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University of Strathclyde Department of Architecture



University of Strathclyde Bsc Architectural Studies Dissertation Studies Supervisor: Dr Cristian Suau Student: Paulina Narusevicute Reg.No. 200943370

April 2014


Declaration AB 420 Dissertation 2013/14 BSc Honours Architectural Studies BSc Honours Architectural Studies with International Study Pg Diploma in Architectural Studies

Declaration “I hereby declare that this dissertation submission is my own work and has been composed by myself. It contains no unacknowledged text and has not been submitted in any previous context. All quotations have been distinguished by quotation marks and all sources of information, text, illustration, tables, images etc. have been specifically acknowledged. I accept that if having signed this Declaration my work should be found at Examination to show evidence of academic dishonesty the work will fail and I will be liable to face the University Senate Discipline Committee.�







Department of Architecture 131 ROTTENROW Glasgow G4 0NG

t:+ 44 (0) 141 548 3023/4219 f:+ 44 (0) 141 552 3997 e:

Head of Department: Professor Sergio Porta PhD

The place of useful learning The University of Strathclyde is a charitable body, registered in Scotland, number SC015263



Fig 1 Kaunas from bird’s eye (Lebekauskas, P.,2012)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am particular gratefull for the assistance given by my dissertation supervisor Dr Cristian Suau and Jacqueline Lister. Also would like to thank my father architect Paulius Narusevicius for his support and help providing me with valuable information sources . Furthermore, I wish to acknowledge the help provided by Zilvinas Sirka, Dominykas Orda and Simas Zabulionis who agreed to share their valuable experience developing the temporary use strategies with me.




Department of Statistics of Lithuania: (2013)

Fig 2 Kaunas location (Author’s image)





Refere to: :


Abstract Kaunas is the second largest city in Lithuania. Due to its central geographical location, the city became an important industrial, cultural and transport hub. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kaunas has suffered the effects of privatisation and deindustrialisation. The latter influenced the closure of its factories and left large swathes of land unused. The arrival of shopping malls, took away much of the business from Kaunas’ main street- Liberty Avenue. Temporary use as a tool to catalyse urban development was picked based on the success of examples throughout Europe. In the 21st century many European urban planning authorities are facing the same issues and encountering difficulties in their work to revitalize and redevelop areas affected by industrial restructuring. Therefore, they tend more often to consider temporary use as the way to regenerate derelict sites and abandoned spaces within the city. Berlin and Amsterdam are exemplary cities which have introduced temporary planning to planning legislation authorities already and are trying to make them work together. Local governments of many cities in the UK have started to open up possibilities for more loose planning visions and design frameworks which bring prospects for

new businesses and creative milieus to evolve. This dissertation consists of three chapters which will help to depict the advantages and development of interim use and flexible planning. The first chapter will introduce the reader to the urban problems which prevent interim use in Kaunas and define typologies of disused spaces. The following chapters aim to describe and define the design tactics for temporary use derived from 1960s utopias and evaluate the systematic strategies used to connect and reactivate disused spaces. The final chapter provides recommendations for what Kaunas could learn from existing case studies as well as how other cities make use of disused space for their benefit and what is important in order to implement temporary use successfully. Furthermore, this chapter indicates the operational system of “the temporary business� in the city and its incorporation methods within the certain areas . Overall, this research proves that collaboration among all parties is essential and that the 21st century challenges the very role of architects, politicians and citizens .



Fig 4 Green space lacking of usage. Ĺ ilainiai- residential microdistrict (North East Kaunas) .( image created using, 2014 )


Abstract........................................................ .11 Content......................................................... .13 Image Index.................................................. .14 Introduction.................................................. .18 Personal motivation..................................... .21 Problem definition........................................ .22 Field of research and resources.22 Methodology................................................ .23 Aims and goals............................................. .23 1. Argument: Kaunas -land of possibilities? Introduction to Kaunas temporary use: Restrictions and initiatives 1.1 Historical background: who owns the land?..................................... .24 1.1.1 Case:Fluxus Ministry ........................ 34 1.1.2 Case: Insanitus laboratory................ 36 1.4 Problem.................................................. 36 2.From utopia in 1960s to user- led renaissance in XXIst century: 2.1 Plug-in/Clip-on ..................................... 38 2.1.1 Cedric Price “Fun Palace’’ ................. .42 2.1.2 Raumlabor “House of Contamination” .......................... 45 2.2 Cellular Aglomerates ............................ 47 2.2.1 Yona Friedman ‘Mobile architecture”.................................... 47 2.2.2 Q&A “Temporary Containers City”...... 47 2.3 Pneumatic structures/Containers........ 49 2.3.1 Haus-Rucker-Co ‘‘Oase No. 7’’.......... 49 2.3.2 Raumlabor “Spacebuster”.................. 49 2.4 Game as a design Strategy................... 53 2.4.1 Situationism........................................ 53 2.4.2 Case:”Play The City”, Netherlands..... 55

3. Creating the system of ‘temporary’.Case Studies : 3.1.Temporary Use as catalyst for urban development.................................................. 61 3.2 Stalled Spaces,Glasgow......................... 61 3.2.1Mobileland, Glasgow, ........................... 63 3.3 Coopolis, Berlin, Germany....................... 65 3.4 NDSM Wharf Amsterdam....................... 69 3.5 Holzmarkt (Berlin, Germany).................. 71 3.6 Evaluation: Designing ‘‘perfect’’ system......................... 73 3.6.1 Space Usage........................................ 73 3.6.2 Affordability.......................................... 73 3.6.3 Location................................................ 75 4.Conclusions: Recommendations and Design Game Plan 4.1 Advantages............................................. 78 4.2 Raising Awareness.................................. 78 4.3 Densification .......................................... 78 4.4 Diversification......................................... 79 4.5 Digital Urbanity- public participation and activation ...................................................... 79 5.Appendix 5.1 View of the temporary use developer.... 87 5.2 Bibliography............................................ 88


IMAGE INDEX Cover image- Kaunas from birds eye, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 1- Kaunas from bird’s eye, Lebekauskas, P. 2013 FIG 2 -Kaunas location , Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 3 -Urban Vacancies, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 4-Green space lacking of usage. Šilainiai- residential microdistrict (North East Kaunas) . ( Image created using, [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 5- World cloud “ Popularity of temporariness in Google, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 6- Proposal of ex-polytechnic institute backyard as event space, Naruseviciute, P. , Petruskeviciute, L. 2013 FIG 7-Map of abandoned buildings created according “Catch the Ghost” list made after the social action inviting peope to record abandoned buildings in Kaunas (2012 ) , Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, Detailed map available at : FIG 8-Map of disused shops in Liberty Avenue, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 9-Final proposal of the “Britanika” hotel. Picture from A. Paulauskas personal archive Available at [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 10-, 2012. Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 11-Proposal model of hotel “Respublika”, magazine “Statyba ir Architektura”No. 5., p. 27,1990 Also available at : =&oe=&om=&su=&at=&ar=&ow=&style=&location=&type=1&rt=3&id=585 [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 12 - “Respublika” hotel today , Garkauskas, P. (2013) Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 13- Typologies of disused spaces in Kaunas, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 14 -Fluxus Ministry situated on the edge of the oldtown at the disused ‘‘Lituanica’’ shoe factory, Fluxus Ministry organisators’ photo. 2012 [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 15-Fluxus Ministry Schematic Layout, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 16 -Fluxus Ministry organisators’ photo, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 17-Fluxus Ministry organisators’ photo, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 18- Video Mapping on Lituanica Factory , Sakalauskas, R. 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 19-„Little boxes“ interactive video installation by Begona M Santiago and Pavel Karafiát , Meno Propaganda, 2013 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 20-Courtesy Meno Propaganda, 2013 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 21 -Insanitus 2013 located in the disused shop on Liberty Avenue. Ovcarenko, E. 2013 Available at: FIG 22-1960s [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 22- 1960’s Design tactics, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 23-Relationship diagram: from utopias to practices, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, Created according the website: (Accessed at 05 March 2014) and book Awan,N. ,Scneider,T. and Till, J.(2011) Spatial Agency Other Ways Of Doing Architecture.London and New York: Routledge FIG 24-Information brochure for the Fun Palace Project, 1964 (In: Pask Present, ed. Ranulph Glanville, Wien: edition echoraum, 2008) FIG 25-Canadian Center for Architecture collection and archive, 1964 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 26-Raumlabor, 2010 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 27-Raumlabor, 2010 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 28-Raumlabor, 2010 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 29-Q+A, 2012


Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 30-Q+A,, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 31-Q+A,, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 32-Friedman, Y., 1953-1958 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 33-Haus-Rucker, co , Taken from Architect’s website Available at: site=ortner [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 34-Le Lait, Albi, Haus-Rucker-Co,1968 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 35-Das Kuechen Monument , Raumlabor, 2006 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 36-Das Kuechen Monument, Raumlabor, 2006 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 37-Hovercraft – Lifting Modernism, Raumlabor, 2008 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 38-Hovercraft – Lifting Modernism, Raumlabor, 2008 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 39-MVRDV website Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 40-Michael Webb, Cushicle, 1966 Available at: FIG 48-Le Lait, Albi, Haus-Rucker-Co,1968 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 41-Le Lait, Albi, Haus-Rucker-Co,1968 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 42-Ant Farm, Pillow, 1970 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 43-Ark-Nova, Anish Kapoor, 2012, Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 44-Living Pod, Greene,D. 1966 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 45-Ben Rose, 1968 (Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 46-Clean Air Pod, Ant Farm, 1970 , Lord, C. 1970 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 47-Haus-Rucker, co , Taken from Architect’s website Available at: site=ortner [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 48- Rakowitz, M., Freid, L. 2000 (Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 49-Raumlabor, Das Kuechen Monument, 2006 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 50-Plastique Fantastique , The Gordon Project , 2014 , Taken from architect’s website [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 51- Plug-In city, Archigram 1964. Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 52- Situation Room, Hackitektura, 2010 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 53-EXYST, Palace, 2011 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 54-Limousine Service, Raumlabor, 2012 FIG 55-Cedric Price, “Fun Palace, 1964 , Canadian Center for Architecture collection and archive, 1964 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 56-Mobile Theatre, Roberts, P.N.,1973 [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 57-NDSM Wharf, 2006


Available at: FIG 58-Raumlabor, 2010 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 59-esterni + atrium abandoned bridge urban intervention, 2013 , Atrium studio,2013 Availale at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 60-Döring, D. Stacked cells,1969 Kaltenbach, F. 2012 Available at: html [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 61-Shigeru Ban, Nomadic Museum, 2005., Shigeru Ban, 2005 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 62-Raumlabor Emma,2012, Raumlabor, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 63-Friedman, Y. Mobile architecture, 1956, Friedman, Y. 1956 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 64-CAT ,1973, Site offices (caravans sprayed with insulation) (Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 65-Cirugeda,S. Spiders, 2008, Cirugeda. S. 2008 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 66- Temporary Containers City, Q+A, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 67-EXYST, Reunion public house, 2012, EXYST, 2012 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 68-Diagram of temporary use integration, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, Recreated from Perkovc, J. (2013) RETHINKING THE IN- FLEXIBLE CITY:what can Australian planning learn from successful implementation of ‘temporary uses’ across the world?” Master of Urban Design Research Thesis; University of Melbourne Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] Fig 69-Stalled spaces operation diagram,Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 70-Mobile Lands, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014 FIG 71-Mobile Lands, Naruseviciute,P and Pastrana,E. 2014 FIG 72-Coopolis operation diagram , Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 73-Print Screen Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 74- KaufHaus am Park , Coopolis, 2013 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] Fig 75-NDSM operation diagram, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, Fig 76- NDSM Wharf organisational diagram, Stealth group 2003 Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 77- NDSM Wharf organisator’s image Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 78-NDSM Wharf organisator’s image Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 79-NDSM Wharf organisator’s image Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 80-NDSM Wharf organisator’s image [Accessed : 07 April 2014] FIG 81- Graph evaluating the cost of the NDSM Wharf, Temporary Use agency and Stalled Spaces projects (Autor’s image) Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 82-Graph evaluating the affordability of the NDSM Wharf, Temporary Use agency and Stalled Spaces projects Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image) 2014, FIG 83-Maps showing the area usages of one of Stalled spaces project (Mobile Lands) , NDSM Wharf and ZNA locations, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 84- Comparison of land area and population in analysed cities,Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 85-Temporary use operation diagram, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 86-Design tactics define the method of placing temporary use system, Naruseviciute, P. (Author’s image), 2014, FIG 87-Nul Zes Studio in Eindhoven., Zabulionis, M., 2013




+ motivation? + the problem? + field of research and resources? + methodology? + Aims and goals?


