. The gums

cats, be they vets or owners. It appears that, in the UK at least, FAB

become irritated, leading to bleeding and oral pain and your cat or

is still unique, having led the field of knowledge about our cats and

dog may lose its appetite or drop food from its mouth while eating.

what makes them tick for half a century. This work and the influence

The roots may become so severely affected that some teeth become

it brings to bear continues, not only in the treatment of disease but in

loose and fall out. Bacteria surrounding the roots gain access to the

establishing standards for boarding catteries and providing help and

blood stream. Studies have shown that dogs with severe periodontal

information to cat owners nationwide [3].

disease are characterised by an increased degree of microscopic

Here, an interest must be declared.

damage in their kidneys, heart muscle and liver than do dogs with less

The author is the keeper of a cat who will be nineteen at around

severe periodontal disease.

Christmas 2010. The cat in question has recently taken to yowling in the middle of the night for no apparent reason. FAB provided a useful

The key to managing gum disease, whether in humans or pets, is prevention.

explanation to this, noting that ‘vocalisation appears to play a big part

I must confess that I have never envisaged successfully brushing

in the ageing process. Two thirds of the cats surveyed use more sounds

a dog’s teeth, let alone a cat’s; nevertheless, a helpful website, the

to get food and attention’. FAB goes on to note that more than a quarter

Forget-Me-Not Cat Sanctuary, advises me that it is perfectly possible

of surveyed cats called for attention at night, stopping only when

to do so if the learning process is started sufficiently early. Tips include

they received attention or reassurance from their owners. FAB further

the advice to use a soft veterinary toothbrush; human toothbrushes are

suggests that, as a cat’s ability to protect itself declines, there appears

too large to use for your pet’s teeth. Such toothbrushes can be bought

to develop a higher dependency on their owners for their security.

from your veterinarian or from a pet store.

Having tried successfully a number of times to illicit a response from

Veterinary toothpaste must also be obtained; human toothpaste

their owners by means of a harsh distressed yowl difficult to ignore,

may be harmful to cats. It appears that there are many flavours of pet

they continue to perform the ritual as ‘a learned behaviour’. According

toothpaste available including poultry and fish, a fact confirmed by

to FAB, a number of owners reported that the calling stopped when

my own veterinarian!

the cat was allowed to sleep in the bedroom although in the author’s case, it must be admitted that the calling started in the bedroom where

Russian Pets

the cat has always slept!

As one of the so-called BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India and China)

However, FAB also makes the inescapable point which, doubtless, will have occurred to readers, that other factors may be at play.

that have shown amongst the highest world growth rates in Gross Domestic Products over recent years, there has been considerable

These include deafness and chronic cerebral hypoxia - deficiency

interest in Russia as potentially a major pet food and product market.

of oxygen supply to the brain - which potentially produce symptoms of

However, following the crisis that has reportedly engulfed the Russian

senility and short-term memory problems causing general confusion

economy since the crash in oil and gas prices in 2008-09, two recent

at night. Other causes include high blood pressure, causing general

reports have shed light on what is happening to the pet food industry

discomfort, headache and disorientation with ensuing distress

in that vast country.

response. Night-time vocalisation is often reported as one of the

The report published in December 2009 by Agriculture and Agri-

behavioural signs in cats suffering from hyperthyroidism, a condition

Food Canada suggests that the Russian pet food market still offers

frequently seen in the elderly cat. Needless to say, all these potential

major opportunities for growth and, indeed, presented figures that made

conditions have been investigated by the author’s veterinarian and,

the author stop and stare, During the past ten years, the average growth

mercifully, found to be absent.

in GDP has been seven per cent, economic growth which has driven

FAB has also provided useful data on another aspect of the aging feline in question in that, as all owners will be all-too-aware, dental problems become more acute as dogs and cats get older.

demand for pet ownership and prepared pet food products. Interestingly, the Canadian study highlighted the significance of unprepared pet foods in Russia which, the report argues, presents

This is not surprising. As life expectancy amongst humans has

potentially the major growth opportunity in this largely untapped

increased, it has become equally evident that the major cause of human

market. Increases in disposable incomes have also improved demand

tooth loss is not tooth decay but periodontal gum disease. This results

for premium pet food products.

from the infection that results from the build-up of soft dental plaque

The Russian pet food market is worth US $1 billion and is forecasted to be one of the fastest growing in the world. There are an

[3] A useful introduction to this organisation may be found at http://www.fabcats. org/publications/pdfs/Essential_cattitude.pdf

Page 6

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

estimated 17.8 million pet cats and 12.2 million pet dogs in Russia, thus ranking Russia second only to the United States in terms of the

number of pets per head of human population.

strongest. Disposable incomes tend to be higher in urban areas,

The report suggests that the ‘humanisation’ of pets is starting to

creating the potential for a higher proportion of pet owners to spend

become very prominent in Russia, as owners are increasingly willing

significant and increasing amounts on not just feeding but caring for

to spend more on premium pet food products to indulge their pets -

their pets. Distribution channels are also important; premium and

humanisation being defined as treating pets like companions or family

super premium products are more widely available in large cities,

members and looking after their health and well-being accordingly.

particularly through the development of new marketing channels such

This is distinct from anthropomorphism - the ascription of human

as pet superstores and veterinary complexes. And, finally, there is the

characteristics to animals.

obvious point that many urban consumers have limited free time and,

Another factor known to contribute to the growth in sales of

in consequence, feel somewhat guilty about the lack of attention they

prepared pet foods is the ongoing urbanization of the Russian

can afford their pet. The guilt is duly assuaged by buying higher quality

population, a development shared with many other emerging

and more expensive pet food and pet care products. Rather like some

economies. Prepared pet foods are more ‘convenient’ and are, by

peoples’ attitudes to their children, really!

definition, more appropriate to the life-styles of urban dwellers.

The Russian retail layout is changing as the country moves away

Euromonitor reported, in late 2009 that, in line with the global

from the dreaded ‘gastronome’ or food store, an institution personally

economic crisis, Russia’s economic development slowed down in 2009.

experienced by the author. Wholly new forms of retail outlets are

However, having experienced robust economic growth during most

emerging, not just in the cities but also in the regions. A number of

of the review period as a result of high commodity and, in particular,

own label brands are emerging in the retail sector and these include

oil prices, Russia was not, on first appearances, as badly affected as

pet foods.

some other countries.

Supermarkets and hypermarket outlets are increasing in average

In the major urban centres of Moscow and St Petersburg, this

size and, as a result, are able to assign more shelf space to economy and

has helped to sustain a positive development of the Russian pet food

premium pet food brands. There is no doubt that this has encouraged

and pet care products market. But, as importantly, the tendency of

a trend towards product diversification. In 2009 this continued to cause

owners to treat pets like family members and to be willing to spend

more intense competition between pet food manufacturers, which had

significant sums on their health and well-being - the pet humanisation

a moderating effect on prices and made higher quality products more

trend - has also contributed to positive market development in 2009.

affordable to larger numbers of consumers.

Other aspects have included organic growth in the pet population and, importantly in countries such as Russia, the development of

UK Pet food Manufacturing Statistics

improved distribution channels for dog and cat food products. Other

According to the 2009 edition of UK Business: Activity, Size and

factors identified by Euromonitor include growing consumer demand

Location, there were one hundred and eighty sites in the UK classed

for convenience pet foods and increasing awareness of pet health

as being involved in the manufacture of prepared petfoods. Of these, eighty employed up to four people; there were only fifteen

issues among owners. Euromonitor also reported that the ‘other pet food’ sector also benefited from increased interest in exotic and rare pets, particularly smaller animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs that are easier to care for and can be kept in cramped urban environments.

sites that employed one hundred people or more. Of this latter total, just five sites employed upwards of two hundred and fifty people. In terms of location, the largest single concentration of sites involved in the manufacture of prepared pet foods was in Yorkshire

Euromonitor also identify in Russia what appears to be a

and the Humber. The east and southeast of England boasted twenty-

widespread phenomenon as pet food markets develop, the trend to

five sites apiece. In contrast, Wales and Scotland have only five sites

pet humanisation. The effect of this was to ensure that the demand

each, as does London.

for superior quality premium and super premium pet food remained

If we look at the statistics at the enterprise level rather than from

robust in 2009 instead of falling back in line with consumers’ declining

the point-of-view of individual sites, then UK Business: Activity, Size

disposable incomes. One important aspect of this, in Russia as

and Location 2009 suggests that there were one hundred and fifty

elsewhere, is that it is in urban areas where this trend is likely to be

enterprises operating in the UK at the time of the 2009 survey of

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Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 7

which half employed up to and including four people. This accords

Pet foods – the Next Five Years

with the view that much of UK manufacturing is made up of small to

And finally, where is the world pet food industry likely to be heading

medium-sized businesses but has to be reconciled with the fact that,

in the next half-decade?

of the one hundred and fifty enterprises identified, sixty were reported

Currently, it may be reasonably argued that the US is the kingpin of

as generating sales in excess of £1 million, with half of those reporting

the world pet food market but there are clearly challengers waiting in the

turnover of £5 million or more.

wings. By 2013, one source suggests, Brazil will have overtaken Japan

Of the one hundred and fifty businesses, eighty had been founded

to claim the runner-up’s spot. Russia is seen as climbing up the rankings

for ten years or more but there were twenty businesses with a lifespan

and pet food sales in countries such as Thailand, Romania and India

of two years or less.

are also seen as growing rapidly in the years up to 2013. According

Each year, the UK government undertakes the Annual Business

to Euromonitor International, North America and Latin America saw the

Inquiry, the successor to, in my view, the much more useful Census

biggest increases in pet food sales between 2003 and 2008 followed

of Production. Data collected between 1997 and 2007 suggests that

by Western Europe. Significantly, Eastern Europe’s growth was just

the number of enterprises operating in the field of prepared pet food

behind that of the EU but from 2009 until 2013, it is projected that

manufacture peaked at around one hundred and seventy two in 2002,

Eastern Europe will overtake the EU. Asia Pacific will start catching up

since when the industry appears to have embarked on a process of

with the EU. In the latter, only Italy will still experience growth in the pet


food market at around five per cent a year between 2009 and 2013.

