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Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Foreword Development and First Operations Weserübung Blitzkrieg in the Channel Intermezzo To the Baltic for Barbarossa Back to the Channel Norway North Africa and Southern Mediterranean The Northern Mediterranean, Adriatic and Aegean The Black Sea The Invasion From the Ardennes to the End in the West Last Station – the Baltic The Technological War Training and Working Up The S-Boat and Its Armament The Commodore Epilogue Appendix I – The S-Boat Flotillas Appendix II – Flotilla Insignia Appendix III – Naval Square Chart Appendix IV – Torpedoes and Mines Appendix V – S-Boat Awards and Badges Notes Bibliography Index

7 8 13 19 35 42 49 67 76 84 91 105 119 131 136 142 148 159 164 166 168 169 170 175 176 186 189


12 From the Ardennes to the End in the West September 1944 – May 1945 At the beginning of September 1944, as the war entered its sixth year, the Wehrmacht, despite great efforts and as a result of shortages in men, materials and fuel, was being forced back to the original Reich borders by an enemy superior on all fronts.1 In June 1944, in the east, Army Group Centre had collapsed, in July Army Group North–Ukraine had been overcome, and shortly afterwards Army Group South–Ukraine had been almost wiped out, with the consequence that – following the capitulation of Italy in the autumn of 1943 – Germany’s allies Romania, Bulgaria and Finland left the Axis.2 On the Western Front, the Allied armies had broken out of the Normandy bridgehead and, after the landings of American and French troops in southern France (15 August 1944), were advancing on broad fronts. The German Army in the west fell back to a line stretching from the Scheldt estuary through southern Holland to the Westwall south of Trier. German forces still held some ports and islands in the Channel, which tied down Allied forces, but these were not significant for the Allies, who had now opted to build a major strongpoint at Antwerp. It was through this useful port that the great mass of their future supplies would pass for the thrust to the Ruhr. Faced with this threatened collapse, Hitler’s hopes were based on a dashing military success in the west aimed at upsetting the balance of the enemy coalition. On 16 September 1944, he announced to a small OKH circle that he proposed descending on Antwerp from the Ardennes with about thirty new Volksgrenadier and panzer divisions to strike a telling blow against the Allied forces there. Operating during bad weather, so that enemy aircraft would remain grounded, he would provide the British with a new Dunkirk and ring the changes in Germany’s fortunes.

The preparations for Wacht am Rhein, especially the planned co-operation between OKH and Luftwaffe, were to be kept top secret.3 As in 1940, the Kriegsmarine was not involved and was not asked to keep its limited forces at readiness.

Operational plan for the Ardennes offensive.

For the direction of operations in the Channel following the dissolution of Group West, MOK Nord (Naval High Command North Sea)4 had only patrol boats, minesweepers and S-boats at its disposal. All destroyers and torpedo boats had now disappeared permanently from the Channel following the loss of the last ships there in August 1944.5 The U-boat Arm, which since 1943 had been sustaining high losses at the hands of overwhelming defences for no worthwhile returns, were needed urgently in other 119


G e r m a n S - B o a t s i n Ac t i o n

theatres and were unsuited for use in the shallow waters off the Scheldt and English coast. The Luftwaffe, needed on all fronts and desperately overstretched, had for long considered itself unable to provide operational support, while the idea of helping to prosecute the war at sea from the air could not now even be entertained.6 The K-Verband had Biber 6tonne midget submarines and 1.2-tonne Linsen remote-controlled explosive motor boats arriving at the front, but even SKL considered these ‘primitive explosives-and-weapons carriers’ to be ‘mere weapons of opportunity’, whose use was ‘very dependent on the weather’ and whose navigation ‘was extremely unsound’.7 Thus, it fell to the FdS alone, with his three available flotillas, which as a rule never had more than eight to twelve operational boats at Rotterdam (9th

Vickers Wellington bomber.

