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Pet Topics........................................................1 By Roger W Dean
PET TOPICS By Roger W Dean
Satiety – A Proven Weight Management Concept....................................9
Pet Food and Recession
By Dr Martin Karutz
in the aftermath of the deepest recession in two generations, how have
Seven Common Elevator Leg Problems That Cause Abnormal Bucket Wear.............12 By Carl Swisher
With a large part although not the entirety of the industrial world mired petfoods and pet products been faring? On the one hand, there have been plenty of horror stories. In the UK, there were widespread reports of pets being abandoned in the Midlands, an industrial area which has been heavily hit by the downturn. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA)
L-Carnitine – Vital For Health And Well-Being Of People And Pets....................14
reported in April 2009 that the charity had dealt with 11,586 ‘dumped’ animals in 2008, an average of more than 30 each day and a figure
By David Beaumont
that was fifty-seven per cent higher than the equivalent figure for 2007.
The Importance Of Packaging......................18
voluntarily taken in by the RSPCA.
By Dr Riccardo Concetti and Graham Rawlings
Carbohydrates – The Good, The Bad … And The Physiology..........................20 By David Southey
Andritz Feed & Biofuel China Successfully Launches Combi Zone Dryer In The Asian Market............................22
Moreover, that figure represents just pets illegally dumped, not those According to Wealden District Council in Sussex, pet dogs are ‘becoming the innocent victims of the recession’. Its animal wardens picked up two hundred and six stray dogs in the area last year with more than 2,100 being collected across Sussex as a whole, a relatively prosperous part of England’s southeast. A Council spokesman was reported as warning that dogs could be expensive to keep and, as a result of the recession, more animals were being abandoned across the county. She added that it was around March that dogs given as presents at Christmas were coming under threat as the novelty of a new pet wore off and urged pet owners having difficulty looking after a pet to ‘talk to our animal welfare service or the RSPCA.’
The New Economic Reality............................23 By Dr Mukund Parthasarathy
In the US, of course, where the recession has struck with particular severity at homeowners, pets have either been consigned to shelters because their owners have been forced to move to apartments where
Pegasus Paddle Mixer From Dinnissen Significantly Improves The Taste Of Cat Food..................................25
it is not possible, for whatever reason to keep a pet or, incredibly, have been left unattended at foreclosed properties. A spokesman for the Humane Society in Georgia said the abandonment rate was ten times that of two or three years earlier, before a wave of foreclosures started hitting neighborhoods throughout the State. With more pets
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Editor: Andrew D. Mounsey
coming in and fewer people with the resources to pay for adopting a pet, nearly all animal shelters there were being stretched to their limits and, in many cases, beyond. In New York, hard hit by the collapse on Wall Street and the loss of highly paid jobs in finance, the New York Times reported that, until comparatively recently, one way the wealthy ‘flashed their fortunes’ was ‘by decking their dogs in Burberry collars and sending them for spa services’. But the recession had meant that even the city’s wealthiest dog owners had cut their budgets and sometimes abandoned their
Views expressed by contributors are not necessarily those of the Publisher.
dogs entirely. The co-founder of a Manhattan ‘Doggie Gym’ was
© Pentlands Publishing Ltd 2010
owners who had quite recently been accustomed to spend thousands
reported as saying that he had never seen so many dogs abandoned by
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
of dollars on purchasing and maintaining them. And those wealthy
pet owners who were holding on to their dogs are reportedly cutting
The life of cats and dogs, prior to their transition to the status of what
back hard. The owner of a Dog Parlour on New York’s Upper East Side
is frequently termed as ‘full family members’, was largely defined by
reported that demand had shrunk by half for day care, grooming and
$15 bags of dog food. Owners had also started to stretch out their
Dogs were protectors and guardians of both domesticated
dog’s grooming services from every four to every eight weeks. ‘The
livestock and human beings against marauders, both human and
dogs look ragged,’ she said. But the owners say that they are ‘sorry
animal. Cats existed primarily as a pest control agency with regard
my dog is a mess. But I don’t have a job.’
to rodents threatening human food supplies although they did have
On the west coast, the State of California has been undergoing
an additional function as objects of religious veneration in Pharonic
a serious financial budgetary crisis of its own and the recession has
Egypt. As such, dogs received such food as to keep them alive, largely
come as a double whammy on top of the State’s seemingly unsolvable
consisting of scraps. Cats were expected to forage for their own food
fiscal difficulties. According to the Los Angeles County Department
in the form of mice and rats caught, as one might say, in the course
of Health Services, animal control agencies are already ‘processing’
well over half-a-million homeless pets each year. Only 25 per cent of
Increasing disposable incomes in many countries have meant an
these animals are adopted or placed into a safe environment with the
improvement in the quality of life for many pets but, as the Economist
majority, including those with a registered pedigree being, to use that
newspaper recently pointed out, dogs’ and cats’ lives assume a more
dreadful expression, ‘euthanized’.
sombre hue in some parts of the world.
In the context of the overall US economy, although economists
The Economist reported that dog meat is a popular dish in many
feel that the recession is nearing its end, recovery will be tentative well
parts of China, particularly amongst ethnic Koreans in the north-east
into the second and, perhaps, the third quarter of 2010 as the economy
of the country and that restaurants serving dog are also common in
recovers from a severe downturn. But, due to California’s fierce budget-
Beijing. Cats are reportedly a popular dish in southern China.
cutting which has seen the State issuing IOU’s to its own employees,
It now appears that China is ready to end a centuries-old custom
shelter animals are only allowed to remain on death row for three days,
and remove cat and dog from the menu. According to local state-run
half what they were once allowed. And animal rights activists say that
media, a draft law was expected to have been presented to the National
seventy-two hours is simply not enough time for them to locate the
People’s Congress in April. This would be China’s first law against
owner of a lost or runaway pet with no ID such as a microchip.
animal abuse. Anyone caught eating cat or dog meat would face a
Against such a background, insistence on the part of the pet food
fine of as much as 5,000 yuan, equivalent roughly to £450 and be
and products industry that pet owners are riding out the recession
sentenced to up to fifteen days in jail. Organizations involved in selling
with no discernable signs of retrenching their expenditure may look a
cats or dogs or their meat for consumption could be fined between
little like whistling in the wind. According to the American Pet Products
10,000 and 500,000 yuan.
Association, US spending on pets continues to grow despite the downturn. Spending on pet food, a range of other supplies, veterinary
Attitudes towards pets in China have been changing rapidly in recent years.
treatment along with services such as grooming and boarding
Under Chairman Mao, pets were considered ‘a bourgeois
increased by 5.4 per cent in 2009 compared with the previous year,
affectation’ and banned but, with the emergence of a growing urbanized
reaching a total 0f $45.5 billion and the APPA is predicting that spending
and increasingly affluent population, pet ownership has become more
in 2010 will increase again by up to five per cent.
popular. In 2008, according to Euromonitor, Chinese consumers spent
It appears that, while US pet spending is increasing in all market
5.73 billion yuan (approximately £564.5 million) on pet food and pet-
sectors, spending on veterinary services showed the biggest increase;
care products, a 6.9 per cent increase on the previous year. Euromonitor
up by 8.5 per cent in 2009. This reflects veterinary care advances which
went on to predict that the market would rise 5.6 percent in 2009, to
have greatly advanced the range of services available. Pets are now
6.05 billion yuan (£596 million).
undergoing CT scans, root canal procedures and cancer surgery. The
But if Chinese consumers are turning increasingly towards pet
APPA is looking for a further six per cent increased spend on veterinary
ownership, a ubiquitous officialdom still intrudes into what would seem
care in 2010.
essentially to be an individual lifestyle choice.
It has to borne in mind, of course, that the APPA is a Trade
The residents of Guangzhou, an hour’s train journey from Hong
Association which was set up in 1958, to serve the interests of the pet
Kong and one of China’s most affluent cities with an expanding middle
products industry with a mission to promote, develop and advance pet
class, were confronted in June 2009 by a new city ordinance to the
ownership and the pet product industry. Amongst APPA’s promotional
effect that each household would be allowed only one dog, meaning
activities is the publication of the National Pet Owners Survey, the 2009-
that anybody owning more than one would be allowed to keep only
2010 edition of which states that 62 per cent of US households own
a pet, equating to a total of 71.4 million homes. This compares with
City officials justified this draconian ordinance with reference to
the situation in 1988, the first year in which the survey was conducted,
the city’s stray dog problem. As the middle class has grown, so has
when only 56 per cent of US households owned a pet. The estimated
the numbers owning dogs. I’m not sure what is the Chinese for ‘Dogs
spend in 2010 of $47.7 billion will break down 38.3 per cent on food,
are not just for Christmas’ but it seems that one consequence of many
26.8 per cent on veterinary care and 23.1 per cent on other supplies
owning dogs for the first time is that the pets are often abandoned
including over-the-counter medicines.
when the novelty wears off, a problem compounded by owners failing
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
to neuter their pets. In addition, Guangzhou hosts the Asian Games
notes that, overall, both dog and cat food continue to enjoy strong
which take place in November 2010 and the authorities are attempting
growth . The latter, however, has reflected to a very great extent the
to clean the city up before the Games take place.
performance of specific categories of pet food. In the UK cat food
The capital, Beijing, not only has a one-dog policy but also decrees
sector, wet food is the principal market driver with manufacturers
that they must not be taller than 35 cm, about fourteen inches. Since
emphasising the premium nature of their wet brands. Conversely, wet
2006, dogs have also been banned in public places. Part of Beijing’s
dog food is stagnating, with dry dog food making the running, reflecting
policy as regards dogs stems from the fact that China has a rabies rate
pet owners’ appreciation of the potential health benefits of feeding dry
which is second only to that of India. A cull in southwest China in 2006
dog food and of the comparative ease with which dry dog food can be
accounted for more than 50,500 dogs. In 2009, a similar cull accounted
purchased in bulk. Dry cat food, on the other hand is showing a much
for 33,000 dogs in Shaanxi province subsequent to an increase in the
more restrained rate of growth, although veterinarians stress the role of
number of rabies cases.
dry cat food in controlling gum disease in cats which show a surprising
In the build-up to the Beijing Olympics in 2008, one hundred and
degree of resistance to having their teeth brushed!
twelve ‘official’ restaurants were instructed to remove dog from their
On the subject of health, the problem of pet obesity continues to
menus in order to avoid offending tourists. However, the Olympics were
mount in the UK as in other industrialized countries, particularly the US.
not all good news for dogs. There was also a massive cull of pet dogs
According to one source, between twenty-five and forty per cent of dogs
in the run-up to the Games while, in addition, a government-inspired
in the US are obese. Nor are dogs the only species involved; cats and
campaign to associate cats with serious diseases including Serious
all domestic pets are at risk from this potentially fatal condition as the
Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), led to a major cull of cats under
photographs in my veterinary’s waiting room can testify. Overweight
frequently disturbing circumstances, much protested against by welfare
pets suffer more physical illness and do not live as long as animals of
groups both outside and within China.
recommended weight. Obesity can frequently affect pets’ quality of life
China, as well as, India displays all the symptoms of a clash between traditional attitudes to ‘domestic’ animals. The perception of pets has changed significantly in Indian households. As part of the so-called ‘humanisation’ trend, pets are
while the health risks associated with weight gain include cardiac and respiratory diseases, diabetes, liver disease, arthritis and spinal disc problem to name a few. Incidentally, these conditions apply equally to the human population.
