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CHENGDU SMART CITY The 5th Ring as low carbon urban incubator

CHORA, TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany Summer Semester, 2012 Progress Report


Index 1. Introduction.......................................................................... 11 2. Initial Research..................................................................... 13 2.1. Incubators....................................................................... 17 2.1.1. Geography & Energy Systems................................ 19 2.1.2. Political Social and Cultural Situation in China........ 31 2.1.3. Economy.................................................................. 47 2.2. Smart City........................................................................ 57 2.2.1. The Corporate View of Smart Cities........................ 59 2.2.2. Smart Citites Components....................................... 71 2.2.3. Case Studies of Smart Cities................................... 81 2.3. Prototype Methodologies................................................ 93 2.3.1. Innovation & Clusters............................................... 97 2.3.2. Science Industrial Park Case Studies...................... 103 2.3.3. Intelligent Regoins Case Studies............................. 117

3. Mini Scenarios...................................................................... 123 3.1. What are Mini Scenarios................................................. 126 3.2. Bean Throwing................................................................ 129 3.3. Mini Scenarios................................................................ 130 4. Operational Fields................................................................ 187 4.1. What are Operational Fields........................................... 189 4.2. Operational Fields........................................................... 193 5. Scenario Games................................................................... 209 5.1. What are Scenario Games.............................................. 211 5.2. Scenario Games............................................................. 214 6. Prototypes............................................................................. 257 6.1. Water Energy Landscape................................................ 261 6.2. Innovative Transport Backbone...................................... 267 6.3. Manufacturing Innovation................................................ 272 6.4. Blossom Into Participation.............................................. 279 6.5. Smart Trafic System........................................................ 285 6.6. Landscape Activator........................................................ 291 6.7. Virus Green..................................................................... 297 6.8. Intelligent Waste Cycle.................................................... 303


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1. Introduction Chengdu is one of the fastest growing cities in China and gains importance as a location for manufacturing and industrial production, in particular for the high-tech industry. Ever since the development of China´s coastal regions, the current governmental inland cities such as Chengdu as the capital of China´s Sichuan province. The pace of urban development is increasing, international enterprises continuously rises. Therefore it is necessary to develop planning strategies to react on the spatial expansion and to develop an adequate sustainable and predominantly apply on peripheral areas that are getting developed through the process of urbanization, such as the 5th ring area around Chengdu city. Here, the city plans to create new industrial facilities to guarantee Chengdu`s future economic growth, but also has to adhere carbon emission targets and therefore needs to develop smart ways to integrate different technologies and dynamic processes into their future development process. Regarding the 5th ring area as an experimental territory and incubator for city planning

strategies, we developed several ideas and concepts that are getting explained more detailed in the following chapters of this booklet. Guided and supervised by Chora Design Studio, all groups that participated in the project “Smart Chengdu City – The 5th ring as low carbon incubator” prepared their projects according to a certain format given by Chora. To understand certain processes and the used “Urban Gallery” as a tool to test and simulate our concepts. Therefore each working group created several Mini-Scenarios [MS], existing space. According to the results of the Mini-Scenarios and the previous research, each team then worked out Operational Fields [OF], which are basically showing dynamic processes that are happening in the area or might be implemented in the future. Summing-up the problems and potentials of the 5th ring area, each group then created Prototypes [PT] in order to bring several processes together and to create a system, which is based on the concepts and ideas that each group wants to realize within the area.

These three elements of the Urban Gallery enabled us to simulate our concepts through a Scenario Game, which we brought over to Chengdu. There we played it with local stakeinvolved in the urban planning process of the Chengdu 5th ring. As a participatory tool the Scenario Game made people understand the concepts and ideas that we previously created and helped them to communicate with each other about the project. Based on the research and the analysis of the game we can now extract further problems and potentials and adjust our Prototypes to on site.

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2. Initial Research

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The following chapters are a compilation of research into the questions “what is an incubator”, “what is a smart city” and “what is a prototype”. These questions guided our research into Chengdu’s fifth ring and its potential as a smart city incubator. The research is split into three components that unpack the terms incubator, smart city and prototype. The first research component explores the notion of a low-carbon incubator, understanding the term ‘incubator’ as a process, object or person that jumpstarts a method of life. This research component also analyses the potential and current conditions of Chengdu’s 5th ring, from its climate and

morphology through to the social, cultural, political and economic conditions that shape the landscape. The second research component unpacks the term ‘Smart City’ which is increasingly being adopted to describe cities of the future. The term has been adopted by many businesses and corporations and is often shrouded in rhetoric and ambiguity. This research attempts to unpack this corporate view of ‘smartness’ and analyses the components that come together to form a smart city. This section also analyses several case studies of ‘smartness’ that are currently being tested in cities around the world.

regions, science and industrial parks and innovation clusters. The term prototype is understood as a model that can be tested and modified before being multiplied and spread to new contexts. This research analyses the social, political, economic and architectural factors that need to come together to form a prototypical cluster. This body of work becomes a reference base, informing our design research and prototype interventions. These three topics of research are incredibly broad and complex; the following chapters seek to offer a window into this complexity.

The final research component explores the notion of the prototype by analysing smart

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An incubator is an essential factor in the growth of any one thing. The most common use of the term defines an apparatus which helps the processing of an animal, person or thing to reach full potential. An incubator can be a process, an object, even a person; anything that jump starts a method of life. Normally , scientific incubators consist of a heated box that allows eggs to hatch artificially in controlled conditions for protection and care. Economically speaking, a business incubator is designed to foster entrepreneurship as well as to help start-up companies grow through the use of shared resource, management expertise and intellectual capital. Furthermore, a commercial property can be

or thing are measured and this helps determine whether the incubator has in fact been successful. Ideally, regardless of what was implemented would now provide a low-carbon structure. As shown in the diagram, multiple categories could be implemented as incubators within the 5th ring. Such categories have subsidiary components that focus on individual factors within the ring. The individual factors are measured based upon the level of potential that we deemed available. For example, climate mitigation was proposed as an overall category to focus on. Within this category, energy production and energy efficiency were the secondary categories. From these separate subcategories, literal methods of energy

divided into small work units which in turn provides equipment and support to new businesses. A successful incubator is tested over a speci fic area and applied to broader expansive spaces over time. In order to cultivate and further the existence of a process within Chengdu, a single prototype must be conceived. The incubators within the 5th ring of Chengdu need to have an overlying focus on low carbon testing in order to better the environmental issues within the city. With particular focuses on energy, economy and politics, several prototypes can be implemented. An effective incubator is ideally composed of two parts: process and product. Process includes the details of the systematic output. This outlines the physical method of how the incubator works and what changes are being realized over time. The process is carried out by supporting low-carbon development and trying to reach that foreseeable goal through mediums such as energy, economic or political concerns. The product defines the area that is affected and assisted. The overall changes that have been made to the area

production and efficiency were addressed. Again, based upon the existing environment, we justified the different levels of use. Biomass has more potential for energy production than wind or solar based upon the environmental conditions and capacity of Chengdu. Furthermore, in regard to energy efficiency, consumption posed to be more vital than distribution or production because of the high population numbers within the area. Production will always be taking place and distribution is also necessary but consumption is most vital. The same has been done with other categories such as climate adaptation, nature, culture, politics, economy and infrastructure. In summation economically and energy related incubators will help foster the 5th ring of Chengdu and realize a low-carbon solution.


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The Low-Carbon Incubator Strengths and Opportunities

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2.1.1. Geography and Energy Systems Group 1.1 Authors: Gerrit Eggers, Er Hu, Christina Peis

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1. Abstract Regarding the 5th ring of Chengdu city as a low carbon incubator and therefore as space to implement and graft new ways and ideas of constructional urbanism, it is necessary to know about the current configuration of spatial structure in terms of on-site settings of topography and energy economics. As a basis for a conceptual development of own prototypical ideas, that are expedient for implementation and further elaboration within the planning process, we first need to know about current grievance and hence collect data of what China and Chengdu in particular seems to be like today. China‘s strong productivity growth, spurred by the 1978 market-oriented reforms, is the leading cause of China‘s unprecedented economic performance (Hu and Kahn 1997). Due to this progress, the people’s overall living standard and quality of life were improved considerably, and the consumption pattern of the society continues its shift from basic living to one of modern living. Especially the urban areas have been developed as well, whereupon millions of rural Chinese have migrated to urban China seeking for higher incomes and better standards of living. “Nearly all of China’s population growth in the past twenty years has occurred in cities. Over the past fifty years, the country’s urban population has increased more than seven-fold, from 72 million in 1952 to 540 million in 2004. Demographers project, that if urbanization continues at the rate of 1 percent annually, an estimated nine-hundred million Chinese will live in cities by 2020” (Li 2006, p.1). To prepare the urban space for all these people, the Chinese government pushes on the development of infrastructure inside and around the urban areas. The cities stretch out over its suburbs rapidly and the process of urbanization turns out to be a process of urban space expansion. The expansion of urban land scale and the occupation of agricultural land by urban construction are inexorable.

Suburbia appears as vast construction site, and the shortage of time for complying with the demand of living space consequences constructions of inferior quality. The Chinese population has now reached 1.36 billion. To meet their needs the country is building around two billion square meters a year, which uses about 50 percent of the world’s cement production (Kornevall 2007). Around half of the world’s new buildings go up in China each year and the construction and building materials consume 16 to 18 percent of China’s energy use. But only 53 percent of these new buildings had met national energy conversation standards. For this reason, the Chinese government released several regulations to curtail the pollution and decrease the construction of energy-guzzling buildings (bdnews24.com 2008). For the future the abidance of sustainable construction methods will become a primary concern.

Image 1, Yangtze Tributaries

2. Geography China covers an area of 9.571.302 km² and is therefore more than 26 times bigger than Germany. This huge area includes all types of topographical patterns and various temperature zones. The distance from North to South amounts around 4500 km, from East to West 4200 km. Its coastal line amounts 14.500 km, its highest mountain is the Mount Everest with a total hight of 8848 meters, on the border line to Nepal. Its longest and most important river is the Yangtze with a total length of 6300 km. It flows according to the geographical structure of the country from West to East, which means from the high plateaus with its glaciers and little rainfall, to the lowlands with plenty of rainfall and humidity. Due to its topography the land that can be used for settlements and agriculture is very limited, untenantable areas like deserts, mountains and swamplands are quite numerous. Since the whole East of the country consists of conditions, that are appropriate for settlement structures, this part of China contains most of its urban areas and hosts most of its 1,36 billion inhabitants.