S-boat Flotilla) and Ijmuiden (8th and 10th Flotillas), to pursue the long-term offensive against the Allied supply routes. The former Channel flotillas were now either in Germany for rest and refits (2nd and 6th), in the Baltic (5th) or heading for northern waters (4th).8 Grouping up the flotillas and holding them in provisional readiness for a concentrated operation with the maximum number of boats possible, thereby supporting the Ardennes offensive from the sea, did not enter the reckoning at all, because the FdS had not 120

been made aware of the Führer’s intentions. The naval surface war, which the FdS was leading practically by himself at this point, was straitjacketed by its limited operational basis and technological and numerical inferiority. Targets along the English coast were almost impossible to attack from the Germanheld Dutch ports. The continuous stream of troops and materials flowing through the artificial Normandy harbours now lay well beyond the range of the boats.9 Sorties were still possible, but not surprise sorties. Moreover, the enemy had expanded his defence forces. Air reconnaissance flown by 16 Group, RAF in the Nore region up to the Dutch coast could call upon nearly 100 aircraft. Not only did they report S-boats passing through the swept channels of the minefields, but now attacked with a new kind of bomb that exploded immediately above the surface. The Group had been reinforced with Wellington bombers equipped with radar and Leigh lights. These had been engaged previously in anti-U-boat patrols and had been reassigned. New radio apparatus enabled direct telephone connections between the aircraft and destroyers, which, as during the invasion, generally worked with two or three MGBs. The tactics were tried and tested. After receiving the aircraft report, the destroyer/MGB group waited at an intercept position. With its improved radar, the destroyer itself then tracked the S-boats and directed the MGBs to engage.10 If the defence forces had been clearly superior numerically in the past, the imbalance now weighed far heavier against the S-boats. On 10 October 1944, the Dover area coastal forces transferred to Nore region, together with other patrol vessels at a loose end, so that the Nore naval defences now consisted of 35 destroyers, 15 frigates, 19 corvettes and more than 160 Coastal Forces vessels, including 60 MGBs, 40 MLs and 60 MTBs, the latter craft being intended mainly for attacks against German coastal convoys.11 As the German front contracted, the Coastal Forces advanced from Zeebrugge to Flushing, while RAF units (Spitfires and Typhoon fighter-bombers) started from Belgian and Dutch airfields.12 The loss of


F r o m t h e Ard e n n e s t o t h e En d i n t h e We s t

Royal Navy MTB.

the radio DF station on the west coast and the implementation of more secure codes for use by British coastal traffic had complicated the task of the FdS in locating convoys and directing his flotillas to intercept them. It had become less often possible to protect his operations by pinpointing destroyer groups and providing warning of approaching MGBs. On the Allied side, Ultra could read operational orders and tactical instructions when Enigmaencoded and morsed, and German intentions were secret only when passed by telex. If the boats remained in their bases until the operation, telex was the rule, but if they moved along the coast first – for example from Rotterdam to the Hook of Holland – then the enemy would know the plan.13 Astonishingly, S-boats often managed to reach the convoy routes and score successes. This was achieved by switching between mine and torpedo missions in

different areas, by taking advantage of marginal weather conditions that caused the smaller British boats sea-keeping problems, staggering the involvement of flotillas, and relying on leadership practice proven over the years. In a total of ten operations in the autumn of 1944, the convoy routes were mined and merchant vessels sunk. The Germans sustained losses only on the night of 18 September, when four S-boats were bringing supplies into besieged Dunkirk.14 Three boats of 10.SFltl. (Kapitänleutnant Karl Müller), S 183, S 200 and S 702, sailing a diversion, ran into a British patrol consisting of a frigate and MTBs. Two S-boats collided, after which all three were sunk. Fifty-seven crewmen, including the flotilla commander, were fished out of the water the next morning by British MTBs; the remainder had either been killed during the battle or, drifting in the cold water, died of exposure during the night. 121