being increasingly treated as family members rather than working
Increasing awareness amongst pet owners of health aspects
animals, for example, as guard dogs for security purposes or cats
related to nutrition has encourage the development of markets for new
for pest control. Euromonitor as well as other sources takes the view
multi-functional foods aimed at improving general pet health, including
that many Indian pet owners now derive emotional satisfaction from
products focussed on improving the condition of paws, claws, eyes,
keeping a healthy and well-groomed pet, particularly those who may
coats, skin and teeth. Another aspect related to the drive to convenience
have studied for their masters degree or higher in a US or EU University
in a world where pet owners are increasingly time-pressured is the
and who have spent time working in the west before returning to their
continuing move away from the traditional canned presentation while,
on the other hand, pouches such as the Purina One Natural Balance,
These changes in attitudes seem set to continue to spur on the development of the Indian pet food and care products market in the
Whiskas and Felix brands plus an increasing range of supermarket own labels have increased their share of the market.
next five years as well as exerting an increasing influence on related
Despite what one source has called ‘a general stagnation’ in pet
industries such as pet grooming, already a significant business in
numbers in the UK, the petfood and pet care market is one of the most
robust in the EU. It appears that with anthropomorphism gathering pace,
Pet Trends in the UK
manufacturers are increasingly able to persuade pet owners to trade
The main body representing pet food manufacturers in the UK has
up to super premium and premium products which will drive value sales
recently completed its latest survey of the British pet population,
growth over the forecast period projected by the report. It appears that
showing that, in 2009, there were approximately eight million dogs and
UK pet owners are also increasingly willing to spend extra on food for
eight million cats in Britain. According to the Pet Foods Manufacturers’
their cats and dogs, according to data compiled by M&S Pet Insurance
Association (PFMA), more than two-thirds of the canine population
and reported on in late 2009.
consisted of pedigree breeds; the feline population was composed of more that four-fifths non-pedigree breeds.
In 2008, according to a Mintel Report, a total of £1.7 billion was spent in the UK on food for domestic animals. In a press release dated 5
Dogs and cats are not, of course, the only type of pet popular
October 2009, M&S Pet Insurance also quoted data from online retailer
in the UK and in this connection, I must congratulate the Guardian
and pharmacy Bestpet which reported a thirty per cent increase in sales
and Observer newspapers on their publication, in March 2010, of two
of premium food sales during a twelve month period running from the
supplements featuring, respectively, cats and dogs and a miscellany
last quarter of 2008 - a reflection of the fact that, with the recession
of other assorted birds, reptiles, fish and other livestock. I have often
biting, Bestpet sells pet medication and food costing up to fifty per
wondered about the relationship that may be struck off between a
cent less than buying at a vet.
human and a stick insect but if it teaches a young person how to care
Interestingly, the insurer made the point that UK owners were also
for an otherwise defenceless creature, then I suppose that this may be accounted another benefit of pet ownership. Meanwhile, a recent Euromonitor report on the UK pet food market
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
 Pet Food and Pet Care Products in the United Kingdom - Euromonitor International published in September 2009.
increasingly ready to make the link between premium foods for their
It appears that a specialist in renal pathology at a Veterinary
pets and pet health; in the UK as well as in the US, pet obesity together
Diagnostic Laboratory in Athens, Georgia succeeded in tracking
with its attendant health problems is becoming a major concern of
down tissue samples from the pets that died in 2004. The samples
the veterinary profession. A spokesman for Bestpet Pharmacy noted
contained the same type of insoluble crystals found in US pets
that ‘Responsible pet owners who ensure their cats and dogs have a
during the 2007 outbreak. However, it also appears that the Georgia
healthy diet and regular exercise can help reduce expensive vet bills
researchers were not the first to link the two outbreaks; when it became
in the future.’ It seems that the message is getting through; a survey
known that melamine and cyanuric acid were the culprits behind
conducted in 2008 by the UK Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association
the US pet deaths, Mars scientists made the link and claim to have
showed that nine in ten pet owners claimed to be aware of the potential
‘shared this information with the veterinary community and regulators
health effects of various kinds of pet food.
in Asia and the US.’ However, while the Food and Drug Administration
Cats – or their Owners – are Cleverer? According to a study by Bristol University’s Department of Clinical
acknowledges it was informed, it appears that major veterinary and pet food organizations claim they were never told by Mars of any link between the two outbreaks.
Veterinary Science published in the Veterinary Record, people who
The 2007 recall of pet foods in the US and Canada was the biggest
own a cat are more likely to have a university degree than those with
on record, reportedly affecting over one hundred brands and sixty
a pet dog . The survey of 2,524 households found that 47.2 per cent
million packages of wet and dry dog and cat food.
of those with a cat had at least one person educated to degree level, compared with 38.4 per cent of homes with dogs! Interestingly, the study also found that UK pet ownership was much higher than previously thought.
There was, predictably, much speculation over what long-term impact the recall would have on the industry. However, industry sources seem to agree that the recall has had few long-lasting effects, with most pet owners returning to their regular brands soon afterwards.
Cat and dog numbers were last estimated in a peer-reviewed
Nonetheless, the recall did provide a boost for the already growing
scientific journal in 1989. This concluded that there were 6.2 million cats
demand for ‘super-premium’ dog and cat food with some consumers
and 6.4 million dogs in the UK. According to the Department of Clinical
looking to these brands in the expectation of higher-quality ingredients
Veterinary Science‘s study, however, current numbers are likely to be about 10.3 million and 10.5 million respectively. This is significantly
Pets and the Dentist
higher than the Pet Food Manufacturers’ Association estimate of around
I was not aware of the existence of the Feline Advisory Bureau (FAB)
eight million for each species in 2009
until my vet told me about it.
One of the study’s authors, Dr Jane Murray, a lecturer in feline epidemiology at Bristol University, said the variation in education levels between owners was the most striking difference. She added that researchers hoped to repeat the study using the results of the 2011 census to get a clearer idea of trends in UK pet ownership.
Pet Food Recalls In the last issue of this publication, I discussed the disastrous pet food recall episode in the US which was eventually traced back to contamination of ingredients with melamine. It further emerged that the contamination was deliberate, with a view to raising the protein analysis of the ingredient material concerned. I now understand that pathologists have recently determined that the US outbreak in 2007 was not the first chemical-related incident to occur this decade. An outbreak in 2004 also involved pet foods contaminated with industrial chemicals and affected more than six thousand dogs and a smaller number of cats across Asia, according to Asian press reports at the time, with renal failure in the animals linked to Pedigree dog foods and Whiskas cat foods manufactured in Thailand by Mars. In the US, it was publically assumed the outbreak was the first of its kind until a pet blog, Pet Connection, reported on the Asian incidents. Asian veterinarians initially ascribed the 2004 pet deaths to fungal toxins, one of the first suspicions in the context of the US recalls in 2007.
 Number and ownership profiles of cats and dogs in the UK, by Jane K Murray, William J Browne, Margaret A Roberts, Amber Whitmarsh and Timothy J Gruffydd-Jones, Veterinary Record, 6 February 2010.
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
Briefly and surprisingly, and as FAB’s own website notes, although
on the surfaces of the teeth around the gums. If this is allowed to
cats are ‘an endless source of fascination’, relatively little was known
accumulate, the bacteria in dental plaque irritates the gum tissue which,
about them or their veterinary needs when the Bureau was founded
in turn, often leads to infection in the bone surrounding the teeth.
by Joan Judd in 1958. Attracted to cats from childhood, her interest
Hard dental tartar consists of calcium salts from saliva deposited
developed further when she became the owner of two Siamese cats
on plaque. This starts to form within a few days on a tooth surface that is
which would, indeed, keep anybody in fulltime employment.
not kept free of plaque and provides a rough surface enhancing further
Unable to find answers to a vast array cat health problems, she set out to provide cat lovers with information based upon proven facts. In
build-up of plaque. Once established, tartar is difficult if not impossible to remove without dental instruments.
1958 she founded FAB, based upon a determination to generate and
Halitosis - bad breath - is the most common effect noted by pet
disseminate high quality scientific information to anyone involved with
owners; this, however, is frequently only the initial symptom. The gums
cats, be they vets or owners. It appears that, in the UK at least, FAB
become irritated, leading to bleeding and oral pain and your cat or
is still unique, having led the field of knowledge about our cats and
dog may lose its appetite or drop food from its mouth while eating.
what makes them tick for half a century. This work and the influence
The roots may become so severely affected that some teeth become
it brings to bear continues, not only in the treatment of disease but in
loose and fall out. Bacteria surrounding the roots gain access to the
establishing standards for boarding catteries and providing help and
blood stream. Studies have shown that dogs with severe periodontal
information to cat owners nationwide .
disease are characterised by an increased degree of microscopic
Here, an interest must be declared.
damage in their kidneys, heart muscle and liver than do dogs with less
The author is the keeper of a cat who will be nineteen at around
severe periodontal disease.
Christmas 2010. The cat in question has recently taken to yowling in the middle of the night for no apparent reason. FAB provided a useful
The key to managing gum disease, whether in humans or pets, is prevention.
explanation to this, noting that ‘vocalisation appears to play a big part
I must confess that I have never envisaged successfully brushing
in the ageing process. Two thirds of the cats surveyed use more sounds
a dog’s teeth, let alone a cat’s; nevertheless, a helpful website, the
to get food and attention’. FAB goes on to note that more than a quarter
Forget-Me-Not Cat Sanctuary, advises me that it is perfectly possible
of surveyed cats called for attention at night, stopping only when
to do so if the learning process is started sufficiently early. Tips include
they received attention or reassurance from their owners. FAB further
the advice to use a soft veterinary toothbrush; human toothbrushes are
suggests that, as a cat’s ability to protect itself declines, there appears
too large to use for your pet’s teeth. Such toothbrushes can be bought
to develop a higher dependency on their owners for their security.
from your veterinarian or from a pet store.
Having tried successfully a number of times to illicit a response from
Veterinary toothpaste must also be obtained; human toothpaste
their owners by means of a harsh distressed yowl difficult to ignore,
may be harmful to cats. It appears that there are many flavours of pet
they continue to perform the ritual as ‘a learned behaviour’. According
toothpaste available including poultry and fish, a fact confirmed by
to FAB, a number of owners reported that the calling stopped when
my own veterinarian!
the cat was allowed to sleep in the bedroom although in the author’s case, it must be admitted that the calling started in the bedroom where
the cat has always slept!
