FAUNA HANDBOOK SERIES
AQUATIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES
2014 Che Salmah Md. Rawi Suhaila Ab Hamid Nurul Huda Abdul
OF BELUM TEMENGOR RAINFOREST STREAMS PULAU BANDING FOUNDATION
Unit 3A-3, Level 4, Perdana The Place, Jalan PJU 8/5G, Bandar Damansara Perdana, 47820 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan. T: (603) 7710 7066 | F: (603) 7710 5066 E: email@example.com | W: www.pbf.org.my
The printing of this first book in the series of the Flora and Fauna found in Belum Temengor was made possible from the funds provided by Setia Haruman Sdn. Bhd, the Master Developer of Cyberjaya and the Prime Ministerâ€™s Department. We take this opportunity to thank them for this generous financial support to see this book come into print. The support from the Board of Trustees of the Pulau Banding Foundation in allowing the publication of this book is also duly acknowledged. We also take this opportunity to thank our content authors, without whose help, this publication would not have been possible. All insect materials illustrated in this book were collected over many study trips to Belum Temengor Rainforest streams and rivers since 2007 until 2011 by many aquatic entomology staff and students of the School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia. We are indeed indebted to all these individuals involved directly or indirectly for their contributions towards the production of this book. The authors also acknowledge their thanks to Universiti Sains Malaysia and the Forest Research Institute Malaysia, for their technical support and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia for their financial support for the various research projects carried out within the forests of Belum Temengor, in relation to aquatic insects, over the years. It is the desire of the Pulau Banding Foundation, that this handbooks will be useful to young scientists and students pursuing their research in related fields. This handbook we hope will also become a valuable tool for the Green Ranger Malaysia training programmes that is being undertaken by the Foundation to teach young minds on the importance of forest to mankind.
FAUNA HANDBOOK SERIES
AQUATIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES
2014 Che Salmah Md. Rawi Suhaila Ab Hamid Nurul Huda Abdul
OF BELUM TEMENGOR RAINFOREST STREAMS
FAUNA HANDBOOK SERIES
AQUATIC MACRO INVERTEBRATES
2014 Che Salmah Md. Rawi Suhaila Ab Hamid Nurul Huda Abdul
OF BELUM TEMENGOR RAINFOREST STREAMS
PRIME MINISTER’S DEPARTMENT
Cover Image: An adult Mayfly
AQUATIC MACROINVERTEBRATES OF BELUM TEMENGOR RAINFOREST STREAMS
Editors: Dr. Daniel Baskaran Krishnapillay, Zainon Kasim, Zulfadhlan Ahmad Khushairi
1. Forest reserves-Perak-Belum Temengor. 2. Aquatic macroinvertebrates. I. Che Salmah Md. Rawi, II. Suhaila Ab Hamid, III. Nurul Huda Abdul
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic or mechanical including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
DATE OF PUBLICATION 1 September 2014 EDITORS • Dr. Daniel Baskaran Krishnapillay • Zainon Kasim • Zulfadhlan Ahmad Khushairi AUTHORS • Prof. Dr. Che Salmah Md. Rawi • Dr. Suhaila Ab Hamid • Nurul Huda Abdul DESIGN & COMPILATION DESIGN218 www.design218.asia COLOUR SEPARATION & PRINTING Atlas Cetak (M) Sdn. Bhd. No 2, Persiaran Industri, Bandar Sri Damansara, 52200 Kuala Lumpur T: (603) 6273 3333 F: (603) 6273 3833 PUBLISHED BY
PULAU BANDING FOUNDATION Unit 3A-3, Level 4, Perdana The Place, Jalan PJU 8/5G, Bandar Damansara Perdana, 47820 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan. T: (603) 7710 7066 F: (603) 7710 5066 E: firstname.lastname@example.org W: www.pbf.org.my
Preface 2 Contents 7 SECTION 01: INTRODUCTION Introduction 9 SECTION 02: AQUATIC INSECTS Aquatic habitats in Belum Temengor Rainforest
Roles of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystem
Aquatic macroivertebrates 16 Classification of macroinvertebrates 16 General morphology of an aquatic insects
SECTION 03: ORDERS Order Ephemeroptera - Mayflies 19 Order Odonata – Damselflies and Dragonflies
Order Plecoptera - Stoneflies 32 Order Hemiptera - Bugs 34 Order Coleoptera - Beetles 37 Order Trichoptera – Caddisflies 41 Order Diptera – True flies 45 Other Macroinvertebrates 48 SECTION 04: ATTACHMENTS Appendix A: Collections of aquatic macroinvertebrates from the forest streams
Appendix B: Measurement of stream environmental variables
Glossary 53 References 56 Authors 59 Index 60
INTRODUCTION Belum Temengor Rainforest encompasses 300,000 hectares of tropical forest of over 130 million years of age. It is one of the largest untouched forest reserves in Peninsular Malaysia, home to a vast number of species of animals and plants unique to its habitat, many of which cannot be found anywhere else in the world. The forest is located in the state of Perak, at the border of Malayan Peninsular and Thailand. There are over 3,000 species of flowering plants, including three species of Rafflesia, the largest flower in the world. It is also the natural habitat of 64 species of ferns and 62 species of mosses. In its man-made Belum Temengor Lake, 23 species of freshwater fish and 5 species of turtles have been recorded. In addition, there are 14 of the worldâ€™s most threatened mammals, including the Malaysian tiger, Malaysian sunbear, Sumatran rhinoceros, the White-handed gibbon, Asiatic elephant, and Malayan tapir that call this forest their home (Belum Rainforest Resort 2012).
Belum Temengor catchment area is divided in the middle by the East-West Highway; in the north is the Belum Lake and its catchment and in the south is the Temengor Lake. This large coalesced water body is the reservoir of numerous tributaries flowing from this forest from different directions. These tributaries provide suitable habitats for all macroinvertebrates presented in this book.
The map of Belum Temengor Rainforest catchment showing myriad of tributaries of the Belum Temengor lake where the macroinvertebrates samples illustrated in this book were collected.
AQUATIC INSECTS 10
AQUATIC HABITATS IN BELUM TEMENGOR RAINFOREST Numerous streams ranging from first to fourth orders begin from various points at various peaks of the forest and flow down into the Belum Temengor lake. These streams provide heterogenous habitats for aquatic organisms especially the aquatic insects which are the biggest component of the macroinvertebrates.
An uphill part of Ruok River
Ulu Perak River
Some of the big (third and fourth order) rivers in the forest.