Index

1. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 42, 43, 46, 47, 76, 91, 93, 94, 95, 97, 99, 100, 103, 127, 134, 135, 142 2. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 25, 26, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 56, 57, 58-9, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 72, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 120, 123, 128, 129, 130, 142, 143, 163 3. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 20, 21, 27, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 38, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 49, 76, 79, 80, 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 90, 141, 142 4. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 34, 35, 38, 39, 401, 43, 46, 49, 50, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 58, 59-60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 72, 75, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 120, 123, 128, 129, 130, 141, 144 5. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 43, 44, 46, 54, 56, 57, 59-60, 61, 64-5, 66, 109, 110, 113, 114, 116, 122, 123, 127, 128, 129, 1312, 133, 134, 135, 141, 144, 147 6. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 49, 50-1, 54, 55, 56, 59, 60, 62, 63, 64, 70, 72, 73, 114, 117, 118, 120, 122, 123, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 144, 147 7. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 81, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 90, 144, 151 8. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 49, 61, 63, 65, 66, 70, 72, 73, 74, 75, 109, 110, 114, 117, 120, 123, 144, 160 9. SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 64-5, 66, 107, 109, 110, 112, 113, 114, 120, 123, 129, 130, 137 10.SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 116, 118, 120, 121, 135 11.SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 99 21.SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 89 22.SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 89 24.SFltl (S-boat flotilla), 89, 90

A Abukir, steamer, 20 Admiral Hipper, heavy cruiser, 13 Admiral Scheer, heavy cruiser, 30, 47 Adolf Lüderitz, depot ship, 27, 43, 46, 47, 68, 70, 72, 142, 147 Anapa, 96, 98, 100 Augusta, 77, 80, 83 B Baltisch Port (now Baldieski), 132, 133 Bätge, Kapitänleutnant, 35, 56 Bee, HMS, 36 Behrens, Leutnant zur See, 103 Bengazi, depot ship, 154 Bergen, 15, 16, 30, 68, 73 Berghammer, Obergefreiter, 56 Bey, Korvettenkapitän, 10, 11 Birnbacher, Kapitänleutnant, 15, 23, 42, 92 Bismarck, battleship, 35, 164 Bizerta, 82, 83 Block, Oberleutnant zur See, 51, 143, 144 Blömker, Bootsmaat, 87 Blücher, heavy cruiser, 13, 16 Bodø, 68, 73 Boehm, Generaladmiral, 70 Böhmer, Kapitän zur See, 43 Bordeaux, 65, 137 Boulogne, 23, 24, 39, 50, 52, 57, 59, 66, 106, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 141, 143, 156 Bremse, gunnery training ship, 15 Breslau, warship, 92 Brest, 23, 106, 111 Brummer, minelayer, 43, 45 Büchting, Korvettenkapitän, 100, 134 Buea, depot ship, 135 Bütow, Kapitän zur See von, 15, 16, 17, 20, 24, 30, 43, 52, 160, 164 C Campbell, HMS, 31 Cape Kherson, 92, 103 Cape Myshaka, 97, 98 Carl Peters, depot ship, 15, 27, 30, 42, 73,