As one of the so-called BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India and China)
However, FAB also makes the inescapable point which, doubtless, will have occurred to readers, that other factors may be at play.
that have shown amongst the highest world growth rates in Gross Domestic Products over recent years, there has been considerable
These include deafness and chronic cerebral hypoxia - deficiency
interest in Russia as potentially a major pet food and product market.
of oxygen supply to the brain - which potentially produce symptoms of
However, following the crisis that has reportedly engulfed the Russian
senility and short-term memory problems causing general confusion
economy since the crash in oil and gas prices in 2008-09, two recent
at night. Other causes include high blood pressure, causing general
reports have shed light on what is happening to the pet food industry
discomfort, headache and disorientation with ensuing distress
in that vast country.
response. Night-time vocalisation is often reported as one of the
The report published in December 2009 by Agriculture and Agri-
behavioural signs in cats suffering from hyperthyroidism, a condition
Food Canada suggests that the Russian pet food market still offers
frequently seen in the elderly cat. Needless to say, all these potential
major opportunities for growth and, indeed, presented figures that made
conditions have been investigated by the author’s veterinarian and,
the author stop and stare, During the past ten years, the average growth
mercifully, found to be absent.
in GDP has been seven per cent, economic growth which has driven
FAB has also provided useful data on another aspect of the aging feline in question in that, as all owners will be all-too-aware, dental problems become more acute as dogs and cats get older.
demand for pet ownership and prepared pet food products. Interestingly, the Canadian study highlighted the significance of unprepared pet foods in Russia which, the report argues, presents
This is not surprising. As life expectancy amongst humans has
potentially the major growth opportunity in this largely untapped
increased, it has become equally evident that the major cause of human
market. Increases in disposable incomes have also improved demand
tooth loss is not tooth decay but periodontal gum disease. This results
for premium pet food products.
from the infection that results from the build-up of soft dental plaque
The Russian pet food market is worth US $1 billion and is forecasted to be one of the fastest growing in the world. There are an
 A useful introduction to this organisation may be found at http://www.fabcats. org/publications/pdfs/Essential_cattitude.pdf
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
estimated 17.8 million pet cats and 12.2 million pet dogs in Russia, thus ranking Russia second only to the United States in terms of the
number of pets per head of human population.
strongest. Disposable incomes tend to be higher in urban areas,
The report suggests that the ‘humanisation’ of pets is starting to
creating the potential for a higher proportion of pet owners to spend
become very prominent in Russia, as owners are increasingly willing
significant and increasing amounts on not just feeding but caring for
to spend more on premium pet food products to indulge their pets -
their pets. Distribution channels are also important; premium and
humanisation being defined as treating pets like companions or family
super premium products are more widely available in large cities,
members and looking after their health and well-being accordingly.
particularly through the development of new marketing channels such
This is distinct from anthropomorphism - the ascription of human
as pet superstores and veterinary complexes. And, finally, there is the
characteristics to animals.
obvious point that many urban consumers have limited free time and,
Another factor known to contribute to the growth in sales of
in consequence, feel somewhat guilty about the lack of attention they
prepared pet foods is the ongoing urbanization of the Russian
can afford their pet. The guilt is duly assuaged by buying higher quality
population, a development shared with many other emerging
and more expensive pet food and pet care products. Rather like some
economies. Prepared pet foods are more ‘convenient’ and are, by
peoples’ attitudes to their children, really!
definition, more appropriate to the life-styles of urban dwellers.
The Russian retail layout is changing as the country moves away
Euromonitor reported, in late 2009 that, in line with the global
from the dreaded ‘gastronome’ or food store, an institution personally
economic crisis, Russia’s economic development slowed down in 2009.
experienced by the author. Wholly new forms of retail outlets are
However, having experienced robust economic growth during most
emerging, not just in the cities but also in the regions. A number of
of the review period as a result of high commodity and, in particular,
own label brands are emerging in the retail sector and these include
oil prices, Russia was not, on first appearances, as badly affected as
some other countries.
Supermarkets and hypermarket outlets are increasing in average
In the major urban centres of Moscow and St Petersburg, this
size and, as a result, are able to assign more shelf space to economy and
has helped to sustain a positive development of the Russian pet food
premium pet food brands. There is no doubt that this has encouraged
and pet care products market. But, as importantly, the tendency of
a trend towards product diversification. In 2009 this continued to cause
owners to treat pets like family members and to be willing to spend
more intense competition between pet food manufacturers, which had
significant sums on their health and well-being - the pet humanisation
a moderating effect on prices and made higher quality products more
trend - has also contributed to positive market development in 2009.
affordable to larger numbers of consumers.
Other aspects have included organic growth in the pet population and, importantly in countries such as Russia, the development of
UK Pet food Manufacturing Statistics
improved distribution channels for dog and cat food products. Other
According to the 2009 edition of UK Business: Activity, Size and
factors identified by Euromonitor include growing consumer demand
Location, there were one hundred and eighty sites in the UK classed
for convenience pet foods and increasing awareness of pet health
as being involved in the manufacture of prepared petfoods. Of these, eighty employed up to four people; there were only fifteen
issues among owners. Euromonitor also reported that the ‘other pet food’ sector also benefited from increased interest in exotic and rare pets, particularly smaller animals such as rabbits and guinea pigs that are easier to care for and can be kept in cramped urban environments.
sites that employed one hundred people or more. Of this latter total, just five sites employed upwards of two hundred and fifty people. In terms of location, the largest single concentration of sites involved in the manufacture of prepared pet foods was in Yorkshire
Euromonitor also identify in Russia what appears to be a
and the Humber. The east and southeast of England boasted twenty-
widespread phenomenon as pet food markets develop, the trend to
five sites apiece. In contrast, Wales and Scotland have only five sites
pet humanisation. The effect of this was to ensure that the demand
each, as does London.
for superior quality premium and super premium pet food remained
If we look at the statistics at the enterprise level rather than from
robust in 2009 instead of falling back in line with consumers’ declining
the point-of-view of individual sites, then UK Business: Activity, Size
disposable incomes. One important aspect of this, in Russia as
and Location 2009 suggests that there were one hundred and fifty
elsewhere, is that it is in urban areas where this trend is likely to be
enterprises operating in the UK at the time of the 2009 survey of
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Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
which half employed up to and including four people. This accords
Pet foods – the Next Five Years
with the view that much of UK manufacturing is made up of small to
And finally, where is the world pet food industry likely to be heading
medium-sized businesses but has to be reconciled with the fact that,
in the next half-decade?
of the one hundred and fifty enterprises identified, sixty were reported
Currently, it may be reasonably argued that the US is the kingpin of
as generating sales in excess of £1 million, with half of those reporting
the world pet food market but there are clearly challengers waiting in the
turnover of £5 million or more.
wings. By 2013, one source suggests, Brazil will have overtaken Japan
Of the one hundred and fifty businesses, eighty had been founded
to claim the runner-up’s spot. Russia is seen as climbing up the rankings
for ten years or more but there were twenty businesses with a lifespan
and pet food sales in countries such as Thailand, Romania and India
of two years or less.
are also seen as growing rapidly in the years up to 2013. According
Each year, the UK government undertakes the Annual Business
to Euromonitor International, North America and Latin America saw the
Inquiry, the successor to, in my view, the much more useful Census
biggest increases in pet food sales between 2003 and 2008 followed
of Production. Data collected between 1997 and 2007 suggests that
by Western Europe. Significantly, Eastern Europe’s growth was just
the number of enterprises operating in the field of prepared pet food
behind that of the EU but from 2009 until 2013, it is projected that
manufacture peaked at around one hundred and seventy two in 2002,
Eastern Europe will overtake the EU. Asia Pacific will start catching up
since when the industry appears to have embarked on a process of
with the EU. In the latter, only Italy will still experience growth in the pet
food market at around five per cent a year between 2009 and 2013.
The ABI for 2008 was conducted under the Standard Industrial
Most other countries in the developed world will experience growth
Classification which became operative in 2007 (SIC 2007) as required
rates of between one and two per cent with ever-cautious Germany
under EU regulations and may not thus be directly compatible with
experiencing negative growth of around -0.8 per cent, reflecting German
the results shown for 2007 under the previous Standard Industrial
consumers’ continuing price-sensitiveness and preference for own
Classification. The results for 2008 suggest an industry with sales of
label or discount brand pet foods.
£1,207 million and purchases of goods, materials and services of £791
Unsurprisingly, differences in projected growth rates reflect local
million and employment costs of £138 million. Adding the last two
factors but Euromonitor has identified two common trends. Increasing
figures together and subtracting their combined total from total sales
pet ownership will reflect the rising proportion of the world’s population
suggests an operating margin of £278 million or 23 per cent. This may
living in an urban environment, a development associated with rising
be compared to the operating margin achieved by the manufacture of
disposable incomes which, in turn, creates more incentives for
prepared feeds for farm animals of 5.4 per cent in 2008.
developing a modern retail trading structure, despite the depressing
Speciality Petfood Ingredients
effects of the current recession. These factors also appear to be generating an increasing level of pet ownership in emerging markets, which have already experienced huge growth rates over the past decade. For instance, between 1998 and 2008, the number of cats and dogs owned in Brazil and Turkey rose by 49 per cent, resulting in a total of almost fifty million pets in Brazil, clearly a huge potential market. The Chinese pet dog and cat population stands, according to the most recent estimate, at almost 38 million; India has an estimated 7.6 million cats and dogs. The other major factor is the transition from what might be termed the ‘autonomous’ pet food market - the market where dogs are tossed scraps from the table while cats forage for themselves - to a market where diets specifically formulated on actual or perceived advantages form the major part of the pet population of the country concerned.
Adding Value – Naturally
A Euromonitor study points out, rightly, that the relatively low level of pet owners feeding commercially prepared foods means a huge potential market for the pet food industry. Among the ten projected fastest growing pet food markets, only Argentina has total consumption of prepared pet foods above a quarter of the total perceived market for pet foods, a figure that is far below the levels in developed markets. In a significant number of the fastest growing markets, total consumption of prepared pet foods barely reaches between five or ten per cent of the potential market for manufactured pet foods, constituting an
Contact John Nolan Inovitec Ltd Rookery Bank, Alpraham, Tarporley, Cheshire CW6 9HX Tel: 01829 730407 • Fax: 01829 730410 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
enormous opportunity for companies seeking to encourage pet owners to switch from table scraps to prepared pet food which is arguably more nutritious, more convenient and more an expression of the developing relationship between humankind and the companion animal – or pet!
Satiety A Proven Weight Management Concept For Pets By Dr Martin Karutz, DSM Nutritional Products, Switzerland Overweight and obesity is one of the biggest challenges for the
about weight management means addressing the owner with the right
pet food industry. While the food industry innovation is focused
products, messages and facts to help him or her to control the pet’s
on finding new solutions to the problem, the pet nutrition industry
weight, while also satisfying an intense desire to pamper the pet.
is still mainly building on calorie reduced “light” products. This concept however does not consider the pet owner as a limiting
Calorie reduced pet foods
factor to successful weight management. Learning from functional
It is broadly accepted by veterinarians and pet nutrition specialists
foods might help. New concepts and ingredients for helping
that pet food products with a reduced calorie density can provide the
manage the weight of pet are becoming available for the pet food
foundation for a weight reduction program. Suitable diets for weight loss
industry. One example is Fabuless™ a satiety triggering ingredient
regimes are indicated to be low in fat, rich in dietary fibre with selective
demonstrated to reduce the calorie intake of pets.
carbohydrate sources to subdue insulin response. These “light” pet food products are designed to reduce calories by 5-15% at constant
Approximately 40% of the pet population in North America and Western
daily food intake. Since weight management is about reducing calorie
Europe is overweight or obese. This staggering figure is compounded
intake, the approach is right, at least when the reduced level of fat is
by obesity related conditions such as diabetes mellitus, orthopedic
not offset by increased highly digestible carbohydrates combined with
problems, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic and physical
lower proteins. Adequate mineral and vitamin supplementation as well as
problems. But the main reason for overweight and obese pets is the human factor, linked to several issues:
sufficient protein intakes for the feed levels must be maintained. Various antioxidants (e.g. taurine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E & C, and β-carotene)
The sedentary lifestyle of the domestic pet;
can also help to mitigate the complications of diseases associated with
Surgical contraception resulting in changes to the pet’s
obesity and will prepare dogs and cats for a healthier life. Additionally
environmental and endocrine mechanism;
reduced calorie pet food can be fortified with ingredients that stimulate
Predisposition as a result of breeding; and
the metabolism to consume more calories and turn deposited fat into
Indiscriminate feeding habits.