FIG 5 World cloud “ Popularity of temporariness in Google (Author’s image)


Introduction 20

Fig 6. Proposal of ex-polytechnic institute backyard as event space, Naruseviciute,P. ,Petruskeviciute, L. 2013

Personal Motivation

The idea of this dissertation topic was generated during the International Kaunas Architecture festival in which I and my friend ( under the name of ‘‘Urban Re-start’ ) took park last autumn (2013). The goal of the festival was to bring architecture to the open discussion questionning the new building design in preserved city centre where architecture has not changed for many years and has historical and spiritual importance. The task for the architects and students was to pick the ‘sick’ (’ eyesore’ ) building in the city centre and ‘cure’ it using either architectural design or urban design methods. Kaunas city centre as many European cities has the similar problem of many empty shops, courtyards, ‘dead’ squares and residential spaces. Some of them haven’t been touched for many years and the view now retains the sad face of the city centre. However, in our team opinion, changing the facade is not the major ‘medicine’ as it acts more as a make up for the person in coma. Thus, our project concentrated developing an independent incubator for young creative experimental business, art projects and teaching facilities to raise awareness of sustainable living and promote temporary use. All works were presented in front of the chosen ‘eyesore’ building to encourage public discussions. Also public had a right to vote for their favourite project. We were glad to hear that our project came up 3rd among 27 projects. This shows that there is an interest and the need for temporary use which encouraged me to continue the research in this subject. Our incubator was just a quick idea of how we would like to see the building used but during this dissertation I would like to explore “bottom up” urbanism strategies throughout the Europe and come up with the recommendation for Kaunas city.

More information about the festival is available at: (Accessed 04.03.2014)

Introduction 21

Problem Definition Many European and North American cities have suffered decay, either because of industrial restructuration or collapse of political regimes. Eastern Europe is one of the example. The collapse of the Soviet Union in the 1990s had an enormous impact on cities’ development. The loss of traditional industries such as mining, textiles and engineering has created vast areas of vacant land. Most traditional ports now have large areas of land lying unused, often close to the city centre, as the increasing use of containers and larger shipping has shifted such operations downstream. Elsewhere suburbanisation and out of town shopping have created a force that has eroded the uses and economic rationale that once held many city centres together .[1] Kaunas which is the second biggest Lithuanian city is facing the same problem. Privatisation and deindustrialisation came as a consequence of Soviet Union Collapse. Many derelict factories scattered around and within the city. Two multistory unfinished hotels situated on the best sites of Kaunas city centre laying abandoned already for 26 years[2] (Refer to Fig 7 -Fig 10, pp.26-28). Due to expansion of big shopping centres network, retail has moved out of the main street leaving vacant shop units. Although, even though spaces is laying unused for a long period, price of the rent remain high (around 6000 Lt per 100 m2 monthly)[3]. Such rent requires secure and profitable business ideas. Temporary use at the moment is just few individual actions and is often overlooked by authorities perceiving it as a non-profitable activity with no economic impact to the city. Field of research and resources The research in urban tactics, architecture, art, business management and politics was used to cover the topic and base the hypothesis ”urban vacancy- opportunity for green economies’’. As well as that temporary use is the catalyst of urban development, where disused space

Introduction 22

1 Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams, The Temporary City. (London and New York: Routledge, 2012) p.24 2 Hotel ‘Republic” history available at Lithuanian architecture association website: [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

acts as a ground for activities and land of experimentation. Main questions: +Why does the land lay unused in Kaunas? +What are hurdles of temporary use development in Kaunas? +Where can temporary use be applied? What type of temporary use is best for certain type of spaces. +What is temporary design and its tactics ? +What benefits does temporary use bring? +What can Kaunas learn from other countries examples and how these examples can be improved? In order to answer these questions the research into these fields is required: +Historical background and political circumstances in Kaunas +Temporary use developer experience. +Disused space types. Critical evaluation of case studies and types of spaces they occupy. +Temporary design examples. +Successful temporary use examples around the Europe. Their strategies and critical evaluation in order to write recommendations. The first Chapter will give a historical background and reasons behind abandoned spaces in Kaunas as well as introduce the common typologies of the disused spaces. Furthermore, the Chapter will look at several temporary use practices: how they work and what can be improved when developing interim use in the city. The information used was collected by questionnaires send out to the managers who agreed to share their experience. Fluxus Ministry and Insanitus were picked as their initiatives encourage to use abandoned or disused buildings. Second Chapter ‘From utopia to user led renaissance in XXIst century” introduces the reader to the 1960’s theories which put the emphasis on playfulness in the city and inventive

strategies in city’s exploration. The chapter gives an insight of what were utopian ideas and what temporary design tactics they define. The examples of contemporary practices’ projects will illustrate the tactics. Overall, the goal of chapter 2 is to challenge different thinking and perception of space as well as nowadays architect’s role. Chapter 3- ‘‘Case Studies’’ presents the examples of temporary use systems throughout the Europe which are dealing with empty shops, vacant land and derelict buildings. Also it looks at Holzmarkt temporary use masterplan which due to be finished in 2014. The goal of the Chapter is to evaluate the systems in terms of affordability, usage and location in order to consider advantages and disadvantages of each of them and find broader range of places their tactics could be applied. ‘Systematic’ cases were picked as the most successful examples around the Europe which got out of being single actions and became systems which takes temporary use to another level. Chapter 4 ‘Application and Strategy’ concludes the dissertation with the recommendations and diagrams which indicates the operational system of the Temporary Practice in the city and its incorporation methods within the certain areas . Aims and Goals The main goal of this dissertation was to analyse the working systems and make critical evaluation which is the base for recommendations. Furthermore, behind the analysis of temporary use designs and strategies the aim was to develop the prototype which could be placed according the typologies of the disused spaces. However, this part requires further research in local planning system and deeper investigation of the certain typologies.

Methodology Literature, Journals, Inter- net resources and Case Studies

Literature review and Case Studies are basic tools to understand the historical and contemporary context of the project. As first chapter mainly explores theory and history of the city, books, journals and online resources review were used. Literature is the main source for finding definitions of theories and exploring what was already done towards temporary use implementation. Case Studies help to understand existing context and patterns from which evaluation, further questions and ideas arise. Mapping/ creation of map in Google map

I use mapping as a tool to create both visual and practical information source. Abandoned buildings were mapped on Google maps according to the list by “United Kaunas” organisation and is made available to public. Site visits and Photographing

As I am familiar with all three cities I have a set of photographs related to gap sites and temporary uses as well as ‘Mobileland’ is a continuous project which I am working and is a hand on experience of temporary use implementation in Glasgow. Questionnaire/ Interview

Existing temporary use developers in Kaunas city were contacted. As well as original photographs and story was supplied by Nul Zes studio in Eindhoven. Comparisons Conclusions


Every Chapter will have a conclusion or recipe which will sum up the main idea.

Introduction 23

CHAPTER 1 [ARGUMENT: Kaunas- Land of opportunities?] +who owns the land? Does privatisation stop temporary use in Kaunas? + what influenced the decay of the city? + what are existing temporary uses? + is there a support for temporary use? who is supporting? + what prevents temporary use development in the city? + are there any plans for vacant spaces?


“Privatisation messed up the transport system development even more (if there was one at all). I was working at the municipality during privatisation. We had old plans of Liberty Avenue created during presidency of Smetona and tried to explain that privatisation of the courtyard spaces cannot be allowed. Despite this, the letter was released by that time Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius, which was telling that all attempts to forbid privatisation would be kept as sabotage and the urgent deadline for privatisation was indicated in the letter. Viability of the resources of Liberty avenue is hidden in the courtyards. But how is it possible to up-heave these reserves when there are 150 owners with microscopic interests?” (Architect Audrys Karalius;2008) ”One signifier of degraded blood is the lack of blood cells. Liberty Avenue must have a balanced range of activities including offices, entertainment, and shopping. Residents must find peaceful rest and islets. In order to regenerate Liberty alley’s vital functions, not one place (cell) needs to be revitalised but an integrated approach should be found.” (Lithuanian Real Estate Development Association Board Member Arvydas Žilevičius;2008)

Arūnas Dambrauskas “Daktarų pasitarimas: kaip padėti sunkiam Kauno ligoniui – Laisvės alėjai” (en. “Doctors conference: How to help serious patient- Liberty Avenue?’ (News portal- “Lietuvos rytas” (Section: Aktualijos) 04 October 2008 Available at : [Accessed : 07 April 2014]


? Fig 7 Final proposal of the hotel. Picture from A. Paulauskas personal archive

Chapter 1 26

Fig 8 ‘‘Britanica” hotel today (Image by , 2012)