The ABI for 2008 was conducted under the Standard Industrial

Most other countries in the developed world will experience growth

Classification which became operative in 2007 (SIC 2007) as required

rates of between one and two per cent with ever-cautious Germany

under EU regulations and may not thus be directly compatible with

experiencing negative growth of around -0.8 per cent, reflecting German

the results shown for 2007 under the previous Standard Industrial

consumers’ continuing price-sensitiveness and preference for own

Classification. The results for 2008 suggest an industry with sales of

label or discount brand pet foods.

£1,207 million and purchases of goods, materials and services of £791

Unsurprisingly, differences in projected growth rates reflect local

million and employment costs of £138 million. Adding the last two

factors but Euromonitor has identified two common trends. Increasing

figures together and subtracting their combined total from total sales

pet ownership will reflect the rising proportion of the world’s population

suggests an operating margin of £278 million or 23 per cent. This may

living in an urban environment, a development associated with rising

be compared to the operating margin achieved by the manufacture of

disposable incomes which, in turn, creates more incentives for

prepared feeds for farm animals of 5.4 per cent in 2008.

developing a modern retail trading structure, despite the depressing

Speciality Petfood Ingredients

effects of the current recession. These factors also appear to be generating an increasing level of pet ownership in emerging markets, which have already experienced huge growth rates over the past decade. For instance, between 1998 and 2008, the number of cats and dogs owned in Brazil and Turkey rose by 49 per cent, resulting in a total of almost fifty million pets in Brazil, clearly a huge potential market. The Chinese pet dog and cat population stands, according to the most recent estimate, at almost 38 million; India has an estimated 7.6 million cats and dogs. The other major factor is the transition from what might be termed the ‘autonomous’ pet food market - the market where dogs are tossed scraps from the table while cats forage for themselves - to a market where diets specifically formulated on actual or perceived advantages form the major part of the pet population of the country concerned.

Adding Value – Naturally

A Euromonitor study points out, rightly, that the relatively low level of pet owners feeding commercially prepared foods means a huge potential market for the pet food industry. Among the ten projected fastest growing pet food markets, only Argentina has total consumption of prepared pet foods above a quarter of the total perceived market for pet foods, a figure that is far below the levels in developed markets. In a significant number of the fastest growing markets, total consumption of prepared pet foods barely reaches between five or ten per cent of the potential market for manufactured pet foods, constituting an

Contact John Nolan Inovitec Ltd Rookery Bank, Alpraham, Tarporley, Cheshire CW6 9HX Tel: 01829 730407 • Fax: 01829 730410 Email:

Page 8

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

enormous opportunity for companies seeking to encourage pet owners to switch from table scraps to prepared pet food which is arguably more nutritious, more convenient and more an expression of the developing relationship between humankind and the companion animal – or pet!

Satiety A Proven Weight Management Concept For Pets By Dr Martin Karutz, DSM Nutritional Products, Switzerland Overweight and obesity is one of the biggest challenges for the

about weight management means addressing the owner with the right

pet food industry. While the food industry innovation is focused

products, messages and facts to help him or her to control the pet’s

on finding new solutions to the problem, the pet nutrition industry

weight, while also satisfying an intense desire to pamper the pet.

is still mainly building on calorie reduced “light” products. This concept however does not consider the pet owner as a limiting

Calorie reduced pet foods

factor to successful weight management. Learning from functional

It is broadly accepted by veterinarians and pet nutrition specialists

foods might help. New concepts and ingredients for helping

that pet food products with a reduced calorie density can provide the

manage the weight of pet are becoming available for the pet food

foundation for a weight reduction program. Suitable diets for weight loss

industry. One example is Fabuless™ a satiety triggering ingredient

regimes are indicated to be low in fat, rich in dietary fibre with selective

demonstrated to reduce the calorie intake of pets.

carbohydrate sources to subdue insulin response. These “light” pet food products are designed to reduce calories by 5-15% at constant

Approximately 40% of the pet population in North America and Western

daily food intake. Since weight management is about reducing calorie

Europe is overweight or obese. This staggering figure is compounded

intake, the approach is right, at least when the reduced level of fat is

by obesity related conditions such as diabetes mellitus, orthopedic

not offset by increased highly digestible carbohydrates combined with

problems, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic and physical

lower proteins. Adequate mineral and vitamin supplementation as well as

problems. But the main reason for overweight and obese pets is the human factor, linked to several issues:

sufficient protein intakes for the feed levels must be maintained. Various antioxidants (e.g. taurine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E & C, and β-carotene)

The sedentary lifestyle of the domestic pet;

can also help to mitigate the complications of diseases associated with

Surgical contraception resulting in changes to the pet’s

obesity and will prepare dogs and cats for a healthier life. Additionally

environmental and endocrine mechanism;

reduced calorie pet food can be fortified with ingredients that stimulate

Predisposition as a result of breeding; and

the metabolism to consume more calories and turn deposited fat into

Indiscriminate feeding habits.

This last factor might be the true culprit, complete with table scraps, poor diet, constant access to food, competitive eating in a multiple pet household and other poor eating rituals.

It’s about discipline In nature, food acquisition has never been a sure thing for any creature – canines, felines or humans. It has always been accompanied by physical exertion to capture or cultivate and consume food. Humans, however, have figured out how to avoid all that work. They have learned how to refrigerate, dry, preserve and store foods in large amounts and have created the same food acquisition assurances for dogs and cats. Like humans, pets no longer have to hunt to survive nor live outdoors, so they have mirrored the human tendency to have trouble with weight. The major difference is that humans principally have complete control over what they eat. They should also have complete control over what and how much their pets eat. But, let’s be fair here. For most people, it’s very difficult to stick to a calorie reduced diet, exercise regularly or resist potato chips or a chocolate bar. Considering this human weakness, how can we expect people to treat their pets with the same or even a higher level of discipline? It should be easy: feed a good, balanced diet with a calorie amount that offsets the pet’s energy consumption. Therefore, it’s about calories … and it’s about discipline – the pet owner’s discipline. So talking

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 9

Fabuless, an ingredients for easier control of calorie intake One example of a functional ingredients designed to help humans to manage their weight is Fabuless™, a patented emulsion of highly purified palm and oat oils that creates the feeling of satiety. The principle mechanism of this emulsion is a delayed digestion of the fat component of the product, leading to the presence of free fatty acids in the distal jejunum and ileum. These fatty acids are thought to trigger the so-called “ileal brake” mechanism. The ileal brake is a physiological mechanism to ensure better digestion of nutrients. When nutrients are still present in the distal ileum, gastric emptying and gut movement are slowed down to permit better digestion of the gut contents. At the same time, a feeling of satiety is created, reducing appetite. There is no influence on the digestion in general or on the digestion of other nutrients ingested with or after the emulsion. Side energy. Examples include carnitine, which facilitates fat burning, and green tea polyphenols like EGCG proven to set the fat metabolism at a higher gear to turn fat into energy.

Learning from functional foods As pets and their owners due to their metabolic set up are not that different when it comes to weight problems it might be helpful to have a look at what happened in the human food industry and what nutritional products and solutions are offered for decreasing overweight and obesity for humans. About 10 years ago the food industry was in the middle of what can be called the “low” period. Products claiming “low fat”, “low carbohydrates” or “low calorie” on their label flooded the retailer shelves promising easier weight loss. During the last decade however people started to search for a new kind of weight influencing solutions. “Low” products were more and more considered as boring and people started to look for a more modern approach avoiding the psychological aspect of missing something when consuming food which is perceived of being reduced. Lowered in calories? Lowered in nutritional value? Lowered in taste experience? Satiety is one nutrition concept successfully taking an increasing share in the market of human weight management products. Satiety products contain higher concentrations of fibres or other ingredients contributing to filling the stomach thereby triggering a feeling of satiety and reducing the frequency of eating and amount of food. A second class of satiety products uses functional ingredients that create the feeling of satiety or satisfaction by influencing specific receptors in the gut and subseqeunt signaling chains to the brain. Multiple studies in humans but also in dogs have demonstrated that certain nutrients can trigger this satiety mechanism.

effects have not been seen in the human studies and are unlikely to occur, as the product is completely digested before entering the colon. In multiple controlled human studies Fabuless has been demonstrated to significantly reduce energy intake by 12.5% - 30%, to reduce the occurrence of weight regain after dieting (yoyo-effect) and to reduce total body fat. No tendency for compensatory eating during the next day was observed.