74, 131, 135, 147 Carls, Generaladmiral, 11, 30, 70 Cherbourg, 23, 24, 27, 30, 34, 39, 54, 56, 57, 59, 61, 66, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 114-15, 156 Christiansen, Kapitänleutnant, 26, 32, 68, 69, 94 Civitavecchia, 86, 87 Conrady, Kapitän zur See von, 11, 76 Constanta, 92, 93, 100, 101, 102 Corduff, SS, 32 Cromer, 28, 32 D Deckert, Oberleutnant zur See, 103 Den Helder, 19, 28, 127, 128, 130, 134, 135 Derna, 79-80, 81 Detlefsen, Oberleutnant zur See, 31 Dieppe, 109, 114, 115 Dönitz, Grossadmiral, 58, 73, 75, 86, 97, 102, 108, 117, 122-4, 125-6, 130, 131, 132, 134, 138, 145, 151-2, 161, 163 Donnerwetter, racer, 8 Dover, 27, 31, 36, 39, 51 Drescher, Major, 65 Dülong, Oberleutnant zur See von, 103 Dunkirk, 19-20 E Egersund, 15, 75, 147 Eigenbrod, Obermaschinist, 18 El Alamein, 81, 82 Emden, light cruiser, 47, 135 Eskdale, Norwegian destroyer, 59 Estonia, steamer, 44 Exmoor, HMS, 31 F Feldt, Kapitänleutnant, 41, 56, 143, 144, 145 Felixstowe, 33, 49 Feodosiya, 91, 99 Fimmen, Korvettenkapitän, 75, 123 Fisher Peninsula, 68, 69, 72, 73 Flushing, 27, 120 Förste, Admiral, 122

189


G e r m a n S - B o a t s i n Ac t i o n Friedeburg, Generaladmiral Hans-Georg von, 163 Führer der Schnellboote (FdS) passim, see also Petersen, Kommodore G Geiger, Oberleutnant zur See, 81 Gernet, Oberleutnant zur See von, 87 Gillner, Dr Heinz, 22, 73 Gneisenau, battleship, 13, 50 Goeben, warship, 92 Gor, Norwegian minelayer, 16 Gördes, Kapitänleutnant, 160 Gotenhafen, 12, 43 Goya, transport, 135 Grassmann, Major, 65 Greif, torpedo boat, 15 Grille, minelayer, 43 Gustloff, transport ship, 135 H Haenesch, Dr, 94 Hammerfest, 69, 73 Hangö, 44, 48 Hansestadt Danzig, minelayer, 43 Hasty, HMS, 80 Heligoland, 11, 12, 15 Hermann von Wissmann, depot ship, 75, 131-2, 135 Hermes, HMS, 35 Hernösand, steamer, 68, 73 Heye, Vizeadmiral, 127 Hitler, Adolf, 13, 19, 26, 42, 68, 70, 73, 74, 76, 79, 82, 96, 99, 101, 102, 116, 119, 123, 125, 132, 133, 152, 162 Holzapfel, Kapitänleutnant, 123, 131-2, 134, 135 Hvar island, 88, 90 I Ijmuiden, 31, 50, 54, 65, 109, 120, 122, 128, 131, 156, 163 Iltis, torpedo boat, 52 Ivan Baba, 93, 94, 96, 98, 99, 101, 156 J Jaguar, French destroyer, 20, 52 Johannsen, Kapitänleutnant, 113 K Kaiser, minelayer, 42 Karlsruhe, light cruiser, 15, 16 Kecke, Oberleutnant zur See, 23, 143 Keitel, Feldmarschall Wilhelm, 116 Kekewich, Admiral, 36 Kelly, HMS, 18 Kemnade, Korvettenkapitän, 20, 27, 43, 76, 81, 86, 142