CHAPTER 1 1.1 WHO OWNS THE LAND? In 2012 Municipality of Kaunas announced the information that there are 43 abandoned buildings in the city. As a result social organisation “United Kaunas” organised social action “Catch the ghost”. Consequently, in two months 82 more buildings were enrolled in the municipality’s abandoned buildings list [1] . Municipality reacted fast and on the 1st of January 2013 raised the Real Property Tax for abandoned building owners by 3% [2]. Although, owners are still struggling to find permanent tenants while renovation of abandoned buildings cost enormous amount of money. On one side, the new adjusted Real Property Tax fills budget of the city and put more pressure on such buildings owner to start renovation. However, it does lack of flexibility and collaboration between both sides. The collaboration is neccessery as abandonment is the problem of the city; many of derelict buildings (like hotels ‘‘Britanika’’ Fig 7,8, ‘‘Respublika’’ Fig 9,10 (see the map p.10), Radio factory, ‘‘Lituanica’’ shoe factory are big infrastructures situated in the prominent locations. They are highly visible, therefore they impact overall image of the city. Major reason behind abandoned Kaunas buildings and disused spaces is hidden in the history. Kaunas is the second largest Lithuanian city which throughout its history passed through oppression of Germany (1915-1918, 1941-1944) and Soviet Union (1940-1941, 1944-1990)[3]. The latter occupation has left a deep footprint on Kaunas city planning. During the inter-war period Kaunas had flourished being the centre of culture and art. During the time of First Lithuanian Republic time (19181940) Kaunas was the temporary capital of Lithuania which expedited the development of the city : governmental institutions and foreign ambuscades moved here, new industry and 1 website editor ‘Kaune per du mėnesius „atsirado“ beveik šimtas apleistų pastatų’ (en. ‘In two months almost hundred abandoned buildings were found in Kaunas’) ( (News section) 23 January 2013 ) Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] 2 Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania: Real Property Tax Law Article 6 of the ACT’01.01.2013 Available: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] 3 Adomavičienė, N. Andriušis A., Braziūnienė,A. ir kiti. KULTŪRA. Iliustruota Lietuvos enciklopedija. (Kaunas, Šviesa 2006)

trade market centres were established as well as cultural institutions (By 1949 Kaunas had 17 cinemas.[4]) During 1918- 1939 the population increased by 8,6 times: from 18k after First World War to 154k.[5] The growing population number shows the increase in economy as well as the need of cultural spaces. Although, situation in 1944 has changed radically . Kaunas Main street (That time called Nicolai Prospect, now Liberty Avenue) has lost its function . Because of nationalization most of cafes, restaurants, hotels and various commercial institutions were closed.[5] There was no massive physical transformation on the main street but significant transformation in usage. Big architectural impact was made when micro districts (Dainava, Kalniečiai, Eiguliai, Šilainiai) started being built around Kaunas city Centre in 1950s (Fig 4, p.9). However these times Liberty Avenue recovered its function of leisure and entertainment: opened several culture centres , restaurants „Tulpė “, „Pasaka“, later „Orbita“[6]. But the problem was an over-control of usage. Socialist planning which claimed that “Micro districts were meant to live and sleep, industrial areas to work, university towns to study and city boulevards for parades and celebrations”[7] failed. Simplifying, zoning the city delete the diversity which is crucial for ‘live’ city. The best example in Kaunas is prefabricated multistorey residential apartments in the North East of the city. The inhabitants’ density here is high. Although, it lacks all sorts of activities as well as car parking spaces . At the moment children playgrounds are occupied by cars. The other outcome of socialist regime was massive privatization after collapse of Soviet Union. As Bart Goldhoorn describes in his article, Communist propaganda claimed that you did not work for your own , you worked for collective but in reality everyday life was oppressed by bureaucrats who only were 4 Alvydas Surblys, Interwar cinemas in Kaunas (Kaunas library public Archive) Available at: iew&id=241&Itemid=101) [Accessed : 07 April 2014] 5 Kančienė, J. Balčytis, G. Prikockienė, A. Kauno Modernizmas. (Kaunas AB KOPA, 2013) p.30 6 Antanas Miškinis, Kaunas: Laisvės alėja. (Vilnius: Savastis,2009) pp. 32–39 7 Robinson, J. The Post-Soviet City: Identity and Community development, Researchgate January 2009) Available at: THE_POST-SOVIET_CITY_IDENTITY_AND_COMMUNITY_DEVELOPMENT [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

Chapter 1 27

? Fig 9 Proposal model of hotel “Respublika”, magazine “Statyba ir Architektura,1990

Chapter 1 28

Fig 10 “Respublika” hotel today , Garkauskas, P. (2013)

interested in serving their own needs. Thus, after suffering lack of choice, lack of freedom, inability to create diversity among people the word “private” became valuable not just in organisation of economy but also in daily life of people: privatization of taste, transport, apartment, land …[8] In other words people were thirsty of having their own apartment with their own designs, having their own car with their own private space, having the land and feeling ‘richer’ than their neighbour. From the extract of the discussion among city architects, planners and municipal members given in the beginning of the chapter (p.25) is clear that Liberty Avenue with its backyards was privatized almost in one blow. This still causes the block of further developments by fact that land is owned by private parties who are not willing to contribute, lacking of money for renovation or they are just unknown. Now as main industry has decreased and Kaunas has lost its previous name of industrial city, big factory buildings became abandoned. As well as many modernism masterpieces left neglected (like Kauko kavine) . However, the heritage list complicates the whole reactivation process even more as it is hard to get permission either to demolish the building or redevelop it[9] . To sum up the term “abandoned ” such types of buildings and spaces can be defined: +industrial +military +railway and transport +farming +commercial +cultural +recreational (parks, open spaces, sport stadiums +Institutional (hospital, school, prisons) +harbours and others... These types can be categorised according to: +size +probability of use (according to level of abandonment) +level of pollution

8 Bart Goldhoorn “The libertarian revolution” Volume #30: Privatize! February 2011-12 pp.12-14 9 Vereta Rupeikaitė, ‘‘Kauko’’agony: the bureaucrats do not even allows to die’’ (City pulse section 09 August 2011 ) Available at: kauko-agonija-biurokratai-neleidzia-net-numirti-331824 [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

+the problems and level of complexity in the structure and surroundings The Use/Reuse of many industrial type of building requires much more efforts. As most of them has no services, might be structural unstable and requires check for the pollution level. The next term ‘‘disused’’ means that space is temporarily unused and more or less ready to be occupied. Furthermore, the refurbishment requires less efforts and financial resources. Very often such spaces are previous commercial units. A lot of shops have moved out of Kaunas main street Liberty Avenue. Decision to built the big shopping centre ‘‘Akropolis’’ just beside the Avenue is blamed for pushing the business out of the main street. However, vacancies of commercial spaces is a common problem. For instance, recent study in the UK by Local Data Company showed that 13 per cent of shops from 700 towns and cities were vacant at the end of June 2010[10]. Although, many property researchers predict that those vacant units will never be a traditional shops again.[11] However, it seems that now the floors above commercial units on Liberty Avenue are even more often abandoned (Refer to Fig 12. p.31.).Consequently, backyards which were great feature during the inter-war period lay disused, are built up or became car parkings. Lack of public transportation at night is also the issue and can have a negative impact on business and public usage of spaces. Furthermore, the tendency of moving to suburbs and having private house instead of living in the city is extremely significant which causes the lack of ‘consumers’ for new activities to develop. Consequently, lack of money causes lack of large investments as large investment is a higher risk. Although, while big plans of Liberty Avenue regeneration are being discussed among architects , much smaller but also significant role of DIY urbanism and usage of vacant spaces is overlooked.

10 Jiřina Bergatt Jackson and others. “Apleistos teritorijos vadovas”, (Ostravos technikos universitetas, 2010) pp.14-18 11 Peter Bishop and Lesley Williams, The Temporary City. (London and New York: Routledge, 2012) p.25. Chapter 1 29











Fig 11 : Map of abandoned buildings created according “Catch the Ghost” list made after the social action inviting people to record abandoned buildings in Kaunas (2012 ) ( Author’s image) Detailed map available at :

+Disused space in Libery Avenue (top) +Potential users, developers of temporary use (bottom)

+Architecture of Liberty Avenue used to form backyards as a social space

Fig 12 : Map of disused commercial and residential units in Liberty Avenue (Author’s image) 31








+Possibilities of vacant shop unit development which incorporates green space or main street. Possible collaboration between different developers




Usage of the surrounding buildings (Liberty Avenue)



6 2

3 7


+Vacant shop which is surrounded by two universities has a potential of being used by students





+Typical multi-storey housing block in Silainiai micro district North East Kaunas Fig 13: Typologies of disused spaces in Kaunas Reference to the usage map of surrounding areas helps to find possible usrs and investors (Author’s image)


Fig 14 Fluxus Ministry situated on the edge of the oldtown at the disused ‘‘Lituanica’’ shoe factory, Fluxus Ministry organisators’ photo. 2012

Roof terrace +bar

Public discussion and work space Artists’ studios Theatre, conema, concert room + exhibition space concert area +bar

Fig 15 Schematic layout (Author’s image)

Chapter 1 34

Fig 16 Roof terrace , Fluxus Ministry, 2012

Fig 17 Interactice game room, Fluxus Ministry, 2012

DISUSED-REUSE! Potential of vacant land Looking at the possibilities of using vacant spaces in Kaunas there are two bigger initiatives which seeks to use the disused buildings within the city. Both of them are private organisations initiatives and try to evolve arts into everyday city life. Although, one of them “Fluxus Ministry” was 1 year project and has already moved out of the building on the 09th of October 2013. 1.1.1 FLUXUS MINISTRY Fluxus Ministry is a project to give honour to Fluxus movement pioneer Jurgis Maciunas who was Lithuanian born , USA based architect/ artist. He in 1960’s in New York started anti-art movement (Fluxus) which was against commercial art and ‘elite’ art. With the financial support of J.M Kaplan foundation and the National Foundation of the arts In 1966 Maciunas started to buy several loft buildings from closing manufacturing companies in Soho region. As local law did not allowed residential buildings in this area Maciunas started to convert them into working spaces for the artists . Fluxhouse Cooperatives was live and work spaces for many artists working with different medias. These days Jurgis Maciunas has got the name of ‘Father of Soho” as he developed derelict Soho buildings , his ‘non-artists’ cooperative gave an identity to Soho as an art mecca and played the main role of regenerating and gentrifying the area. [12] Fluxus ministry is the project which seeks the continuation of Maciunas work. It takes abandoned buildings and creates a ‘life performance’ of the various artists for a year in different Lithuanian cities.[13] In 2010 Fluxus ministry found home in Vilnius in ex-health ministry building and in 2012 it came back to Kaunas which is the hometown of George Maciunas. It was located in ex-shoe factory ‘Lituanica’. ‘‘Lituanica’’ has a comfortable location sitting on the edge of the old town next 12 Emmett Williams and Ann Noël, MR. FLUXUS: A Collective Portrait of George Maciunas, (London: Thames and Hudson, 1997) pp.169-215 13 Fluxus Ministry website: Available at: [Accessed at: 14 March 2014]

to the river confluence, with good transport link and is in the plan of all area regeneration (see the map p.10) Summary of the project: Owner: Private Rent: symbolic 1.21 Lt per year Initiated by: Artūras Zuokas (politician)/ Edgaras Stanišauskas (politician) Role of local authority: funding Funded by: Fond VŠĮ „Azzara“ and other project fonds, no private sponsors Visitors: In the beginning of the project there were more visitors as the place was new , undiscovered and interesting, later less. Visitors age -mostly 15-28. Outlay/Infrastructure: Ground floor consists of the big stage and bar, first floor (~1000m2) divided into two spaces: one for theatre, cinema and concerts, the other for exhibitions. Second floor was given to artists as a studio spaces. Third floor was the open space where everyone who wants can come and work. During summer months the roof terrace was open for parties, barbecues and bar (Fig 16) The building did not have major renovation, windows were boarded up, electricity and burglar alarm installed to ensure safety . The cost covered buy national fonds and some by tenants. Local people really helped to make the project develop and flourish. Conflicted interest: The lack of local institution help and interest as well as artist interest itself who would be constantly initiative. (Interview 11 February 2014) However, the investors of “Lituanica’ who were working on preparation of the factory regeneration plan which also involved reactivation of city owned old town territory got the quote from the municipal. The quote noted that “Lituanica” factory is recognised as ‘abandoned ‘ buildings and the increased Real Property Tax applies for them too. [14] 14 Saulius Tvirbutas, „Lituanica“: padidintas mokestis smogs ir veikliems (en. ‘‘Lituanica’’: higher taxes will hit the active bussinessmen too) (, (Section: City pulse) 13 November 2013) Availabble at: UyM0q4W9Kb4 [Accessed at: 14 March 2014]

