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SARAH BIRT PAVLA ENOCHOVA MOHAMMAD PRADANA BOTAGOZ ZHUMABEKOVA

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON BARTLETT SCHOOL OF PLANNING BENVGPLC - URBAN DESIGN: PLACE MAKING


FOREWORD

Hammersmith suffers from the dominance of the A4 – visually, environmentally and physically – the thoroughfare of heavy flows of fast traffic divides Hammersmith into two. The Town Centre is segregated from the green spaces and Thames of the South. Consequently activity is centered in the Town Centre that has a deprivation of good quality public space and greenery; movement does not extend south of the A4. Restrictions to movement create an inaccessible environment and instills a fear of victimisation, discouraging a greater diversity of uses. The wider potential infrastructure project of building a flyunder, rendering the flyover redundant presents unprecedented opportunities for Hammersmith to build on its strengths and opportunities and address the weaknesses and threats presented in Project 2.

can be directly addressed as a result of the flyover, and smaller projects, however equally important such as the reconfiguration of the gyratory can be realised, with the resultant benefit of freeing up land to the public realm, slowing traffic down and enhancing Kings Street. The strength of the Thames can be realised, reinventing Hammersmith’s identity as a harbour, brining the City to the Harbour –lying at the heart of the vision. The Thames can become a focal point of activity, the waterfront will be activated through initiatives such as a floating market and enhanced waterside access. This is in partnership with new green spaces that add to the existing local resources to create a green route from The Thames to the Town Centre, and a elevated pedestrian bridge that utilizes a section of the flyover. Activity will spread from the Centre down the green route and along the revitalized Kings Street.

Hammersmith’s location and use as a transport hub supports a greater density of homes, which are sought in the vision in carefully selected locations to make our proposals viable and to support more vibrant activities and mixes. Our vision is ambitious, yet implementation is key and flexibility is ingrained in our proposals. The wider political context is considered which informs the direction of the vision into the future.

The weaknesses and threats outlined above 01


TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD 01 TABLE OF CONTENTS VISION

02

04

CONCEPT SCHEMES

08

PROBLEM MAP

TRANSPORT LOCAL TRAFFIC

27 PARKING

Vehicular Route Cycke Route Pedestrian Route

02

CONCEPT MAP

12

TIMELINE & MASTER PLAN

14

34 LYRIC SQUARE

36

PUBLIC REALM

Additional Bus Stop

BIBLIOGRAPHY

10

49

28 BUS STATION

30

GENERAL SCHEME

33 KINGS STREET


GREEN PATH

THE THAMES

PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION

16 A4 | PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY

18 NEW PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

20

ACTIVATING THE THAMES

22 FLOATING MARKET

23

CONCLUSION

44

HOUSING & PHASING TOWN HALL

38 COURTYARD

40

HOUSING DELIVERY

42 ECONOMIC VIABILITY

BEFORE & AFTER

46

43

Destruction of Flyover & Creation of Pedestrian Bridge Local Gyratory Improvements Riverside Enhancements Green Route Development around Node Points Kings Street Enhancements Consrtuction and Opening of Public Buidlings and New Landmarks Desnsification and building of new neihbourhoods and residential dwellings in opportunity areas-in sequence of phasing Upgrade of bus station & Lyric Square Building employment floorspace

Potential diversion of north-south traffic

2015

2040 -

2020

2025

2030

2035

03


VISION

Hammersmith originates as a Harbour

Greenery

Revived and reinvented Character

Public Realm High quality design

Local Identity Heritage -led regeneration

Architectural quality

Bringing the City to the Harbour

Culture

Improving Visual Amenity

VISION Physical Activity (cycling, sports)

Diversity

Mixed tenure

Fostering Communities

Promoting Activity

Recreational activity Improving access

More homes

A place for all groups of people to use

Longevity

Supporting communities through mixed use

04

Mixed Use Vibrancy


The 4 Pillars of the Vision for Hammersmith are:

Bringing the City to the Harbour

The placename of Hammersmith derives from Hamersymth, as mentioned in 1294, whereby ‘ham’ was village and ‘hythe’ was harbour. Through the vision of Hammersmith we want to reinvent, modernize and reinforce this identity. Hammersmith will draw itself towards the Thames, as well as Londoners visiting Hammersmith; therefore in essence we are bringing the City to the Harbour.