Fabuless for weight management in pets There is literature confirming that the ileal brake mechanism also exists in dogs and that the strongest trigger for the dog is the presence of fatty acids in the small intestine. In order to test the efficacy of Fabuless in pets, 40 adult beagle dogs, with a known history of high feed intake, were allowed a 14day adaptation period to acclimatize to a new feeding regime, which was also used during the main trial. Dogs were offered a morning snack in terms of wet dog feed mixed with Fabuless, in an amount which accounted for approximately 15% of the dogs’ daily energy requirements. Four hours after the morning snack all dogs were offered their habitual dry dog feed in amounts exceeding the dogs’ energy requirements. They were permitted to consume their feed over another four hours, when the food was removed and weight back. Taking into consideration the total population of dogs in the study Fabuless resulted in an average 8% reduction in daily food intake, with however large variation of food intake per individual dog. For further analyses of the data the dog population was sorted into four quartiles according to the amount of daily food intake. It became obvious, that dogs with the tendency of overeating responded more markedly to Fabuless resulting in an 15% significant reduction of feed intake in the upper two quartiles. In contrast hardly any effect was observed for the lower two quartiles. As dogs tending to increased food intake are often predisposed to being overweight or obese, Fabuless could be effective ingredient in a weight management program. Additionally, as pets do not act rationally regarding their food intake, the combination of non-responding and naturally low calorie uptake can be addressed as a safety mechanism, which avoids those dogs getting insufficient calories.

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Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

Left: The sedentary lifestyle of the domestic pet, is demonstrated by Cody, the editor’s Border Collie beverages or a fortified low calorie snack as a reward after the training. Thus Fabuless™ and other ingredients for weight management can be applied in the development of large variety of innovative products which can help to take away the negative emotional image of dieting from a successful weight management plan. Weight management does not have to be a burden for the pet … and its owner. Getting the buy-in of owners and making it easier for them to be disciplined with their pets’ diets is the best way to go. It goes without saying that the return on an integrated program will be attractive not only for the pet and owner but also for the producer and retailer of the related products

Integrated weight management programs Despite proven efficacy functional ingredients for weight management are not magic tools. Use of ingredients like Fabuless should always be part of a broader weight management program including clear weight loss goals and regular exercise. Pet food manufacturers should consider integrated weight management offers. For example, a morning snack with a satiety

Literature Burns AA. et al.: International Journal of Obesity (2000) 24, 1419-1425 Diepvens K. et al.: International Journal of Obesity (2007) 1–8 DSM: Internal study report (2008) Geoghegan J. Physiology and Behavior (1997) 62, 39-43 Haenni A.: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2009) 44 10 1186 – 1190 Logan CM et al.,: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2006)1–11 Ohtani N. et al.: (2001) Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 5: 377-382 Pappas T. et al.: American Journal of Surgery 1988) 155: 98-103 Van Citters G et al.: Current Gastroenterology Reports (1999) 1: 404-409 Lin H. Et al.: American Journal of Physiology (1996) 271:G62-67

promoting ingredient, combined with a pet food rich in protein and low calorie treats potentially carrying a fat burner. The latter should replace all

For more information on this article, antioxidants and other nutritional

standard treats or could even be a designed and positioned as a training

ingredients send an e-mail to or contact you

treat to encourage exercise. You even could think about specific functional

local DSM sales representative.

178x124_PetFoodSupplement.indd 1

01.03.2010 13:35:36 Uhr

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 11

seven common Elevator Leg Problems that cause abnormal Bucket Wear By Carl Swisher, TAPCO Inc. Plastic buckets offer many advantages over metal: long life, superior

For extremely light materials such as alfalfa or bran, venting decreases

abrasion resistance, nonsparking, lightweight, and noncorrosive,

the blowing and turbulence that can occur in the leg. The reduction

equal or greater carrying capacity of steel buckets. However, if plastic

of air currents minimizes circulatory pressure, which can draw a light

resin buckets show abnormal wear, this can be an indication that the

product through the down leg and back to the boot.

elevator is running outside standard operating parameters. To correct this, the cause of damage or wear on the bucket must be determined, and the equipment adjusted accordingly in order to keep the elevator running efficiently. Some common symptoms of elevator malfunction include backlegging (product discharging too late or too early), loose or broken bolts, broken buckets, excessive bucket wear, product sticking to the surface of bucket, and insufficient throughput capacity. The location, severity and type of damage to the bucket can indicate different problems within an elevator.

Trouble-shooting Elevator Maintenance Problems Examples of standard vented bucket patterns.

PROBLEM ONE: Product sticking to surface of bucket and diminishing throughput capacity.

PROBLEM THREE: Bucket worn from inside. This sandblast effect is caused by excessive product entrance velocity, usually from a side inlet.

Abraded hole in bucket. SOLUTION: Reduce conveyor input speed or install baffles at leg entrance. Replace with a more abrasion-resistant resin, such as urethane. Metal bucket (left) vs. urethane bucket (right) in rice elevator.

SOLUTION: Switch to urethane resin bucket. Urethane resin inherently resists adhesion and also “flexes� to knock out caked-up residue.

P R O B L E M F O U R : Fr o n t l i p stretched out or broken due to impact with an internal obstruction.

PROBLEM TWO: Product backlegging or not discharging and diminishing throughput capacity. SOLUTION: Bucket venting. Venting allows an escape route for the pillow of air that needs to be evacuated from the bottom of the bucket

Broken or stretched bucket

as it fills. Venting improves the efficiency of bucket fill and discharge.

SOLUTION: Check boot and throat plate clearances and leg casing

For dense materials, such as flour, meals or mash feeds, the vents

for obstructions, such as inspection doors or tramp metal. Tighten

allow air to escape as the buckets fill. During discharge, air can return

the belt to keep it taught so it does not flap. If necessary, replace with

into the bucket preventing a vacuum that could hold product in the

impact-modified nylon resin buckets. Broken elevator bolts can also

bucket and cause backlegging.

be a sign of buckets receiving impact.

Page 12

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12




Extreme temperatures

 Check for broken, bent or missing buckets and replace them;

can weaken some

 Retighten or replace the bolts and nuts that hold buckets to the

plastic resin buckets.

belt or chain;


 Verify proper alignment, tension, and physical condition of the belt

with a plastic resin bucket


or chain; check for wear, stretching or delamination; Discoloured or cracked bucket


accommodate the appropriate operating temperature range.

 Check the throat plate and adjust if necessary;  Look for wear on the head and boot pulleys;  Clean inside the boot area, and around the elevator and drive

Temperature Range of Tapco Resins



-60°F to +200°F/-51°C to +93°C

 Inspect and lubricate all bearings and moving parts in the elevator.


-40°F to +275°F/-40°C to +135°C

Identifying abnormal bucket wear in order to diagnose elevator


-60°F to +212°F/-51°C to +100°C

leg problems, and correcting those problems, will help your elevator run smoothly and achieve maximum capacity. For further guidance,

PROBLEM SIX: Bucket lips worn with sharp edges.

contact Tapco or your local distributor. NOTE: Images used are examples for educational purposes only. Type of wear and damage shown are not indicative of the brand of non-metallic buckets pictured. Abnormal bucket wear shown herein was caused by improper elevator leg operation. Information contained herein cannot be relied upon, or may have changed by the time of use, and may have errors or omissions. Reproduction of this article, in whole or in part, is not permitted without the expressed written consent of the author.

about the author Worn front lip SOLUTION: Loose belt tension can cause the bucket to slide along the

Carl Swisher, Sales Manager,

bottom of the boot causing this abnormal lip wear. Tighten/increase belt

Missouri USA

tension so that bucket will not slide along the bottom of the boot.

+1 314 739 9191

TAPCO Inc., St. Louis,

direct ext. 1920 PROBLEM SEVEN: Buckets sides

are worn or scored because the

Carl Swisher, Sales Manager,

bucket scrapes along the leg

oversees Tapco’s domestic


and international sales force. Swisher has 20 years

SOLUTION: Adjust belt tracking

of experience in industrial

across the pulley crown by

sales and international business. Prior to joining Tapco, Swisher

increasing belt tension. Grooved bucket sides This image shows typical normal

was the Latin America Regional Sales Manager for a leading parts supplier in the sewn products industry. Proficient in Spanish, he is a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis

bucket wear. Lip and front

and completed his graduate studies at the Stern School of New

corners are diminished. This

York University.

reduces bucket capacity and

Founded in 1974, Tapco Inc. manufactures the most widely

creates inefficient discharge.

accepted line of non-metallic elevator buckets in the industry.