This last factor might be the true culprit, complete with table scraps, poor diet, constant access to food, competitive eating in a multiple pet household and other poor eating rituals.
It’s about discipline In nature, food acquisition has never been a sure thing for any creature – canines, felines or humans. It has always been accompanied by physical exertion to capture or cultivate and consume food. Humans, however, have figured out how to avoid all that work. They have learned how to refrigerate, dry, preserve and store foods in large amounts and have created the same food acquisition assurances for dogs and cats. Like humans, pets no longer have to hunt to survive nor live outdoors, so they have mirrored the human tendency to have trouble with weight. The major difference is that humans principally have complete control over what they eat. They should also have complete control over what and how much their pets eat. But, let’s be fair here. For most people, it’s very difficult to stick to a calorie reduced diet, exercise regularly or resist potato chips or a chocolate bar. Considering this human weakness, how can we expect people to treat their pets with the same or even a higher level of discipline? It should be easy: feed a good, balanced diet with a calorie amount that offsets the pet’s energy consumption. Therefore, it’s about calories … and it’s about discipline – the pet owner’s discipline. So talking
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
Fabuless, an ingredients for easier control of calorie intake One example of a functional ingredients designed to help humans to manage their weight is Fabuless™, a patented emulsion of highly purified palm and oat oils that creates the feeling of satiety. The principle mechanism of this emulsion is a delayed digestion of the fat component of the product, leading to the presence of free fatty acids in the distal jejunum and ileum. These fatty acids are thought to trigger the so-called “ileal brake” mechanism. The ileal brake is a physiological mechanism to ensure better digestion of nutrients. When nutrients are still present in the distal ileum, gastric emptying and gut movement are slowed down to permit better digestion of the gut contents. At the same time, a feeling of satiety is created, reducing appetite. There is no influence on the digestion in general or on the digestion of other nutrients ingested with or after the emulsion. Side energy. Examples include carnitine, which facilitates fat burning, and green tea polyphenols like EGCG proven to set the fat metabolism at a higher gear to turn fat into energy.
Learning from functional foods As pets and their owners due to their metabolic set up are not that different when it comes to weight problems it might be helpful to have a look at what happened in the human food industry and what nutritional products and solutions are offered for decreasing overweight and obesity for humans. About 10 years ago the food industry was in the middle of what can be called the “low” period. Products claiming “low fat”, “low carbohydrates” or “low calorie” on their label flooded the retailer shelves promising easier weight loss. During the last decade however people started to search for a new kind of weight influencing solutions. “Low” products were more and more considered as boring and people started to look for a more modern approach avoiding the psychological aspect of missing something when consuming food which is perceived of being reduced. Lowered in calories? Lowered in nutritional value? Lowered in taste experience? Satiety is one nutrition concept successfully taking an increasing share in the market of human weight management products. Satiety products contain higher concentrations of fibres or other ingredients contributing to filling the stomach thereby triggering a feeling of satiety and reducing the frequency of eating and amount of food. A second class of satiety products uses functional ingredients that create the feeling of satiety or satisfaction by influencing specific receptors in the gut and subseqeunt signaling chains to the brain. Multiple studies in humans but also in dogs have demonstrated that certain nutrients can trigger this satiety mechanism.
effects have not been seen in the human studies and are unlikely to occur, as the product is completely digested before entering the colon. In multiple controlled human studies Fabuless has been demonstrated to significantly reduce energy intake by 12.5% - 30%, to reduce the occurrence of weight regain after dieting (yoyo-effect) and to reduce total body fat. No tendency for compensatory eating during the next day was observed.
Fabuless for weight management in pets There is literature confirming that the ileal brake mechanism also exists in dogs and that the strongest trigger for the dog is the presence of fatty acids in the small intestine. In order to test the efficacy of Fabuless in pets, 40 adult beagle dogs, with a known history of high feed intake, were allowed a 14day adaptation period to acclimatize to a new feeding regime, which was also used during the main trial. Dogs were offered a morning snack in terms of wet dog feed mixed with Fabuless, in an amount which accounted for approximately 15% of the dogs’ daily energy requirements. Four hours after the morning snack all dogs were offered their habitual dry dog feed in amounts exceeding the dogs’ energy requirements. They were permitted to consume their feed over another four hours, when the food was removed and weight back. Taking into consideration the total population of dogs in the study Fabuless resulted in an average 8% reduction in daily food intake, with however large variation of food intake per individual dog. For further analyses of the data the dog population was sorted into four quartiles according to the amount of daily food intake. It became obvious, that dogs with the tendency of overeating responded more markedly to Fabuless resulting in an 15% significant reduction of feed intake in the upper two quartiles. In contrast hardly any effect was observed for the lower two quartiles. As dogs tending to increased food intake are often predisposed to being overweight or obese, Fabuless could be effective ingredient in a weight management program. Additionally, as pets do not act rationally regarding their food intake, the combination of non-responding and naturally low calorie uptake can be addressed as a safety mechanism, which avoids those dogs getting insufficient calories.
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
Left: The sedentary lifestyle of the domestic pet, is demonstrated by Cody, the editor’s Border Collie beverages or a fortified low calorie snack as a reward after the training. Thus Fabuless™ and other ingredients for weight management can be applied in the development of large variety of innovative products which can help to take away the negative emotional image of dieting from a successful weight management plan. Weight management does not have to be a burden for the pet … and its owner. Getting the buy-in of owners and making it easier for them to be disciplined with their pets’ diets is the best way to go. It goes without saying that the return on an integrated program will be attractive not only for the pet and owner but also for the producer and retailer of the related products
Integrated weight management programs Despite proven efficacy functional ingredients for weight management are not magic tools. Use of ingredients like Fabuless should always be part of a broader weight management program including clear weight loss goals and regular exercise. Pet food manufacturers should consider integrated weight management offers. For example, a morning snack with a satiety
Literature Burns AA. et al.: International Journal of Obesity (2000) 24, 1419-1425 Diepvens K. et al.: International Journal of Obesity (2007) 1–8 DSM: Internal study report (2008) Geoghegan J. et.al.: Physiology and Behavior (1997) 62, 39-43 Haenni A.: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2009) 44 10 1186 – 1190 Logan CM et al.,: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2006)1–11 Ohtani N. et al.: (2001) Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 5: 377-382 Pappas T. et al.: American Journal of Surgery 1988) 155: 98-103 Van Citters G et al.: Current Gastroenterology Reports (1999) 1: 404-409 Lin H. Et al.: American Journal of Physiology (1996) 271:G62-67
promoting ingredient, combined with a pet food rich in protein and low calorie treats potentially carrying a fat burner. The latter should replace all
For more information on this article, antioxidants and other nutritional
standard treats or could even be a designed and positioned as a training
ingredients send an e-mail to email@example.com or contact you
treat to encourage exercise. You even could think about specific functional
local DSM sales representative.
01.03.2010 13:35:36 Uhr
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
seven common Elevator Leg Problems that cause abnormal Bucket Wear By Carl Swisher, TAPCO Inc. Plastic buckets offer many advantages over metal: long life, superior
For extremely light materials such as alfalfa or bran, venting decreases
abrasion resistance, nonsparking, lightweight, and noncorrosive,
the blowing and turbulence that can occur in the leg. The reduction
equal or greater carrying capacity of steel buckets. However, if plastic
of air currents minimizes circulatory pressure, which can draw a light
resin buckets show abnormal wear, this can be an indication that the
product through the down leg and back to the boot.
elevator is running outside standard operating parameters. To correct this, the cause of damage or wear on the bucket must be determined, and the equipment adjusted accordingly in order to keep the elevator running efficiently. Some common symptoms of elevator malfunction include backlegging (product discharging too late or too early), loose or broken bolts, broken buckets, excessive bucket wear, product sticking to the surface of bucket, and insufficient throughput capacity. The location, severity and type of damage to the bucket can indicate different problems within an elevator.
Trouble-shooting Elevator Maintenance Problems Examples of standard vented bucket patterns.
PROBLEM ONE: Product sticking to surface of bucket and diminishing throughput capacity.
PROBLEM THREE: Bucket worn from inside. This sandblast effect is caused by excessive product entrance velocity, usually from a side inlet.
Abraded hole in bucket. SOLUTION: Reduce conveyor input speed or install baffles at leg entrance. Replace with a more abrasion-resistant resin, such as urethane. Metal bucket (left) vs. urethane bucket (right) in rice elevator.
SOLUTION: Switch to urethane resin bucket. Urethane resin inherently resists adhesion and also â€œflexesâ€? to knock out caked-up residue.
P R O B L E M F O U R : Fr o n t l i p stretched out or broken due to impact with an internal obstruction.
PROBLEM TWO: Product backlegging or not discharging and diminishing throughput capacity. SOLUTION: Bucket venting. Venting allows an escape route for the pillow of air that needs to be evacuated from the bottom of the bucket
Broken or stretched bucket
as it fills. Venting improves the efficiency of bucket fill and discharge.
SOLUTION: Check boot and throat plate clearances and leg casing
For dense materials, such as flour, meals or mash feeds, the vents
for obstructions, such as inspection doors or tramp metal. Tighten
allow air to escape as the buckets fill. During discharge, air can return
the belt to keep it taught so it does not flap. If necessary, replace with
into the bucket preventing a vacuum that could hold product in the
impact-modified nylon resin buckets. Broken elevator bolts can also
bucket and cause backlegging.
be a sign of buckets receiving impact.
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
MaInTEnanCE SChEDulE ChECklIST:
Check for broken, bent or missing buckets and replace them;
can weaken some
Retighten or replace the bolts and nuts that hold buckets to the
plastic resin buckets.
belt or chain;
Verify proper alignment, tension, and physical condition of the belt
with a plastic resin bucket
or chain; check for wear, stretching or delamination; Discoloured or cracked bucket
accommodate the appropriate operating temperature range.
Check the throat plate and adjust if necessary; Look for wear on the head and boot pulleys; Clean inside the boot area, and around the elevator and drive
Temperature Range of Tapco Resins
-60°F to +200°F/-51°C to +93°C
Inspect and lubricate all bearings and moving parts in the elevator.
-40°F to +275°F/-40°C to +135°C
Identifying abnormal bucket wear in order to diagnose elevator
-60°F to +212°F/-51°C to +100°C
leg problems, and correcting those problems, will help your elevator run smoothly and achieve maximum capacity. For further guidance,
PROBLEM SIX: Bucket lips worn with sharp edges.
contact Tapco or your local distributor. NOTE: Images used are examples for educational purposes only. Type of wear and damage shown are not indicative of the brand of non-metallic buckets pictured. Abnormal bucket wear shown herein was caused by improper elevator leg operation. Information contained herein cannot be relied upon, or may have changed by the time of use, and may have errors or omissions. Reproduction of this article, in whole or in part, is not permitted without the expressed written consent of the author.
about the author Worn front lip SOLUTION: Loose belt tension can cause the bucket to slide along the
Carl Swisher, Sales Manager,
bottom of the boot causing this abnormal lip wear. Tighten/increase belt
tension so that bucket will not slide along the bottom of the boot.