Various aquatic habitats of the first and second order streams at uphill of Belum Temengor Rainforest
Various Various aaaaquatic quatic quatic hhhhabitats abitats abitats oooof f f f tthe he ffirst irst aaa nd nd ssssecond second econd order rder streams treams at t u t uuphill uphill phill Belum-‐ elum-‐ Various he fffirst irst nd econd ooo rder ssstreams aaat o o of of f Bf B Various quatic abitats tthe he irst aand nd econd order rder treams phill Belum-‐ elum-‐ Temengor Temengor R R ainforest. ainforest. Temengor RRainforest. ainforest. Temengor
physiological, physical, trophic and biotic modifications. About 50% of the biomass produced by immature aquatic insects (as secondary production of aquatic insects) emerges from the ROLES OF AQUATIC INSECTS IN ECOSYSTEM aquatic system in the form of adult insects (Jackson and Fisher Aquatic insectsinhabit the constitute one of the major components of freshwater Emacroinvertebrates riparian zones (Erman and rman 1984). 1986) which in aquatic ecosystems. Their successful adaptation to live in numerous aquatic habitats in Most of them are found in large numbers in the near-‐stream freshwater environment is demonstrated by their large numbers and broad distribution. They vegetation although some adults move 150 m or more from the colonize aquatic habitats by physiological, physical, trophic and biotic modifications. About stream. Due to their significant abundance, adult aquatic insects 50% of the biomass produced by immature aquatic insects (as secondary production of aquatic insects) emerge in the form of adult insects and Fisher 1986) which inhabit represent a primary food resource for (Jackson many riparian insectivores the riparian zones (Erman and Erman 1984). Most of them are found in large numbers in the (Murakami and Nakano, 2002; Paetzold and Tockner, 2005) such near-stream vegetation although some adults move 150m or more from the stream. Due to as btheir ats, birds abundance, and frogs. t the insects same time, a iprimary nsects function s an significant adult A aquatic represent food resource foramany riparian insectivores (Murakami and Nakano, 2002; Paetzold and Tockner, 2005) such as important link in the food chains in the aquatic environment. bats,
birds and frogs. At the same time, insects function as an important link in the food chains in the aquatic environment.
Aquatic insects are preferred by fish, their main predator and they also serve as an important starter diet for fish fingerlings, the young-‐of-‐the-‐year as well as the juveniles (Ali et al. 1999). In Fish species, the main predator of the aquatic insects, caught at various locations in the lake and its tributaries. Temengor Lake for example, young cyprinids Poropontius Fish species, the mpreferred ain Neolissochilus predator of ttheir he amain quatic insects, aught at vserve arious ocations in deauratus and soroides found to feed on Aquatic insects are by fish, predator andcare they also as lan important Temengor L ake a nd i ts t ributaries. starter diet for fish fingerlings, the young-of-the-year as well as the juvenilestheir (Ali et al. 1999). various types of aquatic insects before changing diet to In Temengor Lake for example, young cyprinids Poropontius deauratus and Neolissochilus plants and detritus as they grow bigger (Valerie 1999). The soroides are found to feed on various types of aquatic insects before changing their diet to presence of aquatic insects in the habitat ensures the continuity plants and detritus as they grow bigger (Valerie 1999). The presence of aquatic insects in the of the ensures fish pthe opulation n tfish he population lake. in the lake. habitat continuity of ithe
Large emergence of mayflies (imagoes) byes the(iSg. Kejar by Close of an adult Left. Large emergence of mayfli magoes) Kejar upcampsi te mayfly. provides source of aquatic campsite. They a source of aquatic osubsidies toanimals. Right, and adult mayfly. subsidies to pprovide erdatory arthropods r higher predatory arthropods or higher animals.
Aquatic insects which mostly emerge on land, such as many
Aquatic insects which mostly emerge on land, such as many mayflies, stoneflies and dragonflies, are easily available for ground-dwelling arthropods and are particularly prone to predation. Predation by riparian arthropods is also an important process in the transfer of aquatic secondary production to the riparian food web (Paetzold et al. 2005). Therefore, aquatic subsidies are important for the ground dwelling predatory arthropods (Nakano and Murakami 2001; Paetzold et al. 2005).
Aquatic insects form an integral part of the aquatic ecosystem. They play an important role in decomposition of organic matters which contributes to the nutrient cycle in the aquatic environment (Merritt and Cummins 1996). They recycle much of the decaying plant and animal material back into the food web (Hynes 1970). Terrestrial leaves that enter the stream are also consumed by detritivorous aquatic insects such as the many species of stoneflies that transfer some of this energy back into the terrestrial system during emergence. For instance, a high proportion of aquatic insects are found during a gut analysis of predatory riparian ground beetles (Hering and Plachter 1997). The insects indirectly transform the terrestrial leaves into high quality food for riparian consumers. Distribution of aquatic insects in aquatic ecosystems is very much dependent on their successful adaptations to live in various microhabitats (Ulfstrand 1967; Minshall and Minshall 1977; Wiggins and Mackay 1978; Mckie and Cranston 1998; Sheldon and Walker 1998) and their physical and chemical tolerance to an array of environmental factors (Furse et al. 1984). Certain insect groups such as the mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, beetles and dipterans prefer clean headwaters and are commonly found in hilly areas or in mountain streams (Ward 1992). In Belum Temengor rainforest streams, Jongkar (2000) recorded a total of 10 orders, 71 families and 151 taxa of aquatic insects in 16 highland tributaries emptying into Temengor Lake. The insect communities were dominated by dragonflies (Odonata), beetles (Coleoptera), caddisflies (Trichoptera), mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and true flies (Diptera). Other insects such as bugs (Hemiptera), stoneflies (Plecoptera), butterflies (Lepidoptera), alderflies (Megaloptera) and grasshoppers (Orthoptera) contributed significant numbers of individuals in the collections.