This indicates it is time to replace with new bucket.

Typical worn front lip and corners of bucket

Employ a regularly Scheduled Preventive Maintenance Program To maximize elevator throughput and efficiency, operators should undertake a visual inspection of the leg at least once a month, if

Typical agricultural elevator bucket (cup) uses are grain, feed, fertilizer and seed. Industrial elevator bucket uses are asphalt, chemicals, aggregates, sand and salt. Tapco has 900,000 buckets in stock for immediate shipment. Standard styles include AA, AC, Continuous, CCB, CC-HD, CC-XD, EuroBucket and Super EuroBucket. Agricultural buckets are manufactured from the highest grade of polyethylene, urethane and nylon available. Tapco also inventories 14 million elevator bolts, along

not more often, depending on their usage. When inspecting plastic

with belt splices or joiners, abrasion-resistant sheeting, drag

buckets, an operator needs to be able to distinguish the different types

flights, and hanger bearings.

of damage or wear, in order to keep the elevator free of problems.

Issue 12 Pet Food SuPPlement

Page 13

l-CarnITInE vital for the health and Well being of People and Pets around the World By David Beaumont Lohmann Animal Health This important role has been confirmed in various species (mammals, avian, aquaculture, etc) at universities and research centres round the world. To understand L-Carnitine and its role in energy metabolism first requires a general understanding of where and how energy is produced. The first point to recognise is that tissues are made of cells and that all cells require an engine (i.e., mitochondria) to produce energy and stay alive. Fatty acids are the densest form of energy utilized to fuel the engine of the cell. Fats are made up of varying degrees of short, medium and long chain fatty acids. L-Carnitine is the “transporter” of all long chain fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane so they can be oxidized and converted into usable energy. Without L-Carnitine or with insufficient amounts of it, these fatty acids L-Carnitine was first discovered in 1905 and extensive research since

would not be properly utilized. Deficiency symptoms of L-Carnitine

then has clearly demonstrated the important role it plays in many critical metabolic processes. The scope of this article is to help communicate the vital role L-Carnitine plays in supporting the health and well-being of companion animals and to illustrate the similarity in response to applications in the human nutrition sector.

What is l-carnitine It is understood and confirmed that L-Carnitine is involved in many biochemical reactions and pathways. The reason for the “L” is simply because some synthetic production processes result in two different forms, the “L” and “D” form. L-Carnitine is the only form found in nature and the only form that is biologically active, whereas D-Carnitine has a negative impact on metabolism. Purity of supplementation therefore becomes essential. L-Carnitine is well known for the role it plays in energy metabolism.

Figure 1. Pathway illustrating the role of L-Carnitine in transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for conversion into energy can include muscle necrosis, lipid-storage regulation, hypoglycemia, fatty livers, fatigue and cardiomyopathy. Other established metabolic functions for L-Carnitine include assisting carbohydrate and protein utilization, and “shuttling” of organic acids out of the mitochondria which helps to preserve cell function.

Where does l-carnitine coMe FroM L-Carnitine is excreted via the urine and therefore it requires continual replenishing. There are three main ways to replenish the L-Carnitine

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Pet Food SuPPlement Issue 12

stores in the body: endogenous biosynthesis (made in body); supplementation from the foods we and our pets eat; and via direct supplementation. Endogenous production is complex and requires essential substrates such as the amino acid lysine and methionine. Only protein bound lysine can be utilized and this comes from muscle turnover. In addition, Vitamin C, B3 (ie. Niacin), B6 and iron are required for the synthesis of L-Carnitine to proceed normally. It is important to note that since L-Carnitine is predominantly manufactured by the liver and kidney, any cellular damage or even the aging process of these organs will greatly reduce their ability to produce L-Carnitine. Consequently, supplementation becomes critically important to meet the body’s daily L-Carnitine requirements. Figure 2: L-Carnitine Content (mg/kg) in various food products

observed from laboratory animal studies to apply also to humans, dogs and cats.

Weight Management Normally excess body weight occurs when the intake of calories exceeds that which is used for daily metabolic maintenance and exercise. The UK government statistics show that 60% of the UK population is considered to be overweight or obese. According to the US Center and Disease Control (CDC) 27% of the adult population are obese while two-thirds are overweight. In turn, pet obesity is also on the rise. Pet Food Manufactures’ Association research estimates 8 out of 10 pet owners believe that their pet is just the right weight, although when asked which of a series of pictures most closely resembled their pet, only 33% of dog and 23% cat owners were able to choose a “normal” L-Carnitine can be found in ingredients commonly included

weight picture. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention

in pet food formulations, however, the concentration of L-Carnitine

(APOP), a recent study conducted in October 2009 concluded that 45%

will differ. The concentration of L-Carnitine is highest in ingredients

of dogs and 58% of cats are either overweight or obese. The study also

originating from meat and poultry, but since these ingredients vary

found that from 2007 to 2009, the number of overweight dogs and cats

in the amount of fat, bone, mineral and water content so too will the

had increased by 2% and 5%, respectively. In addition, as our pets

final L-Carnitine concentration vary (Figure 2).

continue to live longer lives, the challenges associated with overweight

A standard rule of thumb is that the redder the meat, the higher

conditions will increase and lead to more health problems.

the L-Carnitine content. Fruits, nuts, grains, and vegetables contain

There are numerous studies that have been conducted which

only trace amounts of L-Carnitine. Because of the inherent variability

have clearly defined the value of L-Carnitine in weight management

of L-Carnitine in different ingredients and the fact that many pet food

programs in humans and pets. A study performed in 100 obese people

formulations contain plant-based ingredients and other ingredients

provided convincing data about the beneficial effects of L-Carnitine in

that contribute only trace amounts of L-Carnitine to the entire

conjunction with dieting and moderate exercise. Obese people had a

formulation, supplementing all formulas with an L-Carnitine safety

25% greater loss in body weight if they supplemented their diet with

margin is recommended. As a general recommendation, formulations

L-Carnitine and their BMI dropped by 1.5 units (Figure 3), indicating

that are predominantly made up of meat based ingredients should

that they were coming closer to their ideal body weight.

contain an additional 50 to 100 ppm of L-Carnitine and diets formulated with predominantly plant-derived ingredients should supplement L-Carnitine at much higher levels, 100 to 175 ppm.

Figure 3. One hundred obese humans on a weight reducing regimen with or without supplemental L-Carnitine (3 g/day for 4 weeks)

COMPANION ANIMAL AND HUMAN BENEFITS FROM L-CARNITINE The metabolic pathway of fatty acid oxidation in conjunction with L-Carnitine is identical to that of humans, laboratory animals, dogs and cats. Therefore, it should not be a surprise that other L-Carnitine metabolic functions outside of fat utilization would also be similar among different species. Thus one can accept the responses

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 15

Figure 4. Daily change in lean and fat mass of obese (>30% body

Cardiovascular Health

fat) dogs offered a weight reducing diet for 12 weeks with or

The heart is a working muscle continuously requiring energy and

without Carniking

other nutrients. While the human heart on average beats 72 beats per minute (bpm), a dog’s heart beats at approximately 120 bpm while that of a cat is approximately 180 bpm. As a result, nutrient demands for that of a dog or cat can be expected to be much higher than that of humans. Interestingly, the heart relies mostly (over 70%) on fatty acids and consequently L-Carnitine to help meet its energy needs. It should be to no surprise then that the concentration of L-Carnitine is greater in the heart when compared to all other body organs. Clinical data indicates that L-Carnitine supplementation can lead

Figure 5. Daily change in lean and fat mass of obese prone cats offered

to a healthier heart muscle and improved viability. Veterinarians have

a weight reducing diet for 6 months with or without Carniking

known for some time that L-carnitine deficiency is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (known as DCM) in certain breeds of dogs and that it can be used as a treatment. Such deficiencies can be caused by defective uptake or retention by tissues, excessive renal excretion and/or

There is substantial evidence from animal studies showing the

poor biosynthesis. All of

beneficial effects of supplementary L-Carnitine in weight management

these reasons, together

and especially its ability to preserve and increase lean body mass

with inadequate dietary

during a “diet” feeding regimen. Although the magnitudes of responses

intake, create situations

are different, the trends and direction is similar for both dogs and cats

where supplementation

(Figure 4 and 5, respectively).

w i t h L- c a r n i t i n e i s necessary.