Improving Visual Amenity

Hammersmith will be a place of outstanding greenery, with generous public parks and interlinked green spaces, with tree lined streets. The public realm will successfully integrate the built and natural environment and provide a space that meets human needs. Existing buildings will be enhanced and new development will diversify the architecture in Hammersmith and be of the highest quality.

Promoting Activity

Hammersmith will be known as a vibrant place in London, with a unique offering; it will be accessible for all groups to participate and enjoy with a range of opportunities for physical and recreational activity. It will promote healthy living and health lifestyles where people aspire to be. Hammersmith will have a well-balanced mix of uses that sustains a bustling atmosphere throughout the day and into the evening.

Fostering Communities

Hammersmith will densify and expand its residential offering, building on its current residential environment, incorporating a greater mix of tenure and typology of home to cater for a wide range of people. Residents of Hammersmith will want to stay in the area to make the most of the proximate services and attractions in their spare time. There will be something for everyone in Hammersmith and people will live together harmoniously.

Principles and Mechanisms for Achieving Vision

Waterfront

Public Realm

Communities

Buildings

• Activate the waterfront; • Introduce and enhance activities and attractions on the Thames; • Encourage a two-way movement: Town centre Thames.

• Enhance and connect the existing green spaces and public realm; • Utilise the area of the flyover for public space and additional greenery to create a ‘green link’; • Provide opportunity for engagement, shelter, rest and enjoyment.

• Connect communities through the enhancement of shared space; • Diversify and mix the tenure of housing to encourage integration; • Densify and create new neighbourhoods. • Provide community facilities to serve the needs of residents.

• Identifying development opportunities in Hammersmith and setting a phasing framework; • Build new landmarks to help reinforce Hammersmith’s identity and arouse interest in the area.

Vibrant Uses • Enhance the range and mix of cafes, restaurants and leisure uses to increase activity throughout the day. • Provide a coherent design strategy for retailers to enhance the appearance of the High Street.

Sustainability • Encourage sustainable living and healthy lifestyles; • Safe and pleasant cycle routes across Hammersmith with strategic connections; • Opportunities for physical recreational activity, with a focus on the Thames i.e. rowing and sailing.

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VISION

Hyde Park Goldhawk Road

Shepherds Bush

Green Park Kensington Belgravia

Earl’s Court Putney

The drawing shows places in regards to their identity, spatially -similar to Abercrombie’s work, as opposed to geographically by borough. To the north of Hammersmith, Shepherbs Bush, GoldHawk Road and White City have a strong identity of markets, that attract big numbers of people, specialising in fabrics and antiques. To the East and South East is Chiswick, Putney and Fulham. These are predominantly properous residential places that have a low-density. 06

Sloane Square

Pimlico

Chelsea

Fulham

Assessing the local identity of the neighbouring areas to Hammersmith has been key in informing the vision; what can Hammersmith offer that will differentiate it from other places, and give it a distinct and recognisable identity? An identity that is not entirely new or foreign to Hammersmith, but which builds on its history as a waterside town.

Victoria

South Kensington

Hammersmith

Chiswick

Westminster

White City

Battersea

A conceptual representation of London’s places, centred around Hammersmith To the West, Kensington, South Kensington Chelsea have strong historic identities that are centred around wealth, luxury and history. Exhibition Road that runs through South Kensington has a concentration of museums, partly informing the identity and activity of this area. Further afield to the West, there are large parks (Hyde Park Green Park, Regents Park) and mixed use; retail, restaruants, cafes, bars and offices. The opposite page shows a visual representation spatially of these places and their identity.


Hammersmith will focus on its geographic location adjacent to the Thames. It has historic meaning and has informed its identity over time. Surrounding places do not benefit from the waterside location; this can be used to Hammersmith’s advantage. West London is traditionally wealthy and proposerous; Hammersmith will not be exclusionary, however will be open to all. Green spaces and activities will be free and accessible to all.

A visual representation of London’s places, centred around Hammersmith

Residential areas will be more affordable, and a range of housing typologies will be offered.

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CONCEPT SCHEMES

08

RADIAL CENTER Hammersmith has a tightly bound central area which is centered around the Broadway shopping centre. This location is characterised by heavily used streets by both pedestrians and cars, active frontage and main access of public transport. Development does not diffuse out from the Centre very well and accessibility is poor

AXIAL MOVEMENT Promote the diffusion of pedestrian movement and activity outside of the Centre point around the Broadway Centre. Spread the activity and mix of uses beyond the centre.