+1 314 739 9191
TAPCO Inc., St. Louis,
direct ext. 1920 PROBLEM SEVEN: Buckets sides
are worn or scored because the
Carl Swisher, Sales Manager,
bucket scrapes along the leg
oversees Tapco’s domestic
and international sales force. Swisher has 20 years
SOLUTION: Adjust belt tracking
of experience in industrial
across the pulley crown by
sales and international business. Prior to joining Tapco, Swisher
increasing belt tension. Grooved bucket sides This image shows typical normal
was the Latin America Regional Sales Manager for a leading parts supplier in the sewn products industry. Proficient in Spanish, he is a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis
bucket wear. Lip and front
and completed his graduate studies at the Stern School of New
corners are diminished. This
reduces bucket capacity and
Founded in 1974, Tapco Inc. manufactures the most widely
creates inefficient discharge.
accepted line of non-metallic elevator buckets in the industry.
This indicates it is time to replace with new bucket.
Typical worn front lip and corners of bucket
Employ a regularly Scheduled Preventive Maintenance Program To maximize elevator throughput and efficiency, operators should undertake a visual inspection of the leg at least once a month, if
Typical agricultural elevator bucket (cup) uses are grain, feed, fertilizer and seed. Industrial elevator bucket uses are asphalt, chemicals, aggregates, sand and salt. Tapco has 900,000 buckets in stock for immediate shipment. Standard styles include AA, AC, Continuous, CCB, CC-HD, CC-XD, EuroBucket and Super EuroBucket. Agricultural buckets are manufactured from the highest grade of polyethylene, urethane and nylon available. Tapco also inventories 14 million elevator bolts, along
not more often, depending on their usage. When inspecting plastic
with belt splices or joiners, abrasion-resistant sheeting, drag
buckets, an operator needs to be able to distinguish the different types
flights, and hanger bearings.
of damage or wear, in order to keep the elevator free of problems.
Issue 12 Pet Food SuPPlement
l-CarnITInE vital for the health and Well being of People and Pets around the World By David Beaumont Lohmann Animal Health This important role has been confirmed in various species (mammals, avian, aquaculture, etc) at universities and research centres round the world. To understand L-Carnitine and its role in energy metabolism first requires a general understanding of where and how energy is produced. The first point to recognise is that tissues are made of cells and that all cells require an engine (i.e., mitochondria) to produce energy and stay alive. Fatty acids are the densest form of energy utilized to fuel the engine of the cell. Fats are made up of varying degrees of short, medium and long chain fatty acids. L-Carnitine is the “transporter” of all long chain fatty acids across the mitochondria membrane so they can be oxidized and converted into usable energy. Without L-Carnitine or with insufficient amounts of it, these fatty acids L-Carnitine was first discovered in 1905 and extensive research since
would not be properly utilized. Deficiency symptoms of L-Carnitine
then has clearly demonstrated the important role it plays in many critical metabolic processes. The scope of this article is to help communicate the vital role L-Carnitine plays in supporting the health and well-being of companion animals and to illustrate the similarity in response to applications in the human nutrition sector.
What is l-carnitine It is understood and confirmed that L-Carnitine is involved in many biochemical reactions and pathways. The reason for the “L” is simply because some synthetic production processes result in two different forms, the “L” and “D” form. L-Carnitine is the only form found in nature and the only form that is biologically active, whereas D-Carnitine has a negative impact on metabolism. Purity of supplementation therefore becomes essential. L-Carnitine is well known for the role it plays in energy metabolism.
Figure 1. Pathway illustrating the role of L-Carnitine in transporting fatty acids into the mitochondria for conversion into energy can include muscle necrosis, lipid-storage regulation, hypoglycemia, fatty livers, fatigue and cardiomyopathy. Other established metabolic functions for L-Carnitine include assisting carbohydrate and protein utilization, and “shuttling” of organic acids out of the mitochondria which helps to preserve cell function.
Where does l-carnitine coMe FroM L-Carnitine is excreted via the urine and therefore it requires continual replenishing. There are three main ways to replenish the L-Carnitine
Pet Food SuPPlement Issue 12
stores in the body: endogenous biosynthesis (made in body); supplementation from the foods we and our pets eat; and via direct supplementation. Endogenous production is complex and requires essential substrates such as the amino acid lysine and methionine. Only protein bound lysine can be utilized and this comes from muscle turnover. In addition, Vitamin C, B3 (ie. Niacin), B6 and iron are required for the synthesis of L-Carnitine to proceed normally. It is important to note that since L-Carnitine is predominantly manufactured by the liver and kidney, any cellular damage or even the aging process of these organs will greatly reduce their ability to produce L-Carnitine. Consequently, supplementation becomes critically important to meet the body’s daily L-Carnitine requirements. Figure 2: L-Carnitine Content (mg/kg) in various food products
observed from laboratory animal studies to apply also to humans, dogs and cats.
Weight Management Normally excess body weight occurs when the intake of calories exceeds that which is used for daily metabolic maintenance and exercise. The UK government statistics show that 60% of the UK population is considered to be overweight or obese. According to the US Center and Disease Control (CDC) 27% of the adult population are obese while two-thirds are overweight. In turn, pet obesity is also on the rise. Pet Food Manufactures’ Association research estimates 8 out of 10 pet owners believe that their pet is just the right weight, although when asked which of a series of pictures most closely resembled their pet, only 33% of dog and 23% cat owners were able to choose a “normal” L-Carnitine can be found in ingredients commonly included
weight picture. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention
in pet food formulations, however, the concentration of L-Carnitine
(APOP), a recent study conducted in October 2009 concluded that 45%
will differ. The concentration of L-Carnitine is highest in ingredients
of dogs and 58% of cats are either overweight or obese. The study also
originating from meat and poultry, but since these ingredients vary
found that from 2007 to 2009, the number of overweight dogs and cats
in the amount of fat, bone, mineral and water content so too will the
had increased by 2% and 5%, respectively. In addition, as our pets
final L-Carnitine concentration vary (Figure 2).
continue to live longer lives, the challenges associated with overweight
A standard rule of thumb is that the redder the meat, the higher
conditions will increase and lead to more health problems.
the L-Carnitine content. Fruits, nuts, grains, and vegetables contain
There are numerous studies that have been conducted which
only trace amounts of L-Carnitine. Because of the inherent variability
have clearly defined the value of L-Carnitine in weight management
of L-Carnitine in different ingredients and the fact that many pet food
programs in humans and pets. A study performed in 100 obese people
formulations contain plant-based ingredients and other ingredients
provided convincing data about the beneficial effects of L-Carnitine in
that contribute only trace amounts of L-Carnitine to the entire
conjunction with dieting and moderate exercise. Obese people had a
formulation, supplementing all formulas with an L-Carnitine safety
25% greater loss in body weight if they supplemented their diet with
margin is recommended. As a general recommendation, formulations
L-Carnitine and their BMI dropped by 1.5 units (Figure 3), indicating
that are predominantly made up of meat based ingredients should
that they were coming closer to their ideal body weight.
contain an additional 50 to 100 ppm of L-Carnitine and diets formulated with predominantly plant-derived ingredients should supplement L-Carnitine at much higher levels, 100 to 175 ppm.
Figure 3. One hundred obese humans on a weight reducing regimen with or without supplemental L-Carnitine (3 g/day for 4 weeks)
COMPANION ANIMAL AND HUMAN BENEFITS FROM L-CARNITINE The metabolic pathway of fatty acid oxidation in conjunction with L-Carnitine is identical to that of humans, laboratory animals, dogs and cats. Therefore, it should not be a surprise that other L-Carnitine metabolic functions outside of fat utilization would also be similar among different species. Thus one can accept the responses
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
Figure 4. Daily change in lean and fat mass of obese (>30% body
fat) dogs offered a weight reducing diet for 12 weeks with or
The heart is a working muscle continuously requiring energy and
other nutrients. While the human heart on average beats 72 beats per minute (bpm), a dog’s heart beats at approximately 120 bpm while that of a cat is approximately 180 bpm. As a result, nutrient demands for that of a dog or cat can be expected to be much higher than that of humans. Interestingly, the heart relies mostly (over 70%) on fatty acids and consequently L-Carnitine to help meet its energy needs. It should be to no surprise then that the concentration of L-Carnitine is greater in the heart when compared to all other body organs. Clinical data indicates that L-Carnitine supplementation can lead
Figure 5. Daily change in lean and fat mass of obese prone cats offered
to a healthier heart muscle and improved viability. Veterinarians have
a weight reducing diet for 6 months with or without Carniking
known for some time that L-carnitine deficiency is associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (known as DCM) in certain breeds of dogs and that it can be used as a treatment. Such deficiencies can be caused by defective uptake or retention by tissues, excessive renal excretion and/or
There is substantial evidence from animal studies showing the
poor biosynthesis. All of
beneficial effects of supplementary L-Carnitine in weight management
these reasons, together
and especially its ability to preserve and increase lean body mass
with inadequate dietary
during a “diet” feeding regimen. Although the magnitudes of responses
intake, create situations
are different, the trends and direction is similar for both dogs and cats
(Figure 4 and 5, respectively).
w i t h L- c a r n i t i n e i s necessary.
Healthy Aging and Cognitive Function Advances to health and nutrition have led to increasing life expectancies – not only for people, but for pets as well. The American Veterinary Medical Association in 2007 reported that the US dog and cat population that is 6 years old and older had increased 44% since 1996. Sales of senior pet products in Japan have risen 10 fold since 2001. There are a number of theories proposed to explain the aging process and many of them focus on the body’s inability to control free radicals and/or the loss of mitochondrial efficiency. Free radicals can create widespread damage as they attack cell membranes and reduce cell integrity. Typically the body’s line of defence is to quench them with free radical scavengers such as glutathione, Vitamin C, E, and even L-Carnitine. Clinical trials in laboratory rats have found reductions of lipid peroxidation of brain tissue when both young and senior rats are given L-Carnitine supplementation. Above: There is substantial evidence from animal studies showing
Clinical trials with rats and dogs have proven valuable in helping to
the beneficial effects of supplementary L-Carnitine in weight
improve cognitive function. In the case of rats, time for both young
and aged rats to successfully navigate through a labyrinth was
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
Table 1: Add CarnikingTM to supply the following recommended levels of L-Carnitine to allow for differences in basal diet and breeds Indication
L-carnitine content in dry food for dogs (mg / kg)
L-carnitine content in dry food for cats (mg / kg)
Racing/ working dogs: Light work
L-carnitine addition per kg body weight and day (mg/ kg)
L-carnitine content in dry food (mg / kg)
L-carnitine addition per kg body weight and day (mg/ kg)
improved when L-Carnitine supplementation was provided. In the
source of energy. And because they have a small storage capacity
case of dogs, L-Carnitine has been found to improve the learning
for L-Carnitine and a relatively undeveloped capacity to synthesize
process by significantly improving the discrimination and spatial
L-Carnitine in the body, L-Carnitine should be supplemented for
learning of aged dogs.
optimal energy metabolism in infants, puppies, and kittens.