Healthy Aging and Cognitive Function Advances to health and nutrition have led to increasing life expectancies – not only for people, but for pets as well. The American Veterinary Medical Association in 2007 reported that the US dog and cat population that is 6 years old and older had increased 44% since 1996. Sales of senior pet products in Japan have risen 10 fold since 2001. There are a number of theories proposed to explain the aging process and many of them focus on the body’s inability to control free radicals and/or the loss of mitochondrial efficiency. Free radicals can create widespread damage as they attack cell membranes and reduce cell integrity. Typically the body’s line of defence is to quench them with free radical scavengers such as glutathione, Vitamin C, E, and even L-Carnitine. Clinical trials in laboratory rats have found reductions of lipid peroxidation of brain tissue when both young and senior rats are given L-Carnitine supplementation. Above: There is substantial evidence from animal studies showing

Clinical trials with rats and dogs have proven valuable in helping to

the beneficial effects of supplementary L-Carnitine in weight

improve cognitive function. In the case of rats, time for both young


and aged rats to successfully navigate through a labyrinth was

Page 16

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

Table 1: Add CarnikingTM to supply the following recommended levels of L-Carnitine to allow for differences in basal diet and breeds Indication

L-carnitine content in dry food for dogs (mg / kg)

L-carnitine content in dry food for cats (mg / kg)





















Illness/ recovery




Weight management






Racing/ working dogs: Light work

L-carnitine addition per kg body weight and day (mg/ kg)


L-carnitine content in dry food (mg / kg)

L-carnitine addition per kg body weight and day (mg/ kg)



Moderate work



Heavy work



improved when L-Carnitine supplementation was provided. In the

source of energy. And because they have a small storage capacity

case of dogs, L-Carnitine has been found to improve the learning

for L-Carnitine and a relatively undeveloped capacity to synthesize

process by significantly improving the discrimination and spatial

L-Carnitine in the body, L-Carnitine should be supplemented for

learning of aged dogs.

optimal energy metabolism in infants, puppies, and kittens.

Infant Nutrition

New and Novel Science Opportunities

L-Carnitine synthesis in the newborn is less efficient than in the adult

Additionally, researchers are demonstrating the importance

and insufficient to meet normal metabolic requirements. The final

L-Carnitine plays in regulating hypoxic stress of cells following

step to manufacture L-Carnitine is age dependent. The final step

exercise. In this role, research shows that supplemental L-Carnitine

requires hepatic activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hyroxylase and in

helps protect the endothelial cells from L-Carnitine deficiency,

human infants activity is only at about 10% of that from adults. By

reduces tissue damage and muscle soreness, and facilitates the

2.5 years of age the activity is still only at 30% of the normal adult

overall process of recovery.

and it is not until age 15 that production is considered within the range of a normal adult.


Numerous studies have shown that hypothermia in growing

It has been widely understood that L-Carnitine is important for

newborns and adequate body temperature is critical for survival.

energy metabolism especially associated with fats. New science

Brown adipose tissue plays an important role in heat production

has helped us to understand the importance L-Carnitine also plays

for all infant mammals. The rate at which fatty acids are oxidized

in supporting various other body functions. Today, with the research

by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue for heat production is

investments made by companies such as Lonza and Lohmann

almost entirely dependent on the presence of L-Carnitine. Therefore,

Animal Health, we have been able to significantly contribute to

L-Carnitine plays an important role in “non-shivering� thermogenesis

the science and application for helping people and their pets live

in young mammals.

longer, healthier lives.

Human infants, puppies and kittens rely heavily on fat as a

We would like to encourage you to evaluate the human and pet benefits of L-Carnitine which come as CarnipureTM and CarnikingTM, respectively. Both CarnipureTM and CarnikingTM are manufactured by Lonza, the global leader of both human and companion animal grade L-Carnitine. For a free sample of Vitamin C+LC effervescent tablets, please contact David Beaumont by e-mail: Lohmann Animal Health is appreciative of the technical support that Dr. Johnny Lopez of the Lonza companion animal team provided in creating this document. References are available from the author.

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 17

The Importance of PACKAGING By Dr Riccardo Concetti, Concetti S.p.A. and Graham Rawling, Golconda Pet food producers know the impact made by their cans, cartons

expanding into pet food and the zipper is increasingly desirable.

or bags on the retailer shelf is vital for influencing the purchasing

Thanks to their 25 years of experience in the pet food sector, the

decision. While pet food packaging is becoming much more like the

Italian Concetti Group manufactures innovative bagging systems that

human equivalent, machinery suppliers must face new challenges.

offer flexibility and increased outputs, featuring many patented devices

In particular, bag filling is undergoing accelerated changes that push

that allow an unprecedentedly accurate handling and sealing of the

designers to constantly strive for improvements. Superior barrier

most advanced PE, PET and PE-Alu-PE gusseted bags demanded

qualities, stain resistance and high quality graphics are no longer

by pet food marketing departments. Moreover, Concetti offers a new,

optional and this is continuing to drive the move towards plastic

appealing solution for the zipper.

film away from traditional multi-wall paper bags. At the same time, other convenient features like reclosable bags and easy opening are

THE CONCETTI RANGE Let’s take a closer look at these machines, and begin with the first functional unit that makes up the bagging process: the weigher. Unlike many suppliers, Concetti produces in-house its own range of weighers. Through careful research and experience Concetti technicians have developed a combination feeding system for pet food comprising a belt for the main feed and a vibrating trough for dribble feed to add precisely the right amount of kibbles and obtain the desired weight with high accuracy. For the weighing range Concetti have two solutions depending on the application, a model for weights between 0.5 to 7 kg, called Mini-Net/N-CV™, and a model for weights from 2 to 20 kg, the Net/N-CV™. When it comes to speed, one weigher guarantees an output rate of 900 bags/hour with weights between 2 and 10 kg decreasing to 800 bags/hour for weighments from 11 to 20 kg. However, many installed systems feature two weighers working in parallel giving an output rate of up to 1800 bags/hour. Concetti bag filling and closing machines are monobloc structures that constitute a separate but integrated unit. For pre-formed bags, three different models are available. The IPF™ fills pet food bags from 0.5 to 7 kg and reaches 1800 bags/hour with two filling spouts. The IMF™ works with weighments between 2 and 20 kg, featuring two filling spout with a total output of 1800 bags/h. The IGF™ has a single filling spout with which it reaches up to 1200 bags/h. On all machines, the changeover from one bag programme to another is made through the PLC and operator panel in just 90 seconds without the use of any tools. This rapid switchover results in higher average outputs when compared to machines that have higher outright speed but require extended downtime between products, sometimes involving several change parts and lengthy set-ups. The high-capacity empty bag magazines that Concetti have designed help to facilitate the operator’s work and enhance the overall system performance. Pet food producers with many different products and short job runs should find this appealing. The filling operation is one to which Concetti have dedicated special attention. Opening a gusseted bag for filling requires care to ensure the shape is not lost and the gussets are properly reformed. Concetti machines are equipped with special devices for holding and restoring gussets of bags with different sizes and formats. In addition, they also come with patented systems for quad seal or stabilo bags (see picture left). These bags have vertical seals on the four lengthwise edges to improve stability and appearance on the shelf but are difficult to handle automatically and hard to realign precisely when closing. Without Concetti’s patented

Page 18

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

system, arranged to give all-round gripping of the bag, proper opening


and realigning of the quad seal bags is simply left to chance.

The key to success in most fields is in offering each customer a product

Efficient filling on Concetti machines includes bottom vibration of

or packaging tailored to his market. Thus far we have considered only

the bag for compacting the product to improve palletisation and reduce

plastic bags but we should not forget that many customers continue

the bag length. Further, after the bag mouth is realigned and closed

to demand paper bags with sewn closures. So, in addition to the heat

and during transfer to the sealing station, Concetti uses a mechanical

sealing systems described, the IPF™, IMF™ and IGF™ can be equipped

device (a roller) that can be selected if necessary to evacuate any

with sewing heads for paper bags with or without handles. This gives

excess air in the top of the bag.

the user the ultimate in flexibility on the same machine, no need to

Another optional feature is a high-low bag holding device that permits the bag to be closed at different heights on the bag face, below

invest in separate lines. Finally, IGF™ can also be integrated with a device to produce bags from a tubular reel of PE film.

the carrying handle and many centimetres below the top edge. Heat-sealing of PE bags is a science in itself. To guarantee a


flawless seal, Concetti have opted for an in-built sealing system using

The real satisfaction that users find in Concetti is shown by the many

high quality, heavy-duty components. For high performance and long

customers who return again and again. Some cases of pet food

periods without operator attention, the sealing bars are protected by a

producers are worth mentioning. The Italian company Cerere provides

reel mounted Teflon sheet allowing a clean sealing face to be wound

packaging for pet food manufacturers. Accuracy and reliability are

on whenever signs of wear appear. On high-speed applications, a

the most important factors for Cerere, which explains why they have

seal-cooling device is supplied.

twice chosen Concetti, installing two IPF™ lines in their plant at Neive

NEW DEVELOPMENTS: zip applicator

(Italy). Nova Foods, a producer of cat food and a dog food line called Trainer highly appreciated by professional dog breeders, is a very

Among the latest developments is one that will be of interest to users

special customer for Concetti. Since their first experience with Concetti

looking to reduce the cost of packaging while increasing flexibility.

equipment in 1995, Nova Foods concluded that Concetti is the only

Concetti can now offer its customers a patented, integrated, on-line

supplier they can really trust. Today, their three complete lines are all

reclosable zip applicator for ordinary plastic bags without the need

Concetti equipped, with high-speed IPF™ and 4-column palletisers.