habitats that sustain very highet diversity of(a) the aquatic insects in the forest. genera (Che Salmah 2007). This component is her than the diversity of aquatic insect fauna orded in both Penang ional Park (on Penang nd) and Stong Forest erve in Kelantan. (b) (a) parently, the Belum-‐ An emerging damselfly larva rest on stony substrate near An exuvium of Gomphidictinus perakienses on the mengor rainforest stream margin before the adult is ready to break its final substrate after the emergence of the adult. a) An emerging damselfly larva to terrestrial environment. eams instar exuvium (skin) outprovide rest on stony substrate near erogenous productive stream margin before the adult is bitats that sustain very ready to break its final instar h diversity of the exuvium (skin) out to terrestrial
y have been used to uality in streams and out the world (Lenat d ilsenhoff 1977; 1982; l EPA 1990; Plafkin et S o nsects as well as other d ate fauna eliminate t are less Eulicas tolerant to Porrorhynchus Tabanus ; the stress increases. t ss is lower Aquatic in insects in the forest ecosystems have natural functions. They have been used to asses polluted water quality in streams and rivers throughout the world (Lenat 1988; 1993; Hilsenhoff 1977; r are and dominated by Lake Temengor 1982; 1987; 1988; US EPA 1990; Plafkin et al. 1989). The insects as well as other macroine es. Consequently, the species vertebrate fauna eliminate that are less tolerant to pollution when the stress increases. chment with most of the o The taxa richness is lower in polluted environments and are dominated only by tolerant species. d the pattern of taxa eams are undisturbed . Consequently, the abundance and the pattern of taxa richness and the species composition of he species composition a fauna in a particular reflects the status of water quality in that habitat. d particular environment maintained environment their y tus tine three of environment, water quality in In Temengor Lake catchment where most of the streams are undisturbed and maintain their sitive insect orders -‐ pristine environment, three sensitive insect orders namely Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and a Trichoptera (EPT) hemeroptera, Plecoptera - constituting 25 families and 45 genera have been reported (Che Salmah n et al. 2005; 2007). This EPT component is richer than the diversity of all aquatic insect fauna d (EPT) -‐ t Trichoptera recorded in both Penang National Park (on Penang Island) and Stong Forest Reserve in 25 Apparently, families and Temengor rainforest streams provide heterogenous productive n stitute Kelantan. the Belum
Aquatic macroinvertebrates are small animals with no backbone that live in water and are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. These animals include many types of insects as well as worms, molluscs and crustaceans. In many freshwater habitats, aquatic insects are the most dominant macroinvertebrate communities. Out of over one million described insect species, 751,000 species are aquatic. Some aquatic insects have one or more of their life stages living in or closely associated with water. They evolve from terrestrial forms and majority of them still depend on dry land for part of their life cycle. There are about 13 insect orders known to have aquatic representatives. These insect orders are Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Coleoptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Hymenoptera and Blattodea. Only the major orders of aquatic macroinvertebrates found in streams or rivers of Belum-Temengor Rainforest are presented in this book. Insects are the most commonly found in all of its streams and rivers. Representative of eight major orders of aquatic insects and their habitats are briefly described in this handbook. CLASSIFICATION OF MACROINVERTEBRATES A living organism is classified taxonomically into taxal categories which group the living things (such as animals) from the upper to the lowest taxon. The following is an example of a taxonomic classification of an Aedes mosquito.
GENERAL MORPHOLOGY OF AQUATIC INSECTS A stonefly (order Plecoptera, family Peltoperlidae) serves to illustrate the general external morphological features of aquatic insects used in taxonomic determinations following William & Feltmate (1992) and Merritt et al. (2008). The stonefly body comprises of three main divisions which are head, thorax and abdomen. The head bears compound eyes, ocelli and the antennae. The thorax is divided into prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax. The prothorax bears the forelegs, mesothorax with a pair of middle legs and forewings and metathorax with a pair of hind legs and hindwings (if wings are present). The jointed leg is further divided into femur, tibia and tarsus with claws. Continous from the thorax is the abdomen. The terminal segment of the abdomen bears a pair of lateral cerci.
Femur Tibia Tarsus Metathorax
General morphology of a stonefly
Family: Baetidae Genus: Platybaetis Size: 4-12 mm Habitat: Gravel, boulders, splash zone. Description: Rather flat body, large head with comparatively small labrum, median filament absent or greatly reduced, cerci approximately the same length as body. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Baetidae Genus: Baetis Size: 4-18mm Habitat: Crevices among stones and gravel, boulders, leaf litter, splash zone. Description: Laterally rounded thorax, long antennae about 2 to 3 times the width of head, body with well-developed, seven pairs of simple lamellate gills. Presence of two lateral and a median filaments. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Isonychidae Genus: Isonychia Size: 3-8 mm Habitat: Stony, leaf litter, riffles, trailing roots of trees Description: Laterally flattened body, well-developed fringe of bristles on forelegs, long swimming hairs on caudal filaments. Trophic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Heptageniidae Genus: Rhithrogeniella Size: 4-15 mm Habitat: Bedrock, crevices of stones, boulders, leaf litter. Description: Flattened head and body, less developed lateral abdominal process, more or less leaf-like gills on lateral abdomen. Two caudal filaments. Trophic level: Scraper. Status: Rarely found. Family: HeptagenIidae Genus: Thalerosphyrus Size: 4-15 mm Habitat: Bedrock, crevices of stones, boulders, leaf litter. Description: Flattened large head, big compound eyes, well-developed lateral spiniforms at abdominal segments 5 to 7, 3 filaments at the end of abdomen. Trophic level: Scraper. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Potamanthidae Genus: Rheonanthus Size: > 12 mm Habitat: Silt along slower reach of river. Description: Lateral gills present, mandibular tusks longer than length of head, curved inward and visible from above, sub-apical spine on outer side of each tusk. Trophic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Moderately common. Family: Ephemerellidae Genus: Crinitella Size: 4.5 - 4.9 mm Habitat: Fast to slow flowing water. Description: Spiny body especially on lateral margin of abdomen, caudal filaments with spines. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Ephemeridae Genus: Ephemera Size: 4-18 mm Habitat: Pools, sand and gravel, boulders, leaf litter, detritus. Description: Bifurcate well-developed frontal processes, mandibular tusks curved outwards, long whorled setae at antennae, distally rounded tibia of forelegs adapted for burrowing. Abdominal gills rest on abdomen. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Caenidae Genus: Caenis Size: 4-12 mm Habitat: Pool, sand and gravel, boulder, leaf litter, detritus. Description: Reduced 1st pair of gills, operculate gills on segment 2 overlap and conceal succeeding gills, without long setae on forelegs. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Prosopistomatidae Genus: Prosopistoma Size: 2 - 4 mm Habitat: Sand and gravel, in moderate to fast-flowing water. Description: Pale in color, beetle-like, abdominal gills hidden by large thoracic shield, retractile caudal filaments. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Rarely found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
ODONATA Damselflies and Dragonflies