Image 2, Chinese Municipalities

Image 3, Topography of China 21


After the government enacted the market reforms in 1978, the economical development has been driven from the Pearl River Delta in the South to nowadays Liaoning Province in the North and caused tremendous growth of the industrial sector. Since the areas in the East are mostly developed now, first tier cities in the Western parts shall follow in the future. China´s Sichuan Province covers an area of 485.000 km², from which its capital Chengdu has 12.346 km². An estimated 10.440.000 people are living in this city, but since all first and second tier cities in China are constantly increasing its population, new people are rushing in every day. Nowadays the density of population within the city amounts 845,6 inhabitants per square kilometer, varying from area to area. The climate is comparatively convenient with four seasons and a temperature average between 6 to 25 degrees. During summer the rainfall increases and according to temperatures around 25 degrees celsius Chengdu area is known as a misty place.

Image 4, Average Temperatures in Chengdu

Image 7, descripition, caption

Image 5, Average Temperature Differences in Chengdu

Image 8, descripition, caption

Image 6, Average Rainfall in Chengdu

Image 9, descripition, caption

3. Water System Situated in the red basin, the Fuhe river flows through the province, which is spring-fed by the Minjiang river. Already in 256 B.C. a smart irrigation system was built up in the North-West of Chengdu in order to provide a sufficiant amount of water for agricultural use for all adjacent areas. The amount of water in the river depends on the season and since thaw water of the high plains makes the rivers swell during spring, the Dujiangyan System devides the stream into two parts and provides flood protection during the wet season and an adequate amount of fresh water during the dry season. This was a fundamental reason for the development of the area through agriculture and a key driver for the constant growth of Chengdu as the capital of Sichuan Province. As a neighboring province next to the Tibetian Plateau, which is basically a massive fresh water reservoir Chengdu is in the focus of attention for future water22


development plans and plays a key role for whole China´s water management. The settlement structure of China is determined through its geography and the Eastern areas are highly populated. This enormous amount of people sharing a limited area in terms of resource supply causes declining ground water levels. All Mega Cities are affected and the further you go to the North, the more dry it gets. In the future the supply with fresh water decides about the development opportunities of Chinese urban areas and the supervision of water bringing streams will become an issue of high priority and national security.

4. Generation of Electricity China´s demand of electricity for its increasing population during the last decades has been unstoppable. And still, urbanization goes hand in hand with industrialization and therefore the need of energy has been never bigger than today. After the country experienced rapid economic growth after the market oriented reforms in 1978, China became the manufacturing plant for the whole world and had to find a solution to provide all its industries with energy. The easiest and at that time most efficient way of generating electric energy was the construction of coal-fired power plants in high number. But since China is not rich of fossil fuels, new ways and methods had to be implemented. In 2006 the ‘Three Gorgeous Dam’, which is the worlds biggest hydro-electric power plant was completed and step by step will increase its capacity up to 22.500 MW. Besides hydro-power, wind-power and geothernal energy is used to feed the country energy. Biomass gains a more and more important role and is a very interesting resource, regarding the fact, that China was an agriculturally structured country over centuries and provides huge amounts of crop waste every year after the harvest season.

Image 10, Carbon Footprint

Beeing the world´s production plant in many respects, the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere is getting higher and higher and has overtaken the emission rate of the USA already. The world and especially European 23


countries notice this development with concern, but on the other hand are highly interested in developing the secondary sector with their own enterprises, who can find proper locational factors in China due to cheap labour costs and convenient regulations for production. A long term goal is definitely to become more sustainable in terms of energy production, but since the main priority lies in strengthening the economic growth, manufacturing will be the driving force of development and has to be taken in consideration at any point of regional planning. Through technological success during the last decades, China now is able to set up nuclear power plants for the generation of electric power and soon will exonerate some of the coal-fired power plants. This will definitely reduce China´s overall CO2 emission and stabilize its power distribution during the next years.

5. Tectonics China´s Sichuan Province is embedded in an earthquake active area and naturally suffers earthquakes every now and then. The last big earthquake, which caused high damage was the Wenchuan earthquake from May 2008. The epicenter was 80 km west-northwest of Chengdu and measured at 8.0 Ms and and 7.9 Mw. Officially 69,197 people are confirmed dead, including 68,636 in Sichuan province, and 374,176 injured, with 18,222 listed as missing. The earthquake left about 4.8 million people homeless, but the number could be as high as 11 million. Unfortunately a tremendous amount of school buildings collapsed due to inferior construction quality, which caused civil commotion at that time. The central government estimates that over 7,000 inadequately engineered schoolrooms collapsed in the earthquake and therefore Chinese citizens invented a catch phrase: “tofu-dregs schoolhouses”, to indicate fleer quality and quantity of these defective constructions.

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Image 11, Tectonic Map of Sichuan


5. Renewable Energies Today China is one of the leading countries of the world in the range of renewable energies. About 17 percent of China’ s electricity came from renewable sources in 2009, led by the world’s largest number of hydroelectric generators. China has an extremely high energy requirement. Due to the high consumption of carbon-intensive fossil fuels, which is responsible for the country´s negavtive press related to environmental issues, China need a restructuring of its energy supply . Fossil fuels such as coal, crude oil and gas account for almost 90% of China´s entire energy production. Coal alone provides 70% of China´s electricity. To increase the use of renewable energies China expose a two trillion yuan plan (194 billion euro) to reduce the country´s green house gas emission while sustaining its economic growth. Now the goal is to replace 15 percent of the nation´s coal, oil and natural gas consumption by hydropower, biomass and biofuels, wind power, solar energy, geothermal, tidal and biogas energy. To develop these goals the 12th Five Year Plan, including the years 2011-2015, focus on the extension of energy from renewable sources in China. Ambitious targets is the planted share of renewable energies of 21 % by 2020. The capacities of wind power , solar and biomass four-fold from 50 gigawatts in 2010 to 200 gigawatts at the end of the decade.

Image 12, investments in RET

China has identi fied wind power as a key growth component of the country´s economy. It has the largest wind resources in the world and becomes the world´s biggest producer of wind turbines exceeded Denmark, Germany, Spain and the United States (three quarters of the resources are offshore). In 2009 China had total installed capacity of windpower up to 26 GW. Hydro power is also increasing. China had a total installed capacity of hydropower of 197 GW in 2009 and thus have the earth´s biggest number of hydroelectric generatiors.

Image text, descripition, caption Image13, share of RE

Image 14, location of RE 25


China has become the world´s largest manufacturer of solar panels in the last two years. 30% of the worlds solar photovoltaics are created in China. Also bioenergy and biofuels play an important role in the proposed energy mix. China became the globe`s third biggest producer of ethanol bio-fuels. The country intends to produce six megatons per year of fuel ethanol capacity. However it is questionable if there is a risk to food security in spite of the extent of manufacturing monocultures so that there will be growing rivalry globally among bio-fuels and food consumption for agricultural goods. Geothermal resources are extensively distributed but make a lower contribution. There are over 2700 hot springs occurring at the surface, making China to the second direct user of geothermal energy in the world.

Image15, share of solar hot water

Image 16, Dongtan Ecocity

Renewable energies actually look promising. Chinese experts state that China could generate all of its electrical power needs from wind energy by 2030.

6. Eco Cities Spectacular building projects are developed who promise zero carbon discharge, energy from renewable sources and zero waste. In Dongtan the consultancy Arup designed a city which use only sustainable energies. The project should establish place for 500.000 inhabitants. Solar panles, wind turbines and biomass-based fuels will produce all the energy. Roofs are covered with photovoltaic cells and micro wind turbines. Further energy will be produced by a large wind turbine farm outside the city. W aste will be recycled and organic waste be loaded into large bioreactors to produce electricity and heat. The construction of green vegetations and water areas should cool down the areas and help to reduce the energy consumption (Venn, 2008). The intention is to reduce the ecological footprint of Dongtan, but before building up those projects it used a reorganization of behaviour change and energy ef ďŹ ciency. 26

Image 17, Dongtan Ecocity


7. Historical Development The development of urban space in Chengdu is a long historical process. Chengdu is the breeding and development center of Shu Han culture, which has more than 3,000 years history . And it’ s the core city of Chengdu Plain Economic Zone. The development of the spatial form of Chengdu is a ecological processes of city and water intertwined, the natural environment, ecosystems have been protected and continued, which includes the relationship between man and nature, man and society . Ancient times has gone through three stages.(Chen et al., 2009)

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Image 18, Chengdu in 213 B.C, Qin

1.1 The water is the polymerization of the core elements of ancient Chengdu native period, a profound impact on the formation and development of ancient Chengdu spatial form. Chengdu Plain region is rich in water resources.But the Chengdu initial formation is aimed to avoid the flooding.About 2500-1700 years BC, due to flooding on the Chengdu Plain, an arc-shaped historical trajectory of migration, the rule of the water , decision of location is formated. Thus, a relatively independent city core is born, its shape has a bottom-up self-organizing formation law. (Guo, 2008) 1.2 From Qin, Ming to Qing Dynasty , due to the important in fluence of the political, economic, cultural, environmental and other factors on the development of urban space, Chengdu experienced four periods of construction. In 311 BC, Qin Xianyang formed construction of Chengdu city wall, Chengdu’s urban spatial pattern is basically settled down. Shu-Shou Li Bing built the Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, in order to lead Minjiang River into the the traffic network of Chengdu Plain. Since then, Chengdu, from the ancient to modern times, has always maintained a good urban ecological environment, the city of water dependency , river systems. (Zhang et al., 2006)

Image 19, Chengdu in 927, Shu

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Image 20, Chengdu in 100, Han

Image 21, Chengdu in 1700, Qing

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Image 22, Chengdu in 763, Tang

Image 23, Chengdu in 1920, End of Qing 27


List of references: bdnews24.com (2008) ‘China is still building ‘energy-guzzling’ buildings’ Overview [online], available: http://dev.bdnews24.com/details.php?id=88415&cid=23 [accessed: 02 Feb 2012]. Hu, Z. and Kahn, M.S. (1997) ‘Why Is China Growing So Fast?’, IMF Working Paper, 96(75), available: http://www.imf.org/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/ISSUES8/issue8.pdf [accessed: 31 Jan 2012]. Kornevall, C. (2007) ‘China is building like never before’ EEB Blog [online], 04 Apr, available: http://wbcsd.typepad.com/eeb/2007/04/china_is_buildi.html [accessed: 01 Feb 2012]. Li, Z. (2006) ‘Rapid Growth of China’s Cities Challenges Urban Planners, Migrant Families’, Blakelycity Talk, 27 Jun, available: http://www.blakelycitytalk.com/chinese-urbanism/2011/1/2/chinas-emerging-urbanism.html [accessed: 29. Jan 2012]. True-green-living (2012) ‘True-green-living’, available: http://true-green-living.com/renewable-energy-in-china/ [accessed: 07 Mai 2012, 19h32]. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2011) Population Facts, 01-2011, United Nations publication. Venn, Alexander. (2008) http://images.google.de/imgres?q=dongtan&hl=de&biw=1280&bih=911&tbm=isch&tbnid=nlQnR9xpapgO4M:&imgrefurl=http://www.cireview.de/ masterplan/dongtan-die-grune-stadt-zur-expo-2010/&docid=grKPquMAx_Qo7M&imgurl=http://www.cireview.de/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/dongtangross.jpg&w=100 0&h=425&ei=8oOqT7HzM8n0sgbRoIXmBg&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur=552&sig=108070482475938041642&page=1&tbnh=84&tbnw=197&start=0&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429 ,r:1,s:0,i:85&tx=79&ty=29 [accessed: 07 Mai 2012]. Wikipedia (2012) ‘Renewable energy in the People’s Republic of China’, available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renewable_energy_in_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China [accessed: 07 Mai 2012, 19h32]. Woetzel, J., Mendonca, L., et al (2009) ‘Preparing for China`s urban billion: Executive summary’, Washington D.C.: McKinsey Global Institute