New and Novel Science Opportunities
L-Carnitine synthesis in the newborn is less efficient than in the adult
Additionally, researchers are demonstrating the importance
and insufficient to meet normal metabolic requirements. The final
L-Carnitine plays in regulating hypoxic stress of cells following
step to manufacture L-Carnitine is age dependent. The final step
exercise. In this role, research shows that supplemental L-Carnitine
requires hepatic activity of gamma-butyrobetaine hyroxylase and in
helps protect the endothelial cells from L-Carnitine deficiency,
human infants activity is only at about 10% of that from adults. By
reduces tissue damage and muscle soreness, and facilitates the
2.5 years of age the activity is still only at 30% of the normal adult
overall process of recovery.
and it is not until age 15 that production is considered within the range of a normal adult.
Numerous studies have shown that hypothermia in growing
It has been widely understood that L-Carnitine is important for
newborns and adequate body temperature is critical for survival.
energy metabolism especially associated with fats. New science
Brown adipose tissue plays an important role in heat production
has helped us to understand the importance L-Carnitine also plays
for all infant mammals. The rate at which fatty acids are oxidized
in supporting various other body functions. Today, with the research
by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue for heat production is
investments made by companies such as Lonza and Lohmann
almost entirely dependent on the presence of L-Carnitine. Therefore,
Animal Health, we have been able to significantly contribute to
L-Carnitine plays an important role in â€œnon-shiveringâ€? thermogenesis
the science and application for helping people and their pets live
in young mammals.
longer, healthier lives.
Human infants, puppies and kittens rely heavily on fat as a
We would like to encourage you to evaluate the human and pet benefits of L-Carnitine which come as CarnipureTM and CarnikingTM, respectively. Both CarnipureTM and CarnikingTM are manufactured by Lonza, the global leader of both human and companion animal grade L-Carnitine. For a free sample of Vitamin C+LC effervescent tablets, please contact David Beaumont by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Lohmann Animal Health is appreciative of the technical support that Dr. Johnny Lopez of the Lonza companion animal team provided in creating this document. References are available from the author.
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
The Importance of PACKAGING By Dr Riccardo Concetti, Concetti S.p.A. and Graham Rawling, Golconda Pet food producers know the impact made by their cans, cartons
expanding into pet food and the zipper is increasingly desirable.
or bags on the retailer shelf is vital for influencing the purchasing
Thanks to their 25 years of experience in the pet food sector, the
decision. While pet food packaging is becoming much more like the
Italian Concetti Group manufactures innovative bagging systems that
human equivalent, machinery suppliers must face new challenges.
offer flexibility and increased outputs, featuring many patented devices
In particular, bag filling is undergoing accelerated changes that push
that allow an unprecedentedly accurate handling and sealing of the
designers to constantly strive for improvements. Superior barrier
most advanced PE, PET and PE-Alu-PE gusseted bags demanded
qualities, stain resistance and high quality graphics are no longer
by pet food marketing departments. Moreover, Concetti offers a new,
optional and this is continuing to drive the move towards plastic
appealing solution for the zipper.
film away from traditional multi-wall paper bags. At the same time, other convenient features like reclosable bags and easy opening are
THE CONCETTI RANGE Let’s take a closer look at these machines, and begin with the first functional unit that makes up the bagging process: the weigher. Unlike many suppliers, Concetti produces in-house its own range of weighers. Through careful research and experience Concetti technicians have developed a combination feeding system for pet food comprising a belt for the main feed and a vibrating trough for dribble feed to add precisely the right amount of kibbles and obtain the desired weight with high accuracy. For the weighing range Concetti have two solutions depending on the application, a model for weights between 0.5 to 7 kg, called Mini-Net/N-CV™, and a model for weights from 2 to 20 kg, the Net/N-CV™. When it comes to speed, one weigher guarantees an output rate of 900 bags/hour with weights between 2 and 10 kg decreasing to 800 bags/hour for weighments from 11 to 20 kg. However, many installed systems feature two weighers working in parallel giving an output rate of up to 1800 bags/hour. Concetti bag filling and closing machines are monobloc structures that constitute a separate but integrated unit. For pre-formed bags, three different models are available. The IPF™ fills pet food bags from 0.5 to 7 kg and reaches 1800 bags/hour with two filling spouts. The IMF™ works with weighments between 2 and 20 kg, featuring two filling spout with a total output of 1800 bags/h. The IGF™ has a single filling spout with which it reaches up to 1200 bags/h. On all machines, the changeover from one bag programme to another is made through the PLC and operator panel in just 90 seconds without the use of any tools. This rapid switchover results in higher average outputs when compared to machines that have higher outright speed but require extended downtime between products, sometimes involving several change parts and lengthy set-ups. The high-capacity empty bag magazines that Concetti have designed help to facilitate the operator’s work and enhance the overall system performance. Pet food producers with many different products and short job runs should find this appealing. The filling operation is one to which Concetti have dedicated special attention. Opening a gusseted bag for filling requires care to ensure the shape is not lost and the gussets are properly reformed. Concetti machines are equipped with special devices for holding and restoring gussets of bags with different sizes and formats. In addition, they also come with patented systems for quad seal or stabilo bags (see picture left). These bags have vertical seals on the four lengthwise edges to improve stability and appearance on the shelf but are difficult to handle automatically and hard to realign precisely when closing. Without Concetti’s patented
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
system, arranged to give all-round gripping of the bag, proper opening
FLEXIBILITY AND VERSATILITY
and realigning of the quad seal bags is simply left to chance.
The key to success in most fields is in offering each customer a product
Efficient filling on Concetti machines includes bottom vibration of
or packaging tailored to his market. Thus far we have considered only
the bag for compacting the product to improve palletisation and reduce
plastic bags but we should not forget that many customers continue
the bag length. Further, after the bag mouth is realigned and closed
to demand paper bags with sewn closures. So, in addition to the heat
and during transfer to the sealing station, Concetti uses a mechanical
sealing systems described, the IPF™, IMF™ and IGF™ can be equipped
device (a roller) that can be selected if necessary to evacuate any
with sewing heads for paper bags with or without handles. This gives
excess air in the top of the bag.
the user the ultimate in flexibility on the same machine, no need to
Another optional feature is a high-low bag holding device that permits the bag to be closed at different heights on the bag face, below
invest in separate lines. Finally, IGF™ can also be integrated with a device to produce bags from a tubular reel of PE film.
the carrying handle and many centimetres below the top edge. Heat-sealing of PE bags is a science in itself. To guarantee a
flawless seal, Concetti have opted for an in-built sealing system using
The real satisfaction that users find in Concetti is shown by the many
high quality, heavy-duty components. For high performance and long
customers who return again and again. Some cases of pet food
periods without operator attention, the sealing bars are protected by a
producers are worth mentioning. The Italian company Cerere provides
reel mounted Teflon sheet allowing a clean sealing face to be wound
packaging for pet food manufacturers. Accuracy and reliability are
on whenever signs of wear appear. On high-speed applications, a
the most important factors for Cerere, which explains why they have
seal-cooling device is supplied.
twice chosen Concetti, installing two IPF™ lines in their plant at Neive
NEW DEVELOPMENTS: zip applicator
(Italy). Nova Foods, a producer of cat food and a dog food line called Trainer highly appreciated by professional dog breeders, is a very
Among the latest developments is one that will be of interest to users
special customer for Concetti. Since their first experience with Concetti
looking to reduce the cost of packaging while increasing flexibility.
equipment in 1995, Nova Foods concluded that Concetti is the only
Concetti can now offer its customers a patented, integrated, on-line
supplier they can really trust. Today, their three complete lines are all
reclosable zip applicator for ordinary plastic bags without the need
Concetti equipped, with high-speed IPF™ and 4-column palletisers.
to buy expensive pre-formed zip bags. Concetti have patented this
Another long-term, satisfied client is Russo Mangimi, now branded as
device, which forms a zip closure from a reel, places the zipper and
Farmina Petfoods. The first supply to this company dates back to 1974.
seals it into the bag mouth. It is programmable so the zipper can be
Today, in their Nola factory, close to Naples, three complete lines with
applied or not depending on the user’s requirements. Concetti’s new
IGF™, IPF™ and palletisers are running, whereas another palletiser
system turns plain, pre-formed plastic bags into zip reclosable bags at
has been delivered to their Serbian facility in Indjija.
the touch of a button. The feature should give a rapid payback for the
Dodson & Horrell, an important UK manufacturer of pet and
end user and reduce packaging costs significantly over the long term
animal feeds has seven Concetti bag filling systems, including
two palletisers. The most recent Concetti unit is an IGF-FFS™ that combines the ability to fill both pre-made paper and PE bags plus bags produced from a tubular reel of PE film. A net weigher allows weighments from 2.5kg to 20kg to be produced. Andrew Reid, Operations Director of Dodson & Horrell, commented: ‘We are delighted with the quality of service from Concetti. The Concetti systems allow us to run far more productive and efficient production lines, which is vitally important in a busy mill such as our own.’ Another leading European pet food producer who has selected Concetti as a repeat supplier, is the German company Bosch Tiernahrung GmbH. Concetti has supplied this company with a number of bagging and palletising lines since they began producing high-quality dry dog food in 1984. At the moment, various models of Concetti-palletisers are operating in the Wiesenbach plant including high-speed push-type palletisers, 4-columns robotic palletisers with bag gripper, and a complex palletising system for trays using an
This zip applicator can also be added to Concetti’s Continua™
anthropomorphic robot. General director Wolfgang Heim says that
Form-Fill-Seal (FFS) machines that produce bags from tubular reel
he is ‘very satisfied’ with Concetti’s equipment, project development
stock. The tubular reel is the lowest cost form of bag making and
and after-sales service and plans further investments with Concetti.
gives extremely long production runs between reel changes. Another
Cerere and Nova Foods, Russo, Dodson & Horrell and Bosch,
advance for the Continua™ FFS machines allows quad seal or stabilo
are testament to the great contribution that Concetti can make to the
bags to be produced from simple, tubular gusseted reel stock. Together
success of a pet food company.
these systems provide the FFS packaging operation with virtually the
For further information, please visit www.concetti.com or e-mail
complete range of bags from the same low cost tubular PE film.
email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
CARBOHYDRATES THE GOOD, THE BAD … AND THE PHYSIOLOGY By David Southey, Southey Consultants Ltd In many ways carbohydrates can be considered to be the most misunderstood and forgotten nutrient. Whilst the European association of pet food producers (FEDIAF) list requirements for several amino acids, vitamins and minerals, there is no reference at all to carbohydrates in their tables of nutrient requirements for cats and dogs.