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2011/2012 2013

Fig 18 Video Mapping on Lituanica Factory, where Festival Insanitus took place in 2011 and 2012. Sakalauskas, R. 2012

Fig 19 „Little boxes“ interactive video installation by Begona M Santiago and Pavel Karafiát , Courtesy Meno Propaganda, 2013

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Fig 20 Shop’s sales rooms became exhibition space , Artwork by Raffaele Fiorella. Courtesy Menopropaganda, 2013

Fig 21 Insanitus 2013 located in the disused shop on Liberty Avenue. Ovcarenko, E. 2013

1.1.2 INSANITUS LABORATORY Insanitus started in 2009 as International art and music festival in Kaunas city. The first place was abandoned ex-medicine factory “Sanitus” (festival here was held in 2009 and 2010). In 2011 it moved to ‘Lituanica’ ex-shoe factory, later called Fluxus Ministry home and stayed there for two years. In 2013 Insanitus found a place in Laisves al 60. which is a large unused shop right on the main Kaunas street[15] (see the map p.10). “Unused or abandoned space- for the culture which cannot fit elsewhere” claims organisers of Insanitus festival. Summary of the project: Owner: Private Initiated by: International art creators association “FREIMAS” (aka K.U.B. Collective) Role of local authority: funding Funded by: Lithuanian Ministry of Culture, Kaunas City Council and private sponsors. Outlay/Infrastructure: Main body of the festival consists of 6 foreign artists and few Lithuanian artists residency. Before the show the spaces for exhibitions are prepared (electricity, heating sorted and spaces are cleaned). The team of organisers of the festival consists of advertisement manager, volunteers curator, art curator, technical base curator and project manager. Some people are hired for one or few days, some works voluntary. Visitors: Mostly 18-35 old people , interested in music, art and alternative culture Conflicted interest: lack of funding which affects the workload and quality of work (when people working for free they are in general less motivated). Some neighbours were unhappy with noise or in general the mass of the people in the neighbourhood. Also, finding the right space is hard. Factories have advantage in having high ceilings which are appropriate for the festival. Although, they require a lot of efforts to clean the spaces as well as they must be checked if they are safe to use. This year as the festival became more public the disused 3 stories shop in Liberty Avenue appeared to be 15 Festival website (2013) Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

the perfect location and attracted more people. (Interview; 20th December 2013). 1.2 Problem The examples of the two initiatives described show that there is a potential and there is an interest in temporary use both from developers and owners as well as there is plenty of space for it to happen. However, it does lack of support, agreement and interlink between authorities (‘‘Lituanica’ factory example clearly proves it). The understanding of importance of interim use would encourage the development of new creative milieus within the disused spaces. Insanitus Laboratory example illustrates well the search of suitable spaces and show that location is extremely important for wide public orientated events. It reaches broader range of people and helps to get financial support from non-profit organisations as it is orientated to public good. Also creating incubators-breedingspots of temporary users (artists and entrepreneurs) allows them to establish wider networks and develop bigger projects. However, now the city lacks the public awareness of what is temporary use, what benefits it brings and that it could be utilised in vacant sites as a catalyst for further developments ,enhance existing business and moreover improve image of the city . Therefore, the next Chapter introduces temporary design tactics based on 1960’s utopias which now are employed in temporary use projects throughout the world.

Chapter 1 37

CHAPTER 2 [From utopia to user-led rennaisance] + 1960s influence on XXIst century thinking and design theories + What can we learn from 1960s design ? +What 1960s architectural ideas are used today? +what utopia teaches contemporary architect? + how does game help to design?


[ ][ ][ ] Plug-In

Cellular Agglomerates

Container/ Pneumatic pods

Fig 22: 1960s Design tactics, (Author’s image)




Fig 23: relationship diagram: from utopias to practices Created according the website: [Accessed at 05.03.2014] and book Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider and Jeremy Till, Spatial Agency Other Ways Of Doing Architecture.(London and New York: Routledge 2011)


movable catwalk Partially enclosed theatre

inflatable conference hall auditorium

Fig 24

Fig 245

Fig 24 Internal programmatic flexibility translated in architectural forms, Information brochure for the Fun Palace Project, 1964 Fig 25 “Fun Palace� section, Canadian Center for Architecture collection and archive, 1964 Chapter 2 42

CHAPTER 2 From utopia in 1960s to user- led renaissance in XXIst century 1960s has left a significant footprint in the world’s history. New art movements as neorealism, previously mentioned Fluxus, pop art, conceptual art, land art devoted themselves to everyday life and experience. They denied the cult of galleries and right of art curators to overtake supreme control over their objects. They were determined to clean the world from “ bourgeois art”, professional art and commercial culture. (Fluxus Manifesto,1919). Artists refused both the content and presentational language of the institutions and started to look for new undefined places and organise events outside the galleries. Founder member of Situationist International (SI) Guy Debord encouraged artist to realize their projects outside the institutions in a realm of everyday life. He emphasised the social power of art. The need of new undiscovered places started to grow together with new art engagement with public; such as performance, action, land, earth, installation and conceptual art. . At the same time new wave (previous 1920’s) of radical theories and design proposals reappeared in architecture scene. Same as art it was orientated to public engagement and called for a new type of space and design tactics. 2.1 Plug in/Clip on The design of plug in/Clip on buildings is based on primary system (load bearing parts) and a secondary system (infilling system). There are three separate parts indicated: load bearing, infillings and services. The more flexible are the latter two, the more adaptable building is: easier regeneration of the building in a way that aging of the building is controlled and it can reflect changes in social patterns. [1] 2.1.1 Cedric Price ‘‘Fun Palace’’ (1964) 1 Justus Dahinden, Urban Structures for the future, (Stuttgart: Pall Mall Press, 1972) p.22

This method was used in the design of ‘‘Fun Palace’’ by Cedric Price. UK architect claimed that building is not necessarily solution to spatial problem. He dedicates his career to work on time-based urban interventions and flexible and adaptable projects which encourage public engagement with the space. His works and ideas sit in the same context with dada, surrealism, fluxus and situationism although it has a specific engagement with technology, cybernetics and game theory [2]. One of his most famous example of work is previously mentioned “Fun Palace”. The project began in 1962 as a collaboration between Cedric Price and avant-garde theatre producer Joan Littlewood who had a dreamed of new kind of theatre. Using cybernetics and the latest computer technologies, Price hoped to create an improvisational architecture which would be capable of learning, anticipating, and adapting to the constantly evolving program. An array of sensors and inputs would provide real-time feedback on use and occupancy to computers which would allocate and alter spaces and resources according to projected needs. Price introduced the site in East London at Mill Meads as a great possibility for such type of building. The site was industrial, part-derelict and full of noise, dust and noxious fumes. Although, he saw that the building could control or even exploit it. He saw the possibility in illuminating gas holders from the main structure and convert derelict streets into exciting pedestrian approach with viewing routes. Secondly, he understood the temporariness of the building . He saw it as a “short-term toy“ which enables people activities. Thus, he picked materials which require shorter than 10 year span. Also he anticipated that proposing little long-term planning is more acceptable for the user. [3] The Fun Palace was to be divided into a number of different key areas. These included: a “fun arcade” (“full of the games and tests 2 Stenley Mathews, ‘‘The Fun Palace as Virtual Architecture Cedric Price and the Practices of Indeterminacy. Journal of Architectural Education 2006 pp.41’’ Available online at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014] 3 Cedric Price, Cedric Price The Square Book, (London:Academy Editions, 2003) pp. 51-58

Chapter 2 43

Fig 26

Fig 27 Curtain corridor cuts the space in a half Image by Raumlabor,2010

Chapter 2 44

Fig 28 View to the skywalk where the visitor has the power of control and observation, Image by Raumlabor,2010

that psychologists and electronics engineers now devise for the service of industry or war”); a music area (with “instruments available, free instruction, recordings for anyone, classical, folk, jazz and pop disc libraries…”); a “plastic area” (“for uninhibited dabbling in wood, metal, paint, clay, stone or textiles…”); and a “science playground” (which by night “will become an agora or kaffeeklatsch where the Socrates, the Abelards, the Mermaid poets, the wandering scholars of the future, the mystics, the sceptics and the sophists can dispute till dawn”) [4] Littlewood put the emphasis on the importance of internal programmatic flexibility which Price determined to interpret and translate into architectural form. The Fun Palace was designed as an open steel frame structure with reconfigurable internal spaces and equipment. A permanent travelling gantry crane spanning the entire structure was planned in order to achieve rearrangement.[5] The structure’s lack of enclosure and the omission of conventional doorways allowed the freedom of interaction. (“having no doorways enables one to choose one’s own route and degrees of involvement with the activities”)[6] (Price, 1964.433). Thus, as Littlewood’s and Price described, the Fun Palace was meant to be a sort of huge “antibuilding”: “vast mechanism that allows arrays of different kinds of space to be suspended in any position and continuously adjusted, moved or removed according to the changing needs of up to 55,000 simultaneous visitors”[7] Although, due to bureaucrats in the planning office the construction has never been completed. However the project research and the level of details brought new understanding of what architecture can achieve. Furthermore, it brought cybernetic into the field of architecture as a base of design: ‘Fun Palace” was designed as a self-organised system. 2.1.2 Raumlabor ‘‘House of Contamination’’ (2010)

4 Joan Littlewood. “A Laboratory of Fun.” New Scientist 22.391. 14 May (1964): 432-33. 5 Cedric Price: “Laboratory of Fun “ The New Scientist 22.391, 14 May 1964, pp. 433 6 Cedric Price: “Laboratory of Fun “ The New Scientist 22.391, 14 May 1964, pp. 432 -423 7Mark Wigley “Anti-Buildings and Anti-Architects’, Domus, 866, January: 2005. p.16