List of illustrations: fig. 1, 2, 3:

available at http://vimeo.com/31101293 [accessed: 01 May 2012].

fig. 4, 5, 6:

available at: http://lithosphere.gsapubs.org/content/3/2/128/F1.large.jpg [accessed: 30 Apr 2012]. earthquake

fig. 7:

available at: http://climatelab.org/@api/deki/files/504/=Figure_1.png [accessed: 29 Apr 2012]. Energy consumption

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fig. 8:

available at: http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/energy-issues/china/graphics/China.jpg [accessed: 01 May 2012]. Electricity

fig. 9:

http://www.amchamchina.org/download?path=/cmsfile/2010/03/08/9f1721db57d92548055be05888b45709.jpg [accessed: 01 May 2012].

fig. 10:

available at: http://www.photosfan.com/images/carbon-emissions-per-country1.jpg [accessed: 01 May 2012]. CO2 world map

fig. 11:

available at: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/content/425/299/F2.large.jpg [accessed: 29 Apr 2012]. earthquake

fig. 12:

available at: http://www.n24.de/media/import/afp/afp_20100325_15/photo_1269526076003-2-0.jpg [accessed: 08 Mai 2012]. Investments in RET

fig. 13:

available at: http://i234.photobucket.com/albums/ee274/biopact3/biopact_renewables_china_2020.jpg?t=1189096633 [accessed: 30. April 2012]. share of RE by 2020

fig. 14:

available at: http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/renewable-energy-resources/asia/Wind/china2_files/p9.gif [accessed: 08 Mai 2012]. location of RE

fig. 15:

available at: http://www.energyrace.com/images/uploads/commentary/solarshare.jpg [accessed: 30 April 2012]. share of solar hot water

fig. 16:

available at: http://www.geolinde.musin.de/stadt/stadt/dongtan/6a00e54f957b18883300e553d22fb98834-800wi.jpg [accessed: 07 Mai 2012]. Dongtan Ecocity

fig. 17:

available at: http://www.cireview.de/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/dongtangross.jpg [accessed: 07 Mai 2012]. Dongtan Ecocity

fig. 18 - 23, 24, 26, 28: available at http://vimeo.com/31101293 [accessed: 01 May 2012]. fig. 25:

available at http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/news/NasaNews/ReleaseImages/20031212/hires/08_chengdu1.tif [accessed: 01 May 2012]. Chengdu in 1990

fig. 27:

available at http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/news/NasaNews/ReleaseImages/20031212/hires/09_chengdu2.tif [accessed: 01 May 2012]. Chengdu in 2000

fig. 29:

available at http://eoimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/images/news/NasaNews/ReleaseImages/20031212/hires/10_chengdu3.tif [accessed: 01 May 2012]. New urban growth from 1990-2000

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2.1.2. Political, Social and Cultural Situation in China Group: 1.2 Authors: Giulia Minini, Anna Neuhaus, Marc Wendland, Xiaoyun Zhang

Heilongjiang Harbin Ürümqi Changchun

Jilin

Xinjiang

Shenyang

Liaoning Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol)

Hohhot

Beijing Tianjin

Hebei

Shijiazhuang Taiyuan

Yinchuan Xining

Qinghai

Ningxia

Shanxi

Jinan

Lanzhou

Shandong

Gansu

Zhengzhou

Xi'an

Shaanxi

Tibet (Xizang)

Henan

Jiangsu Nanjing Hefei

Lhasa

Chengdu

Sichuan

Zhejiang Changsha

Guiyang

Hangzhou

Wuhan

Chongqing

Guizhou

Shanghai

Anhui

Hubei

Hunan

Nanchang

Jiangxi

Fuzhou

Fujian

Kunming

Yunnan

Guangxi

Guangdong

Nanning

Guangzhou

Hong Kong Macau

Haikou

Hainan

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1. The new chinese dream and its influence on housing The dominant typology of housing in general and the most common typology of residential areas in particular are strongly related to political social and kultural factors. These factors lead to certain housing typolopolitical and kulural processes. Worldwide the number of Gated Communities is inseveral factors that are related to a fast growing society undergoing many transformations (Anne Glück). The Graph on the right shows some of the parameters that are contributing the developement of Gated Communities and shows how they are developing in China and in Chengdu in particular. The big difference regarding the average income in rural and urban areas-The people in the cities earned about 3,2 times as much than in rural areas (FAZ)leads to migration inside the country and contributes to the fast growth of the cities. Chengdu had a population of three million people in 1991 and in 2010 it was 13,5 miliions already. Also the average income is rising rapidly and the buying power for real estate is increasing. Another important parameter is the “Property Law” from 2007. From then on people could buy their own houses and appartments and could pass them on to their children. It became a big social goal to achieve this. In the following it is shown how these developements togetehr with other social factors are leading to Gated Communities.

20000

Possibilaty to pass on

18000 16000 14000

INCREASING DIFFERNCE IN INCOME LEADS TO MIGRATION

12000 10000 8000

GROWTH OF POULATION

6000 4000 2000 AVERAGE INCOME CITY I RURAL AREAS

3 mio

91

92

10.2 mio

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

01

02

12.6 mio

03

04

05

06

07

13,5 mio

08

09

10

YEARS 1991-2010

Factors contibuting to the developement of gated communities // drawn by the writer NATURAL POULATION GROWTH URBAN POPULATION GROWTH MIGRATION

+ NEW PROPERTY RIGHTS + NEW WEALTH + COMMUNISTIC SOCIALISATION

+ONE CHILD

REGULATION

_DESIRE TO PASS ON PROPERTY TO CHILD _DESIRE TO LIVE SAFE _DESIRE TO ENJOY WEALTH _DESIRE NOT TO BE TOO INDIVIDUALISTIC

>homogeneous neighbourhood

33


YEARS 1991-2010

NATURAL POULATION GROWTH

In China 96% of the people are living in the cities are living in “Gated Communities”. How is the desire to live in an enclosed community developing in China. Natural population growth and migration lead to a rapid growth of the cities poulation. The people in the city are enjoying a new wealth that they can now invest in real estate due to the new property rights from 2007. At the same time there is a growing difference between the rich and the poor in the cities (FAZ) but becasue the chinese culture is affected by socialist values individualism is not seen as a value (Has-

URBAN POPULATION GROWTH MIGRATION

+ NEW PROPERTY RIGHTS + NEW WEALTH + COMMUNISTIC SOCIALISATION

+ONE CHILD

REGULATION

_DESIRE TO PASS ON PROPERTY TO CHILD _DESIRE TO LIVE SAFE _DESIRE TO ENJOY WEALTH _DESIRE NOT TO BE TOO INDIVIDUALISTIC

>homogeneous neighbourhood

Parameters contibuting the developement of gated communities// drawn by the wri

safe environment were they are not too differnt from their neighbours. A homogenious neighbourhood is desired. Also the chinese culture is oriantaded inwards (Hascommunities similar to gated communities already a millenium ago.

Ancient gated communities in China // http://wideurbanworld.blogspot.de

34


There are different types of gated communities in China. On the one side there are the communities of the rich who want to enjoy their new wealth and don´t want to differ from their neighbours- as described before. A variation is what can be called “vertical gated community” (Neuhaus)- high rise buildings where the entrance is surveilled in order to controle who is entering the building. On the other hand there are gated communities like Shoubaozhuang wich is a poor village of rural migrant workers. It is gated and closed over night and surveilled by surveillance cameras in order to prevent crime.

Image text, descripition, caption

http://topics.gannett.com

Image text, descripition, caption

Differnt types of gated communities// http://www.nytimes.com/

www.notesfromxian.com

Image text, descripition, caption

http://www.nytimes.com 35


In Chengdu the structures of the inwards orientated communities can be found in the whole city. They typically only have one entrance or road to enter the community. The structure of the community is inward orientaded and often shielded of to the sourroundind by stripes of green. The structure differs from the sourrounding urban structure and is not integrated .

2 1

5 3 4

The new chinese dream and its influence on housing sources http://www.bpb.de/gesellschaft/staedte/megastaedte/64722/wie-geht-es-weiter-mit-der-stadt?p=all http://www.cultiv.net/cultranet/1206196977Magisterarbe http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/china-wachsende-wut-auf-die-reichen-1408108.html http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/04/world/ asia/04beijing.html?_r=1 http://www.chinaforum-basel.ch/aktuell.

36

Inwards orientaded communities in Chengdu


2. Sings of Unrest In order to define the Chengdu incubator it is usefull to deepen the political situation of China, which of course is possibly to read also on the urban scale and which influences the urban planning. The political and social systems in China are characterized by a multitude of facets, aspects and processes, that make this country so rich. Articles about the signs of unrest are currently often in the newspapers all over the world, so these events are well known by most of the public opinion. The aim is to achieve a uniform overview of the signs of unrest that, on the occasion of the National People’s Congress, led up the Premier Wen Jiabao to talk about the need of a reform of the government system, which should be conformed to the economical growth. Some of these aspects are the complaints about The Great Firewall, the internet control, with the censorship of web sites and terms, and dissident artists and intellectuals protests to protect human rights. But the most important signs nowadays are the protests in the rural areas of China. In fact, people there do not live the economical miracle as the state middle class is experiencing. The protests are mainly caused by the rising corruption at several levels of the political administration, and this is exactly the main aspects that led up the Premier to talk about the political reform. Two recent cases explain people impatiance about corruption, the Wukan village case and the Bo Xilai case. The political leaders of this village were thrown out from the party after last year riots against the unjustified expropriations of tracts of land to be sold to real estate investors. On the other hand the high exponent of the party Bo Xilai lost favour after the scandal reported by all the newspapers in the last days.