Fig 2: The physiological roles of fibre fractions INSOLUBLE FIBRE (e.g. Cellulose, lignin) Stimulate the internal lining of the intestine Indigestible Increase the dry matter content of faeces Moderate the flow of gut contents
SOLUBLE FIBRE (e.g. Gums, pectin) Can form complexes with other nutrients Provide an energy source for gut bacteria Reduce the dry matter content of faeces Increase the viscosity of digesta
Also, apart from moisture (unless over 14%) and crude fibre, it is the only major nutrient that does not need to be declared on European
soluble fractions, each with very different nutritional and physiological
pet food packaging and yet, in the case of dry food, it is often the most
functions (Fig 2). In all pet species there appears to be a benefit of
prevalent. In the 1970’s Dr Atkins declared that “carbohydrate is the
providing both in the diet, however, the quantity and proportion vary
bad guy”, whilst more recently in the early 90’s when discussing weight
widely. For example, rabbits require significant quantities, with the
control, Michel Montignac declared that “our choice of carbohydrates
vast majority as insoluble fibre, whereas in the cat a small quantity of
is decisive”. Carbohydrates have a vital role to play in the production
a more balanced kind appears to be beneficial to faecal quality and
and nutrition of commercial pet foods. However idealistic we might
digestion. It is, therefore, important to understand the source of the
be, the vast majority of the pet-owning public are unable or unwilling
crude fibre in a recipe, and how this meets the requirements of the
to adopt a “back to nature” approach and prepare their own pet food
from raw ingredients. Nutritional imbalances and hygiene issues are
With regard to total dietary carbohydrate content, pets again vary
just two of the challenges. And so commercially viable and nutritionally
greatly in their capacity to cope. Being obligate carnivores, cats and
suitable foods remain the goals of most pet food producers, and to
ferrets have evolved with a lower tolerance to high levels than most
this end carbohydrates will surely always play a part.
pet species. Also, their management of blood glucose levels is very
The word “carbohydrate” encompasses a very wide range of
different to most others. In addition to low levels of the salivary and
compounds, from simple monosaccharides (e.g. glucose) through to
pancreatic starch-digesting enzyme, amylase, they have a very low
highly complex fibres, such as lignin. The type and content of most
hepatic glucokinase activity, which is required to convert circulating
plant materials will vary greatly depending on many factors, such as
blood glucose into the storage carbohydrate glycogen. Also, their
variety, season, maturity, etc, and this can also change during storage,
insulin control is also somewhat different in that amino acids rather
and so a full understanding of the nutritional make-up, and regular
than glucose are the main compounds that stimulate its secretion. It
and routine testing is advisable. From a monogastric nutrition point
would, therefore, seem sensible to avoid high levels of carbohydrates
of view, starch is one of the most important, and even this can take
that are rapidly converted into glucose during digestion and absorption.
many physical forms (Fig 1). Starch granules can be spherical, ovoid
Furthermore, they should both be given access to food as frequently
or irregular-shaped, and can exist individually or in agglomerates.
as possible, as numerous, small meals would be less likely to elicit
Whilst there is no recognised link between the size or shape of the
a high blood glucose spike. On the other hand, dogs have evolved
starch granules and their nutritional or processing properties, it does
to accommodate and adapt to a wide range of dietary levels quite
demonstrate that not all starches are identical.
successfully, and some of the flavour compounds produced by cooking
The most variable group of carbohydrates in nature is the fibres group. Broadly speaking, fibres can be separated into insoluble and
carbohydrates seem to promote palatability. More recently the concept of Glycaemic Index (GI) as a measurement of the rate of carbohydrate digestion has received increased interest in human nutrition, and the perceived associated
Fig 1: Starch granule forms
benefits are widely publicised (Fig 3). The concept is based upon the theory that complex carbohydrates will be digested and converted into blood glucose at a slower rate than more simple compounds, and therefore the body is more able to utilise them rather than excrete or convert them to fat. Linked to this is a more regular and controlled secretion of insulin. There is some evidence that this might be reflected to some degree in pet nutrition, although there has been very little published work in this area. Physiologically this would
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
heat, pressure and friction (“shear”) are used to rupture the granules,
Fig 3: Proposed benefit of low GI diets
thereby causing gelatinisation (Fig 5). The degree of gelatinisation • • • • • • •
Weight control Increases the body's sensitivity to insulin Improves diabetes control Reduces the risk of heart disease Reduces blood cholesterol levels Reduces hunger and increases satiety Prolongs physical endurance
is often described as the “cook” level, and can be determined directly by calculating the proportion of remaining hexoses in the sample, or indirectly by measuring the change in viscosity when heated in solution (n.b. – native/uncooked starch will increase viscosity more that uncooked starch). This cooking process is particularly important since it is directly related to the degree and rate of absorption of the starch from the digestive tract (Fig 6).
Fig 6: Canine illeal starch disappearance (Wenger Inc.)
appear to be valid, and the similarly increasing incidence of obesity this. However, care should be taken when selecting carbohydrates with low GI values (Fig 4) as many things can affect the figures, such as grinding, variety, processing method, and animal variation. Nevertheless, the fact that most commercial pet foods primarily contain carbohydrates with GI values in excess of 90, and the grinding and
120 Illeal starch disappearance (%)
and type II diabetes in humans, dogs and cats would seem to support
80 60 40 20 0
extrusion processes dramatically increase these figures, would seem
to warrant further discussion.
Stacrch gelatinisation (%)
Fig 4: Average GI values for common ingredients (variation
Uncooked starch is often poorly digested and instead can pass
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
through to the lower intestine, where excessive levels can stimulate an overgrowth of bacteria, leading to digestive upset and softer faeces. The general target of most producers is to ensure that a minimum of 85% of the starch is cooked, with an optimal level of between 90-95%. However, it should be noted that gelatinisation can also occur during other steps in the process (Fig 7), and that raw ingredients may also Potato Wheat
be partially cooked prior to their inclusion. Fig 7: Processing effects on starch gelatinisation
Starch Cook Most commercial dry pet foods and snacks are produced using conditioning/extrusion or baking technologies and, as such, there are generally intrinsic requirements for carbohydrates, and more
specifically starch, as part of the recipe formulation. These cooking
processes modify the structure of starch in different ways to produce
robust kibbles with more porous textures that allow digestive fluids
to penetrate. During the conditioning/extrusion process the former serves to heat, hydrate and swell the starch granules using steam water and agitation. This material then passes to the extruder, where
Proportion of total starch "cook"
Over-cooking can also be detrimental in that it reduces the
durability of the kibble leading to excessive dust, and can reduce the
Heat + moisture
starch’s digestibility by forming complexes with other nutrient, e.g. protein. The cooking process that occurs during baking is very different but equally as important for optimal digestion. The limited moisture content of the recipe and higher processing temperature tends to cause dextrinisation of the starch rather than gelatinisation. This results in less expansion and robustness as the structure is more reliant on
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
the presence of binding proteins, such as gluten; however, it will still
degree of common sense. With global stockpiles of grain reaching
significantly improve the digestibility of the native starch.
their lowest levels for decades, and global consumption outstripping production in seven out of the last nine years, the use of conventional
carbohydrates is not without its challenges. With developing nations
So what are the future trends? As in human nutrition a decade ago,
demanding more meat production (n.b. – it takes up to five times more
carbohydrates have acquired something of a bad image in the pet
grain to get the equivalent amount of calories from eating pork as it
sector at the moment. A proliferation of “no grain”, “low carb” and “no
does from eating the grain itself), the increasing drive towards bio-
carb” products in the market imply that they are detrimental. Whilst
fuels, and global climate changes expected to reduce grain production
the level and type used certainly require consideration, they facilitate
significantly in the coming years, carbohydrate supply will continue
the production of commercially viable foods, provide necessary
to be in focus. A B C
balance to most diets (remove the carbs and other nutrients must increase), and perform functional roles such as texture for teeth
Southey Consultants limited
cleaning, or stimulation of the digestive tract. In addition, the move to
Petfood Product Management
less traditional carbohydrate sources also has its impact. Many of the
•Independent nutritional advice •Recipe design
alternatives being used today, such as millet, sorghum, sweet potato
•Packaging logistics •Production design •Sales training
and cassava, are transported vast distances from sometimes limited
•Marketing assistance •Supply chain support
supplies, and compete with local human demands. Apart from these
Tel: +44 (0)7747 561292
moral, environmental, and sustainability dilemmas, very little is known
i Email: email@example.com
about the nutritional, processing and safety issues surrounding them,
and so marketing aspirations should always be balanced with a healthy B”
anDrITZ FEED & bIOFuEl ChIna SuCCESSFully launChES COMbI ZOnE DryEr In ThE aSIan MarkET A””
The Combizone Dryer has a proven track record of being the best choice for precise and energy efficient drying of extruded petfood.
flow, the Combizone dryer makes
Combizone working principle:
unmatched uniformity of moisture
zone temperature control
spread +/- 0.5% of extruded
against reduction of product
Highest dryer energy efficiency
products. The high moisture
The unique air flow concept and integrated air-recirculation principle
uniformity furthermore allows
of the Combizone dryer results in a very high dryer thermal energy
for precisely controlled drying
efficiency of 0.7 - 0,8 kWh per kg water evaporated, which is typically
of feed to declared moisture
at least 25% less than the energy consumption by most dryers.
content, thereby avoiding need
distinguish the Combizone dryer from other models of dryers. Steam heated or direct gas fired models available.
The optimum control of air flow and minimized air exhaust
120° 100° 80° 60°
Best protection of feed nutrients
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Time H2O content
160 140 120 100 800 60 A40 B20 C0
Drying temp Time
Best feed moisture uniformity
The separate temperature zones
Controlled re-use of air in
Based on very even feed distribution, exact control of retention time of
and air counterflow principles
each individual feed particle in combination with controlled drying air-
of the Combizone dryer provide the best protection of heat
sensitive feed ingredients from
excessively high temperature and unnecessary oxidation. B
Most gentle product handling
The design of the product inlet
and discharge, as well as the
moving belt of the Combizone
dryer, secures minimum physical impact to the feed particles, and related generation of irregular shaped feed as well as fines.
30 25 20 15 10 5
120° 100° 80° 60°
Pet Food SuPPlement Issue 12
160 140 120 100 800 60 40 20
Zone 1 Zone 2 Tim Air inlet
The New Economic Reality By Dr. Mukund Parthasarathy
top 15 Retailers: Rank by 2008 sales (Usd-Bln)
sales Growth (caGR) for top 15 Retailers in 2006-2008
30.00% Series1 20.00% 12.90%
15.30% 8.40% 5.10%
es w Lo
H ar s Se
ar em C
ns gr ee
or at io
tC rg e
Sources: Nielsen Data, Annual Reports, Retail Net Group Credit Crunch will lead to increase in retail bankruptcies Some Bigger Retailers going with smaller store format Wal-Mart has smaller store format marketside, Giant Eagle has GetGo, Jewel has URBAN fresh. These are smaller compact stores that carry fewer SKUs and fewer choices.
1800 1600 1400 1200 932
800 600 400
24 l et ai le rs
ll R a
w ay fe
ol di ng
lo w es
H s ar se
or po r
With the deepening recession, credit crunch, and with consumers becoming frugal the retail channels are responding to the new realities. With unemployment reaching double digits and fewer jobs being created consumers have changed their shopping habits. Value and convenience have become very important. Discretionary spending is reduced, consumers are making fewer trips to stores, savings have reached an all time high of 4% of income (from negative savings rate a few years ago), consumers are getting smarter, buy local movement is getting stronger, consumers are adopting healthier life styles (healthy foods, exercises). Consumer spending accounts for 2/3rd of US economy. If they cut back it will have tremendous impact on not just the US economy but global economy. The changing consumer habits are here to stay for a long time. The retail formats such as grocers (Kroger, Safeway, Supervalu), Mass Merchandisers including Supercenters (Wal-Mart, Meijer), Drug Stores (Walgreens, CVS, Rite Aid), Specialty (Petsmart, Petco), Dollar Stores, Club (Sams, Costco etc) are responding to the new realities.