Berlin based architects Raumlabor who concentrates on initiating processes which goal is not to solve certain problems but to give actors the opportunity to interact with the city by understanding and using its dynamics and possibilities. [8]. Their project ‘‘House of Contamination’’ designed for “Artissima International art fair in Milan is an indoor village made completely out of trash. Recycling was used as the main building element. The project is considered as a prototype for a contemporary cultural centre and, as the architects described themselves, it has the main reference to Cedric Price “Fun Palace’. It is highly technological, multifunctional and adaptable to multiple needs. However, for the notion of the word ‘technological’ the keyword is ‘peak oil’ . The project is targeting the political and economic world that are starting to contaminate the cycles of production and consumption. The temporary structure serves as an area to showcase and explore dance, cinema, literature, design, urbanism and education. The walls of the structure are made out of trash material which was recycled and compressed. Crushed plastic bottles, compressed bales of advertising and packaging paper, leftover fabrics from the manufacturing process, and discarded wood from doors and discarded panels were used for the design of the walls. Old fridges, washing machines, doors, dressers, bookshelves and chairs which may seem were best for the dump were used for the production of furniture. Christian’s Boltanksi 1:1 recycled art exhibition leftover materials were recuperated and used to fit the garage space with enormous fan which was distributing wind through the art space: The garage was covered by used clothes and was able to open and close in order to distribute light and air into the space. Most architectural elements of the space were fixed and solid. Although, the design incorporated a sliding wall which was a reference to high-tech philosophies of an adaptable architecture. The 8 Raumlabor, Architects Website, Available at : [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

Chapter 2 45

Fig 29 Q+A Temporary containers city: restaurant during the day, theatre during the night , Image by Q+A Architects , 2012

Fig 30

Chapter 2 46

Fig 31

Fig 32 “Cylindrical Shelters�, Israel temporary shelters built of corrugated metal sheets with built-in furniture. Pipes can be stacked and requires no foundation. (Photomontage of Fig 32 prototypes in landscape, Friedman,Y. 1953)

Fig 33

purpose of the wall was to divide elements of the structure. It could either break through the cinema screen and open up the view to the theatre stage, or to seal the literary salon or invade the corridor. Two other elements, the skywalk and the tall curtain corridor, were considered as contradiction to each other. The skywalk talks about a dominant view where the visitor has the power of control and observation. Here, authority and hierarchy comes into play. When people are using the walkway to gain the raised viewpoint, they become part of the visual focus of the installation inside the fair hall. Curtain corridor does opposite. It cuts the space in a half .The corridor is invaded by residues of silver-plated paper, while its fabric walls are moved by cross winds. This central piece of the installation acts as the prominent but unexpected space of indeterminacy.

Manifesto proposed freedom which is given to inhabitants by the architecture. However, Yona Friedman spends his life exploring bridge infrastructures and ‘‘fillings’’- elements in between (‘‘Villa Spatialle”(1958), “Span over Blocks” (1958), “City of Stilts” (1969) which is the type of Plug-in architecture, but smaller scale projects are assigned to cellular agglomerates type. Many of his work examples like “Cylindrical Shelters” (1953), “Stacked concrete boxes” (1958) are made of self-supporting units. Many of his work reflects on the consequences of natural or man made disasters and try to help with issue of the lack of housing . Therefore, he uses cabinets, capsules from prefabricated materials which can be easily constructed and dismantled.

2.2 Cellular Agglomerates

Looking at the temporary usage of ‘capsules’ the shipping containers are widely popular being used as temporary housing and pop up shops since 2006 when Southern California Architect Peter deMaria built first legally approved two story house from two stacked shipping containers.[11] In 2011 Shigeru Ban design multi- storey temporary housing for earthquake victims in Japan. Up to three container unitsrooms can be stacked on top of each other and placed on the levelled land. [12] However, in this subchapter containers will be introduced as an activators of social space.

Cellular agglomerates are composite structures which consists of integrated units. Unlike ‘‘plugin’’ concepts it does not have secondary and primary structure as individual elements serves both as a load-bearing structure and space divider[9]. 2.2.1 Yona Friedman ‘‘Mobile architecture’’ (1956) Such tactics were introduced and used by several architects and architecture groups in 1960’s. One of them was Yona Friedman Hungarian-born French architect, urban planner and designer. He proposed the idea of flexibility and adaptability of the building as the driver for design. He argued that architects design buildings which reflects their personal needs but not the inhabitants[10]. Thus, Friedman wrote the manifesto telling that design activity should be left for occupants:

2.2.2 Q+A “Temporary containers city”(2012)

Over Het IJ Festival in 2012 Q+A architects designed the temporary shipping container city at the NDSM shipyard in North Amsterdam. The festival for site-specific theatre performances have been organised at the NDSM shipyard for over two decades. During the festival artists are challenged to employ and investigate the disused shipyard for unique and contextspecific performances.

“The structures that form the city must be skeletons, to be filled in as desired. Additions to the skeletons are dependent on the initiative of every inhabitant.” [Manifesto:L’Architecture Mobile,1956].

In 2011 O+A was asked to collaborate on the 20th anniversary edition of the festival. Their brief was to design the heart of the event by using its literal building block- shipping container. The architects came up with the three-

9Justus Dahinden, Urban Structures for the future, (Stuttgart: Pall Mall Press, 1972) p.20 10 Sabine Lebesque and Helene Fentener van Vlissingen, Yona Friedman Structures Serving The Unpredictable. (Rotterdam: NAi Publishers,1999) p.22

11 Architect’s Website: Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014] 12 Architect’s website: Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014]

Chapter 2 47

Fig 33 Oase No7. Haus-Rucker, Co 1967

Fig 34

Chapter 2 48

Fig 34 Yellow heart, Le Lait, Albi, Haus-Rucker-Co,1968 Fig 35

dimensional checker board pattern which offers a great spatial diversity, while simultaneously communicating the Festival’s ambition to the city. Stacked containers served as a restaurant during the day time and as a theatrical stage at night (Fig 29-31)[13]. The Containers City was constructed in 4 days and taken apart in 2. Time demonstrates the great versatilty and ease of using shipping containers in temporary architecture.

in Kassel Germany (1972). Oase No. 7 was a transparent 8 metres diameters sphere. It was placed in front of the main facade on the Friedericianum. Standard tubular steel sections were projected through the window from the interior into transparent sphere. A tubular steel ring was fixed to this footbridge, at a slight distance from the façade. This ring formed the external support for a PVC foil shell that formed a sphere when inflated into shape by an air pump.[16]

2.3 Containers/ Pneumatic pods

2.3.2 Raumlabor ‘‘Spacebuster’’ 2009

Containers are ‘neutral’ space which serves the whole range of users. According Guenther Feuerstein it is a ‘manipulative’ space. It can be various sizes, however often considered as a pneumatic construction as it is able to expand and contract. [14]

Previously introduced Berlin based architects Raumlabor created a pneumatic event space in order to explore the qualities and possibilities of public space.

2.3.1 Haus-Rucker-Co, Oase No.7 (1967-1992) Haus-Rucker-Co - avant-garde architectural group from Vienna as well as pneumatic architecture practitioner. Their projects explored performative potential of architecture during the happenings and installations . The performances aimed to engage participants by influencing their own environment. [15] Their pneumatic projects seeked to distort the experience of public and private spaces. Immersive environments, bubble and capsule forms, and mind-expanding structures for private contemplation or forging personal connections all delineate not only specific physical zones but also psychological spaces. Haus- Rucker-Co. also took a playful approach to architectural materials and strategies. Plastics—mutable, flexible, inexpensive, and with seemingly infinite potential—provided not only the material for many of their projects but also served as a model for the era’s futurist vision of a democratic and mobile lifestyle.

Their first prototype of pneumatic space was a zinc sheet clad sculpture Das Kuechenmonument (The Kitchen Monument) in 2006 which was able to be extended into public space by pneumatic mantle. However in 2009 they introduced The Spacebuster which was more flexible to move around different public spaces. The structure consists of a step van and a big inflatable space which comes out of the back of the van . People enter the bubble through the passenger’s door. They walk through to the back down a ramp right into the inflated space. Up to 80 people can fit inside space. Air pressure generated by a fan underneath the ramp supports the bubble. Translucency of the outer shell of the bubble allows people from outside to watch the activity inside and vice versa. Thus, the membrane acts as a semi permeable border between the public and the more private space inside. Projections onto the membrane can be viewed from the outside as well as from the inside of the space. The furnishing depends on the program taking place inside the bubble. The flexibility of the structure enables Spacebuster to be situated in very different locations. [17]

One of the example was their project Oase No.7 13 Q+A website Available at: ) [Accessed : 07 April 2014] 14 Justus Dahinden, Urban Structures for the future, (Stuttgart: Pall Mall Press, 1972) p.30 15 Nishat Awan, Tatjana Schneider and Jeremy Till, Spatial Agency Other Ways Of Doing Architecture.(London and New York: Routledge 2011) p.156

16 Architect’s website Available at: erco_143&rub=hausruckerco&lang=en&site=ortner [Accessed 07 April 2014) 17 Raumlabor, Architect’s website: [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

Chapter 2 49

Membrane of the bubble can adjust to the surrounding: it squeezes underneath a bridge, wraps around a tree or casts the pattern of a fence or the profile of a faรงade .Same as HausRucker-Co architects blurres the experience between public and private.

Fig 35 Das Kuechen Monumentum was a sculpture which extends to the pneumatic semipublic space Image by Raumlabor, 2006

Chapter 2 50

Fig 36 Spacebuster is the improved version of Das Kuechen Monument which now is able to move around the city easily , Image by Raumlabor 2009

The “Fondation Suisse� was celebrating its 75th anniversary (2008) and Raumlabor was commisioned to create temporary space for big activities. Because the celebration took place in November and weather was cold architects proposed inflatable, translucent membrane hall. Semiprivate space served as a concerts, speeches, dinners, conferences and party space for three days. Raumlabor (2008)

Fig 38 Raumlabor, 2008

Chapter 2 51

[Sg] Scenario game used by urbanists studio Chora is played as a sequence of events that might occur in a certain urban condition. Scenario game goal is simulation and testing of possible realities and interactions between phenomenon of each mini scenarios, which is picked up from the beans, placed by a beanthrowing game, on the fifth ring of Chengdu’s map (Fig 40) . Scenario game allows to test different prototypes in different urban conditions and encourages the discussion between different members ( in this case Chengdu local architects and planners).