Number of protests in China

180,000 reported "mass incidents"

2006

2010

Last decade

Chinese Academy of Governance

Rising protests

Protests in th rural areas

The Great Firewall. Banned websites and terms

Wukan case

Ai Weiwei, Bao Tong, Bao Zunxin, Cai Lujun, Cheng Jianping, Gao Zhisheng, Guo Quan, He Depu, Hu Jia, Huang Qi, Jiang Lijun, Jiang Yanyong, Li Hai, Li Zhi, Liao Yiwu, Liu Di, Liu Xiaobo, Lü Jiamin, Shi Tao, Tan Zuoren, Tang Baiqiao, Wang Bingzhang, Wang Dan, Wang Xiaoning, Wang Youcai, Wei Jingsheng, Yuan Hongbing, Zeng Jinyan, Zhao Changqing, Zhao Lianhai Detained and jailed dissidents

Bo Xilai Case 37


Dissident artists and intellectuals

References:

Protests against The Great Firewall

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240527023041 77104577303740612604260.html?mod=WSJEurope_ hpp_LEFTTopStories, download 27. April 2012 http://online.wsj.com/article/SB100014240527023044 44604577337951998961744.html?mod=WSJEurope_ hpp_LEFTTopStories, download 27. April 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/13/xi-jinpingprofile-china, download 27. April 2012

...

Protests against corruption

Rural areas’ protests

Rising protests

Protests in th rural areas

The Great Firewall. Banned websites and terms

Protests in th rural areas

Liu Xiaobo. Professor, Human rights activist. Nobel Prize ‘10

Wukan case

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/feb/13/xi-jinpingprofile-china, download 27. April 2012 http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2012/02/rising-protests-in-china/100247/, download 27. April 2012

38


3. Nationalities in Sichuan province Sichuan province has all the 56 nationalities of China. It’s another big province which has most nationalities beside Yunnan province. The population of minority nationalities is 4.9 million, which is 5% of Sichuan province in total. There are 14 minority nationalities have population more than 5000. And the autonalities area for them is 57% of Sichuan.

Nationalities in Sichuan province

Areas for minority nationalities in Sichuan province

Miao nationality

Yi nationality

Tibetan nationality

Qiang nationality

Each nationality keeps their culture and costoms. Some of them have their own language and chatactors. Some of them have their own calendar and festivals. And the religion there is also mixed.

39


3. Autonomaus region There are three main autonomaus region there, called Aba, Ganzi and Liangshan. They are in the west of Sichuan province. The land is full of beauty nature but not good for agriculture. As it is the original region for many nationalities, people there don’t want to move out.

40

ABa Tibetan & Qiang Autonomous Profecture

Nationalities in ABa Tibetan & Qiang Autonomous Profecture

Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Nationalities in Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture

Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture

Nationalities of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture


3. Preference policies There are many preference polices that offered by the government, like education, taxes, law and regulations, assistant program and culture.

the multivarioriant culture in Sichuan and the preference policy

Preference policy

Preference policies

41


4. Cultural imperialism of “Han-China” now and then What is culture? And how is it seen in China?

92 % han chinese population

As the “Han-Chinese” are the biggest ethnic group in China with an overwhelming 92 percent share of the entire chinese population it is more or less obvious that Nevertheless China counts 55 more nationalities than the Han, whereas some of them are still predominant in comparison to the “Han-Chinese” in the western provinces of China. Since the 1950’s this predominance of the native ethnic populations in the western provinces is slowly changing. Due to the fact that, even today 95 percent of the entire chinese population still lives in the eastern part of China, the People’s Republic of China has to face an immense overpopulation problem. As a part of the political effort to solve this problem the Chinese government came up with the “one-child policy”. Another offensive to rebalance the population distrubtion was and still is a fort settlement policy, that aims to settle a large number of “Han-Chinese” in the western provinces.

95 % of the entire chinese population

But this long term settlement policy of the chinese government was and is not only motivated by the overpopulation problem. of China strongly focused on after the end of the Chinese Civil War and the proclamation of the People’s far stronger motivation. population distribution in china

42


To create a stable and controlled situation in the former protectorates (so as Tibet, Huijiang (today Xinjiang) and the Mongolei) it was necessary not only to install the chinese governance structures but to make them a subordinate of the chinese motherland. But the chinese government did not only opress the former protectorates. They did also concentrate on an ongoing economic exploitement of these new provinces.

0,2 %

0,8 %

of the chinese population

The problem concerning this economic growth is that developpement. The people originated in the western provinces are often left behind, because they lack of education or are in generell considered second class citizens.

of the chinese population

tibet - autonomous region

tibet - historical region

What we see today in China is an upcoming acceptance and tolerance of the cultural and religious heritage of the national minorities. The opression of all “nonHan-conform“ tendencies seems to have descended to a very low level. One can only hope that the difference in social acceptance in society of the minor nationalities will also change in the near future. What the Chinese have to ask themselves what they really want.

numbers according to national chinese census:

6,1 % -

han population

92,8 %

tibetian population

by new cultural exchange and the developpement of both sides (Han and Minors). Or are they willing to assimilate all “non-conform” minorities in the western provinces by the overpresentation of “Han-people” and alienate them from their own cultural heritage?

numbers according to national chinese census:

34,5 %

han population

49,8 %

tibetian population

numbers according to tibetian government in exile:

7,5 mio.

han population

tibet - autonomous region

6 mio.

tibetian population

tibet - historical region

43


 

1,6 %

of the chinese population

Sources: - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Han_Chinese - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_ethnic_groups_in_ China - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China

numbers according to national chinese census of 1953:

6%

han population

75 %

uyghur population

- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_the_ People%27s_Republic_of_China - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tibet - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xinjiang

numbers according to national chinese census of 2000:

41 %

han population

- Neue Z端rcher Zeitung, Ressort Ausland, 6. Juni 2001, Nr.128, Seite 9 44

45 %

uyghur population

xinjiang - autonomous region


2.1.3. Economy Group 1.3 Authors: Ian Wrigt, Sabelo Jeebe, Xiaocun Gao, Philipp Perick

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

47


48


TITLE

1. development strategy In the 12th 5-year(2010-2015) plan, the most important principles is “Catching the opportunity to speed up of development”, the key to solve the problems in the provincestressed is to hold significant opportunities for development. Diagram 1: In the year 2010, there were almost half employment figures chose to work in the tertiary industry, in another word: service industry, which including education, financial services, News media, telecommunication, etc. Diagram 2: The chinese government decides to connect Chengdu, Chongqing and Xi’an, make them as a new economic triangle in southwest of China. Diagram 3: From this Diagram we can see, in Chengdu the investmens have the fastest growing speed. Diagram 4: Many economic strategy destricts are planned with different functions inside and around Chengdu before 2015. In all these functions, the government considered the most important is to develop the High-tech, new material, new energy and petrochemical industries. Apart from this, in the 12th fiveyear plan, the developing of tourist industry also plays a very important roll of economic of Chengdu. In this diagram, the 5 economic districhts have already existed by 2010. Now the focus is to make them really work like a virtuous circle. Diagram 5: With an emphasis on integrated transportation hub of infrastructure construction in the West of China. The first task is to build a national traffic code. It also mean to strengthen the social construction of urban or rural areas. Diagram 6: At the same time, they plan to build Chengdu as a global hub of International aviations, railways, highways for the economic, transportantion, high-tech productions, etc.

IMG

IMG

Group number Authors: Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

1. 2010’employment figures of the 3 main industries

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

2. The new economic circle of southwest (12th five-year plan)

IMGIMGIMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

3. Continuous growth (GDP, Population, Investment)

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

5. The national traffic code plan( in 12th five-year plan)

4. Planning economic strategy districts(12th 5-year plan)

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

6. International traffic connection plan(in 12th five-year plan) 49


2. Growth and Industrial Development

Chengdu has experienced physical growth as well as economical. In a twenty year period, it has roughly doubled in area. The industrial zones have been relocated and redeveloped during that period. In the 1990’s, the industrial areas were state-owned enterprises that were created by the government.

Chengdu growth and Industrial areas

Sichuan Pengzhou Industrial Zone

City Proper and Industrial Zones 1990

IMG

The miniscule red dots are TVE’s (Township Village Enterprises) that had formed their own version of an industrial park within the outskirts of the urban development. In 2000, the urban framework had extended and there were more industrial areas present within the boundary of the urban network. Furthermore, some of the TVE’s had developed into larger entities. Twelve years later, the industrial parks were much more concentrated. TVE’s are still present and there are many more of them now than a decade ago. In a large section of the right side of the city, the Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone is more regionally based with the Sichuan “area.” The Sichuan Pengzhou and Xinjing Industrial Zones located in the northern and southern outskirts are also more regionally based. Both the West and South Parks within the Chengdu Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zones are on a national scale and both have respective parks as subsidiaries. The western park has an included industrial and logistics park whereas the southern development zone has a software park within its boundaries.

City Proper and Economic Zones 2012

Chengdu Hi- Tech Industrial Development Zone (West Park)

GLP Chengdu Hifg- Tech Industrial & Logistics Park

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

City Proper and Industrial Zones 2000 Chengdu Economic and Technological Development Zone

Tianfu Software Park

Chengdu Hi- Tech Industrial Development Zone (South Park) Sichuan Xinjing Industrial Zone

Chengdu’s growth and location of industrial production

50


3. Industrial Development Zones Each zone has a different identity and function within the city of Chengdu. The Hi-Tech Zone mainly produces computer manufacturing for companies such as Intel, SAP and Unisem, which are four of about sixteen thousand companies. Within the Hi-Tech Zone, the Logistics Park specializes in transportation and storage whereas the Tianfu Software Park focuses on animations, games and research and development. Some companies situated in this park include: IBM, Amazon, Cisco, Symantec and Nokia-Siemens. The Sichuan Xinjing Zone mainly produces food for two hundred and sixteen companies along with additional manufacturing.

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

The Sichuan Pengzhou Zone is involved with building and construction for companies such as Holdings and Hualong. Lastly, the Economic and Technological Development Zone mainly produces textiles and chemicals.

References: - http://www.starmass.com/china_review/city_overview/ chengdu.htm - http://www.murrayfredericks.com/media/ - http://www.cdu.edu.cn/cdueng/about-sc-province.htm - http://www.chengdutime.com/web/show.asp?id=818 - http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2012/jan/21/risemegacity-live - http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2011-09/19/content_13729432.htm - www.chengdu.gov.cn/special/template Chengdu’s industrial development zones

51


4. Rural Urbanization

Town Proper, Old Town and Extensions

Informal Growth along Highway

Industrial Zone

The typical process of urban expansion which Chinese Megacities experience through modernisation and globalization is a complex topic. Various stakeholders parttake in the urbanization effecting different spatial patterns. The basic land use form around Chengdu is intensively used agricultural land interseted by a dense network of traditional villages. Beginning in the 1950’s Mao Zedong’s “Big Leap” policy fostered the industrialization of the rural countryside. Despite the failure of this plan so called Township Village Enterprises (TVE’s) again emerged in the 1970’s and from there on played a major role in the countries industrialization and modernization. While Chinas coastal regions as well as Chongqing saw the development of urban villages whith huge economic success, the Chengdu regions villages remained rather undeveloped with only small TVE’s. Growth during the first phase of market reforms occured mainly in an informal way along major road arteries. Beginning in the new Milennium the Chengdu government initiated large scale projects to develop the city as center of the countries underdeveloped interior. With the induction of several economic development zones around Chengdu foreign investment leads to an ever increasing expansion of production facilities and therefore attracts migrants from rural areas, increasing the population of the city.