to buy expensive pre-formed zip bags. Concetti have patented this

Another long-term, satisfied client is Russo Mangimi, now branded as

device, which forms a zip closure from a reel, places the zipper and

Farmina Petfoods. The first supply to this company dates back to 1974.

seals it into the bag mouth. It is programmable so the zipper can be

Today, in their Nola factory, close to Naples, three complete lines with

applied or not depending on the user’s requirements. Concetti’s new

IGF™, IPF™ and palletisers are running, whereas another palletiser

system turns plain, pre-formed plastic bags into zip reclosable bags at

has been delivered to their Serbian facility in Indjija.

the touch of a button. The feature should give a rapid payback for the

Dodson & Horrell, an important UK manufacturer of pet and

end user and reduce packaging costs significantly over the long term

animal feeds has seven Concetti bag filling systems, including

(picture below).

two palletisers. The most recent Concetti unit is an IGF-FFS™ that combines the ability to fill both pre-made paper and PE bags plus bags produced from a tubular reel of PE film. A net weigher allows weighments from 2.5kg to 20kg to be produced. Andrew Reid, Operations Director of Dodson & Horrell, commented: ‘We are delighted with the quality of service from Concetti. The Concetti systems allow us to run far more productive and efficient production lines, which is vitally important in a busy mill such as our own.’ Another leading European pet food producer who has selected Concetti as a repeat supplier, is the German company Bosch Tiernahrung GmbH. Concetti has supplied this company with a number of bagging and palletising lines since they began producing high-quality dry dog food in 1984. At the moment, various models of Concetti-palletisers are operating in the Wiesenbach plant including high-speed push-type palletisers, 4-columns robotic palletisers with bag gripper, and a complex palletising system for trays using an

This zip applicator can also be added to Concetti’s Continua™

anthropomorphic robot. General director Wolfgang Heim says that

Form-Fill-Seal (FFS) machines that produce bags from tubular reel

he is ‘very satisfied’ with Concetti’s equipment, project development

stock. The tubular reel is the lowest cost form of bag making and

and after-sales service and plans further investments with Concetti.

gives extremely long production runs between reel changes. Another

Cerere and Nova Foods, Russo, Dodson & Horrell and Bosch,

advance for the Continua™ FFS machines allows quad seal or stabilo

are testament to the great contribution that Concetti can make to the

bags to be produced from simple, tubular gusseted reel stock. Together

success of a pet food company.

these systems provide the FFS packaging operation with virtually the

For further information, please visit or e-mail

complete range of bags from the same low cost tubular PE film. or

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 19

CARBOHYDRATES THE GOOD, THE BAD … AND THE PHYSIOLOGY By David Southey, Southey Consultants Ltd In many ways carbohydrates can be considered to be the most misunderstood and forgotten nutrient. Whilst the European association of pet food producers (FEDIAF) list requirements for several amino acids, vitamins and minerals, there is no reference at all to carbohydrates in their tables of nutrient requirements for cats and dogs.

Fig 2: The physiological roles of fibre fractions INSOLUBLE FIBRE (e.g. Cellulose, lignin) Stimulate the internal lining of the intestine Indigestible Increase the dry matter content of faeces Moderate the flow of gut contents

SOLUBLE FIBRE (e.g. Gums, pectin) Can form complexes with other nutrients Provide an energy source for gut bacteria Reduce the dry matter content of faeces Increase the viscosity of digesta

Also, apart from moisture (unless over 14%) and crude fibre, it is the only major nutrient that does not need to be declared on European

soluble fractions, each with very different nutritional and physiological

pet food packaging and yet, in the case of dry food, it is often the most

functions (Fig 2). In all pet species there appears to be a benefit of

prevalent. In the 1970’s Dr Atkins declared that “carbohydrate is the

providing both in the diet, however, the quantity and proportion vary

bad guy”, whilst more recently in the early 90’s when discussing weight

widely. For example, rabbits require significant quantities, with the

control, Michel Montignac declared that “our choice of carbohydrates

vast majority as insoluble fibre, whereas in the cat a small quantity of

is decisive”. Carbohydrates have a vital role to play in the production

a more balanced kind appears to be beneficial to faecal quality and

and nutrition of commercial pet foods. However idealistic we might

digestion. It is, therefore, important to understand the source of the

be, the vast majority of the pet-owning public are unable or unwilling

crude fibre in a recipe, and how this meets the requirements of the

to adopt a “back to nature” approach and prepare their own pet food

target species.

from raw ingredients. Nutritional imbalances and hygiene issues are

With regard to total dietary carbohydrate content, pets again vary

just two of the challenges. And so commercially viable and nutritionally

greatly in their capacity to cope. Being obligate carnivores, cats and

suitable foods remain the goals of most pet food producers, and to

ferrets have evolved with a lower tolerance to high levels than most

this end carbohydrates will surely always play a part.

pet species. Also, their management of blood glucose levels is very

The word “carbohydrate” encompasses a very wide range of

different to most others. In addition to low levels of the salivary and

compounds, from simple monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) through to

pancreatic starch-digesting enzyme, amylase, they have a very low

highly complex fibres, such as lignin. The type and content of most

hepatic glucokinase activity, which is required to convert circulating

plant materials will vary greatly depending on many factors, such as

blood glucose into the storage carbohydrate glycogen. Also, their

variety, season, maturity, etc, and this can also change during storage,

insulin control is also somewhat different in that amino acids rather

and so a full understanding of the nutritional make-up, and regular

than glucose are the main compounds that stimulate its secretion. It

and routine testing is advisable. From a monogastric nutrition point

would, therefore, seem sensible to avoid high levels of carbohydrates

of view, starch is one of the most important, and even this can take

that are rapidly converted into glucose during digestion and absorption.

many physical forms (Fig 1). Starch granules can be spherical, ovoid

Furthermore, they should both be given access to food as frequently

or irregular-shaped, and can exist individually or in agglomerates.

as possible, as numerous, small meals would be less likely to elicit

Whilst there is no recognised link between the size or shape of the

a high blood glucose spike. On the other hand, dogs have evolved

starch granules and their nutritional or processing properties, it does

to accommodate and adapt to a wide range of dietary levels quite

demonstrate that not all starches are identical.

successfully, and some of the flavour compounds produced by cooking

The most variable group of carbohydrates in nature is the fibres group. Broadly speaking, fibres can be separated into insoluble and

carbohydrates seem to promote palatability. More recently the concept of Glycaemic Index (GI) as a measurement of the rate of carbohydrate digestion has received increased interest in human nutrition, and the perceived associated

Fig 1: Starch granule forms





benefits are widely publicised (Fig 3). The concept is based upon the theory that complex carbohydrates will be digested and converted into blood glucose at a slower rate than more simple compounds, and therefore the body is more able to utilise them rather than excrete or convert them to fat. Linked to this is a more regular and controlled secretion of insulin. There is some evidence that this might be reflected to some degree in pet nutrition, although there has been very little published work in this area. Physiologically this would

Page 20

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

heat, pressure and friction (“shear”) are used to rupture the granules,

Fig 3: Proposed benefit of low GI diets

thereby causing gelatinisation (Fig 5). The degree of gelatinisation • • • • • • •

Weight control Increases the body's sensitivity to insulin Improves diabetes control Reduces the risk of heart disease Reduces blood cholesterol levels Reduces hunger and increases satiety Prolongs physical endurance

is often described as the “cook” level, and can be determined directly by calculating the proportion of remaining hexoses in the sample, or indirectly by measuring the change in viscosity when heated in solution (n.b. – native/uncooked starch will increase viscosity more that uncooked starch). This cooking process is particularly important since it is directly related to the degree and rate of absorption of the starch from the digestive tract (Fig 6).

Fig 6: Canine illeal starch disappearance (Wenger Inc.)

appear to be valid, and the similarly increasing incidence of obesity this. However, care should be taken when selecting carbohydrates with low GI values (Fig 4) as many things can affect the figures, such as grinding, variety, processing method, and animal variation. Nevertheless, the fact that most commercial pet foods primarily contain carbohydrates with GI values in excess of 90, and the grinding and

120 Illeal starch disappearance (%)

and type II diabetes in humans, dogs and cats would seem to support

80 60 40 20 0

extrusion processes dramatically increase these figures, would seem


to warrant further discussion.