Family: Calopterygidae Genus: Vestalis Size: 25-26 mm Habitat: Stones, clean, fast-flowing water. Description: Slender body, relatively long and straight antenna, labium with median cleft not more than half length of mentum, long legs, caudal lamellae vertical and shorter than length of abdomen. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Calopterygidae Genus: Echo Size: < 20 mm Habitat: Stone, clean, fast-flowing water. Description: Long and straight antennae, stout body, long legs, caudal lamellae with serrate edges, small median cleft. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Euphaeidae Genus: Euphaea Size: 19 - 29.3 mm Habitat: Clear, swift forest stream, under rocks or leaf packs. Description: Long body, three distended (saccoid) caudal gills at end of abdomen, filamentous gills underside of body, spine-like projection near middle of ventral margin of compound eyes. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Platycnemididae Genus: Copera Size: < 25mm Habitat: Clean to slightly polluted river, submerged vegetation and leaf packs. Description: Body elongated, leaf-shaped caudal gills with fringes of long filaments at margins of lamellae. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Platystictidae Genus: Drepanosticta Size: < 20 mm Habitat: Clean, small, fast-flowing stream. Description: Wedge-shaped head, long filaments at tips of partially distended (saccoid) caudal lamellae, premental and palpal setae absent. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Coenagrionidae Genus: Pseudagrion Size: 20 - 26 mm Habitat: Stagnant and flowing water from clean to polluted. Description: Long and slender body, one premental and three to four palpal setae, caudal gills nearly parallel-sided with round apex. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Amphiterygidae Genus: Devadatta Size: 15 mm Habitat: Clean, fast flowing water. Description: Small and short body, head is large in relation to body, three top-shaped caudal gills. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Chlorocyphidae Genus: Libellago Size: 14 - 20 mm Habitat: Clear, swift lowland streams, sluggish streams and muddy rivers. Description: Compact and slightly flattened body, two relatively long triangular caudal gills. Gills with spines along ridges. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Acrogomphus Size: 20 - 35 mm Habitat: Pristine fast flowing water, sand. Description: Four segmented antennae, prothorax wider than width of head, hairy legs and antennae, divergent wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Heliogomphus Size: > 20 mm Habitat: Forest streams, among rubble in swift water. Description: Flattened and broad body, fan-like antennal segment 2, parallel wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Paragomphus Size: 24 - 27.5 mm Habitat: Streams with cobble and gravel substrate. Description: Finger-like last (4th) antennal segment, abdominal segment with lateral spines, divergent wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Megalogomphus Size: > 20 mm Habitat: Lowland forest streams, undisturbed area, fast flowing water, gravel bed. Description: Robust body, conspicuous apical tibia on fore and middle legs, divergent wing cases, rectangular and small head compared to body size. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Nepogomphus Size: 13.8 - 15.7 mm Habitat: Lowland forest streams. Description: Flat antennal segment 3, flattened and stout abdomen, narrowing from segment 6 to anal pyramid, abdominal segments 7 to 9 with lateral spines, dorsal spines present, divergent wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Phaenandrogomphus Size: 17-19 mm Habitat: Sand, gravel. Description: Slender body, last segment of antennae flatten, leaflike. Abdomen broadly lanceolate with flat sternites and convex terga. Abdominal segment 8 to 9 with lateral spines, dorsal spines absent. Wing cases divergent. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Stylogomphus Size: 16 - 21 mm Habitat: Clear forest stream. Description: Elongated larva, parallel sided abdomen, inflated second segment of antenna, without dorsal spine, light to deep brown body, parallel wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Gomphidictinus Size: 27 - 28.5 mm Habitat: Clear forest stream, under leaf litter. Description: Massively built larva, ovate and triangular abdomen, well developed mid-dorsal spines and lateral spines. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Exuvium of last instar larva of Macrogomphus
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Microgomphus Size: 17 mm Habitat: Clear forest stream. Description: Elongated and flatten larva, long and slender antennal segment 2, parallel wing cases, abdominal segments 7 to 9 with well-developed lateral spines. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Macrogomphus Size: > 54 mm Habitat: Clear forest stream, deep silt. Description: Elongated body, abdominal segment 9 long, slender and more than 3 times longer than wide, dorsal spines absent, antennal segment 3 slender, parallel wing cases. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Exuvium of last instar larva of Ictinogomphus
Family: Gomphidae Genus: Ictinogomphus Size: 26 - 28 mm Habitat: Clear forest stream. Description: Robust larva, lateral margin of abdomen not serrate and smoothly curved, lateral spine segments 5 to 8 not prominent, abdomen almost as wide as long. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Chlorogomphidae Genus: Chlorogomphus Size: 35 - 38.2 mm Habitat: Gravel at waterfall, montane and submontane forest streams. Description: Elongated oval and wedge-shaped abdomen, broad head, abdomen pointed at rear, no lateral spine, labial palps with deep crenulations (jagged), two median processes on mentum. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Aeshnidae Genus: Tetracanthagyna Size: 50.5 - 55.0 mm Habitat: Small and clear forest streams. Description: Body elongated, dorsal spines on segment 8 to 10, prothorax narrower than head. Pattern on dorsum of abdomen. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Corduliidae Genus: Macromia Size: 23.5 - 26.3 mm Habitat: Permanent streams, rivers, within mud, gravel and litter in benthic zone. Description: Robust larva, long legs with fringe of long setae on hind tibia, frontal horn, prominent eyes. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Libellulidae Genus: Hydrobasilus Size: 22 - 26 mm Habitat: Lowland lakes, swamp forest, ponds, slow flowing river. Description: Triangular head from dorsal view, posteriorly protruded eyes in an acute angle, translucent with long posterior and dorsal spines on abdomen. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Corduliidae Genus: Idionyx Size: 17.5 - 20 mm Habitat: Small and sluggish streams. Description: Hairy (hirsute) larva, divergent wing cases, long legs, femora with ridges of setae, flatten prothorax. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES
Family: Libellulidae Genus: Zygonyx Size: 26.6 - 29.2 mm Habitat: Cling to rock, clear water. Waterfalls and fast flowing water. Description: Moderately flattened larva with long splayed legs, prominent lateral spines at abdominal segments 8 to 9. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Libellulidae Genus: Onychothemis Size: < 25 mm Habitat: Slow flowing water on sandy substrates with aquatic vegetation, clear forest streams and riffles. Description: Stout body, prominent sickle shaped dorsal hooks, lateral spines from abdominal segment 2 to 8. Compound eyes antero-dorsally pointed. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Libellulidae Genus: Orthetrum Size: 19 â€“ 24 mm Habitat: Muddy or leafy substrate, blackwater swamp, slow flowing water, lakes, ponds, marshes and temporary water sources. Description: Rectangular head, small and bead-like eyes, elongated body and covered with minute hairs, parallel wing cases, small lateral spines on abdominal segments 8 and 9. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Libellulidae Genus: Trithemis Size: 13 - 15 mm Habitat: Lake, weedy drains and streams, detritus in shallow water. Description: Slender body, thick and oval abdomen with broadest area at segment 6, lateral spines on segments 8 and 9, relatively short forelegs. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
DAMSELFLIES AND DRAGONFLIES 31
Family: Perlidae Genus: Etrocorema Size: 10 - 30 mm Habitat: Leaf packs, detritus, stony substrates, submerged macrophytes. Description: Head with two ocelli, posterior margin of mesosternum without setal fringe, wing pads with longitudinal row of thick bristles, thoracic gills under base of legs, anal gills absent. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Row of thick bristles on wing pad
Family: Perlidae Genus: Kamimuria Size: 10 - 30 mm Habitat: Leaf packs, detritus, stony substrates, submerged macrophytes. Description: Head with three ocelli, tibiae with long fringes, remnants of gills on ventral side of thorax. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Three ocelli on the head
Family: Perlidae Genus: Neoperla Size: 10 - 30 mm Habitat: Leaf packs, detritus, stony substrates, submerged macrophytes. Description: Head with two ocelli, lateral margins of pronotum with incomplete fringe, absent bristles on wing pad, anal gills present. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Peltoperlidae Genus: Cryptoperla Size: 6.5 - 9 mm Habitat: Leaf packs, detritus, stony substrate, submerged macrophytes. Description: Cockroach-like, thorax wider than either abdomen or head, posterior gills absent. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Notonectidae Genus: Anisops Size: 4.2 - 11.5 mm Habitat: Shallow standing water, close to surface. Description: Hemelytron with a definite hair-lined pit at anterior end, pale body. Very long (swimming) hind legs. Ventral abdominal keel reaches last abdominal segment. Big eyes. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Notonectidae Genus: Enithares Size: > 10 mm Habitat: Shallow standing water, close to surface. Description: Anterolateral margin of prothorax pitted with numerous regular depressions (foveate). Hemelytra without a definite hair-lined pit, middle femur with pointed protuberance near distal end, body with metallic blue or green on dorsal surface. Trophic level: Predators. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Nepidae Genus: Cercotmetus Size: 20 - 50 mm Habitat: Still water or slow flowing streams. Description: Cylindrical and stick-like body and usually brown in colour, fore-femur shorter than pronotum, short and rigid respiratory siphon. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Helotrephidae Genus: Helotrephes Size: 1- 3.5 mm Habitat: Pebbles, gravel or sand in slow moving water. Description: Convex dorsum, tarsal formula 1-1-2, posterior lateral margins of cephalonotum not reaching the eyes, sternite with median keel. Trophic level: Predator. Rarely found.