TENTACLES The eight busy main streets lead from the central area represented by a kind of tentacles.They bring activity to the rest of the area and also have become most important visible axis. Buildings have frontage onto these streets. Movement does not leave the tentacles onto surrounding streets, meaning that are devoid of activity.

ENCOURAGE MOVEMENT FROM TENTACLES Encourage people to move between the main streets and use tertiary streets. This will aid pedestrian movement and make the surrounding areas more lively and feel safer.

DESOLATE RESIDENTIAL AREA Off the tentacles, to the north and south of Kings Street there is a concentration of residential dwellings, a large proportion of which are family houses. The streets are quiet however with no children in sight. During the day and at weekends, residents choose to be elsewhere in london.

LIVELY CITY Promoting community uses and services to support local residential communities. This, in combination with new leisure and recreational activities and opportunities will help to retain local people within the area in their free time, and act as a magnet to visitors.

POOR CONNECTION TO THE THAMES On the bank of the river are terraced family houses that are set back from the waterfront, allowing for a public walkway parallel to the Thames. There is also Furnival Gardens park in this area but it is poorly connected to the rest of town due to it´s position behind the barrier of flyover and are underused. There is a fractured riverside walk as a vacant building footprint stands in the way

THAMES The whole waterfront promenade is an important space for the city - it can bring people from the whole of London. It is also a place for the most important panoramic views from both sides of the river and from the Hammersmith bridge. Therefore we support activity on riverbanks and connect city to the river.

FLYOVER Hammersmith was adversely affected by the construction of this structure. Space under this road is dark, unpleasant and uncomfortable for orientation and space around is undefined. The surrounding area suffers adverse environmental affects as a result.

FLYOVER PATH Removing the barrier, and remaking it into an attraction and positive landmark in the area. Reverse it in a healthy, light and pedestrian friendly place.


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PROBLEM MAP

10

Octopus: The activity is too concentrated in the centre and does not diffuse out very effectively.

Connection: The flyover is a barrier to movement, and there are only a few access points to the Park and to the river. There is also a lack of visual permeability , which is obscured by the A4.

Flyover: The flyover creates adverse environmental impacts such as noise and pollution. Cars travel fast along the road, making is difficult for pedestrians to cross. It therefore creates barrier to movement and activity.

Underflyover: The space under the flyover is dark, noisy and polluted. Pedestrian movement is restricted and walkways are narrow. It feels as though pedestrians are subordinate to vehicles.

Town Hall: The public space around the Town Hall is underused, despite this providing a route towards Furnival Gardens. The brutalist architecture that faces Kings Street is not accessible and it shadows the traditional architecture of the main town hall.

Bus Station: The bus station is poorly defined and a large expanse of space. It is not overlooked very well, thus does not feel very safe at night. The space could be better utilised.

Underused courtyards: the space is predominantly used for car parking; the car dominates this space and conflicts with other uses for the space by residents such as the use for open space.

Buildings too low: Buildings on King Street could be higher to give more presence on the High Street and differentiate it typographically from the residential neighbourhoods.

bank activity: under used park, banks and space of the river

Vacant Building: The vacant building on the edge of the Thames blocks the Thames Riverside walk meaning that it is not continuous. People have to go round the residential area to get back on the path

Lyric Square: The space is poorly defined with no distinct edges. There is not enough provision of public seating for people to gather

Narrow streets to the north: There is poor visual permeability, with narrow streets and blank frontage creating a dark appearance and contributing towards a sense of danger.


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CONCEPT MAP

12

Octopus: Diffusing activity out from the centre to other parts of Hammersmith. Make the area accessible to all so that movement is not inhibited.

Removing Barrier of A4: Two-lane traffic will enable safer and quicker pedestrian crossings and reduce the negative environmental affects.

New Visual Axis: The removal of the flyover will enable people to see Furnival Gardens and the Thames from Kings Street. There will be visual permeability encouraging movement south.

Road Connections: New road connection can be realised, bridging the new two-lane road, north to south. This will enable more effective and efficient vehicular travel routes and reduce the reliance on gyratory.

Green Route A new green route and public space can be created in place of the A4. This relates back in history to the area before the A4 was built.