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

Farmland and Villages with TVE’s

A fragmentation of the cities fringe is the result of this development. Fields, villages, High rise appartments and industrial areas are arranged in an peri-urban maze. Environmental problems such as loss of arrable land and social problems connected to eviction and loss of income base are just some negative aspects to be mentioned. Peri- Urban Structures arround Chengdu (Google maps)

52


5. Structures of the Urban Fringe There are four different structural typologies dominating the urban fringe of Chengdu. The oldest typology is that of the traditional chinese village, a cluster of courtyard buildings losely arranged. The villages west of Chengdu are larger and have a more distinct form than those in the eastern part of the city, where the hilly relief leads to smaller villages. The next structure evolved along new constructed highways due to the infrastructural benefits. These areas have an informal character and barely any spatial organization. They show a mutifunctional user pattern of residential and industrial. The third structure is a large scale urban expansion. Monofunctional suburban gated high-rise communities are the dominating typology. These are set in a system of superblocks which is non-permeable.

Structures of the Urban edge of Chengdu: 1. Traditional grown villages in agricultural landscape, TVE’s 2. Informal growth along major roads 3. Planned large scale city extension 4. Planned, large scale industrial zone

IMG

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

Another type of expansions develop as monofunctional industrial areas fostered as special economic zones. Also here superblocks dominate. All new expansions show a high grade of fragmentation and destroy existing structures. Additionaly they have a very high land consumption need and low eficiency. The rough urban layout, missing planning regulations and rapid unsustainable growthare the main reason for this

Peri- Urban Structures arround Chengdu

53


54


55


56


2.2. Smart City

Introduction What is a Smart City? How does it work? How do the people live in this city? What does it look like? In an attempt to define the “Smart City’ many questions arise. This chapter begins to shed light on this concept of “smartness” through three different approaches. The first approach analyses the corporate view of the smart city. The second breaks up the smart city into its different components. The third approach analyses case studies of Smart Cities that are already being realised. The best description that we can give to ‘The Smart City’ is a complex matrix. The intricacy of this matrix is developed further everyday by new technologies, ideas, social issues, and problems that have not been realised. The smart city at this time does not have a universal form and its possibilities are limitless. As architects and urban designers all we can do is try to make sense of this complexity and begin to give it form. 57


58


2.2.1. The Corporate View of Smart Cities Authors: Alex Cuming, John Williams, Lena Marike Wellmann

59


SMART CITY WEB RESEARCH CORPORATIONS IBM, Siemens, Phillips, Telekom, Audi & ARUP.

WHY ARE THE COMPANIES TRYING TO MAKE CITIES ‘SMART’?

WHAT IS THE COMPANY’S VIEW OF WHAT A ‘SMART CITY’ SHOULD BE?

For the first time in history, more than 50% of the earth’s population lives in cities. In the next 30 years the number of people living in cities will almost double from 3.5 billion to 6.3 billion. These companies see ‘Smart Cities’ as a necessary and unavoidable progression from our current ‘dumb’ models of city planning and management. A progression that is necessary if our cities are going to cope with this massive swell in population, but also a progression that is necessary for us to make in response to climate change. What must be kept in mind however is that these companies (unlike governments) are businesses with shareholders attempting to turn a profit. The concept of the ‘Smart City’ to these companies is a very powerful marketing tool capable of manipulating consumers emotions and creating customer loyalty. Each of these companies has a slightly different view of what makes a city smart and these different view points are often tailored to the goods a services that each of the companies provide.

The concept of the ‘smart city’ has gradually been creeping into the rhetoric of information technology companies over the last decade. ‘Smart Cities’ to these companies are cities that are connected, responsive and intelligent. They are cities that harness the vast pools of data that are already being collected in our cities everyday. Cities that organise and respond to this data to increase efficiency and decrease waste. HOW ARE THE COMPANIES CONTRIBUTING TO THE ‘SMARTNESS’ OF CITIES? These multinational companies are developing technology and strategies to contribute to the ‘smartness’ of cities. Each one concentrates on different aspects of the city, depending on their overall business focus. Take the computer giant IBM for example; IBM has been developing software for decades and this remains to be their major points of interest in the smart city trend. As well as implementing their technology in cities, IBM is incorporating it into the fabric of their business operations, resulting in the streamlining of all the functioning systems, resulting in super efficiency, and an increase in profits margins. The automobile manufacturer Audi has taken mobility as its focus, developing methods to ensure that personal free mobility can remain available for us to utilize in a predicted future with no oil. There is a lot of rhetoric in the vast amounts of literature on the websites of the various companies involved in the development of smart cities. They all use similar language to describe how they will change cities. They speak of a world of transistors and intelligent interconnected systems. 60

Something needs to change very quickly in the way that our cities operate and these companies have the resources to start making these changes. However, the question remains as to whether we are willing to make these multinational companies the authorities of our cities in the name of efficiency?


1. WHAT MAKES A CITY SMART? These companies all have similar ideas of how cities can ‘adapt’ to the new climate and become ‘smarter’, however each one has a slightly different focus. The overall thought is that modern technologies can be used to help cities run more efficiently. Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is being used to create systems which collect data, and in real time output it back to the citizens, to keep them engaged and informed of any changes within the system. It is the concept of infusing intelligence into the way the world literally works. The information collected will enable trends to be identified and predictions to be made which will therefore improve the overall efficiency of cities, and in turn save energy and help cities to acclimatise to the modern future.

Personal products

Public Safety Food

Education

Communications

Banking Commerce Technology

Infrastructure & Buildings Government

This diagram shows the different elements that each of these companies value as integral components of a ‘smart city’. These elements range from mobility, communications and energy to public safety, banking and tourism. Each of these categories appears in the rhetoric of the corporate view of smart cities. But as you can see from the diagram, each company has a different view of exactly what it is that makes our cities smart.

Mobility

Waste Managment

Energy

Retail

Health Care

Water

Culture & Tourism

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Siemens

Audi

IBM

ARUP

Phillips

Telekom

Social welfare

Industrial Products

Varying Focuses of a Smart City

61


Personal products

Public Safety

Personal products

Public Safety

Food

Food Education

These diagrams show that while these companies all see smart cities as being technologically advanced, connected and responsive, their ideas of what components are most valuable to a smart cities vary. IBM for instance has a very wide scope in its vision for a smart city, valuing everything from public safety, to communications, government, banking and energy. Siemens has a similaarly wide scope in its vision for smart cities, but where IBM’s is focused on the organisation of data in industries such as banking and public security, Siemens places higher value on the personal and industrial products that help a city to become smarter. Companies such as Audi however, have an even narrower visio for a smart city that sees mobility, energy and technology as the key elements of smartness.

Communications

Education

Communications

Banking

Banking

Commerce

Commerce Technology

Infrastructure & Buildings

Waste Managment

Government

Technology Infrastructure & Buildings

Energy

Mobility

Retail

Health Care

Mobility

Water

Culture & Tourism

Industrial Products

Energy

Retail

Health Care

Water

Culture & Tourism

Social welfare

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Waste Managment

Government

Industrial Products

Social welfare

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Siemens

IBM Personal products

Public Safety

Personal products

Public Safety Food

Food

Education

Education

Communications

Communications

Banking

Banking Commerce

Commerce

Technology

Technology Infrastructure & Buildings

Waste Managment

Government

Mobility

Infrastructure & Buildings

Energy

Retail

Health Care

Mobility

Water

Culture & Tourism

Retail

Health Care

Water

Culture & Tourism Industrial Products

Social welfare

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Waste Managment

Government

Energy

Industrial Products

Social welfare

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Telekom

Phillips Personal products

Public Safety

Personal products

Public Safety

Food

Food Education

Communications

Education

Communications

Banking Commerce

Banking Commerce

Technology Infrastructure & Buildings Government

Mobility

Waste Managment

Government

Retail

Health Care

Mobility

Water

Culture & Tourism

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Technology Infrastructure & Buildings

Energy

Social welfare

Industrial Products

Energy Transfer & Distribution

Energy

Retail

Health Care

Water

Culture & Tourism

Audi 62

Waste Managment

Social welfare

Industrial Products

ARUP


2. HOW TO ACHIEVE SMARTNESS? The literature released on ‘smart cities’ by these multinational technology companies often appears shrouded in ambiguity and rhetoric, however there are several different approaches that these companies have already adopted to start making our cities smarter.

Consulting

Consulting –Leading the field in the race towards ‘smart cities’ is the IT giant IBM who in the past decade have moved away from hardware and into consulting, servicing and software development. IBM and other consulting firms such as Accenture offer consulting to businesses, governments and cities on ways to organise their data and streamline their operations.

Research & Development

Research/Development –The electronics company Siemens takes a different approach to the implementation of ‘smart cities’, along with engineering firms such as Arup, they are prototyping the hardware that would allow smart cities to operate. By investing in new cutting edge technology prototypes, these companies are developing the physical components of the ‘smart city’. By piloting these technologies companies are able to stay ahead of the game and secure reputations as industry leaders.

Collaboration

Financing

Financing – These multinational companies are in a unique position to invest in technologic advances that governments are currently unable to. They have the capital to lend to cities and businesses, allowing them to implement smart solutions that will save them money over time. The money that the cities or businesses save is then used to pay the loan back. Siemens is leading this field with the Siemens Bank and Siemens Green Financing initiatives lending money to cities and businesses allowing them to implement smart solutions.

Awareness

Siemens

Audi

IBM

ARUP

Phillips

Telekom

Varying Approaches to the Development of Smart Cities

63


Consulting

Consulting

Collaborations with Universities and Cities – Many of these large companies have begun to collaborate with universities and cities to develop and prototype smart systems. The German telecommunications company Deutschen Telekom have selected the German city of Friedrichshafen as the winner of the T-City competition. Over the next five years Deutschen Telekom will introduce and test new innovative information and communication technologies on the city. As part of the Audi Urban Futures initiative, Audi is collaborating with Columbia University on a research project entitled ‘Experiments in Motion’. The project hopes to develop and test new paradigms in the relationship between mobility and design. Creating Platforms for Discussion/ Raising Awareness – The websites for these companies are full of videos, literature and diagrams that attempt to raise awareness about the need for smarter systems and smarter cities. This information raises awareness firstly about the need for change, but also highlights cities and prototypes that are working in cities around the world. The Siemen’s Smart City Index gives cities a rating over eight categories of sustainability, users can compare their own cities rating to other cities around the world. Interactive initiatives like these create awareness about the problems facing our cities and bring attention to prototypes capable of tackling them. They create a public forum and spark discussion about the future of our cities.