Sources: Annual Reports of Companies, Investment Reports and Retail Net Group
Changing Retail Landscape Market growth is stagnating The current pet population remains steady and is not increasing any time soon. There are 74.8 million dogs and 88.3 million cats in the US. 39% of households had a dog, the breakup of which is as follows: (63% had 1 dog, 25% had two dogs, 12% had three or more dogs1). 38.4 million households (34% households) had at least one cat, 56% owned more than one cat. On an average households had 2 dogs or 2 cats. The overall number of households in the US that had pets is around 58 million and this number will remain stagnant in the foreseeable future. This means every retailer is competing for the same customer in a stagnant market where pet ownership is steady. Consolidation among the players will continue and smaller players will shut down for good. Market growth is stagnating for most if not for all goods. Retailers have to compete against each other to offer lower price, higher value. Most goods become a commodity as prices keep falling. Deflation is still an issue with the current economy. For retailers, size is the key to survival in such a scenario. Larger national players will acquire smaller regional players for survival.
Value discounters, Super Centres and Club will be major players Consumers have become frugal and avoid unnecessary spending This trend will continue. They are constantly looking for price, values and convenience. Wal-Mart Supercenters, Club stores (SAMS club, Costco) and Value discounters (Aldi) will become stronger players. Wal-Martâ€™s new slogan save more, live better fits the consumer psyche. Retailers operating in a zero sum game where every winner is offset by someone losing: Stagnant markets, lack of growth leads to situation in retail where some retailers will lose at the cost of some clear winners. Retailers are shifting from growth agenda to optimization agenda Growth of Private label Private label brands are growing and are offered at 5-10% cheaper than branded products. The quality of private label brands has improved significantly over the years as the retailers demand high quality products as the branded cousins. This may exert pressure on manufacturer to reduce the cost of branded products as well. Alternatives to currently existing retail channels Whole Food (organic, no preservatives) Trader Joes (small store format, private label, organic offerings) offer alternate retail formats. The alternate channels will remain small in the current environment unless the prices come down. Consumers definitely want healthy products to feed themselves or their pets but cannot afford the price at this time. Shopper insights and shopper marketing are being recognized as a priority area for retailers Retailers are spending on understanding shopper insights and shopper marketing instead of getting the information from manufacturer. This way retailers are in a position to demand the right product at the right price for the consumers without compromising on their own margin structure. This 1. www.appma.org
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
will exert lot more pressure on manufacturers to reduce costs. Actionable shopper data is creating leadership opportunities for retailers
Figure 4: Sales of Total Petcare (in MM) By Channel Format In 2006 $1,230 $1,215
Pressure on cost containment and margin enhancement Retailers are under tremendous pressure to reduce costs and enhance the margins. The investment community seems impatient with the pace of progress in the area of cost containment and margin enhancement in the retail industry.
Retailers offering more services which will drive traffic, profits and differentiation Retailers are offering various other services to drive traffic into the store. From paying utility bills, to buying stamps to more sophisticated services like wine tasting classes and cooking classes the retailers are looking at various services to drive the business and revenues. Petsmart offers several pet related services such as grooming and vet clinics Sustainability is a big theme among retailers Wal-Mart is leading the way in sustainability. LEED certification, packaging and waste reduction will figure prominently in all major retailersâ€™ blueprint for success. Retailers want to simplify so fewer brands and fewer customers may carry 90% of the volume. Retailers look for velocity and high margin items. They are buying what they need and not what they want. They are optimizing on shelf space, labor and experimenting with multiple formats. Fewer brands with high velocity and high margin will do well.
9. Pet care sales rank # 7 in the top 10 categories in Mass/Grocery/ Drug 10. Pet care sales more fragmented across formats (Grocery, Mass, Specialty, others (Figure 4) 11. Pet food is the largest segment in pet care and the fastest growing 12. Dog food 67%, cat food 33% of total pet food sales 13. In cat food portfolio, dry cat food is 55%, wet 38% and treat is 7% 14. In dry dog food portfolio, dry dog will be 66%, wet 16, treats 18% 15. Clubs and specialty account for larger chunk of dry dog food sales, groceries account for wet dog, wet cat and litter sales (Figure 5) sales of Pet care segment By channel
Everyday low pricing will be the theme (EDLP) at retailers Wal-Martâ€™s theme will be ringing across all retailers.
Source: Nielsen Data 2006
160 19 140 35
Changing Pet Care Sales in 2008/20092
1. Pet care sales were $ 28 billion in 2008. 2. Top 15 retailers accounted for more than 50% of sales (Figure 1, 2, 3 ) 3. Pet care category grew by 4.6% in 2008 driven largely by Supercenters (+13.4%) and grocery( +5.2%) and club (+ 7.5%.) 4. Mass merchandisers accounted for 29%, specialty 37% and grocery 22% of total pet care sales (Figure 4) 5. Pet care purchase frequency ranked # 10 in grocery, # 1 in mass, # 3 in dollar stores 6. Out of 126 categories in pet care category ranked # 2 in per capita spending at $ 214/yr 7. 75% of households purchased pet care product 8. Pet food is purchased 17 times a year Figure 3
Projected sales Growth (caGR) for top 15 Retailers(2009-2011)
10.60% 10.00% 7.40%
ix bl Pu
u va l
Su pe r
s ng di ol
Sa fe w
tc o VS C
gr al W
po or C
om e H
Sources: Nielsen Data, Annual Reports, Retail Net Group
Pet Food Supplement Issue 12
5 5 20
7 5 7
5 6 8 3 8
10 7 5 8 Wet Cat
0 Dry Dog
Others Club Grocery Mass Specialty Total
2 8 1 2 0.8 1 Cat Treats
8 2 7 Litter
Sources: Nielsen Data, others
Innovation as a Means to Generate Sustainable Revenue Growth Given the changing retail landscape and changing consumer habits due to economic crisis, innovation is the way to generate sustainable demand and incremental revenue. Innovation is not restricted to just creation of new products or processes. Innovation has no boundaries it can be in any part of an organization (marketing, research, accounting, transportation and logistics, operations, business development, sales, market development organization, Quality assurance, customer development group etc) that adds value in the supply chain. If the innovation does not add value to the customer (price, value, quality, service) or solve a problem, it is meaningless to the retailer and to the customer. New products should be based on: a. shopper insights (emotional appeal, convenience, value, nutritional benefits, believable claims), b. changes in retail environment (what retailers want: price, ease of handling, less damages, product that does not succumb to infestation), 2. Source: Nielsen FDMX, Audits and Surveys, Retail Net Group
About the Author
c. d. e. f.
providing merchandizing solutions strong visual appeal (packaging and product), sustainability (retailer and shopper driven), customization, (premium pricing for customized products), exclusivity, g. process optimization (reduced product & operating costs) The new items thus created should be value priced, of high velocity and supported by efficient supply chain.
Dr. Mukund Parthasarathy, who worked for Ralston/ Nestle Purina for 12 years, has developed a holistic approach to pet food palatability to resolve all issues related to palatability of extruded pet foods and pet treats. He has patents related to pet food palatability. He offers help with innovation, strategies, long term planning and development of new technologies. He can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
Pegasus Paddle Mixer from Dinnissen significantly improves the taste of cat food The Pegasus Paddle Mixer from Dinnissen
The result: an extremely precise and even
Process Technology makes it possible to
distribution of the palatability enhancers
significantly improve the taste of cat kibbles.
over the product. In addition, the strength of
The secret is quite simple: it allows you to add
the bond between the palatability enhancer
liquid as well as dry palatability enhancers
and the kibble can be optimized, and each
- precisely and homogenously - to each
individual kibble can be coated with a tough
individual kibble. This is very important for
protective layer to ensure that the palatability
cat food in particular, as cats have the habit
enhancers also remain intact during transport.
of inspecting their intended meal, kibble for
The palatability and appeal of the food is
kibble, before actually starting on their meal.
therefore significantly improved, and the food is much more readily consumed.
The cat - a very finicky kibbles consumer Cats have a much keener sense of taste
Combined with the Pegasus Vacuum Coater
and smell than humans. Cats are therefore
from Dinnissen: even greater flexibility for
extremely finicky and suspicious when it
high-quality pet food production
comes to their food. They sniff at every kibble
The Pegasus Paddle Mixer offers various
and inspect it quite critically before deciding
other technical advantages. The liquid
whether to eat it. Cats will immediately
additives are sprayed per batch and not
recognize and systematically refuse a kibble
continuously. After each batch, the nozzles are
or other food with a smell not to their liking.
blown clean, minimizing the risk of blockage.
They simply leave the kibbles they don’t like
The same is true of the injection system for
behind in the feeding bowl and pick out the
manufacturers to ensure that the enhancers
ones that appeal to them. Such behaviour
are added properly and an optimum result is
is very typical of cats and is one of the main
achieved. The Pegasus Paddle Mixer from
reasons why their owners regularly decide to
Dinnissen Process Technology in Sevenum is
try a different brand the next time.
an efficient tool in achieving this goal.
Ta s t e o f e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l k i b b l e i s
Flavour enhancers added precisely and
Coater, allowing producers to further upgrade
homogenously to each individual kibble
the flexibility and quality of their production
When it comes to manufacturing cat food,
With the Pegasus Paddle Mixer from
process. This combination allows producers
the quality of the ingredients and the use
Dinnissen, a fixed and precisely weighed
to ensure that liquid additives are sucked
of proper palatability’s enhancers are of
quantity of food is introduced into the sealed
deep into the kibble. It also enables them to
course extremely important for making tasty
batch coater, where - in contrast to continuous
optimize the binding process between other
products. But ensuring that the enhancers are
operation systems - the entire process takes
additives and the outside of the kibble.
added to the food in the right way is just as
place: liquid and dry palatability enhancers
The Pegasus Paddle Mixer from
important. It’s critical to distribute and dose
are added to the kibbles. This has the great
Dinnissen has already been successfully
the enhancers homogenously. Producers who
advantage of allowing very precise control
applied in a variety of situations. Dinnissen
use the proper palatability enhancers but add
of the optimum conditions needed for the
develops and delivers complete manufacturing
them to the kibbles in a haphazard fashion
entire process. For each batch, the exact
processes, which means that the benefits from
or wrong concentration achieve a significant
quantity of fat, liquid and dry palatability
combining the Pegasus Paddle Mixer with
lower effect. In our research centre, we have
enhancers needed can be weighed out and
the Pegasus Vacuum Coater are available
demonstrated time and again that kibbles with
added, and the process conditions - including
in practically any situation imaginable. For
an even distribution of palatability enhancers
temperature, kibble rotation speed, residence
more information about the Pegasus Batch
are consumed much more readily. That is
time of the food in the mixer, and total
Coating System from Dinnissen, go to: www.
also why we invest time and energy in helping
processing time – can be precisely controlled.
dinnissen.nl or call 0031 (77) 4673555.
dry ingredients located in the coater: it can be protected so that blockage is prevented. We advise producers in many cases to equip the Pegasus Paddle Mixer with vacuum functionality by adding the Pegasus Vacuum
Issue 12 Pet Food Supplement
Taking animal health further.
Prevention first. Lohmann Animal Health GmbH & Co. KG Heinz-Lohmann-Straße 4 27472 Cuxhaven, Germany Phone: + 49 (0) 47 21 – 747 0 www.lohmann.de