Pedestrian Walkway: The walkway will be a new defining feature of Hammersmith. It will add to the public realm and introduce interesting architecture into the area.

Defining Streets: Building houses along the node points will give the newly created streets/ road connections an edge and will provide natural surveillance to create a safe feel.

Kings Street: Kings Street will become one-way, with one-lane of traffic. Parking spaces will be displaced. The pavements will be widened and regulations will be introduced to address ad smog.

Citywide Interventions: Projects will focus on the pubic realm, with specific focus on civic areas i.e. Town Hall, Bus Station and spaces between buildings to make the built environment more pleasant.

Town Hall The Town Hall will be made accessible for all to use. This requires removing the stepped access and making the space lighter so it is open for all of the public to use and enjoy

Bus Station The bus station will be made smaller, with some stops spread to other locations, for example the new road in place of A4. The space will be well-designed and safe.

Courtyards The spaces between residential areas will be improved to encourage people to use them. This will include removing cars, introducing greenery and playspace.

Thames Activity The waterfront will be utilised to encourage activity. People will be attracted from the Town Centre to the Thames by some creative interventions including a floating market.

Stop Point The riverside access will be reconnected to allow for continuous access. This should be achieved through pulling the building line of the vacant site back when it is redeveloped.

Lyric Square Opportunities for sitting and socialising will be provided with strong edges and art to give the space presence to encourage people to use the space.

Narrow streets Car parking spaces on the narrow streets north and south of Kings Street will be removed to open the streets up. Trees will be planted, creating tree lined streets.


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TIMELINE

Destruction of Flyover & Creation of Pedestrian Bridge Local Gyratory Improvements Riverside Enhancements Green Route Development around Node Points Kings Street Enhancements Consrtuction and Opening of Public Buidlings and New Landmarks Desnsification and building of new neihbourhoods and residential dwellings in opportunity areas-in sequence of phasing Upgrade of bus station & Lyric Square Building employment floorspace

Potential diversion of north-south traffic

2015

2040 -

2020

2025

2030

A timeline for implementation of the vision. The darker the shade, the greater the importance of the change in implementing the vision

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2035


MASTERPLAN

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PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION

To Sepherd’s Bush Green

Ravenscourt Park

To Hyd

6

To Acton Green Common

5 1 2 7 Furnival Garden

Margravine Cemetry

4 To The Wet Land Centre

0

16

20

40

60

80

100m

To Bishop’s Park

3


This map shows that on a larger scale, Hammersmith is surrounded by green spaces that connect to various part of London (e.g. Shepperd’s Bush, Hyde Park, etc). At the moment, Hammersmith has some good pedestrian ways (examples below), however the north and south part is still “seperated” by the flyover. In order to reconnect that, it will be important for Hammresmith to integrate the pedestrian ways around its area, and disperse the “centralized” path from Broadway to other part of Hammersmith. 1

2

3

4

5

6

On a smaller scale, to connect and also integrate the pedestrian ways on the south and the north part of Hammersmith, a long green space will be introduced. It will also function as a new central place for various outdoor activities where people can visit and stop to. It starts from Furnival Gardens and ends at the Broadway Centre, where the car free area is proposed. The A4 width will be reduced to two lanes, serving only those who have destination around Hammersmith area. (The fly over is assumed to have converted into fly under)

de Park

7 Flyover Pedestrian ways

Method: Observation

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A4 | PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY

Pedestrian Walkway Removing unpleasant dark space under the flyover by conversion of a section of the flyover to pedestrian path. It will lighten the space for people to enjoy and provide a better quality public realm.

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Maintaining the Basic Structure Leaving primary structure of the overpass as a symbol of a previous stage. Providing a link back to the structures history.

Scenic Route for Pedestrians A4 environment is transformed. It will provide visual permeability to each side of the structure and will connect the local green spaces within the Borough.


Removing A4 as a barrier Pedestrian view path Pedestrian green zone underneath fly over 19


NEW PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

Park in Place of A4

Keeping Edges of the Street

Highlighting the Pedestrian Path

Restoration of the historic park as green connection from the centre of the Hammersmith to the river

New building will give the street an edge and provide natural surveillance. New surfacing will slow traffic and indicate a shared surface for both pedestrians and vehicles.