Research & Development

Research & Development Collaboration

Collaboration

Financing

Financing

Awareness

Awareness

Siemens

IBM Consulting

Consulting

Research & Development

Research & Development Collaboration

Collaboration

Financing

Financing

Awareness

Awareness

Telekom

Phillips Consulting

Consulting Research & Development

Research & Development Collaboration

Collaboration

Financing

Financing Awareness

Awareness

Audi 64

ARUP


3. WHAT ARE THE SPECIFIC TOOLS? Chapter one and chapter two show what the analysed companies mean by a smart city and how their approach toward a smart city is. This chapter deals with the specific tools of the companies. The tools can show what range of services or products different companies offer. In the diagram the tools of four companies Siemens, Philips, IBM and Telekom - are shown and put into relation to each other. Remarkable in comparison to the previous diagrams is that the percentage where the companies overlap is noticeably smaller. This shows that when it comes to the question of (what is a smart city?) there is a much higher consensus within different companies. Also the approach on how to achieve smart cities acts within certain fields. But when it comes to the specific products and services, the range suddenly spreads into very different fields. This also reflects the theory mentioned at the introduction to the research. Smart Cities are very complex and there is no general way to create a smart city. Of course there are still similarities in products, especially when it comes to products for building automations, intelligent traffic control and monitoring, Information- and communication technologies and restructuring administrative processes. SIEMENS Siemens has a wide range of products that are structured in an ecology portfolio. Here you can find all Siemens products that contribute to a smart city. Siemens actually is still a large manufacturer of technical products. They offer technologies for harvesting renewable energies and for the low-loss transport of the energy to a smart grid. But they don’t limit their portfolio to renewable energies, solutions for greener ways of fossil energy production and water waste management are also offered. Furthermore they do research into new infrastructure technology and health care products. With the Siemens Bank, various financing solutions for cities or businesses are possible.

Refurbishing Healthcare equipment

Technologies for watermanagement

Infrastructure technology Training rural Healthcare workers

Development of technologies for renewable energies

Restructering administrational Processes Products for building automation

Recycling Programm

Lighting solutions for people without electricity access

Low-loss energy transfer

Financing programm

Effectiv networking

Green Industrial Products

Education technology

IT - supported Education Platform

Software development

Solutions for fossil energy production

Information- and Communication technology Healthcare Products Intelligent traffic control / monitoring

IBM

Siemens

Phillips

Telekom

Varying Tools for Realising a Smart City 65


IBM IBM provides software and consultancy expertise in different areas. With cloud computing, they offer solutions for education, health care and other areas. A big part of their work includes restructuring processes. This can range from administrative governmental processes, over educational or health care processes, to retail processes. With different software solutions, traffic flow and mobility in cities can be improved. IBM uses the new communication technologies to create overall more interconnected / networked cities.

Refurbishing Healthcare equipment

Technologies for watermanagement

Refurbishing Healthcare equipment

Infrastructure technology

Restructering administrational Processes

Development of technologies for renewable energies

Products for building automation Recycling Programm

Recycling Programm

Lighting solutions for people without electricity access

Low-loss energy transfer

Financing programm

Green Industrial Products

IT - supported Education Platform

Education technology

Financing programm

Effectiv networking

Green Industrial Products

IT - supported Education Platform

Education technology

Software development

Information- and Communication technology

Solutions for fossil energy production

Lighting solutions for people without electricity access

Low-loss energy transfer

Healthcare Products

Information- and Communication technology

Solutions for fossil energy production

Healthcare Products

Intelligent traffic control / monitoring

Intelligent traffic control / monitoring

Siemens

Refurbishing Healthcare equipment

Technologies for watermanagement

IBM

Refurbishing Healthcare equipment

Infrastructure technology

Technologies for watermanagement

Restructering administrational Processes

Development of technologies for renewable energies

Restructering administrational Processes Products for building automation

Products for building automation

Recycling Programm

Recycling Programm

Lighting solutions for people without electricity access

Low-loss energy transfer

Financing programm

Effectiv networking

Green Industrial Products

Lighting solutions for people without electricity access

Low-loss energy transfer

Education technology

IT - supported Education Platform

Financing programm

Effectiv networking

Green Industrial Products

Education technology

IT - supported Education Platform

Software development

Software development

Solutions for fossil energy production

Infrastructure technology Training rural Healthcare workers

Training rural Healthcare workers Development of technologies for renewable energies

Information- and Communication technology Healthcare Products

Solutions for fossil energy production

Information- and Communication technology Healthcare Products Intelligent traffic control / monitoring

Intelligent traffic control / monitoring

Phillips

66

Restructering administrational Processes Products for building automation

Software development

TELEKOM Telekom held a competition for the T-City and now works with the government and the people of Friedrichshafen in creating a smart city. They mainly use the new information- and communication technologies to restructure administrative processes, improve education and monitor traffic flow. Through these new technologies, more effective networking in the whole regions shall be achieved.

Infrastructure technology Training rural Healthcare workers

Development of technologies for renewable energies

Effectiv networking

PHILIPS Philips on the other hand has a different approach to smart cities than IBM or Siemens. They concentrate mainly on their own products. To achieve overall more green products they look into smart material solutions and how to avoid chemical polution. In addition to their newly manufactured products, they refurbish products for the healthcar sector. The question of recycling electrical products is also very pushed. Philips also collaborates with the dutch goverment and schools to raise awarness of energy consumption. In Colaboration with the chinese red cross, rural health care workers are trained. In addition Philips researches and develops lighting solutions for areas with no access to electricity.

Technologies for watermanagement

Training rural Healthcare workers

Telekom


4. CASE STUDIES In the following two different case studies will give an example on how companies can be involved in specific projects. The two chosen case studies are by the two biggest companies, Siemens and IBM. Both case studies lie in the field of traffic and mobility, but have a very different approach. ELECTRIC CARS Siemens as a company manufactures technology for electric cars. But to this date, the question how electric cars can work in the every day life is not completely solved yet. So the Siemens engages in Research in collaboration with others. Momentarily Siemens is part of three different research projects within the area of electrical mobility. They are in three different locations. The first one is in Denmark and is a collaboration with the Project EDISON. Here they focus their research on how renewable energy, in specific wind energy, can be used for electric cars. Important for that question is, how the energy gained through wind can be stored. In addition to that, the project EDISON researches how to improve the charging of the electric car, so it can be faster, safer and more efficient. In the Harz in Germany the process of charging electric cars is also being looked into, as well as the communication between the electric car and the energy network. In Munich Siemens has started together with Stadtwerke München and BMW a pilot project that can help to solve the question, how electric cars can be used in the every day life. In this project Stadtwerke München supply the green energy and Siemens takes charge of the charging infrastructure for the electric cars. BMW provides 40 Mini E-Cars to be used in this pilot project.

Siemens

How can electric cars be implemented in every day life? RESEARCH

Denmark EDISON

Renewable Wind-Energy

Fast, safe and efficient charging

Harz

Process of charging

Communication between electric car and energy network

Munich Stadtwerke München Siemens BMW

Green Energy

Charging infrastructure

40 Mini E-Cars

Siemens Electric Cars Researh 67


TRAFFIC MONITORING In Bucheon City in Korea the growing population and the resulting growing traffic pose a problem. Big traffic congestions and long emergency responses are the result. So far the city used closed circuit television video cameras to monitor the traffic manually. The results of this monitoring process were often unreliable, inaccurate and time consuming. IBM then improved this process through their software and their consultancy in that matter. They applied the software onto the existing CCTV cameras, so that there were no additional costs in putting in a new surveillance system. These cameras now generate information like traffic volume data and average traffic speed. That information can be gathered with much lower costs and with an extreme increase in speed. As a result these informations can be delivered to the drivers in real time and thus the traffic flow of the Bucheon City can be improved immensely.

Bucheon City Korea Traffic

Closed circuit television video

manually: counting monitoring

Traffic congestions Long emergency responses

IBM: Software Consultancy

Closed circuit television video

Traffic information for drivers in real time Optimizing the traffic flow

Information Traffic speed Traffic volume

faster costefficient

IBM - Bucheon City Project 68


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2.2.2. Smart City Components Authors: Loes Thjissen, Sanna Keskinen, Marianna Karakosta, Jens Bayer

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BUILDINGS Energy - Efficient housing The increase of energy consumption for our daily needs and the ongoing concerns regarding the safety of nuclear power leads more and more to a shift from fossil fuels to renewable energies.Renewable energy technologies in the form of wind-turbines, hydro- electric plants, combined heat and power, photovoltaics and ground source heat pumps are becoming extremely vital in urban areas. In relation to fossil fuels, heavy metals, radioactive materials and their emissions, renewable energy forms considered as viable solutions and are strongly recomended. Although even these energy generation froms such as solar panels, wind turbines, biomass collector etc are not completely ‘clean’. Biomass crops require food, water and energy for growth, photovoltaics and wind turbines require maintenance, replacement and significant energy resources in their production. So the questions that arise is How to generate more energy for our demanding lifestyles? and How can we minimize our needs? An answer to the first question could be ‘through share and recycle’. Urban waste that are produced from the household can be recycled and re-used for farming purposes. Cogeneration plants and fuel cells can also be installed in the urban context in order to produce electricity and heat. Moreover idustries and companies can develop new energy efficient systems in order to manage their over or under energy production. Also they can create an energy-sharing cooperative network and generate new revenue streams by trading energy with their neighbours ( i.e Industrial Symbiosis in Denmark).

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ENERGY NETWORKS For the energy network it is important that there will be a change in thoughts in creating and using energy. Instead of an individual scale in energy use and storage, we should think on a common scale and collecting all the energy together. All houses in the city can create energy during the day by solar, wind and biomass energy. Probably they produce at that time more energy than it is needed, therefore the energy can be stored in big storage tanks. The buildings that need more energy (for example during night or in a special case) can get the energy from the city. The energy companies can organize this system, but the government will always have the controlling and organizing factor in this system.