190

Kerch, 91, 99, 100 Kesselring, Generalfeldmarschall, 24, 88 Kiel, 11, 12, 16, 19, 34, 68, 69, 72, 73, 127, 131 Kieseritzky, Vizeadmiral, 98 Kirkenes, 68, 70, 72 Klose, Kapitänleutnant, 49, 64, 133 Klug, Kapitänleutnant, 32, 43, 54, 56 Kobra, minelayer, 42 Köln, light cruiser, 15, 47 Königin Luise, minelayer, 42 Königsberg, light cruiser, 15, 16 Koscky, Oberleutnant zur See, 23 Kotka, 131, 132-3 Krancke, Admiral, 105, 108, 109, 110, 115, 161 Kriegsmarine, 9, 10, 13, 19, 20, 24, 35, 40, 42, 67, 68, 99, 101, 106, 107, 114, 116, 119, 122, 131, 134, 151, 159, 164 Kristiansand, 16, 17, 75 Kronstadt, 8, 40, 47, 131, 164 Kurland, 134, 147 L Larsen, freighter, 68 Le Havre, 23, 27, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 141 Leipzig, light cruiser, 47 Lemm, Oberleutnant zur See, 58 Leningrad, 42, 45, 47 Leopard, torpedo boat, 15 Libau, 43, 131, 133 Lightning, HMS, 83 Linsen explosive boat, 115, 117, 120 Linz, 92, 93, 96, 100, 104 Lohmann, Kapitän zur See, 9 Luchs, torpedo boat, 15 Ludwig, Oberleutnant zur See, 60 Lütjens, Admiral, 11-12, 20-1, 30 Lützow, heavy cruiser, 13, 16 Lützow, Korvettenkapitän, 61, 63 M Manstein, Generalfeldmarschall von, 19, 91, 92, 98 Marschall, Generaladmiral, 56, 161 Matzen, Kapitänleutnant, 123 Meentzen, Oberleutnant zur See, 143 Mehnen, Dr, 81 Meknès, French steamer, 24 Memel, 43, 45 Meredith, USS, 110 Mersa Matruh, 80, 81, 164 Meyering, Kapitänleutnant, 145 MGB 58, 38 MGB 59, 38

MGB 65, 38 MGB 335, 54, 140 Miljes, Oberleutnant zur See, 56 Mirbach, Kapitänleutnant Götz von, 64, 113-14, 123 ML 130, 79 ML 339, 55 Mohs, Oberleutnant zur See, 103 Mootz, Vizeadmiral, 12, 16 MTB 220, 52 Müller, Albert, 86 Müller, Kapitänleutnant Karl, 121-2 Murmansk, 68, 72, 73 N Narvik, 13, 71, 72 Narwal, planing boat, 9 Neumann, Stabsobersteuermann, 103 Neumeier, Leutnant zur See, 103 Neuwerk, steamer, 135 Newcastle, HMS, 80 Nordsee, tender, 10 Norman Queen, SS, 32 Novorossiysk, 97, 98, 99 Nürnberg, light cruiser, 47 O Obermaier, Korvettenkapitän, 43, 50, 54, 56, 72, 131 Oleg, Russian cruiser, 8 Opdenhoff, Korvettenkapitän, 17-18, 123, 144, 145, 163 Operation Barbarossa, 42, 67, 76, 149, 160 Operation Blücher, 94 Operation Brunhild, 100 Operation Cerberus, 50, 51 Operation Dragoon, 118 Operation Dynamo, 20, 21 Operation Harpoon, 80 Operation Hercules, 79 Operation Nordwind, 47 Operation Pedestal, 81 Operation Rosengarten, 27 Operation Seelöwe, 26, 27, 28 Operation Seydlitz, 88 Operation Südwind, 47 Operation Tanne Ost, 133 Operation Vigorous, 80 Operation Weserübung, 18, 20 Operation Westwind, 47 Ordronaux, USS, 85 Orfordness, 34, 50, 60, 62 Orzel , Polish submarine, 12 Ostend, 8, 27, 31, 39, 58, 59-60, 66, 109, 110, 118, 156