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Fig 39 Scenario game layed in Chengdu between TU Berlin students and local architects and planners, (Author’s image, 2012)

Fig 40 Bean-throwing map which allows students to pick location for “Mini Scenarios”. (Author’s image,2012)

2.4 Game as a design strategy ‘‘Do not plan, play the city’’ (‘‘Play the city “ moto) The increase of popularity of urban gaming, both on a small scale -in the public and on a wider scale- when masterplanning, shows the importance of spontaneous ideas. As well as aspect of randomness and game is used as a trigger for the ideas. However, game aspect and Huizinga’s and Situationist influence is clearly noticeable in the previously mentioned architects’ thinking and design. 2.4.1 Situationism Dutch historian Johan Huizinga book Homo Ludens (‘‘Playing man’’) (1938) became the basis for situations movement in 1957. Many of the mentioned 1960’s architects like Cedric Price, Haus-Rocker-Co was influenced by situationist ideas of play as a means of engaging the citizens. Entire Situationist program was born in Paris in “Situationists International”(SI).The movement brought provocative ideas in urbanism and architecture. Two strategies were proposed by situationist the ‘‘de’rive- creative aimless urban wanderings and de’tournement- insertion of random events into ordinary situations[18]‘‘. The tendency of uncertainty of fixed term started to arise. Situationists and painter Ivan Chtcheglov came with Manifesto for new city, telling architecture to form the situations rather than the objects. They denied fixed term solution and promoted urbanism which is ‘set for free play’.[19] They believed that such urbanism would encourage people activity in a city and create diversity of uses. “The economic obstacles are only apparent. We know that the more a place is set apart for free play, the more it influences people’s behaviour and the greater is its force of attraction.” [Formulary for a new urbanism,1953]. Situationist claimed that people are clearly born 1 Stenley Mathews, ‘‘The Fun Palace as Virtual Architecture Cedric Price and the Practices of Indeterminacy.” Journal of Architectural Education, 2006 pp.41’’ Available online at: sites/8/2011/09/mathews-FunPalace.pdf [Accesssed 07 April 2014] 19 Ivan Chtcheglov , Formulary for a new urbanism,1953, unpaginated Available at: [Accessed : 07 April 2014]

to manifest themselves and regarded graffiti as a primitive energy source of the everyday life of the ‘masses’[20]. In some ways graffiti is a visual form of space personalization. This idea could be closely related to the situationist proposal of psychogeographical city mapping. (Psychogeography as described by Guy Debord emphasizes playfulness and “drifting” around urban environments and is an approach to geography.) Thinking that originally map is created to reflect the order of the city, situationist by contrast imposed a disorder aspect upon the city . They introduced a psychogeographical map which exposes peoples emotions and interest within the city. Their map does not answer the question “Where it is”, it now tells you “how does it feel”. “As you can see, we are flying over an island, a city, a particular city, and this is a story of the number of its people, and the story, also, of the city itself. It was not photographed in the studio. Quite the contrary...The actors played out their roles on the streets, in the apartments...” [21] Behind personalised city mapping hides the idea that one day everyone will be empowered to join the process of creating architecture and urbanism . 2.4.2 ‘‘Play The City” , Netherlands Today the ludic aspect of the city is becoming more and more popular and the Game concept is often used as urbanists tool. One famous example is Dutch urbanists studio “Play the city”. They are going away from the “old-fashioned‘ urbanism which set the actual plans and tries to develop urban possibilities which arises out of their designed serious gaming. They work with housing corporations and cultural organisations in order to generate interactive and collaborative plans with multiple stakeholders which are often the players. ‘‘Play the City’’ also works with the architects and helps them to test out their created design rules and anticipate future scenarios. One 20 Simon Sadler, The Situationist City. London: The MIT Press,1998 p.97 21 Simon Sadler, The Situationist City. London: The MIT Press,1998 p.82

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Fig 39 MVRDV designed the masterplan for new Town Almere in Netherlands which is based on the rules. In this case community is responsible for the design. Diagram by MVRDV, 2012 Chapter 2 54

of such game was created for Almere Osterwold by Almere 2.0 and MVRDV in Netherlands which is the first masterplan in Dutch history shaped by planning rules instead of actual plan. The rules enables citizens to master-plan their city. Such scheme invites organic urban growth in which initiatives are stimulated and inhabitants can create their own neighbourhoods including public green, urban agriculture and roads. The open-ended MVRDV plan establishes only a guiding principles, such as the proportions of total land use — 59% urban agriculture, 18% construction, 13% public green space, 8% roads, 2% water. Beyond that, residents will be able to collaborate in person and on the web to plan development and reach consensus, with government serving as a facilitator rather than making entire decisions on their own.[22] The new Town Almere, of which Almere Oosterworld will be a part, was designed in a similar fashion, allowing individuals to build their own homes. In this instance, MVRDV is the organizer, but private initiative is the driver. The project is ongoing and open-ended so critical evaluation would be very subjective. However, MVRDV masterplan explores and develops new field of urban planning which if successful might be widely used in the future. 2.5 Conclusions Situationism introduced the idea of playfulness and brought interactive approach to the everyday life. Meanwhile, 1960’s architecture brought playfulness to the design in order to enrich user’s experience by giving them a right of choice. The main emphasis in this chapter are:

+ Recycling, re-using, up-cycling terms which enrich and enable temporary architecture (‘Enable’- by being easily and widely accessible) +temporary architecture enhances the environment as it is often situated in disused, abandoned or unexpected spaces. +temporary architecture enhances the users as it often serves as an educational space (art, theatre, discussion space etc..) The idea of playing the game in order to form urban environment is revolutionary and valuable: +it raises stakeholders awareness of the possible projects in the area +it allows stakeholders to be involved in design process which increases the motivation of the project both before and after construction stage. As well as if stakeholders are involved into design process it is more likely they will be motivated to take care of the space. +game allows to refuse “professionalism“ at the design stage. Professionalism here is related to particular knowledge of architect of what is feasible and not feasible. Game challenges unpredictable ideas. +game stimulates and test the conditions of the suggested ideas and prototypes. +Examples given show that the factor of randomness and uncertainty is taken into consideration when designing large scale urban systems as it allows users to collaborate in the creation of their environmental.

+new building is hardly the solution to spatial problem +Importance of internal programmatic flexibility and adaptability as architectural form should change with the changing society +allow participants to interact with the architecture and engage them into creative process

22 David, M.P. “Almere Oosterwold, a Vision of Collaborative DIY Urban Design”, 2 May 2012 Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014] Chapter 2 55

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CHAPTER 3 [Case Studies] + what strategies other cities have introduced to regenerate •

empty shop units

urban voids (as public spaces and derelict sites)

abandoned buildings

Temporary use masterplans: •


+case studies evaluation graphs


Fig 68 : Diagram of temporary use integration (Author’s image)


Fig 69: Stalled spaces operation diagram (Author’s image)

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3.1 Temporary Use as a catalyst for urban development The examples given in the previous Chapter deal with the specific space and are either mobile or temporary interventions. However, for the implementation of temporary use into wider context it is important to establish the link and collaboration between different authorities, users and developers as well as vacant sites and available spaces. This Chapter describes and analyses examples which best illustrate the successfully working systems in this field. The case studies were picked accordingly the size and type of the spaces: gap sites-brown fields, vacant shop units and large scale infrastructure. The whole temporary use idea is to regenerate vacant spaces into vibrant destinations for local and foreign people through unique uses which offer various cultural, neighbourhood and job opportunities. Temporary use activities usually is categorised in the themes of: • “Nomads” (curator-led non-profit in unoccupied spaces) • “Residential” (small, collectively-led exhibition series in a non-gallery setting) • “Pop-ups” (individual or institution-led initiatives that exist for a fixed amount of time) • “Initiatives” (large-scale, extended projects led by institutions)[1] The first case study is one of the example of ‘‘Nomads’’ type temporary use. 3.2 Stalled Spaces, Glasgow Regenerating brownfields Name: Stalled Spaces Period: 2008- current Place : all around Glasgow Owner of the vacant lot: private/municipal Initiated by: Glasgow City Council and Glasgow Council Association Role of local authority: provides funding for initiatives Size: varies Funding: governmental funds (minimum of £1,000 to a maximum of £2,500 for one project) 1 An Introduction to Conversion Strategies,2010 Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014]

Range of projects: mainly communal gardens and playgrounds, (green gym/ play space/ outdoor exercise, pop up sculpture ,exhibition space, outdoor education, arts project, event space, urban beach, pop up park, growing space as suggestions) Number of projects: around 30 projects during 2011/2012, over 12 Hectares of land has been brought into temporary use in the past year. Duration of the projects: from few weeks to long term, depending on the land owner Applicants: everyone who has an idea and will to reactivate a brownfield. Often architecture students are invited to participate[2] Outlay/Infrastructure: Stalled spaces is the initiative by Glasgow City Council and Glasgow Housing Association establishes in 2008. The main goal is to intervene gap sites with temporary use and transform them into eventful spaces which would be managed by community. Everyone who has an idea how to improve the space is welcomed to apply for funding which is given by the City Council (minimum of £1,000 to a maximum of £2,500 for one project). The project is integrated part of the Local Development Plan for the City, the Glasgow Open Space Strategy and the City Council Strategic Plan 2012-2017. Its goal is to activate the economy and the vitality of the community through the improvement of the spaces open to the citizens. The project has brought over 12 Hectares of land into temporary use in the past year. This project recognises the opportunities available to use unproductive vacant land on a temporary basis to deliver a range of innovative projects that would benefit local communities. Hurdles Conflicting interests: when the land is a private ownership time limit always has to be put into consideration. Some projects are found exciting by community like ‘‘Forgotten Islands” (2011, River Festival)[3] but has to move out. This “temporariness” could limit the design. In addition, bureaucracy can also scare the potential enthusiast as the planning permission and entertainment licence can be required too. 2 Glasgow city council website: Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014] 3 Karen Shaw, “The Forgotten Island – a stalled space case study” 10 May 2012 Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014]

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Fig 70: Mobile Lands: Caledonia Road Church project visualisation , Project : Mobile Lands team (Author’s image)

3.2.1 [Mobileland, Glasgow, 2014 June] In 2013 Mobileland team, lead by Dr Cristian Suau ,was formed of Strathclyde University students and graduates. The goal is to reactivate the site in Glasgow Southside situated next to abandoned Caledonia Road church. Mobileland is the project encouraged by Stalled Spaces initiative. At the moment it is in the design stage. The project idea was considered being realated to healthcare and communal garden. as well as idea of green gym was suggested by the

stakeholders as the new hospital is being built close to the site. Further step is to look at wider funding opportunities and available materials. At the moment, project requires around 400 europallets soil and plants as well as wheels and construction materials. Proposed project would offer community a space to gather and a space for community events. Further plans shown in the diagram below:

Fig 71: Mobile Lands team proposal (Images by Naruseviciute.P and Pastrana, E.)