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ELECTRICITY “Smart grid� Smart grids referred to computer-based remote control and automation. They can be used on electricity networks, from power plants and wind farms all the way to the consumers of electricity in homes and businesses. They offer many benefits regarding energy efficiency on the electricity grid and in the management of energy consumption in houses and offices. Smart grid systems can enhance cyber-security, handling sources of electricity like wind and solar power and even integrating electric vehicles onto the grid. The global deployment of smart grids would lower CO2 emissions an estimated 2.03 billion tonnes worldwide by 2020. That saving would represent four percent of the 51.9 billion tonnes of emissions forecast for that year. However, the involvement of all key stakeholders is essential for realizing the smart grid concept. National and local governments, electric power companies, appliance manufacturers, NGOs, commercial and residential power consumers etc should cooperate, maintain open relationships with each other in order to ensure the efficiency of the smart grid system

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THE GRID OF THE FUTURE New centralized plants combined with renewable energy systems, distributed generators, smart cars, energy storage etc.

SMART GRIDS: The global impact in 2020


ELECTRICITY Energy Management Systems-Smart metering Smart meters are a method of automated control and monitoring of the electromechanical facilities in a building which yield significant energy consumption such as heating, ventilation and lighting installations. The monitoring systems are available for electricity, gas and water usage. The scope may span from a single building to a group of buildings such as universities, office buildings, retail stores networks or factories. The data obtained can be used to perform self-diagnostic and optimization routines on a regular basis and to produce trend analysis and annual consumption forecasts. The development of Energy Management Systems is an effort to promote energy efficiency and better control of the energy consumption of a houshold. However, concerns have been raised regarding not only the accuracy, security and integrity of this technology, but also to the potential impacts of radio frequency (RF) exposure of the public. Several pilot programms around the world showed that the real-time energy consumption data on in-home devices led on average to an 8.7% reduction in energy consumption. Moreover by appliying these systems the energy costs can be reduced up to 10 percent.

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TRANSPORT Interlinking Transport One of the most important components for smart city transportation, is interlinked transport system. By interlinking different kind of public and private transport systems, it is possible to engourage people to use more public transportation. Interlinking includes also improving the walking and cycling paths and creating more parking spaces especially for bikes. Also promotion of public transportation and change of mentality is essential. Private car should not be seen as a status symbol or as a sign of wealth .

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TRANSPORT Low-Carbon Transport Main point of low-carbon transport is to use those forms of transportation, which don´t pollute world in any way (including also noise pollution). This means using less private vehicles, biking and walking and using public transportation. Also switching from gasoline vehicles to electric or using car sharing system decreases co2 emisson. Important is to make public transportation vehicles more attractive and easier to use, by understanding the public vehicles as a high quality public space. For example in busses or trams could be free services, such as wi-fi and real-time location-based info. Also bus- or tram-stops should be seen as a wayfinding elements and public info-points. As a result there will be less traffic jams, healtier environment, safer roads and more social interaction between people.

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SOCIAL, POLITICAL AND CULTURAL COMPONENTS Nowadays globalisation is shaping peoples´ lives all around the globe. Over the last decades there is a rapid urbanization trend recognizable with a raise of urbanization growth up to 50% in 2010. The forecast for the next 40 years is expected to reach 70% of the worlds population, especially caused through the effecting global drivers on cities, also in China. According to Saskia Sassen, globalisation has created new centralities, expressed through new central communication-nodes of linked places, which hold a huge capacity of the world’s “state of the art” resources . The challenge for Chengdu, with the expansion into a fifth ring will be to gain a good strategic interlinkage with other important places around the globe. But what does that mean refferred to the term ”smart city”? Is there more to take into account than the strategic area management to attract big companies? Shown in the above introduced components it undoubted is. A meassuring tool for the smartness of a citys inhabitants could be stated with the ecological footprint (EFP). The theory of the EFP states the current global situation of all cities and shows in numbers their impact on land and use of resources, as well as the rate of pollution, which they give back to the eco-system. It becomes clear, that rich industrial cities are consuming double, to four times the amount of resources than they can produce. That means, these cities are compelled to import resources from other places to sustain the current life-style, or they have to find solutions to decrease the amount of consumed resources. Indeed China is a country which is still below the worldaverage in the EFP with 1,6 ha/ capita (average is 2,2 ha/ capita), but in consideration of the highly dense population, which is rapidly growing, it already meets its resources’ challenges. 78


This forms supporting governance structures on a very local scale, but also it is supposed to be more sensitive to social and political aspects. New Public-PrivatePartnerships could state a key figure for an efficient and accountable process of collaboration. �There is no city without people� (Geoffrey West, 2011). This is a key-target, which we should not forget about. After the above mentioned components it always has to lead to the social, political, cultural part in which the human being as an inhabitant is in the center. The diagramm shows an ideal of an education process to improve the conciousnes about our consumtion and daily life routines. Referring to mostly our ecological challenges in the future, it shows how individual behaviour is influencing the improvement of an overall system.

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AMSTERDAM SMARTCI TY

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ROADMAP

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CONCLUSION The smart city connects together different systems in order to increase their efficiency. The main target of this process is not only to enable better functioning of the city but more importantly to reduce the CO2 that it produces. The most important question that this research has left us with as a group, is ‘what does this new organization, collectivization and privatization of recourses and data mean for the individual and for the community?’ We find ourselves at a point in the development of cities where drastic changes have to be made, and big business is in a unique position to spark and facilitate this change. However, questions remain as to who these ‘Smart Cities’ are for, and who these technologies include and exclude?

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Sassen, S. (2002) ”Locating Cities on Global Circuits”, From Environment and Urbanization, in Brenner, N., Keil, R. (eds), 2006, The Global Cities Reader, London, New York: Routledge Lim, C.J., Liu, E. (2011) ‘Smart cities and eco-warriors’, New York: Routledge Wackernagel, R., Rees, W. (1997) Unser ökologischer Fußabdruck, wie der Mensch Einfluss auf die Umwelt nimmt. Basel, Boston, Berlin; Birkhäuser Verlag Translated into English by Jens Bayer

Articles Cleobury, J. (2011) Questioning the Effectiveness of Public-Private Partnerships in Urban Development. University of Cape Town

Brown, Gordon. “Huff Post Green.” Climate Change Action is Economic Common Sense. N.p., 10 10 10. Web. 9 May 2012. <http://www.huffingtonpost.com/ gordon-brown/post_1027_b_756312.html>.

SMART 2020, published by The Climate Group, 2010 Retrieved on May 4 2012, from: http://www.hitachi.com/csr/highlight/2010/act1003/index.html

Dalkmann, H., Huizenga, C., GEF-STAP, Advancing Sustainable Low-Carbon Transport Through the GEF, A STAP, Global Environment Facility. Washington, 2010 Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/publication/STAP-Sustainable%20transport.pdf

Stromback, J., Dromacque, C., Yassin, M.,H., Empower Demand report: The potential of smart meter enabled programs to increase energy and systems efficiency: a mass pilot comparison, Helsinki:VaasaETT, 2011 Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.esmig.eu/newsstor/news-file-store/ empower-demand

Europe INNOVA, CASE STUDIES: Meeting the Challenge of Europe 2020, ‘InnovationCity Ruhr’ Retrieved April 30 2012, from: http://www.europe-innova.eu

Electronic Sources

Greenbang, ‘Smart meter success is all about people, not technology’. Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.greenbang.com/smart-meter-success-is-allabout-people-not-technology_20309.html

Amsterdam Smart City Retrieved April 30 2012, from: www.amsterdamsmartcity.nl

Initiativkreis Ruhr, ‘InnovationCity Ruhr’. Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.i-r.de/projekte/innovationcity-ruhr/

Axt, K.D., European energy innovation magazine: ‘Smart metering optimises Europe’s energy usage’, ESMIG , 2011 Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.esmig.eu/news-folder/eei-article

Jacobs, Micheal. “Huff Post Green.” Europe’s Climate Choice. N.p., 10 07 2010. Web. 9 May 2012. <http:// www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-jacobs/europescarbon-choice_b_752186.html>.

Buscher, V., Doody, L., Tomordy, M., Ashley, G., Tabet, M., and McDermott, J., 2010,`Smart Cities - Transforming the 21st century city via the creative use of technology` Retrieved April 29 2012, from: www.arup.com/Publications/Smart_Cities.aspx

Report by International Association of Public Transport, `Low-Carbon Future With Public Transport`, 2007 Retrieved April 29 2012, from: http://www.uitp.org/advocacy/positions.cfm Roadmap 2050: A Practicle Guide to a Low Carbon Europe. European Climate Foundation, 18 03 2011. Web. 9 May 2012. <http://www.roadmap2050.eu/>.

T-City Retrieved April 30 2012, from http://www.t-city.de/ http://www.telekom.com http://www.friedrichshafen.de UN Habitat, State of the world´s cities, 2008,2009 Retrieved April 30 2012, from: http://www.unhabitat.org/downloads/docs/presskitsowc2008/PR%202.pdf U.S Department of Energy, ‘SMART GRID System Report’ Retrieved on May 4 2012, from: http://energy.gov/oe/technology-development/smartgrid Weitlaner, W., Ökologischer Fußabdruck Chinas verdoppelt, Bevölkerungsdichte erzwingt nachhaltige Gesamtstrategie, 2007 Retrieved April 30 2012, from: http://www.innovations-report.de/html/berichte/studien/ bericht-112030.html [Accessed 07/02/2012]

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2.3. Prototype Methodologies

CONTENTS: 1.INNOVATION AND CLUSTERS Authors: Paulina sanchez, Eugenia Zoubtchenko 2.SCIENCE INDUSTRIAL PARKS Authors: Huang Zhen, Paulina Naruseviciute, laura Petruskeviciute, Yang shenghua, Kudusi Kudulaiti 3.INTELLIGENT REGIONS Authors: violeta Burckhardt, Johanna Kleibl

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INTRODUCTION This chapter is dedicated to the theory behind the concept of smart cities, the social, politic, economic and architectural factors that come together in a specific cluster structure are the themes of study that have been investigated on the first part of the semester by the students of the supergroup â&#x20AC;&#x153;Prototype Methodologiesâ&#x20AC;?. This structure is analyzed and explained first in order to understand how the most modern and smart models are conceived. It is only through the understanding of the theoretical knowledge behind a social change, based on economical interests that we can figure out how it all finally develops as the structural factor for the growth of a city or a region that is definitive as a national or international production strength. The balance between manufacture, suppliers, services, technology, education and institutions make a very intricate and complex system, the relation between this elements and the growth of the city are connected, infrastructure is meant to support all of these factors for a intelligent region or city to grow in a successful

way, and in this text not only the relation structure is digested and synthesized, but also the human social environment that has to take place in order for all of this situations to trigger the growth of such regions. This section of the book is also analyzing the most relevant international case studies that have been built all around the globe. The relation between the theoretical articles analyzed and condensed take a turn to reality when we identify the social, economic, politic and industrial factors within the case studies so that we can see how the area around this built up clusters develop in a social environment. It is very interesting to see the cluster system developing in actual sites and how they have manage to develop such urban scale projects in different parts of the world, with different cultural, environmental, social, politic and economical contexts, it is crucial to identify similarities and differences and to approach this examples with a critical view to make models that are more or equally suitable for a city that has a very particular culture and climate, the success of a universal prototype that will

spread around a large scale city like Chengdu must consider all this factors and balance them. We consider this as a knowledge base to succeed designing a prototype with all the characteristics necessary to attach to the growth of the 5th ring in Chengdu. From the result of this research there is a specific number of factors that each individual project must consider and the outline of what might be better for a local community to grow in a very productive way.