In d e x P Paasch, Korvettenkapitän (Ing), 145 Penelope, Russian minelayer, 9 Petersen, Kommodore Rudolf, 11, 15, 23, 26, 43, 52, 56, 57, 62, 64-5, 66, 110, 112, 114, 115, 117, 118, 124-5, 127, 128, 131, 133, 142, 159-63, 164-5 Phönicia, transport ship, 45 Pillet, Oberleutnant zur See, 124 Pola, 87, 88, 89, 90 Portland, 36, 39, 59 Porto Empedocle, 81, 83, 84 Portsmouth, 36, 38, 39, 55, 66 Prinz Eugen, battleship, 50 R R-97, 113 Räbiger, Stabsobersteuermann, 63 Raeder, Admiral, 13, 19, 30, 70, 73, 76 Ramsay, Admiral, 113 Rebensburg, Oberleutnant zur See, 24, 35, 125 Reval (now Tallinn), 46, 47, 131, 133 Richter, Oberleutnant zur See, 103 Riga, 45, 46, 133 Romania, depot ship, 154 Rommel, Generalfeldmarschall Erwin, 76, 77, 79, 81, 82, 83, 105, 106, 108, 116 Rostov, 91, 96 Rotterdam, 19, 27, 28, 30, 34, 40-1, 49, 54, 56, 61, 65, 76, 114, 120, 121, 128, 130, 138, 156 Rowan, USS, 87 Ruge, Vizeadmiral, 86 Rundstedt, Generalfeldmarschall von, 105, 109, 116 S S 1, 10 S 2, 10 S 3, 10 S 4, 10 S 5, 10 S 6, 10 S 7, 10 S 8, 10 S 9, 10 S 10, 11, 142 S 11, 11, 142 S 12, 11, 142 S 13, 11, 72, 142 S 14, 11 S 15, 11 S 16, 11 S 17, 11, 12 S 18, 148

S 19, 34-5, 148 S 20, 35, 148 S 21, 148 S 22, 35, 148 S 23, 148 S 24, 27, 34-5, 148 S 25, 34-5, 148 S 26, 92, 93, 98, 104 S 27, 94 S 28, 32, 43, 103 S 29, 58-9 S 30, 23, 143, 148 S 31, 18, 27, 148 S 32, 148 S 33, 18, 90, 148 S 34, 148 S 35, 23, 27, 45, 83, 143, 148 S 36, 88, 148 S 37, 27, 148 S 39, 51, 117 S 40, 96, 103, 104 S 41, 49-50 S 42, 68, 96, 103, 104 S 43, 45 S 44, 68 S 45, 68, 96, 104 S 46, 68, 96, 100 S 47, 49, 96, 103, 104 S 49, 96, 98, 100, 103, 104 S 51, 96, 98, 104 S 52, 96, 98, 103, 104 S 53, 51, 143 S 54, 87, 148 S 55, 80, 88, 90, 148 S 56, 80, 83, 148 S 57, 90, 148 S 58, 81, 90, 148 S 59, 81, 85, 148 S 60, 45, 90, 148 S 61, 87, 88, 148 S 63, 63, 150 S 67, 150 S 68, 60 S 69, 72 S 70, 56 S 71, 56, 72 S 72, 94, 98, 103, 104 S 73, 72 S 74, 56, 64, 72 S 75, 56-7, 72 S 76, 72 S 77, 60 S 80, 54, 132 S 86, 104 S 87, 138 S 88, 63

S 89, 104 S 91, 118 S 96, 62 S 100, 151 S 101, 32, 56 S 102, 92, 98, 99 S 105, 49, 54 S 109, 50 S 111, 51-2 S 112, 137 S 113, 72 S 114, 57, 72, 117 S 117, 54 S 119, 57 S 121, 141 S 131, 101, 103, 104 S 136, 112 S 139, 110 S 140, 110 S 144, 114 S 147, 138 S 148, 101, 103, 104 S 149, 101, 103 S 151, 151 S 152, 151 S 153, 90, 151 S 154, 90, 151 S 155, 151 S 156, 151 S 157, 90, 151 S 158, 90, 151 S 167, 113 S 178, 113 S 179, 113 S 182, 117 S 183, 121 S 184, 118 S 189, 113 S 190, 115 S 199, 163 S 200, 121-2 S 201, 75 S 202, 75 S 203, 75 S 204, 75 S 205, 75 S 219, 75 S 220, 75 S 302, 138 S 501, 99, 150 S 502, 99 S 503, 99 S 504, 99 S 506, 99 S 507, 99 S 701, 151