Stacrch gelatinisation (%)

Fig 4: Average GI values for common ingredients (variation




Uncooked starch is often poorly digested and instead can pass

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

through to the lower intestine, where excessive levels can stimulate an overgrowth of bacteria, leading to digestive upset and softer faeces. The general target of most producers is to ensure that a minimum of 85% of the starch is cooked, with an optimal level of between 90-95%. However, it should be noted that gelatinisation can also occur during other steps in the process (Fig 7), and that raw ingredients may also Potato Wheat

White rice


Brown rice



Beans Lentils

be partially cooked prior to their inclusion. Fig 7: Processing effects on starch gelatinisation

Starch Cook Most commercial dry pet foods and snacks are produced using conditioning/extrusion or baking technologies and, as such, there are generally intrinsic requirements for carbohydrates, and more


specifically starch, as part of the recipe formulation. These cooking


processes modify the structure of starch in different ways to produce

Pre-conditioning Extrusion

robust kibbles with more porous textures that allow digestive fluids


to penetrate. During the conditioning/extrusion process the former serves to heat, hydrate and swell the starch granules using steam water and agitation. This material then passes to the extruder, where

Fig 5







Proportion of total starch "cook"

Over-cooking can also be detrimental in that it reduces the

Starch gelatinisation

durability of the kibble leading to excessive dust, and can reduce the

Heat + moisture

starch’s digestibility by forming complexes with other nutrient, e.g. protein. The cooking process that occurs during baking is very different but equally as important for optimal digestion. The limited moisture content of the recipe and higher processing temperature tends to cause dextrinisation of the starch rather than gelatinisation. This results in less expansion and robustness as the structure is more reliant on

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 21

the presence of binding proteins, such as gluten; however, it will still

degree of common sense. With global stockpiles of grain reaching

significantly improve the digestibility of the native starch.

their lowest levels for decades, and global consumption outstripping production in seven out of the last nine years, the use of conventional


carbohydrates is not without its challenges. With developing nations

So what are the future trends? As in human nutrition a decade ago,

demanding more meat production (n.b. – it takes up to five times more

carbohydrates have acquired something of a bad image in the pet

grain to get the equivalent amount of calories from eating pork as it

sector at the moment. A proliferation of “no grain”, “low carb” and “no

does from eating the grain itself), the increasing drive towards bio-

carb” products in the market imply that they are detrimental. Whilst

fuels, and global climate changes expected to reduce grain production

the level and type used certainly require consideration, they facilitate

significantly in the coming years, carbohydrate supply will continue

the production of commercially viable foods, provide necessary

to be in focus. A B C


balance to most diets (remove the carbs and other nutrients must increase), and perform functional roles such as texture for teeth

Southey Consultants limited

cleaning, or stimulation of the digestive tract. In addition, the move to

Petfood Product Management

less traditional carbohydrate sources also has its impact. Many of the

•Independent nutritional advice •Recipe design

alternatives being used today, such as millet, sorghum, sweet potato

•Packaging logistics •Production design •Sales training

and cassava, are transported vast distances from sometimes limited

•Marketing assistance •Supply chain support

supplies, and compete with local human demands. Apart from these

Tel: +44 (0)7747 561292

moral, environmental, and sustainability dilemmas, very little is known

i Email:

about the nutritional, processing and safety issues surrounding them, Bo



and so marketing aspirations should always be balanced with a healthy B”




ϕ= 1

anDrITZ FEED & bIOFuEl ChIna SuCCESSFully launChES COMbI ZOnE DryEr In ThE aSIan MarkET A””



The Combizone Dryer has a proven track record of being the best choice for precise and energy efficient drying of extruded petfood.

flow, the Combizone dryer makes

Combizone working principle:

unmatched uniformity of moisture

zone temperature control

spread +/- 0.5% of extruded

against reduction of product

Highest dryer energy efficiency

products. The high moisture


The unique air flow concept and integrated air-recirculation principle

uniformity furthermore allows


of the Combizone dryer results in a very high dryer thermal energy

for precisely controlled drying


efficiency of 0.7 - 0,8 kWh per kg water evaporated, which is typically

of feed to declared moisture

at least 25% less than the energy consumption by most dryers.

content, thereby avoiding need

distinguish the Combizone dryer from other models of dryers. Steam heated or direct gas fired models available.

% H2O

15 10


The optimum control of air flow and minimized air exhaust

120° 100° 80° 60°



for overdrying.


Best protection of feed nutrients

Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Time H2O content

160 140 120 100 800 60 A40 B20 C0

Drying temp Time

Best feed moisture uniformity

The separate temperature zones

Controlled re-use of air in

Based on very even feed distribution, exact control of retention time of

and air counterflow principles

counterflow principle

each individual feed particle in combination with controlled drying air-

of the Combizone dryer provide the best protection of heat





sensitive feed ingredients from


excessively high temperature and unnecessary oxidation. B




Most gentle product handling


The design of the product inlet

ϕ= 1


and discharge, as well as the



moving belt of the Combizone

dryer, secures minimum physical impact to the feed particles, and related generation of irregular shaped feed as well as fines.

30 25 20 15 10 5

120° 100° 80° 60°


Pet Food SuPPlement Issue 12

% H2O

Page 22

160 140 120 100 800 60 40 20

Zone 1 Zone 2 Tim Air inlet

The New Economic Reality By Dr. Mukund Parthasarathy

Figure 1

top 15 Retailers: Rank by 2008 sales (Usd-Bln)


sales Growth (caGR) for top 15 Retailers in 2006-2008





30.00% Series1 20.00% 12.90%

11.80% 10.00%





15.30% 8.40% 5.10%






ta l




15 p






ite R





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fe w




es w Lo

H ar s Se

tc o


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ns gr ee


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tC rg e





Kr og

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ar t













Sources: Nielsen Data, Annual Reports, Retail Net Group Credit Crunch will lead to increase in retail bankruptcies Some Bigger Retailers going with smaller store format Wal-Mart has smaller store format marketside, Giant Eagle has GetGo, Jewel has URBAN fresh. These are smaller compact stores that carry fewer SKUs and fewer choices.


1800 1600 1400 1200 932



800 600 400
















24 l et ai le rs

bl ix

to ta

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H s ar se







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al gr


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Figure 2


With the deepening recession, credit crunch, and with consumers becoming frugal the retail channels are responding to the new realities. With unemployment reaching double digits and fewer jobs being created consumers have changed their shopping habits. Value and convenience have become very important. Discretionary spending is reduced, consumers are making fewer trips to stores, savings have reached an all time high of 4% of income (from negative savings rate a few years ago), consumers are getting smarter, buy local movement is getting stronger, consumers are adopting healthier life styles (healthy foods, exercises). Consumer spending accounts for 2/3rd of US economy. If they cut back it will have tremendous impact on not just the US economy but global economy. The changing consumer habits are here to stay for a long time. The retail formats such as grocers (Kroger, Safeway, Supervalu), Mass Merchandisers including Supercenters (Wal-Mart, Meijer), Drug Stores (Walgreens, CVS, Rite Aid), Specialty (Petsmart, Petco), Dollar Stores, Club (Sams, Costco etc) are responding to the new realities.

Sources: Annual Reports of Companies, Investment Reports and Retail Net Group

Changing Retail Landscape Market growth is stagnating The current pet population remains steady and is not increasing any time soon. There are 74.8 million dogs and 88.3 million cats in the US. 39% of households had a dog, the breakup of which is as follows: (63% had 1 dog, 25% had two dogs, 12% had three or more dogs1). 38.4 million households (34% households) had at least one cat, 56% owned more than one cat. On an average households had 2 dogs or 2 cats. The overall number of households in the US that had pets is around 58 million and this number will remain stagnant in the foreseeable future. This means every retailer is competing for the same customer in a stagnant market where pet ownership is steady. Consolidation among the players will continue and smaller players will shut down for good. Market growth is stagnating for most if not for all goods. Retailers have to compete against each other to offer lower price, higher value. Most goods become a commodity as prices keep falling. Deflation is still an issue with the current economy. For retailers, size is the key to survival in such a scenario. Larger national players will acquire smaller regional players for survival.

Value discounters, Super Centres and Club will be major players Consumers have become frugal and avoid unnecessary spending This trend will continue. They are constantly looking for price, values and convenience. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Club stores (SAMS club, Costco) and Value discounters (Aldi) will become stronger players. Wal-Mart’s new slogan save more, live better fits the consumer psyche. Retailers operating in a zero sum game where every winner is offset by someone losing: Stagnant markets, lack of growth leads to situation in retail where some retailers will lose at the cost of some clear winners. Retailers are shifting from growth agenda to optimization agenda Growth of Private label Private label brands are growing and are offered at 5-10% cheaper than branded products. The quality of private label brands has improved significantly over the years as the retailers demand high quality products as the branded cousins. This may exert pressure on manufacturer to reduce the cost of branded products as well. Alternatives to currently existing retail channels Whole Food (organic, no preservatives) Trader Joes (small store format, private label, organic offerings) offer alternate retail formats. The alternate channels will remain small in the current environment unless the prices come down. Consumers definitely want healthy products to feed themselves or their pets but cannot afford the price at this time. Shopper insights and shopper marketing are being recognized as a priority area for retailers Retailers are spending on understanding shopper insights and shopper marketing instead of getting the information from manufacturer. This way retailers are in a position to demand the right product at the right price for the consumers without compromising on their own margin structure. This 1.

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 23

will exert lot more pressure on manufacturers to reduce costs. Actionable shopper data is creating leadership opportunities for retailers

Figure 4: Sales of Total Petcare (in MM) By Channel Format In 2006 $1,230 $1,215

Pressure on cost containment and margin enhancement Retailers are under tremendous pressure to reduce costs and enhance the margins. The investment community seems impatient with the pace of progress in the area of cost containment and margin enhancement in the retail industry.