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STALLED SPACES [GLASGOW] Fig 72: Coopolis operation diagram (Author’s image)

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3.3 Zwischennutzungsagentur, Berlin, Germany (Temporary Use agency) Regenerating vacant shops Name: Zwischennutzungsagentur /Coopolis Period: 2005-current Place : Berlin, Mainly Neukolln Owner of the vacant shop: private/municipal Initiated by: municipal or private individuals Role of local authority: funding Size: Up to 7-8 full-time staff Funding: Program funding via government social programs Range of projects: Various. Artists’ studios and living (60-70%); small industry; bars; social projects; daycare (Kindertagesstätte / KITAs), and a few research spaces. Number of projects: 5 large projects in 5 areas; about 300 tenants so far, with up to 300 landlords Duration of the projects: 1-5 years, with 1-3 years being the usual duration Applicants: anyone Cost to run the agency: ~100 k Euros per year average rent cost -less than 10 euros, price varies depending on the condition of the place, price can be negotiated if the tenant has to do space renovation[1] Outlay/Infrastructure: ZNA/now called Coopolis project roots reach 2005 when the project NEULAND space was initiated. The goal of Neuland was to find users for empty properties in cooperation with office for temporary usage. This was meant to promote neighbourhood commitment, entrepreneurial action and attract new long term investmets[2] . Various marketing strategies were used to show off the sites; disused sites were marked with oversized arrows, flags, ground and tree markings and initiative was advertised with the help of flyers and web site. Initially in the startup phase initiative was successful and attracted broad range of ideas which was mainly related to public good, such as vegetable production, youth camps, field preschools or sculpture parks. NEULAND investigated short-term, 1 Dr. Paul G. Jansen GmbH. Neue Konzepte für leer stehende Ladenlokale -Die Zwischennutzungsagentur (Available at: [Accessed: 07 April 2014) 2 Philipp Oswalt,Klaus Overmeyer and Philipp Misselwitz, Urban Catalyst The Power Of Temporary Use, (Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2013) p.234

spontaneous and creative temporary uses for a wide range of land. Although, potential users could not afford leasing prices of the property fund, which is orientated towards marketing. In the end the project completely failed. Following this experience, municipal actors in partnerships with housing associations concentrated more strongly on activating selected sites with the help of residents and more closely controlled projects. Many empty sites are owned by building societies which supports “unprofitable’ uses in order to keep tenants in the long term. However, in comparison with city governments, private agencies and associations are usually more flexible. As a result of increasing popularity of temporary use to revitalize neighbourhoods and catalyse urban development, professional service providers initiated new business in this field. In 2005 urbanists project The Zwischennutzungsagentur was created in order to reactivate 100 vacant sales rooms in Neukoelln . The result was very successful as in three years Neukölln district’s urban fabric has changed from empty commercial zone to vibrant, mixed use zone. There were opened 150 new fashion stores, galleries, cafes, youth centres, sewing workshops and other type of places.[3] ZNA is the match-making agency which rather than organising their owns initiatives helps various initiatives and landlords to find each other . Temporary users are chosen in an ongoing process during which they are developing realistic business plan (support is given by ZNA). Than the groups of users with similar activities are provided with the tour to suitable properties in this way fostering the new collaborations and joint proposals. Eventually, ZNA mediates between the landlord and the prospective tenant. The agency uses available data on neighbourhood rents and vacancies to convince the landlord to reduce the rent price . [4]

3 Meredith Glaser and others, The city at eye level: lessons for street plinths. Delft: Eburon Academic Publishers, 2012 p.190 4 Jana Perkovc,” RETHINKING THE INFLEXIBLE CITY: what can Australian planning learn from successful implementation of ‘temporary uses’ across the world?” (Master of Urban Design Research Thesis; University of Melbourne ) p.38. Available at: files/miabp/docs/ Jana%20Perkovic%20Thesis.pdf [Accessed: 07 April 2014]

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YourSQFT is similar temporary use agency to Coopolis. However it’s website allows in a few clicks to know how much it is going to cost you to have your own temporary cafe shop, organise board game night, etc. The ease of access to information encourages public participation and creativity.

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Fig 73: yourSQFT (Print Screen)

After almost nine years of operation, ZNA has expended the range of services they provide and now works with local authorities in Berlin in order to provide place analysis, research, community consultations and workshops . Together with temporary users they seek to create networks, foster collaboration and offer support. ZNA location choice is based on available QM funding. When the location is awarded with funding the agency undertakes preliminary studies of the area, which includes the process of finding and contacting landlords and potential users as well as negotiating temporary contracts. The goal of the agency was never strictly limited to facilitating temporary use, but was seen more broadly as helping to regenerate a neighbourhood in a participatory, long-term and sustainable way. The case of Temporary use agency illustrates well the importance of enabling and creating opportunities rather that dictating them. However, ZNA was criticised of causing the gentrification within the area, therefore now it works under Coopolis name and concentrates more on the community infrastructure improvement.

Fig 74: Coopolis Kaufhaus am Park ( em. Shop in the park) Image by Coopolis, 2012

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Fig 75: NDSM Wharf operation diagram (Author’s image) Fig 76. NDSM Wharf Organisation diagram, (Stealth group 2003)

3.4 NDSM Wharf, Amsterdam, Netherlands regenerating abandoned shipyard Name: NDSM Wharf Period: 2002- current Place : Amsterdam, Owner of the shipyard: municipal Initiated by: City government of Amsterdam Noord and Kinetisch Noord (an organization set up as a ‘breeding ground’ for artists and young entrepreneurs with a low-profile commercial character ) Size: approx. 86.000 m2, 20 different profiles clusters of participants Funding: government subsidy of € 10 million. Loan being redeemed by rent payments from users. € 10 million invested by end users Range of projects: the hall divided into thematic zones: „Kunstadt“ („Art city“)(10000m2), a skate park (2000m2), facilities for youths (3000m2), „Nrdstrook“ for exhibitions , galleries and apartments (6000m2),theatre studios (2500m2), temporary outdoor space (9000m2) Number of projects: more than 200 cultural users and users from the cultural sector. Over 250 jobs created Applicants: artists, crafts people,youth projects, creative firms. Cost to run NDSM Wharf: legal: exploitation costs: 6,35 million euro approx (2001 plus 10 years) organisation costs are 30% of exploitation, maintenance ‘casco’ (hull) and construction excluded average indoor space rent /m2 euro 7,85 (level dec. 2001) [5] Outlay/Infrastructure: Amsterdam is the city where temporary uses and pop up activity flourish. One of the best and biggest examples is NDSM Wharf located in former harbour area in the North bank of the river Ij. The river divides Amsterdam into two parts and the majority of the people live in the densely populated historic city centre area towards the south of the Ij. NDSM Wharf site after 1980s industrial decay became abandoned and 1999 the city decided to integrate it into a city-wide 5 Stealth Group, “NDSM Wharf Amsterdam “ (Section projectpool, 2003) Available at: [Accessed 07 April 2014]

development plan and respectively master plan it. The competition was announced and the young ex-squatters team called ‘Stichting Kinetisch Noord’won it. In 2002 they presented their plan to create a work space for a mix of well-known and less-known artists and independent organisations[6]. Temporary users would renovate the hall with a mix of creative programme with 10 years lease. The goal of the project is to create diverse neighbourhood , attract potential investors and developers. The Project started on site in 2000.The local authorities have described in the mission statement ‘Geen Cultuur zonder Subcultuur’ at the 21st June of the year 2000 that the project of NDSM as a breeding spot will be successful if two goals are maintained. The first aim is realizing galleries within 4 to 6 years that have substantial influence to decrease the quest for space. The second key to success has been formulated as increasing the continuity by policy that stimulates a minimal investment in breedingspots. NDSM hall, a hangar-like structure 20.000m2 in area and 20 metres in height. As said before the entrepreneurs located in NDSM do not only pay rent, but also invest in the realization of their own work space. The workspace is created by the users themselves and it is changeable in order to keep diversity. Hurdles Conflicting interests: The financial issues is not an exception in this project. The government has already invested 10 million euros and same amount has been matched by the end users. The lease now has been extended to 2027. Although, the success of the project could be argued. Organisation has been identified as the main problem . As it is seen in the organisational diagram ( Fig 76) there are many clusters and it is hard to work productively when so many other parties have to agree. Eva de Klerk, initiator of NDSM, suggests that the amount of clusters should be decreased to five, based on their location and with similar interests on NDSM[7].This way it should be easier to come 6 Philipp Oswalt,Klaus Overmeyer and Philipp Misselwitz, Urban Catalyst The Power Of Temporary Use, (Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2013) p.361 7 Gregory Correia and others” Success factors Artistic Breeding Places: NDSM Wharf, Cultural Entrepreneurship

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Fig 77: NDSM Wharf Art village

Fig 78: NDSM Wharf Art village

Fig 79: NDSM Wharf Apartments

Fig 80: NDSM Wharf shipyard before Kinetische Noord project. Images by NDSM Wharf organisators

to one general policy and get things done when needed. In this case, to keep „casco“ management (when few governing layers are involved and the daily managing and running is done as much as possible by the residents) is important. 3.5 HOLZMARKT , Berlin temporary use masterplan Name: Holzmarkt ( Timber Market) Period: opens in 2014, in 2015 all the building stages to be finished Place : Berlin, Holzmarkt Owner of the land: Municipal Initiated by: four former creative workers who ran a temporary project on the same parcel of land from 2004 until 2010, on a series of temporary contracts (Berliner Zeitung 2012) Range of projects: will be a mixed-use ‘urban village’, comprising of a nightclub, a public park, a hotel, a village of artist studios (most of which will have three-month leases to keep the village fresh), a restaurant and a 24-hour daycare center with space for 30 kids. (Lynch 2012:unpaginated) Investment: 50-million-euro

do-it-yourself materials which will ensure low rent prices and ever changing façade which will be created by tenant. Structural final state is not targeted - all parts are subject to steady transformation. Rooms, buildings and configurations are constantly changing the quarter is constantly reinventing itself. The village is planned to be car-free to avoid disturbing existing transport. [9] There are plenty of benefits the project brings to the city. The project is certainly strengthening the city’s image and attitude towards community integration into urban planning. Cultural workers have a greater opportunity to collaborate with various investors .Holzmarkt is strengthening identity of the district and promotes natural district development with a mixed uses and green space. However, it is hard to predict a success or failure of the project at this early stage of the construction. Nevertheless, Berlin already proved that temporary use is highly supported by all parties and has a firm base to be integrated in further projects.

Outlay/Infrastructure: Berlin steps the first feet into realising temporary use masterplan in 2014. Instead of selling one of the best sites next to river Spree to anonymous developer, for a standard package of offices/shops and apartments Berlin municipal decided to develop business alliance with local creatives, residents and investors for a variety of mixed uses[8] . Holzmarkt village will include a nightclub, a public park formed by the community, a hotel, village of artist studios, a restaurant and 24- hour daycare centre. The leases of the rent will vary from 3 months to 10 years to keep the place fresh but also ensure stability. The village puts a significant emphasis on the sustainability and dynamics of the space and events as well as design . Artist village is proposed to be built out of inexpensive partially and Innovation research, 2 December 2008 Available at: search? pages/432712/bul_maarten_uva_research_ndsm_final.pdf+&cd=1&hl= en&ct=clnk&gl=uk&client=firefox-a 8 Genossenschaft für urbane Kreativität, 2013. [online] Available at: en [Accessed 07 April 2014]

9 Marketing report from online database: (2013 September ) Holzmarkt: Concept and Architecture http://www. [Accessed 07 April 2014]

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Fig.81 Graph evaluating the cost of the NDSM Wharf, Temporary Use agency and Stalled Spaces projects (Autor’s image)

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Fig.82 Graph evaluating the affordability of the NDSM Wharf, Temporary Use agency and Stalled Spaces projects (Autor’s image)

3.6 Evaluation: Designing ‘‘Ideal’’ system [Sensorial analysis] The examples given were picked as a successful systems. Data found about them was used evaluating the systems according usage of the spaces, affordability and location. However, this analysis is sensorial as some data was missing or used according to personal experience. The graphs give the understanding of the possible improvement of the spaces. 3.6.1 Usage: Graph (Fig 81) shows the ‘‘ideal’’ conditions of successfully working temporary use system according to the usage of the space. Graph shows that commercial and non commercial activities should have equal value as temporary use is in general orientated to attract the user offering cultural activities. However, commercial activities allows collection of the budget for further development. Variety of activities enables to attract people from different fields. In this case, more interesting collaborations can be achieved as well as learning process is enhanced. Furthermore, as Coopolis example illustratesvariety of activities creates mixed-used urban fabric. 3.6.2 Affordability Cost aspects is extremely important as temporary use is always blamed for being unprofitable and for this reason lacks of support. Graph (Fig 82) shows the ‘ideal’ system which fulfil all the aspects by maximum result. However municipal funding was taken out as in this ‘ideal’ situation the system should be self sustainable. In addition, independence from local authorities allows faster project development.