Family: Naucoridae Genus: Naucoris Size: 6.5 - 7.2 mm Habitat: Standing water, among gravel or vegetation, pools at waterfall. Description: Streamline, oval and dorso-ventrally flattened body, pretarsus forelegs with one minute claw. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Ventral view of Aphelocheirus
Family: Apheloceridae Genus: Aphelocheirus Size: 6 - 8 mm Habitat: Fast flowing streams, under rocks or stones. Description: Dorso-ventrally flattened body, long rostrum but short antennae, head and prothorax never fused, raptorial forelegs. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Veliidae Genus: Rhagovelia Size: 1 - 4 mm Habitat: Standing water, permanent or temporary pool and in pool of streams. Description: Short pronotum, only last segment of middle tarsi deeply cleft, tarsi with plumose fan arising from base of cleft. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found. 35
Family: Belostomatidae Genus: Diplonychus Size: < 25 mm Habitat: Vegetation in standing water of lakes, ponds and paddy fields. Description: Flattened and oval shaped body, lateral eye margins flush with lateral margin of head, phallus (male sex organ) flat laterally, tibiae and tarsi of all legs similar in shape, hind legs broad, oar like and fringed with hairs. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gerridae Genus: Metrocoris Size: 20 mm Habitat: Fast-flowing stream and near waterfall. Description: Long middle and hind legs, eyes not overlapping, antero-lateral angles of mesonotum, metasternum reduced, foretarsi shorter than other tarsi. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gerridae Genus: Rhagadotarsus Size: 3.47 - 4.31 mm Habitat: Pond and lake margin. Description: 1st abdominal sternite visible, tip of abdomen prolonged to a rod-like point. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Larva of Dytiscidae
Family: Dytiscidae Genus: Neptosternus Size: 1 - 8 mm Habitat: Damp jungle soil, lakes, ponds, forest puddles, rivers, springs. Description: Larva - metasternum with characteristic lateral ‘wings’, head with long, sickle-shaped mandibles. Adult – fore and middle tarsi distinctly five segments, segment 4 not bilobe, trifurcate prosternal process. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Noteridae Genus: Canthydrus Size: 1.5 -7 mm Habitat: Vegetated areas Description: Larva – bidentate mandible, abdominal segment 8 conical but not sharply pointed. Adult – anterior tibia with curved spur at apex, prosternal process with hair truncate, hind femur with long angular cilia. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gyrinidae Genus: Porrorhynchus Size: 13 - 20 mm Habitat: Pond, lake, stands of emergent plants, undercut river bank, crevices of submerged wood. Description: Triangular labrum, scutellum invisible, two pairs of eyes, posterior corner of pronotum with bristle-carrying pit, semi-circular last abdominal segment. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Gyrinidae Genus: Orectochilus Size: 6 - 20 mm Habitat: Sheltered habitats of stream and river. Description: Larva – anterior frontoclypeal margin truncate in the middle. Adult – partially hairy pronotum and elytra, elytral punctures not arrange in rows, last abdominal sternite elongated with a longitudinal median row of hair, short clubbed antennae inserted in cavity. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Hydrophilidae Genus: Laccobius Size: 1 - 50 mm Habitat: Gravel substrate, water plants, pools. Description: Larva – elongated body and widest in the middle. Adult – tibia on middle and hing legs without swimming hairs, posterior margin of 5th abdominal sternite simply rounded, elytra without striae or rows of serial punctures, apical segment of maxillary palpi longer than receding one. Trophic level: Larvae - predator, adult - collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Psephenidae Genus: Eubrinax Size: 1 - 6 mm Habitat: Moist soil, rocks and logs, flowing water. Description: Body strongly flattened, onisciform (depress and broad) body shape, dorsally hidden head, tracheal gills hidden under ventral operculum. Trophic level: Larvae - scrapers, adult - non-feeding. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Elmidae Genus: Potamophilus Size: 0.8 - 11.0 mm Habitat: Running waters, rocks, wood, leaf packs, vegetation. Description: Larva â€“ body without marginal spines, abdomen with pleura on segments 1 to 8, segment 9 with tufts of retractile tracheal gills. Adult â€“ exposed trochantin at procoxae, pronotum without basal carinae or sulci (groove). Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Ventral view of Elmomorphus
Family: Dryopidae Genus: Elmomorphus Size: 1.3 - 9.5 mm Habitat: Running water, rock, wood, leaf packs, vegetation. Description: Adult - head slightly retracted into pronotum, very short and clubbed antennae, long legs. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Eulichadidae Genus: Eulichas Size: 1 - 50 mm Habitat: River, streams. Description: Larva - abdominal segments 1 to 8 with ventro-lateral tufts of finger-like gills, hard and upward curved tail, head with one large ocellus on each side. Trophic level: Shredder. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Scirtidae Size: 2-3 mm Habitat: Larva â€“ stagnant and flowing water with rich decomposing materials, vegetation, shoreline. Adult on vegetation alongside river. Description: Larva â€“ long antenna with > 10 segments, very short prosternum, labrum separated from head, conical and separated fore and middle coxae, bilobe tarsal segments, abdomen with more than 3 sternites (segments). Trophic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Commonly found.