191


G e r m a n S - B o a t s i n Ac t i o n S 702, 121 S 703, 75 Saalwächter, Generaladmiral, 24 Saint-Malo, 23, 115 Salerno, 85, 86, 87, 107 Sassnitz, 127, 135 Scharnhorst, battleship, 13, 50 Scheveningen, 40-1, 54 Schirren, Hans, 114 Schlesien, battleship, 43 Schleswig Holstein, battleship, 13, 43 Schmidt, Oberleutnant zur See KlausDegenhardt, 87 Schmundt, Admiral, 43, 69, 131 Schrader, Admiral von, 16 Schubert, Korvettenkapitän, 11 Schultz, Korvettenkapitän Herbert-Max, 86 Schultze-Jena, Oberleutnant zur See Hans, 18, 28 Schweppenburg, General Geyr von, 105 Seeadler, torpedo boat, 15, 52 Seekriegsleitung SKL, (Naval War Directorate), 11, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 25, 28, 30, 40, 42, 43, 46, 47, 62, 66, 68, 72, 73-4, 75, 76, 84, 86-7, 88, 91, 101, 105, 106, 107, 109, 114, 116, 120, 122, 127, 131, 149 Seevers, Kapitänleutnant, 103 Sevastopol, 91, 92-3, 102-3, 104 Siems, Kapitänleutnant, 145 Skagerrak, minelayer, 43 Sperrle, General, 105 St Christopher, HMS, 36

192

St Peter Port, 59, 141 Steuben, transport ship, 135 Stichansatz, 53, 55, 56, 63 Stier, merchant ship, 52 Stohwasser, Vizeadmiral, 43 Strait of Kerch, 94, 100, 101 Sturm, Kapitänleutnant, 11, 142 Svenner, Norwegian destroyer, 109 Swinemünde, 34, 43, 47, 96, 131, 134, 144 Swinemünde-Eichstaden, 145 Sworbe, 133-4 Szent István, Austro-Hungarian battleship, 8 T Taman Peninsula, 94, 97, 99 Tanga , depot ship, 11, 27, 43, 68-9, 71, 135, 142 Tannenberg, minelayer, 43 Tirpitz, battleship, 47, 73, 74 Tobruk, 77, 79, 80, 81 Toulon, 82, 83, 87 Trapani, 82, 83, 85, 86 Travemünde, 9, 149 Trummer, Kapitänleutnant, 83 Tsingtau, depot ship, 11, 15, 43, 72, 133, 135, 142, 147 Tuapse, 95, 98, 99, 101 Tübingen, hospital ship, 89 Tunis, 82, 83 Type S 10, 148-9 Type S 14, 148-9 Type S 30, 148-9 Type S 38, 149-50

U U-250, 132 U-74, 141 UZ16 (S), 10 V Valetta, 78, 79 Vatsö, 69, 70 Venice, 87, 88, 89 Versailles, minelayer, 43 Vibo Valentia, 86 Vortigern, destroyer, 51 W Weichold, Vizeadmiral, 77 Weisheit, Oberleutnant zur See, 103 Welshman, HMS, 79 Wesermünde (now Bremerhaven), 15 Wilcke, Kapitänleutnant, 75, 145 Wilhelmshaven, 12, 15, 17, 23, 34, 76, 77, 127 Wimereux, 39, 54, 59 Windau, 43, 45, 46, 133, 134 Wolf, torpedo boat, 15 Wülfing, Oberleutnant zur See, 103 Wuppermann, Kapitänleutnant, 81, 90 Wurmbach, Vizeadmiral, 92 Z Zeebrugge, 8, 27, 120, 124 Zieten, Rittmeister, 99 Zimmermann, Oberleutnant zur See, 23, 143 Zymalkowski, Korvettenkapitän, 61, 73, 75, 123rd, Bonn 1988–1997.


German S Boats in Action