Temporary Use Development investment works together with Employability aspect as if the temporary use developer earns the money s/ he is able to cover expenses for the space. Temporary use agency is a good example in this case as it mediates between the owner and the developer , but developer is forced to come up with convincing business plan. It does not need to be highly profitable however needs to convince the owner it will be beneficial for him. ‘‘And if you have an owner who imagines 10 eu/sm rent, we tell him, that this is a very poor district here, there will be no activity that can bring so much money. So you have to talk to him, that he can also feel that his goals are irrealistic, because the only reason of emptiness, that there is no market for a product, so you have to create a market and bring someone who creates this product and also someone who needs this product.’’(Stefanie Raab, Coopolis)[1] Affordability both by rent of the space and infrastructure cost varies depending on the countries economic situation as well as the size of the infrastructure. It is obvious that abandoned building will require high number of investments while small shops are fairly easy to equip as most of them has basic services (water, electricity). Stalled Spaces initiative is nonprofitable, however it brings many advantages to the communities around and the land owner. It acts as an advertisement for the site as well as creates safer neighbourhood. Life span of the initiative in this case represents that time scale of ‘‘temporary’ is not defined. In comparison, NDSM Wharf by extending their lease proves that it has became important part of the area, community as well as the city. Longer time allows participants gain required experience and learn from their mistakes.

1 Lakalam , Interview with Stefanie Raab, Coopolis, Berlin Available at: [Accessed: 07 April 2014] Chapter 3 73

Stalled spaces site: Caledonia Road church, Glasgow

NDSM Wharf, Amsterdam

Coopolis, Neukolln, Berlin

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Fig.83 Maps showing the area usages of one of Stalled spaces project (Mobile Lands) , NDSM Wharf and ZNA locations (Autor’s image)

3.6.3 Location




Stalled spaces project (Mobileland) is targeting the community and new healthcare centre development users. The aim of the Stalled spaces is to increase community participation. However, it is architect’s decision how to do it and what design will be participatory in every single case. Community consultations are organised to get feedback and input from stakeholders which often helps to understand the users needs which is a way to successful project. Sites are scattered all around Glasgow and varies in sizes and conditions which also dictates the type of the project (playground, outdoor exhibition, outdoor teaching space, etc..) NDSM Wharf site is industrial and separated from the city centre of Amsterdam. However, the location reflects the project goal to create vibrant space outside the city centre and enhance the area by bringing a variety of uses and activities. ZNA/Coopolis is orientated into off central areas where the rent prices cannot be high due to location. The rented vacant units diversify the district and creates multi- functional urban fabric. Furthermore, more action brings more tenants in the neighbourhood.

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CHAPTER 4 Conclusions [Recommendations and Design Game Plan] + what could Kaunas learn from other cities example? + who could be potential users, developers, sponsors? + how empty space could be used?


Fig.84 Comparison of land area and population in analysed cities (Autor’s image)


4. Strategies and Recommendations

4.2 Re-cycling | Up-Cycling abandoned buildings


This term is targeting abandoned buildings that lie vacant for many years. The building itself in this case is a waste. Once belonging to the urban life cycle for one or other reason it has stopped functioning. Thus, there are two options:

4.1 Benefits The research carried out addresses the issue of disused and abandoned spaces and claims that temporary use can be the catalyst for urban development. However, it is not currently solving the issue of profitability. Behind temporary use are many people who are stepping into business or it is their side-line activity. Thus, disused space is fertile ground for experimentation and provides opportunity for them to learn. Although, it is in temporary use developer’s hand to find the right way to act: how to base their business idea on a solid footing, how their business will profit or for which funding they will apply. However, existing businesses and governmental infrastructure bodies should consider: how these businesses can grow; what financial instruments are available for their support; or what needs to be improved in the overall infrastructure of the city. There are countless benefits that temporary use developers bring, but the most important are:

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+ demolish it and recycle the material + up-cycle - put it back into the urban cycle by giving new function. Temporary use is a good example of up-cycling of abandoned buildings. The design tactics described in the Chapter 2 illustrate and teach design strategies for disused space. Disused building should be filled with plug-in or stackable units. Additionally the ‘container’ concept could work for both closed and open spaces. However, designs that are not incorporated into wider system might not function for long. This is why it is important to create systems which connect abandoned spaces into the continuous cycle meaning that if the space is left unused again after previous temporary users it could find new ones soon.

+ improving the image of the city as well as improving its infrastructure as these temporary use activities comes with a package of other services nurturing an entirely new culture of dining, clubbing, shopping as well as new museums, theatres and concert halls. [1] + it often connects small business and big business as sometimes temporary use provides a platform for product placement and marketing schemes. For example Nike and Adidas often support and sponsor temporary activities related with sports. They seek to enlist young creatives as trendsetters. [2] +it advertises disused places and shows up the possibilities for its future development. +community based temporary use activities strengthen social bonds and enable people get to know each other better and expand their networks.

Below are recommendations for the implementation of temporary use specifically for Kaunas city:

1 Sharon Zukin The Culture of Cities (Cambridge, MA:Blackwell,1995) 2 Philipp Oswalt,Klaus Overmeyer and Philipp Misselwitz, Urban Catalyst The Power Of Temporary Use, (Berlin: DOM Publishers, 2013) p.353

3 Richard Florida, The Creative Class And How It’s Transforming Work, Leisure , Community and Everyday Life, (New York:Basic books, 2002)

4.1 Raising awareness In Kaunas the main problem is the overall awareness of the benefits of interim use which are not limited to the people who are practicing it. Companies, big and small benefit from innovative sponsorship and advertising opportunities, boosting their profile as well as that of the city itself. Attractive cities aim to attract young creative people. Richard Florida describes the creative city strategy as being no different from earlier decades: from employees in service industry to “independents” from the creative sector. [3] The case studies shed light on the actors and

tools which should be playing in this field. -Municipality -Urbanists and Architects -Universities and Schools (involvement in organised projects and teaching about green economies) -Communities Tools: -Marketing (on site and online) -Events and Festivals -Public Urban games 4.2 Densification From the Fig we see that the population in comparison with area is extremely small which directly affects the lack of uses and users. Furthermore, the diagram (Fig 12. p.31) shows that most of vacant space is above commercial units. However Kaunas is a student city and possibly those spaces could be orientated to student usage. Although, bringing temporary activities away from commercial zones would probably be easier. As the case studies shows, most of the projects are situated outside city centre. However, temporary use could be used as the tool of densification as in the example of Coopolis - bringing new activities and jobs to contribute to the enhancement of the area. 4.3 Diversification Diversification, especially in Kaunas’ residential areas, is crucial. At the moment Kaunas is a centralised city. Therefore, majority of activities are concentrated there. However, bringing diversity of uses to the neighbourhood districts could increase movement around the city as well as interest in other city areas. Furthermore, localised businesses in residential districts would allow people to live and work there instead of commuting. Green area activation is extremely important for the aforementioned residential areas as many young families with children live there. Children need green spaces on which to play, this in turn boosts community spirit and strengthens ties.

The case of the temporary use agency clearly illustrates the importance of enabling and creating opportunities rather than dictating them. The example of NDSM Wharf shows that a creative hub with variety of uses put into area which is mainly industrial still works. It heals the gap and tracks more different people to the area. Local businesses also benefit from that. 4.4 Digital Urbanity- public participation and activation Internet and new digital tools like apps, interactive maps, data maps etc, are useful aids in the development of temporary use. It allows knowledge to spread quickly, allows advertisement and can be employed to encourage public participation. A good example is the ‘yoursqft’ project in San Francisco ( It allows you in few clicks to see the cost of having your own temporary cafe shop, organising board game nights etc. The ease of access to information encourages participation and creativity. Having a database is the key to Coopolis project. Being aware of what spaces are available to participate in their project and knowing the people who might be involved helps them to mediate between them. It also eases the process for the initiator and vacant shop owner. The participant who maybe does not have enough knowledge or clear idea of his business plan but is willing to do something is able to speak with professionals. They in turn can help to develop their client’s idea and find the appropriate space while at the same time they help the owner to find a tenant. Overall, it is clear that knowledge combined with innovative and creative skills is essential and new technology is the tool. Diagram below (Fig 85) summarizes the Chapter depicting the system as a prototype. Diagram (Fig 86) presents the proposed way of incorporation of the System within the city of Kaunas.

Chapter 4 79

Chapter 4 80


Fig.85 Temporary use operation diagram (Autor’s image)

Chapter 4 81

Typical microdistrict plan

Chapter 4 82


][ ][ ][ ]

[In 1] The model of temporary use [Tu] is taken as a group of activities and placed together within the space. It would more commonly apply to big disused spaces and factories.

[In2] The model of temporary use [Tu] is taken as a seperate elements and are movable units around the space. (In this case space around the housing)

[In 3] The model of temporary use [Tu] is taken as a seperate activities which are plug-in to the small spaces (In this case shops)

[In 4] The model of temporary use [Tu] can be applied mixing all three different strategies if the area has all three typologies of disused space.

Fig.86 Design tactics define the method of placing temporary use system (Author’s diagram)

Chapter 4 83

APPENDIX [View of the temporary use developer] +why? +how?



Appendix 86

Fig 87: Nul Zes Studio in Eindhoven. Courtesy Zabulionis, S. , 2013

NuL Zes, Eindhoven (2013) Nul Zes is a young creative studio and initiative of ten people which was established in 2013 . Simas who is a design graduate and one of the cooperation founder tells the story of Nul Zes. ‘‘While studying in the Design School me and some coursemates decided to work together and look for the studio space. In Netherlands there are such ‘‘anti-squad” companies who rent the disused spaces cheaply. We got the place in one school. However, soon the space was not big enough and we were not happy about not being able to do anything with walls (paint, screw..etc). In Eindhven municipal has started to work strongly on the scheme to regenerate disused buildings and sites and support young initiative people. That is how our plan of multi-functional exhibition and studio space got the building in the old territory of energy production factory. At the moment we are renting the space for a little fee. At the start we did not have money to equip and refurbish the space well . Thus, we started to clean the space out and ‘‘undress’’ the building from unnecessary finishes and decorations. We contacted some construction companies which were able to help us with materials. We got timber planks which were used for the terrace and some interior fittings. When the space looked ready for the public we have started to organise little events and in collaboration with one club -some concerts too. That is how we earn some money to develop our practice. In 2013 Nul Zes studio became one of the centre during Einhoven design week. We fund most of the project as it is easier to deal with the municipal if you say we just need a space without financial support. However, for the big events different permissions and regulations apply. Thus, at the moment we keep ourselves more ‘‘underground’’. (Interview 12 February 2014)

Appendix 87

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Empower the disused: temporary use recipes for Kaunas  

University of Strathclyde Bsc Architectural Studies Year 4 Dissertation

Empower the disused: temporary use recipes for Kaunas  

University of Strathclyde Bsc Architectural Studies Year 4 Dissertation