TRICHOPTERA Caddisflies Family: Stenopsychidae Genus: Stenopsyche Size: 10 - 40 mm Habitat: Fast flowing water, large stones. Description: Prolonged head, sclerotized labrum, reddish black sclerite on prothorax. Tropic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Polycentropodidae Genus: Polycentropus Size: 10 - 25 mm Habitat: Slow flowing, standing water. Description: Abdomen with lateral fringe but no gill, body white to yellowish in colour, teeth on anal claws as long as apical hook. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Hydropsychidae Genus: Hydropsyche Size: 10 - 20 mm Habitat: On sides or bottom of rocks, rarely along rocky shores of lake. Description: Dorsum of abdomen with numerous simple hair, three posterior most abdominal segments with scale hair and minute spines on, club hair absent, forked fore trochantin with dorsal fork never longer than ventral fork. Trophic level: Collector-filterers Status: Commonly found
Family: Hydropsychidae Genus: Cheumatopsyche Size: 10 - 20 mm Habitat: On sides or bottom of rock, rarely along rocky shores of lakes. Description: Round to subquadrate head in dorsal view, simple hair present, club and scale hair absent, no flanged mandible, fore trochantin always forked. Trophic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Hydropsychidae Genus: Macrostemum Size: 10 - 22 mm Habitat: On sides or bottom of rocks, rarely along rocky shores of lakes. Description: Broad and short head, flattened upper surface, dorsal ridge with crown of setae, ecdysial line (on front part of head) missing on right side, prosternum with a broad posterior sclerite. Trophic level: Collector-filterer. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Glossosomatidae Genus: Glossosoma Size: 3 - 7 mm Habitat: Moderate to fast flowing streams. Description: Head with thickened mesoventral margin of genae (median line on ventral side of head) , mesonotum without sclerites, basal half of each anal proleg broadly joined with segment 9, anal opening with dark sclerotized line on each side. Larva contructs tortoise-like portable case of small stones. Trophic level: Grazer. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Lepidostomatidae Genus: Lepidostoma Size: 5 - 15 mm Habitat: Small, slow flowing stream, leaf litter. Description: Antennae close to anterior margins of eyes, head without carina, pronotum slightly broader than head, abdomen without gill, four-sided cylindrical case constructed from quadrate pieces of leaves or sand grains. Trophic level: Shredder. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Helicopsychidae Genus: Helicopsyche Size: < 7 mm Habitat: Fast-flowing streams, on rock surface. Description: Anal claw with single row of comb-shaped hooks, sand grain larval case in snail shape. Trophic level: Scraper. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Calamoceratidae Genus: Anisocentropus Size: 8 – 12 mm Habitat: Fast-flowing streams, leaf packs. Description: Moderately sclerotized mesonotum with a dark inverted “V”, metanotum with three pairs of very small sclerites each with long setae, very long hind legs about twice the length of forelegs, flattened abdomen with lateral fringe (setae). Living in broad leaf case. Trophic level: Shredder. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Leptoceridae Genus: Oecetis Size: 5 - 15 mm Habitat: Flowing streams. Description: Very long flat mandibles with few teeth, long antennae and maxillary palps, variable case from sand grains, detritus or fresh plant material in a straight, curved or rectangular tube. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found. 43
Family: Leptoceridae Genus: Setodes Size: 5 - 15 mm Habitat: Flowing streams with sandy substrates. Description: Long antennae on front of head, metanotum without sclerite, tubular case from sand grains. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer and predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Leptoceridae Genus: Triaenodes Size: 5 - 15 mm Habitat: Flowing streams. Description: No lateral seta on anal prolegs, middle legs shorter than hind legs. Live in tubular case made of small twigs. Trophic level: Shredder. Status: Commonly found.
DIPTERA True Flies
Family: Blephariceridae Genus: Blepharicera Size: < 13 mm Habitat: Swift flowing waters on submerged stones. Description: Flattened body, six depressions at the side of body, six-disc mounting at the bottom of body, two poorly delimited antennal segments with long connecting membrane, broadly triangular pseudopods with wide and weakly sclerotized base. Trophic level: Scrapper. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Tipulidae Genus: Hexatoma Size: 10 - 30 mm Habitat: Marshes, slow and fast flowing waters, submerged wood, among leaf litter and on decomposing organic materials. Description: Swollen abdominal segment 7, midventral region of head before line of attachment of skin membranous. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Chironomidae Subfamily: Tanypodinae Size: 5 - 10 mm Habitat: Polluted to clean water. Description: Analogous to worm but short and red in color as its hemoglobin absorbs oxygen from dirty water, one pair of prolegs on thoracid segment. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Simuliidae Genus: Simulium Size: 3 - 8 mm Habitat: Fast flowing waters. Description: Swollen abdominal segment 5 to 8,head with conspicuous labral fans. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Occasionally found.
Family: Athericidae Genus: Asuragina Size: 5 mm Habitat: Stream, pond and pool. Description: Short and conspicuous paired dorsal projections on abdominal segments 2 to 6, prolegs on segment 8 absent, terminal projections fringed with long hairs. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Family: Tabanidae Genus: Tabanus Size: 15 - 60 mm Habitat: In mud and moist soil along the edges of pond, stream and marshes. Description: Slender body with no head, small bump around body segments, posteriorly pointed shaped tip. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Rarely found.
Class: Insecta Order: Lepidoptera Family: Pyralidae Genus: Parapoynx Size: 10 mm Habitat: Stagnant or running water. Description: Larva with longitudinal rows of branched gills, cylindrical body, head and mouth facing downwards (hypognathus). Trophic level: Shredder. Status: Rarely found.
Class: Insecta Order: Megaloptera Family: Corydalidae Subfamily: Corydalinae Size: 70 mm Habitat: Flowing water. Description: Serrate mandibles, tuft ventral gills, abdomen with eight pairs of gill filaments and a pair of prolegs fitted with a pair of claws at the end. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Commonly found.
Class: Oligochaeta Family: Lumbricidae Size: 80 mm Habitat: Polluted water. Description: Hair (chaeta) absent with rudimentary upper teeth, anterior end usually greenish, posterior reddish when alive. Trophic level: Collector-gatherer. Status: Rarely found.
Family: Palaemonidae Genus: Macrobrachium Habitat: Streams and rivers, submerged vegetations. Description: Carapace with hepatic spine, extreme enlargement of the second pairs of pereiopods. Trophic level: Shredder / scavenger. Status: Occasionally found.
Class: Crustacea Order: Decapoda Family: Potamidae Genus: Johora Size: 50 - 70 mm Habitat: Semi-terrestrial, clean fresh water bodies from lowland to mountain. Description: Mandibular palp with single terminal lobe, carapace quadrate to transversely ovate, small eyes relative to carapace. Trophic level: Predator. Status: Relatively common.
Family: Thiaridae Genus: Melanoides Size: 60 - 70 mm Habitat: Muddy substrate. Description: Elongated shell, conical with streaks apparent, operculum in front of opening, 10-15 whorls. Trophic level: Scraper. Status: Occasionally found.
APPENDIX A Collections of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates from Forest Stream
STEP 2 Collect samples randomly along the river stretch by rubbing the stones and disturbing leaf litter and debris in front of aquatic net placed against water flow on stream floor. Macroinvertebrates are collected in the net.
STEP 3 Transfer the collected sample into a labeled plastic bag.
STEP 4 Sieve the sample.
STEP 5 Sort the specimens from the debris and leaf litter in a tray.
STEP 6 Preserve the specimens in a labeled universal bottle filled with 75% to 80% ethanol.
STEP 1 Place an aquatic (D-pond) net on the stream floor (substrate).