The pedestrian path is emphasised and prioritised through this proposal, as shown in the sketch below:

Buildings keep the edge of the street and shape a gate for the park Crossings cover the road 20


Removing A4 as a barrier Retaining only 2 traffic lanes Interconnection of roads Extension of the street Highlights the pedestrian path through the park 21


ACTIVATING THE THAMES

Idea 1 - Floating Market & Waterside Activities An extension of the pontoon, and more effective use of the mooring space will enable a Floating Market and Riverside recreational activities and watersports. A creative project that will attract people to the River and to Hammersmith. A new landmark.

Idea 2 - Merging Riverside Access The Riverside Walk will be connected from the east to the west so pedestrians will not have to break their journey. The space will be amenable to gathering, people can sit outside on outdoor furniture underneath awnings and enjoy the riverside setting.

Encouraging two-way pedestrian movement from the Thames to Town Centre Visual permeability to the Thames and waterfront Promoting activity through interventions such as river access and floating markets 22


FLOATING MARKET

Access for ships and river bus stop for local public transport

Floating market in South East Asia

Garden pontoon in Paris

The new pontoon will be occupied by river boats that will offer a range of experiences; from a floating green space, to boats selling crafts, to those selling pop-up, organic foods fresh from the local area, to bars. The area will be vibrant and in use throughout the day, and the week. This proposal has taken inspiration from our the world, notably in South East Asia where there are fertile grounds for socialising and the economy. The aim is to attract people from across London, the market may become part of the well-known and well-visited markets across London that have a strong identity. The proximity of Portobello Road market will enable people to visit both in a day. The sketch below shows a potential mind-map, following Kevin Lynch’s (1960) Image of the City.

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FLOATING MARKET

Problem: Lack of activity on the waterfront; a under utilised resource. Not enough of a draw to bring people to waterfront. Section of the Thames not well known across London. Vision: Floating market will be off the pier/pontoons. It is flexible for a range of activties and uses that can change daily and weekly, maintaining the vibrancy and excitement of the project. The ‘Whats On’ billboard above is an example of what can be used to promote the programmed and themed events/shops/uses. There is the option of introducing a river boat crossing from Hammersmith south to Putney/Barnes, which currently suffers a poor connection.

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The site has been vacant for a long period of time, presenting a redevelopment opportunity. Through development of the site, the building footprint would be shifted backwards to connect the riverside pathway from east to west. The rear of the development that faces the Thames would have active frontage with a cafe/restaurant use for people to casually sit, socialise, eat and drink next to the River. The architecture of the building will positively contribute to the public realm, and will provide an attractive setting that people will enjoy. It has the potential to become a local landmark. The connected riverside pathway will encourage people into Furnival Gardens and provide visual permeability and a sightline. This will add to the sense of security and contribute to the liveliness of the space. Addressing the problems highlighted of under-use of the green space.

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LOCAL TRAFFIC

Vehicular Route Cycke Route Pedestrian Route Additional Bus Stop

The traffic on the local road network,notably the gyratory is equally as problematic as the flyover; it is therefore important that the vision presents a viable solution to address problems of congestion, noise, speed and pollution.

New East-West Connections Current one-way routes returning to two-way traffic Two-lane route to one-lane route

The gyratory in the Town Centre will be reverted to two-way traffic, that will calm the traffic. A pedestrianised area , with bicycle access will be created as a result to the south of the Broadway centre. This will provide a gateway to the green route, the Thames and St.Pauls Church. Access will also be improved, with the metal fences being removed that has blocked movement.

Cycle-only route

Sustainable transport will be promoted, through the incorporation of dedicated cycle lanes and additional bus stops and routes. 27


PARKING

Option 1 : Overground Car Parking

- Not enough greenery - Parking are less organized - Not a pleasant place for residents 28

Option 2 : Underground Car Parking


Example 1

Additional car parking capacity is required as it is being displaced elsewhere within the area, therefore it should be reprovided. It will also generate money from parking tickets once the costs have been offset, which will be received by the Council that they could reinvest in the area. Option 1 The three storey car park is the fastest and cheapest solution. It would have a less adverse environmental impact and could incorporate a green leaf cover for the facade (ex.1), and semi-transparent cloth made of sustainably-manufactured fibres, which maximizes visibility inside the garage and provides a view of the surroundings, for the exterior. This would ensure that it was visually sensitive to nearby residents.