Mass Grocery

Retailers offering more services which will drive traffic, profits and differentiation Retailers are offering various other services to drive traffic into the store. From paying utility bills, to buying stamps to more sophisticated services like wine tasting classes and cooking classes the retailers are looking at various services to drive the business and revenues. Petsmart offers several pet related services such as grooming and vet clinics Sustainability is a big theme among retailers Wal-Mart is leading the way in sustainability. LEED certification, packaging and waste reduction will figure prominently in all major retailers’ blueprint for success. Retailers want to simplify so fewer brands and fewer customers may carry 90% of the volume. Retailers look for velocity and high margin items. They are buying what they need and not what they want. They are optimizing on shelf space, labor and experimenting with multiple formats. Fewer brands with high velocity and high margin will do well.

Club Other

9. Pet care sales rank # 7 in the top 10 categories in Mass/Grocery/ Drug 10. Pet care sales more fragmented across formats (Grocery, Mass, Specialty, others (Figure 4) 11. Pet food is the largest segment in pet care and the fastest growing 12. Dog food 67%, cat food 33% of total pet food sales 13. In cat food portfolio, dry cat food is 55%, wet 38% and treat is 7% 14. In dry dog food portfolio, dry dog will be 66%, wet 16, treats 18% 15. Clubs and specialty account for larger chunk of dry dog food sales, groceries account for wet dog, wet cat and litter sales (Figure 5) sales of Pet care segment By channel

Figure 5

Everyday low pricing will be the theme (EDLP) at retailers Wal-Mart’s theme will be ringing across all retailers.

Source: Nielsen Data 2006


160 19 140 35

Changing Pet Care Sales in 2008/20092


1. Pet care sales were $ 28 billion in 2008. 2. Top 15 retailers accounted for more than 50% of sales (Figure 1, 2, 3 ) 3. Pet care category grew by 4.6% in 2008 driven largely by Supercenters (+13.4%) and grocery( +5.2%) and club (+ 7.5%.) 4. Mass merchandisers accounted for 29%, specialty 37% and grocery 22% of total pet care sales (Figure 4) 5. Pet care purchase frequency ranked # 10 in grocery, # 1 in mass, # 3 in dollar stores 6. Out of 126 categories in pet care category ranked # 2 in per capita spending at $ 214/yr 7. 75% of households purchased pet care product 8. Pet food is purchased 17 times a year Figure 3

Projected sales Growth (caGR) for top 15 Retailers(2009-2011)


10.60% 10.00% 7.40%

6.70% 5.40%





3.20% 2.20%




ix bl Pu





ite R



u va l

Bu st


Su pe r

s ng di ol

Sa fe w



es s


w ar





ar C


tc o VS C



gr al W





tio ra

Kr o

po or C











al W

om e H





-8.10% -10.00%

Sources: Nielsen Data, Annual Reports, Retail Net Group

Page 24

Pet Food Supplement Issue 12

36 8




18 24



25 60

21 29


5 5 20



7 5 7

5 6 8 3 8


15 12

Wet Dog

Dog Treats

Dry Cat


10 7 5 8 Wet Cat




0 Dry Dog


2 9

Others Club Grocery Mass Specialty Total

2 8 1 2 0.8 1 Cat Treats

8 2 7 Litter



Sources: Nielsen Data, others

Innovation as a Means to Generate Sustainable Revenue Growth Given the changing retail landscape and changing consumer habits due to economic crisis, innovation is the way to generate sustainable demand and incremental revenue. Innovation is not restricted to just creation of new products or processes. Innovation has no boundaries it can be in any part of an organization (marketing, research, accounting, transportation and logistics, operations, business development, sales, market development organization, Quality assurance, customer development group etc) that adds value in the supply chain. If the innovation does not add value to the customer (price, value, quality, service) or solve a problem, it is meaningless to the retailer and to the customer. New products should be based on: a. shopper insights (emotional appeal, convenience, value, nutritional benefits, believable claims), b. changes in retail environment (what retailers want: price, ease of handling, less damages, product that does not succumb to infestation), 2. Source: Nielsen FDMX, Audits and Surveys, Retail Net Group

About the Author

c. d. e. f.

providing merchandizing solutions strong visual appeal (packaging and product), sustainability (retailer and shopper driven), customization, (premium pricing for customized products), exclusivity, g. process optimization (reduced product & operating costs) The new items thus created should be value priced, of high velocity and supported by efficient supply chain.

Dr. Mukund Parthasarathy, who worked for Ralston/ Nestle Purina for 12 years, has developed a holistic approach to pet food palatability to resolve all issues related to palatability of extruded pet foods and pet treats. He has patents related to pet food palatability. He offers help with innovation, strategies, long term planning and development of new technologies. He can be reached at

Pegasus Paddle Mixer from Dinnissen significantly improves the taste of cat food The Pegasus Paddle Mixer from Dinnissen

The result: an extremely precise and even

Process Technology makes it possible to

distribution of the palatability enhancers

significantly improve the taste of cat kibbles.

over the product. In addition, the strength of

The secret is quite simple: it allows you to add

the bond between the palatability enhancer

liquid as well as dry palatability enhancers

and the kibble can be optimized, and each

- precisely and homogenously - to each

individual kibble can be coated with a tough

individual kibble. This is very important for

protective layer to ensure that the palatability

cat food in particular, as cats have the habit

enhancers also remain intact during transport.

of inspecting their intended meal, kibble for

The palatability and appeal of the food is

kibble, before actually starting on their meal.

therefore significantly improved, and the food is much more readily consumed.

The cat - a very finicky kibbles consumer Cats have a much keener sense of taste

Combined with the Pegasus Vacuum Coater

and smell than humans. Cats are therefore

from Dinnissen: even greater flexibility for

extremely finicky and suspicious when it

high-quality pet food production

comes to their food. They sniff at every kibble

The Pegasus Paddle Mixer offers various

and inspect it quite critically before deciding

other technical advantages. The liquid

whether to eat it. Cats will immediately

additives are sprayed per batch and not

recognize and systematically refuse a kibble

continuously. After each batch, the nozzles are

or other food with a smell not to their liking.

blown clean, minimizing the risk of blockage.

They simply leave the kibbles they don’t like

The same is true of the injection system for

behind in the feeding bowl and pick out the

manufacturers to ensure that the enhancers

ones that appeal to them. Such behaviour

are added properly and an optimum result is

is very typical of cats and is one of the main

achieved. The Pegasus Paddle Mixer from

reasons why their owners regularly decide to

Dinnissen Process Technology in Sevenum is

try a different brand the next time.

an efficient tool in achieving this goal.

Ta s t e o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l k i b b l e i s

Flavour enhancers added precisely and

Coater, allowing producers to further upgrade


homogenously to each individual kibble

the flexibility and quality of their production

When it comes to manufacturing cat food,

With the Pegasus  Paddle Mixer from

process. This combination allows producers

the quality of the ingredients and the use

Dinnissen, a fixed and precisely weighed

to ensure that liquid additives are sucked

of proper palatability’s enhancers are of

quantity of food is introduced into the sealed

deep into the kibble. It also enables them to

course extremely important for making tasty

batch coater, where - in contrast to continuous

optimize the binding process between other

products. But ensuring that the enhancers are

operation systems - the entire process takes

additives and the outside of the kibble.

added to the food in the right way is just as

place: liquid and dry palatability enhancers

The Pegasus  Paddle Mixer from

important. It’s critical to distribute and dose

are added to the kibbles. This has the great

Dinnissen has already been successfully

the enhancers homogenously. Producers who

advantage of allowing very precise control

applied in a variety of situations. Dinnissen

use the proper palatability enhancers but add

of the optimum conditions needed for the

develops and delivers complete manufacturing

them to the kibbles in a haphazard fashion

entire process. For each batch, the exact

processes, which means that the benefits from

or wrong concentration achieve a significant

quantity of fat, liquid and dry palatability

combining the Pegasus Paddle Mixer with

lower effect. In our research centre, we have

enhancers needed can be weighed out and

the Pegasus Vacuum Coater are available

demonstrated time and again that kibbles with

added, and the process conditions - including

in practically any situation imaginable. For

an even distribution of palatability enhancers

temperature, kibble rotation speed, residence

more information about the Pegasus Batch

are consumed much more readily. That is

time of the food in the mixer, and total

Coating System from Dinnissen, go to: www.

also why we invest time and energy in helping

processing time – can be precisely controlled. or call 0031 (77) 4673555.

dry ingredients located in the coater: it can be protected so that blockage is prevented. We advise producers in many cases to equip the Pegasus  Paddle Mixer with vacuum functionality by adding the Pegasus Vacuum

Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement

Page 25

Mutual Trust

Taking animal health further.

Prevention first. Lohmann Animal Health GmbH & Co. KG Heinz-Lohmann-Straße 4 27472 Cuxhaven, Germany Phone: + 49 (0) 47 21 – 747 0

Pet Food Supplement 2010  

2010 edition of the magazine for pet food manufacturers and their suppliers

Pet Food Supplement 2010  

2010 edition of the magazine for pet food manufacturers and their suppliers