APPENDIX B Measurement of Stream Environmental Variables
STEP 1 Measure the river width using a measuring tape.
STEP 3 Measure water velocity using a flow meter.
STEP 2 Measure the stream depth using a water proof measuring tape.
STEP 4 Measure water temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen in the water using standard instruments
GLOSSARY A anal - in the direction or attached to the anus on the last segment of the abdomen. angular - third plural area. antenna (pl., antennae) - paired segmental appendages borne on head. apical - near to the apex of any structure. appendage - any part attached by a joint to the body or other structures. arthropod - possess segmented body and jointed legs. autotrophic - capability of synthesizing its own food. B bristle - a stiff short blunt seta.
C caudal - pertaining to the anal end of the insect body. carapace - a hard dorsal covering consisting of the fused dorsal sclerites. carnivorous - predaceous meat eater. cephalonotum - the combined head and first thorax. cercus (pl., cerci) - an appendage of abdominal segment XI. cilia (sing., cilium) - series of moderate or thin hairs. coxa - the basal segment of the leg. D detritus - worn away, decayed plant materials. detritivorous - feeding on organic detritus. dorso-ventral - in a line from the upper to lower surface. dorsum - the upper surface. E elytra (sing., elytron) - the leathery forewing of beetles (Coleoptera). ecdysial line - line of breakage during molting on the head. F filament - an elongated appendage. filamentous - filament or threadlike. frontal - pertaining to frons.
H haemoglobin - respiratory pigment found in the hemolymph of the insects. hemelytral (sing, hemelytron) - anterior wing of bugs (Hemiptera). herbivorous - feeding on non-woody plant tissue. heterotrophics - organisms which requires supply of organic material from the environment. hirsute - hairy.
I immature - life stage preceding the imago or adult. insectivorous - subsisting by eating insects. L labium (pl., labia) â€“ the floor of the mouth in mandibulate insects behind the maxilla and opposed to the labrum. labial palp - one to four segmented appendage of the insect labium. labrum - upper lip. labral - pertaining to the labrum. lamellae - thin plate or leaf-like process. lanceolate - oblong-shaped and tapering to the end. lateral - to the side. littoral - in shallow water where light penetration extends to the bottom sediments. longitudinal - in the direction of the long axis. M macrophyte - plant large enough to be visible with the naked eye. mandibles - first pair of jaws in insects. mandibular - pertaining to the mandibles. metasternum - sternum of a metathorax. metathorax - third thoracic ring or segment. microhabitat - immediate habitat in which an organism lives. O ocelli (sing., ocellus) - simple eyes. operculum - valve-like opening. P pereiopods - legs or limbs for walking in arthropods. posterior - hinder or hindmost. prolegs - any process or appendage.
pronotum - upper and dorsal part of a prothorax. prosternal - belonging to the prosternum. prothorax - first thoracic ring or segment. S sclerite - plate of the body wall bounded by membrane or sutures. scutellum - small, shield-shaped plate. sedentary - not active. serrate - saw-like. seta (pl., setae) - sclerotized hair-like projection of cuticula. siphon - tubular external process or structure. spiniform - in the form or shape of a spine. sternum - entire ventral division of a segment. subapical - located just proximate of the apex.
T taxa (sing., taxon) - taxonomic unit. thoracic - attached to the thorax. thorax - middle portion of a body between the head and the abdomen. tracheal - element of a respiratory system. trifurcate - three times forked. trochantin - small sclerite which interposed between two others. V ventral - under surface of the abdomen. ventrite - sternite, ventral portion of a segment. ventro-lateral - on the lower surface and to one side of the midline.
REFERENCES Ali, A.B., Che Salmah, M.R. and Wan Ruslan I. 1999. Beriah Swamp: A model for conservation and management. In: Che Salmah M.R. and Ali, A.B. eds. Wetland conservation and management: the role of research and education in enhancing public awareness. Proceedings of the Joint USM-RCJ-NHK education corporation workshop on public awareness of wetlands and role of Ramsar convention on weland conservation and wise use. 13-14 July 1998; Penang, Malaysia. p 76-92. Belum Rainforest Resort, 2012. Belum-Temengor Rainforest. www.belumresort.com/btfc.html. (access date 12 October 2012).
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CHE SALMAH MD RAWI A Professor of Entomology at the School of Biological Sciences, Universiti of Sains Malaysia has been involved in aquatic insects study for more than two decades. She had investigated aquatic insect fauna in many forested and non-forested catchments in peninsular Malaysia throughout her carrier at the Universiti Sains Malaysia.
SUHAILA AB. HAMID A lecturer at the School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia has participated in aquatic insect research in Universiti Sains Malaysia for more than five years. She had pioneered the study of EPT fauna in Gunung Jerai Catchment. Presently, she is investigating aquatic insects in various rivers in Penang and other states in Peninsular Malaysia.
NURUL HUDA ABDUL A Ph.D. student at the School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia majoring in entomology, had investigated aquatic insect fauna from many places in Peninsular Malaysia such as Kerian River Basin as well as Muda, Beris, Ledang and Temengor. She has immense interest in aquatic insect taxonomy and population ecology.