Example 2

Option 2 The underground car parking would be more beneficial in the long term in regards to visual amenity and sensitivity. It would however require a greater investment and would take longer to deliver.

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BUS STATION

30


Problem Given the existing condition, the bus station is located behind the Broadway Centre, and is mostly covered in cement/pavement. The bus station is vast, ill-defined and underused. This will be reinforced in future when the proposed gyratory is implemented and buses can stop in more locations. Facilities are poor at the bus station, there is little shelter for bus users and little surveillance. Vision To make the bus station more resilient (adaptive to certain changes in the future), the bus station must have a flexible function. The proposed idea is to introduce greenery to not only give space for other activities but also to reduce the hard and rigid feeling of the cemented surface. Moreover, adding a better shelter for the passenger to wait for the bus will also be a consideration. Inspiration Hypar Pavilion in Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, New York, (by architects Diller Scofidio + Renfro with FXFOWLE). The green rooftop can be used for people either to relax or to wait for their bus, and the room below will be used as a waiting room and a place to get refreshments. The facade of the Broadway will also be changed either into a green wall or a mural, or can be both (choices are given to the community to decide). These changes will make the bus station to be more on a human scale, and make it a pleasant environment for users, of which caters to their needs of greenery, comfort and shelter.

Introducing green space for people to enjoy Adding shelter for passengers Changing the Broadway Centre wall facade (green wall or mural)

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32


PUBLIC REALM

0

20

40

60

80

100m

33


KINGS STREET

Kings Street - is the High Street in Hammersmith and is heavily used in the context of the area, due to the concentration of different shops and the shopping centres – Kings Mall and the Broadway Centre. However, the road is too wide, and dominated by cars subordinating pedestrians. We suggest reducing the width of the road, to one-way, on-lane traffic, which will also seek to slow cars. The pavement can be expanded to make it more walkable and pleasant for pedestrians rather than for cars. The displacement of car parking spaces on Kings street, however, would be reprovided by building new car park near the Town Hall.

Solution - the expansion of Kings street

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Not broad enough to accommodate large number of people Not pleasant for pedestrians A large number of cars Not enough trees

Broad, walkable street More trees Less cars

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LYRIC SQUARE

Lyric square is one of the few public spaces in Hammersmith, but it suffers from homogeneity and lack of good quality relaxing facilities, so the main objective is to enhance its attractiveness, however enabling flexibility of change by users of the space. Our proposal is to change the surface of the square both in terms of colour and material, and add more sitting facilities, which will bring vitality and attractiveness to the place. First object is a bench-transformer, where on one side people can sit, but on the other side it smoothly passes into the cover of surface, thereby defining the area. Also there will be stepped platform which also can be transformed and used for different purposes as a bench or as a little arena for presentations. This object can be moved around and not block the movement for passing pedestrians, which are usually held at the edges. It also leaves space for open-air movie/sports presentations and different fairs, popular in this place. Lack of good quality relaxing facilities Homogeneity Not enough trees

36

More relaxing facilities More attractive and bright place More trees

It is therefore conducive to pop-up urbanism.


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TOWN HALL

DEFINE THE ARCHITECTURE CONNECTION between old and new building

38

REOPENING of the ground floor


Re-open up ground floor Remove barriers: railing - garden bed Transform stairs into ramps Scale the building smaller by adding trees 39


COURTYARD

Not landscaped enough Used predominantly for car parking Not used by near residents Not pleasant place 40

To transform it to a more pleasant place, to allow nearby residents to enjoy the space The displacement of car parking spaces here would also be re-provided in a new car park


41


HOUSING DELIVERY Hammersmith has a very high Public Transport Accessibility Level (PTAL) with the highest levels of 6a and 6b; it can therefore support a greater density of residential buildings. Current the density is relatively low for areas of similar PTAL levels. The adjacent map shows the opportunity areas highlighted for housing. This is where new housing growth will be concentrated. This follows the current London Plan (2011). The increase in density will enable a wider range of housing to be provided, with ranges in size and price. More people in the area will ensure that mixed uses can be supported, and will create a more active public realm that is safe (Jacobs, 1961). Kings Street is low density, with building rising to roughly 3 storeys. It has potential to densify; this would give the street more presence and signifiy a main pedestrian route. It could rise to 5-6 storeys in parts, then height of buildings would fall to the north and south of the High Street. Housing is a key political issue, and there is a housing shortage which has led to strict housing targets for areas to meet. The vision to deliver housing would therefore be supported politically and contribute to London’s demand.

Opportunity Area

The housing development is split into phases, whereby it will be delivered at different times. Phase 1 is the housing that will be built around the nodes; this will be triggered by the completion of the green route. It will help finance the green route and make it viable as the land has a high value.

PHASE 3

Phase 2 is the development of the vacant site on the waterfront. It is important to deliver this early as it will reconnect the Thames riverside pathway, key in the vision to activating the Thames. PHASE 1

PHASE 4

Phase 3 is the densification of the high street, up to building heights of 5-6 storeys, this will form a component of residential dwellings. This will important in contributing to the vitality of the High Street. Phase 4 will be the last phase of housing delivery as it is triggered by the completion of the retained part of the flyover that will be transformed into a pedestrian walkway and the upgrade of the public realm below. Greater housing density will provide natural surveillance and create a safer and more vibrant feel to the locality. It will no longer suffer adverse environmental effects as there will be no traffic in this part, only cyclists and pedestrians.

PHASE 2 Housing Phasing 42


ECONOMIC VIABILITY

Destruction of Flyover & Creation of Pedestrian Bridge Local Gyratory Improvements Riverside Enhancements Green Route Development around Node Points Kings Street Enhancements Consrtuction and Opening of Public Buidlings and New Landmarks Desnsification and building of new neihbourhoods and residential dwellings in opportunity areas-in sequence of phasing Upgrade of bus station & Lyric Square Building employment floorspace

Potential diversion of north-south traffic

2015

2040 -

2020

2025

The public sector is key in facilitating the environment upon which the vision can be achieved; the public sector, forming the Local Boroughs, the GLA, and Government will be deconstructing the A4/Flyover; reconfiguring the gyratory to allow two-way traffic, and narrowing the road along Kings Street to allow for one-way traffic. These two big projects will then release public land that can be developed, which will part finance the works. On the public land released from the flyover, a green route can be created, with two node points where housing will be built to finance the route, and contribute towards the cost of the new pedestrian bridge. The investment will create a multiplier effect and generate interest and investment from the private sector. Private companies may choose to locate in Hammersmith, and consumers will arrive. House builders will arrive as they see the value of plots increasing and deliver housing.

2030

2035

This multiplier effect will then help to fund local improvements such as the Town Hall frontage, Lyric Square and the Bus Stop. The floating market can be funded by planning gain receipts and Section 106 monies. It will generate income as traders will pay a rent to trade at the market and the river bus will also pay rates. There is flexibility in the proposals, with projects being able to be modified, or brought forward or backwards as appropriate in the programme above. With initial public sector investment, private sector investment will increase and take over. It will attract the consumer and house buyer who will then spend more money, which will help to maintain the area and public realm.

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CONCLUSION THE THAMES

GREEN PATH PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION

A4 | PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY

Pros • Generous, diverse and innovative public realms

NEW PEDESTRIAN CROSSING

Cons • Financial cost of retaining and reinventing the section of the flyover • Pedestrian walkway does not give equal accessibility and does not provide a strategic route

ACTIVATING THE THAMES

FLOATING MARKET

Pros • Encourages people from Town Centre to waterfront

• Bridge and green route new landmarks that will attract people towards the south of the area; and people from London to Hammersmith to experience interventions. • Bridge and green route both are a link and a • Losing potential development sites for the proposed reminder to the history of Hammersmith green path

• The floating market creates a unique destination for London • Building on Hammersmith’s historic identity as a harbour town

TRANSPORT

HOUSING & PHASING

LOCAL TRAFFIC

PARKING

BUS STATION

HOUSING DELIVERY

THAMES

Cons • Floating market may not attract large number of people throughout the week • Floating market needs to attract seller and water bus services to succeed • Reconnecting riverside path dependent upon site being redeveloped and developer being amendable to change.