A abdomen,17,20-22, 26-29, 31, 33, 36, 39-41, 43, 48, 53, 55 abundance, 13,15, 58 Acrogomphus, 24 Aedes albopictus, 16 Aeshnidae, 28 alderflies, 14 Amphiterygidae, 24 Anisocentropus, 43 Anisops, 34 antennae, 9-14, 18, 20, 22-23, 27 Apheloceridae, 35 Aphelocheirus, 35 aquatic subsidies, 13,14 Asiatic elephant, 9 Asuragina, 47 Athericidae, 47
B Baetidae, 19 Baetis, 19 beetles, 7, 14, 37-40, 53, 56 Belostomatidae, 36 Belum Temengor Rainforest, 7, 9, 11-12, 14-16, 56 Blattodea, 16 Blepharicera, 45 Blephariceridae, 45 bugs, 7,14, 34-36, 54 butterflies, 14
C caddisflies, 7,14, 41-43 Caenidae, 21 Caenis, 21 Calamoceratidae, 43 Calopterygidae, 22 Canthydrus, 37
cephalonotum, 35, 53 cerci, 17,19, 53 Cercotmetus, 34 chemical tolerance, 14 Cheumatopsyche, 42 Chironomidae, 46 Chlorocyphidae, 24 Chlorogomphidae, 28 Chlorogomphus, 28 Coleoptera, 7, 14,16, 37-40, 53, 56, 57. See also beetles. compound eyes, 17, 20, 22, 30 Copera, 23 Corduliidae, 29 Corydalidae, 48 Corydalinae, 48 Crinitella, 20 crustaceans, 16 Cryptoperla, 33 Culicidae, 16
D decomposition, 7, 14 detritivorous, 14, 53 Devadatta, 24 Diplonychus, 36 Diptera, 7,14,16, 45-47, 58. See also true flies dipterans, 14 distribution. See abundance diversity, 13-14, 57-58 dragonflies, 7, 14, 22-31 Drepanosticta, 23 Dryopidae, 39 Dytiscidae, 37
E Echo, 22 Elmidae, 39 Elmomorphus, 39 Enithares, 34 Ephemera, 21
Ephemerellidae, 20 Ephemeridae, 21 Ephemeroptera, 7, 14-16, 19-21, 56, 58. See also mayflies Etrocorema, 32 Eubrinax, 38 Eulichadidae, 39 Eulichas, 39 Euphaea, 22 Euphaeidae, 22
F families, 14-15 fauna, 15, 59 femur, 17, 34, 37 food chain, 13 food web, 14
G genera, 15 Gerridae, 36 Glosososomatidae, 42 Glossosoma, 42 Gomphidae, 24-28 Gomphidictinus, 15, 27 grasshopper, 14 ground beetle, 14, 56 Gyrinidae, 37, 38
H habitat, 7, 9, 11-16, 19-49, 54, 58 heterogenous, 11, 15 head, 17, 19-20, 23-25, 28-30, 32-33, 35-48, 53, 55 headwater, 14 Helichopsyche, 43 Helichopsychidae, 43 Heliogomphus, 25 Helotrephes, 35
mesothorax, 17 metathorax, 17 Metrocoris, 36 Microgomphus, 27 morphology, 7-17. See also abdomen, antennae, compound eyes, head, mesothorax, metathorax, prothorax
Naucoridae, 35 Naucoris, 35 Neolissochilus soroides, 13 Neoperla, 33 Nephogomphus, 26 Nepidae, 34 Neptosternus, 37 Neuroptera, 16 Notonectidae, 34
Ictinogomphus, 28 Idionyx, 29 Isonychia, 19 Isonychidae, 19
K Kamimuria, 32
L Laccobius, 38 Lepidoptera, 14, 16, 28 See also butterflies Lepidostoma, 43 Lepidostomatidae, 43 Leptoceridae, 43, 44 Libellulidae, 29-31 Lumbricidae, 48
M Macrobrachium, 49 Macrogomphus, 27 Macromia, 29 Macrostemum, 42 Malayan tapir, 9 Malaysian sunbear, 9 Malaysian tiger, 9 mayflies, 7, 13-14, 19-21 Megalogomphus, 25 Megaloptera, 14, 16, 28 Melanoides, 49
Polycentropus, 41 Propontius deauratus, 13 Porrorhynchus, 37 Potamanthidae, 20 Potamidae, 49 Potamophilus, 39 predatory arthropods, 14 secondary production, 14 Prosopistoma, 21 Prosopistomatidae, 21 prothorax, 17, 24, 28-29, 34-35, 41, 55 Psephenidae, 38 Pseudagrion, 23 Pyralidae, 48
R Rhagodotarsus, 36 Rhagovelia, 35
Ocelli, 17, 32-33, 54 Odonata, 7, 14, 16, 22-31. See also dragonflies Oecetis, 43 Oligochaeta, 48 Onychothemis, 30 Orectochilus, 38 Orthetrum, 30 Orthoptera, 14, 16
Scirtidae, 40 Setodes, 44 Simuliidae, 46 Simulium, 46 species composition, 15 Stenopsyche, 41 Stenopsychidae, 41 stoneflies, 7, 14, 32-33 Stylogomphus, 26 Sumatran rhinoceros, 9
Palaemonidae, 49 Parapoynx, 48 Peltoperlidae, 17-33 Perlidae, 32-33 Platybaetis, 19 Platystictidae, 23 Plecoptera, 7, 14-17, 32-33, 56, 58. See also stoneflies Polycentropodidae, 41
Tabanidae, 47 Tabanus, 47 Tanypodinae, 46 tarsus, 17, 35 taxa, 14-16, 55 taxonomic classification, 16 Temengor lake, 9, 11, 13-15 terrestrial system, 14 Tetracanthagyna, 28
Helotrephidae, 35 Hemiptera, 7, 14, 16, 34-36, 54. See also bugs. Heptageniidae, 20 Hexatoma, 45 Hydrobasilius, 29 Hydrophilidae, 38 Hydropsyche, 41 Hydropsychidae, 41-42 Hymenoptera, 16
Thalerosphyrus, 20 Thiaridae, 49 thorax, 17, 19, 32-33, 53, 54 tibia, 17, 21, 29, 32, 36-38 Tipulidae, 45 Triaenodes, 44 Trichoptera, 7, 14-16, 41-43, 56, 58. See also caddisflies Trithemis, 31
V Veliidae, 35 Vestalis, 22
W water pollution. See also ecosystem disturbance water quality, 15, 56-57. See also bioindicator white handed-gibbon, 9 worms, 16, 46
Z Zygonyx, 30
ABOUT THE PUBLISHER
The aim of the Pulau Banding Foundation (PBF), is to promote, preserve, and perform research and studies on tropical rainforest. The initiative grew from one clear vision: to manage the sustainability of the landscape, environment and communities, be they aquatic, aerial or terrestrial of the Belum Temengor Rainforest Complex.
It is here, at Pulau Banding, that the foundation began its mission to improve the lives of the region’s indigenous inhabitants, while encouraging the continuation of this community’s respectful relationship with nature. The challenge was, and remains, to balance Forest with Development and in the process minimise undue impact to this 130 million year old green jewel.
In order to continue their efforts, and with support from the government, NGO’s and private corporations, the Foundation conducts training and awareness programmes for interested individuals and parties. It also works tirelessly to disseminate knowledge and information to the public, regarding the importance of the conservation of the area’s biological diversity and the environmentally friendly methods used to preserve this precious ecosystem.
ABOUT THE PUBLICATION
The publication of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates of Belum Temengor Rainforest Streams is aimed at helping many public enthusiasts and aquatic researchers to easily recognise and enjoy various forms and sizes of mainly immature stage of aquatic insects found in the forest streams of Belum Temengor rainforests in Malaysia. Although only few selected aquatic insect genera living in this forest streams and rivers are documented in this book, this has been the first initiative to properly document the rich and diverse fauna of aquatic insects in Malaysia. This book will be useful for students and researchers of aquatic entomology, environmental entomology as well as aquatic biology. In addition, it will be a useful tool for the Green Ranger Malaysia training programmes to teach our young minds to appreciate Natureâ€™s creations.
P U B LI S HED BY
I S B N : 978-967-12081-2-0
PULAU BANDING FOUNDATION
Unit 3A-3, Level 4, Perdana The Place, Jalan PJU 8/5G, Bandar Damansara Perdana, 47820 Petaling Jaya, Selangor. T: (603) 7710 7066 | F: (603) 7710 5066 E: email@example.com | W: www.pbf.org.my
Published on Sep 1, 2014
Published on Sep 1, 2014
Pulau Banding Foundation Fauna Handbook Series 01 - Macro Inverterbrates of Belum Temengor Rainforest Streams is a handbook which compiles s...