ECONOMIC VIABILITY Destruction of Flyover & Creation of Pedestrian Bridge Local Gyratory Improvements Riverside Enhancements Green Route Development around Node Points Kings Street Enhancements Consrtuction and Opening of Public Buidlings and New Landmarks Desnsification and building of new neihbourhoods and residential dwellings in opportunity areas-in sequence of phasing Upgrade of bus station & Lyric Square Building employment floorspace

Potential diversion of north-south traffic

2015

2040 -

Vehicular Route Cycke Route

2020

Pedestrian Route Additional Bus Stop

Pros • Improvement to gyratory will open up the public realm to the south of Broadway Centre, with pedestrian and cyclist entry only, Connection to green route and Thames. • Enables one-lane traffic down Kings Street, and additional bus stops, with an improved bus station • Moving parking off the street will give more space to the public realm, and car parks will generate an income and discourage people from parking. 44

Cons • Gyratory proposal could increase the chance of congestion around the Broadway Centre.

• Negative amenity impact on neighbouring residents to the car park may block light into homes • There may be a requirement for additional infrastructure in the future to deal with traffic flows i.e. a north-south flyunder -dependent upon traffic flows.

2025

2030

2035

Pros

Cons

• Increase in housing will respond to London wide need and will cater for a range of people with a variety of housing typologies and prices • Housing will contribute to the area’s vitality and support mixed uses. • The proposals will be delivered by both the public and private sector, making the projects resilient to changing circumstances and flexible for implementation.

• Current residents may be resistant to house building, which may delay or alter the proposals for housing. • Some of the proposals are dependent upon private sector investment, of which is not guaranteed. • Multiplier effect is difficult to quantify


PUBLIC REALM GENERAL SCHEME

KINGS STREET

LYRIC SQUARE

Pros • Addressing deficiencies in public space in regards to comfort, greenery, amenities and micro design • Connecting the green spaces across the locality • Making the public realms accessible for all to use and enjoy

TOWN HALL

COURTYARD

Cons • Maintenance will determine the success in the long term of the spaces • The publicness of the public realm may be threatened by privatization by private developers. • Ensuring there is enough money to design the projects, and ensuring that they are adaptable by the communities going into the future.

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BEFORE - 2014

46


2034 - AFTER

47


48


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books Alexander, C (1987) A New Theory of Urban Design, Oxford University Press, Oxford Banerjee, T (2001) The future of public space: Beyond invented streets and reinvented places, APA Journal, 67(1) 9-24 Carmona et al (2010) Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban Design, Routledge, London Gehl, J (1971) Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space, Arkitektens Forlag, Skive Hillier et al (1993) ‘Natural Movement: Or configuration and attraction in urban pedestrian movement’ Environment and Planning 20, 29-66 Jacobs, J (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities: The Failure of Modern Town Planning, Peregrine Books, London Lynch, K (1960) The Image of the City, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass Newman, O (1973) Defensible Space: People and Design in the Violent City, Architectural Press, London Web Archdaily 2010, ‘Hypar Pavilion / Diller Scofidio + Renfro with FXFowle’, guide to copyright, Archdaily Selected Works, viewed 04 December 2014, http://www.archdaily.com/94493/hypar-pavilion-diller-scofidiorenfro-with-fxfowle/ Ewing, R 2013, ‘Eight Qualities of Pedestrian- and Transit-Oriented Design’, Urban Land: The Magazine of The Urban Land Institute viewed 04 December 2014, http://urbanland.uli.org/capital-markets/eight-qualities-of-pedestrian-andtransit-oriented-design/

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CONTRIBUTION SHEET SARAH BIRT : - FOREWORD - VISION - THE THAMES ACTIVATING THE THAMES FLOATING MARKET - TRANSPORT LOCAL TRAFFIC - HOUSING AND PHASING HOUSING DELIVERY ECONOMIC PHASING

PAVLA ENOCHOVA : - CONCEPT SCHEMES - PROBLEM MAP - CONCEPT MAP - MASTER PLAN -GREEN PATH A4 | PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY NEW PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION - PUBLIC REALM TOWN HALL

- CONCLUSION

- BEFORE AND AFTER (2014 & 2034)

MOHAMMAD PRADANA : - EDITORIAL - TABLE OF CONTENTS

BOTAGOZ ZHUMABEKOVA : - TRANSPORT PARKING

- GREEN PATH PEDESTRIAN CONNECTION

- PUBLIC REALM GENERAL SCHEME KINGS STREET LYRIC SQUARE COURTYARD

- TRANSPORT BUS STATION - CONCLUSION

Hammersmith  

December 2014 - group project

Hammersmith  

December 2014 - group project

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