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2.3.1. Innovataion & Clusters

INNOVATION && CLUSTERS CLUSTERS INNOVATION

Authors: Eugenia Zoutchenko, Paulina Sanchez

Authors:Eugenia EugeniaZoubtchenko, Zoubtchenko,Paulina PaulinaSanchez Sanchez Authors:

basedononexisting existing based economic economic generatorsand and generators infrastructure infrastructure stimulategrowth growth stimulate

newgrowth growth new through through densification densification

commonspaces spaces common forsocial social for exchange exchange develop develop

further further densificationand and densification public/private public/private investmentinin investment infrastructure infrastructure

maximumdensity density maximum spreadlimited limitedbyby spread limit of efficiency limit of efficiency knowledge ofofknowledge transfer transfer

spatial conditions clusters over time spatial conditions ofof clusters over time

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1. WHAT IS A CLUSTER? Clusters are defined my Porter as ‘geographic concentrations of interconnected companies, specialized suppliers, service providers firms in related industries, and associated institutions (eg universities, standards agencies, trade associations) in a particular field that compete but also cooperate. ‘Competition and cooperation can coexist because they are on different dimensions, or because cooperation at some levels is part of winning the competition at others’ (Porter, pg25)

Clusters could be an appropriate model to use when directing city development, as they increase the innovation and problem solving potentials of a city. These clusters are seen as a model for ‘smart cities’, where the definition of ‘smart’ is the capacity to innovate. However, does this necessarily make the city more sustainable?

One argument from Porter is that by causing cooperating firms to share physical proximity, clusters multiply the benefits of locally available resources (employees, raw inputs etc). This localism can help to lower resource consumption of cities by decreasing transport costs or reliance on a single resource.

Clusters work on multiple scales: a cluster can be interpreted as relations within a single industry, or as largerscale clusters of many industries working together in one sector (eg the IT sector might involve R&D of hardware, software, services industries, graphic and interface and packaging design, universities etc… ). Co-evolutionary relationships between firms are more important to the success of the cluster than the success of the individual firms. Connections to larger global systems are also important for the cluster to flourish. Clusters are desirable, as they can become enormously economically successful units that drive a region’s economy from cost-competitive competition to differentiation and innovation-driven competition. Porter argues that this is a strategy of ensuring long-term economic sustainability of a region. It could also be a strategy to cooperation move an economy away from simple resource-exploitarelationships tive industries. competition The geographic scope ofrelationships the cluster is limited only by the distance over which efficient information, incentives and trade transactions can occur. Political or suppliers administrative borders are usually less important than micro-economic conditions. As such clusters often have service providers no hard edge, and defining the extent of a cluster is a question of defining the minimum degree of connectivinstitutions ity. 98

manufacture

cooperation relationships competition relationships suppliers service providers institutions manufacture

cluster function diagram


1. COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THEORY

D

Complex Adaptive System theory is an alternative way to describe complex systems. It stands in contrast to Traditional Varience Theory, which (like a mathematical formula or a machine) uses variation in a small set of well-defined independent variables to explain the effect on a dependant variable. In CAS it is not assumed that complicated phenomena (such as cities or economies) can be explained using linear causes and effects. It argues that in these phenomena, output effects cannot be predicted based on input factors. CAS acknowledges the action of a large set of inter-related factors that generate self-organisation processes that can be predicted only through probability. The emphasis in CAS is on process rather than state; clusters are always in flux with new companies being formed and dying out following a survival-of-the-fittest free market economy. Most importantly, CAS systems are adaptive to changing external environment, as their internal processes can change to internalise a change of inputs instead of failing. CAS is therefore an important concept in the discussion of how to make cities physically and economically resilient to change over time; eg climate change, peak oil, rising water levels, changing economic climate.

INPUT FACTORS A

B

CHANGING EXTRNAL FACTORS C

PROCESS

(same each time, eg formula)

AGENTS

A2+ B -C = X

EMERGENCE positive feedback

D OUTPUT

negative feedback

PROCESS

(different each time, based on action of agents)

For example, by creating high-tech communication infrastructure, data collection and linked technologies might allow governments to make more informed decisions about resource use, leading to less waste and helping to make the city more sustainable (such as the smart city concepts proposed by IT firms such as IBM). Traditional Varience Theory contrasted with Complex Adaptive Systems theory

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1. FACTORS INFLUENCING SELFORGANISATION OF A CLUSTER Contrary to Porter’s argument in his original texts on cluster economics, not all clusters are successful and continue to thrive. There are external and internal factors that affect the clusters success.

Boundary constraints: these are intrinsic or self-imposed limits can exist on the cluster that stop or redirect development, such as self-identity, limited natural resources, chance external events (eg natural disasters).

External factors

Novel outcomes: this is a phenomenon described by Zheng He as the interaction of the previous three factors to create new, unexpected results. These are emergent effects that can redirect the development of the cluster. For example, in Zhongguancun Science Park in China knowledge spill-over at first accelerated innovation, but later resulted in collective under-investment in R&D.

An existing economic system is a prerequisite for developing a cluster. This means that a cluster should evolve naturally, and efforts to design a new cluster from scratch are likely to fail. Instead, already existing clusters/industries should be further developed. Infrastructure such as good roads and fast telecommunications are equally a prerequisite to make the existing seeds of a cluster attractive for investment. Porter also argues that the presence of a sophisticated local market is the last ingredient necessary to turn existing economic setup into a successful, innovative cluster.

existing economy + infrastructure

d

constraints

context design

economic cond itio cro n ma

“shaping the surface on which adaptation processes take place, rather than directing individual’s actions themselves”. Positive feedback loops. This is a process that augments the effect of small actions. Trigger events can thus gain momentum and result in wholesale change in the cluster system.

Positive feedback loops

s

Context design : Although self-organising principles within CAS are powerful, a designed context can also indirectly influence the dynamics of the process. He defines this as an internal factor because the CAS is not only influenced by the context, but can in return influence it. This context can be government policy, regional attitudes, or resource availability. Zheng He summarises this as:

mic ro an

Internal factors

sophisticated local market

However, it is important to note that because of the complicated nature of complex adaptive systems (such as economic clusters), these factors rarely make it possible to predict the performance of clusters in the future. Instead, these factors can be used as tools to analyse performace of clusters in the past, and should be considered when making decisions when attempting to direct the development of a cluster.

external factors

internal factors

these processes contribute to unexpected ‘novel outcomes’, i.e potentially innovation

processes affecting cluster self-organisation over time 100


1. CONDITIONS FOR ENCOURAGING INNOVATION To encourage innovation need to increase pressure to compete on a level of differentiation and quality rather than cost. -social competitiveness or peer pressure between acquaintances -easy of comparison: if all inputs (overheads, available employee pool, infrastructure available, geographic location etc) are the same then comparison â&#x20AC;&#x201C; A long-term outlook is similarly important: in order to invest in innovation firms must delay profits into the mid or long term. If cooperating firms are located in the same cluster, their relationships are likely to be more secure and long-term because they share physical proximity, use the same infrastructures and are subjected to the same external forces. (Porter) These pressures can be created by physical proximity between similar firms. Furthermore, physical proximity between cooperating firms proides opportunities: -Physical proximity fosters informality in economic relations between firms; i.e firms within a cluster can experiment at a lower cost of delay large commitments until they have greater assurance that it will be a success. (as opposed to remote firms or vertically integrated ones)

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2.3.2. Science Industrial Parks

INNOVATION && CLUSTERS CLUSTERS INNOVATION

Authors: Huang Zhen, Paulina Naruseviciute, Laura Petruskeviciute, Yang Shenghua, Kudusi Kudulaiti

Authors:Eugenia EugeniaZoubtchenko, Zoubtchenko,Paulina PaulinaSanchez Sanchez Authors:

based on existing economic generators and infrastructure stimulate growth

new growth through densification

common spaces for social exchange develop

further densification and public/private investment in infrastructure

maximum density spread limited by limit of efficiency of knowledge transfer

spatial conditions of clusters over time

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sCIENCE INdusTrIal ParKs

IMg

CasE sTudIEs Eco-industry park, dongguan The eco-industrial park in dongguan is initiated from turning a 31 km2 wasteland into a greenland, and hopefully will help to regenerate the local production industry by erecting a densified, high end, ecological technical cluster which can give birth to the capital intensive part of the chain instead of labor intensive production of the past.

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

Eco-industry park, dongguan

Orestad Nord,denmark

Orestad Nord, denmark Orestad Nord is developing city in Copenhagen, denmark. This city was the starting point of curing denmark’s economy. The idea was to speed up the transformation of the danish economy from one based on industrial production to one based on knowledge intensive products and services.

Foxconn is the world’s largest electronics manufacturer; its clients include apple, dell and Nintendo. longhua science and Technology Park is the company’s largest production plant. Based in shenzhen, the plant employs more than 270,000 workers. Science City ETH, Zurich Science City ETH, a famous techno cluster example in Swiss, as a prototype intercacting the Zurich City and Zurich Canton, mealwhile, it is interacted by them as a incubator as well. 104

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

One-North is science hub where scientists, researchers from the whole world come together in an environment where the work -live-play -learn are integrated Faxconn, shenzen

IMg

IMg

One-North, singapore

One-North INPUTS

Faxconn, shenzen

OUTPUTS

LEGAL FRAMWORK

IMg RESOURCES

INFRASTRUCTURE/FACILITIES

TERRITOR

Y = Zurich Canton

+ Zurich City

CLUSTER’S STAKEHOLDERS: _LEARNING _R&D _ENTREPRISES

GreaterZurich

Swiss Confederation

proportion arbitrary, width fixed ENVIRONMENT

IMg

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

FACILITATORS

FINANCIERS PARTNER OR COMPETITOR CLUSTERS

MARKETS

Science City ETH, Zurich

Life Science Zurich cluster mapping

Image text, descripition, caption


Science City Zurich - ETH Introduction Zurich is located in German-speaking Switzerland and it is nonetheless the country’s largest city in terms of the canton of the same name. There are also prestigious university, many high-technology companies and teaching hospitals that formed a “metropolitan science park” in this city. The decentralized system of university education is located in different areas of canton. For instance, the ETH Zurich (Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) has become a model for graduate science education in Switzerland and holds an enviable position in international rankings. It is funded by the central government of its 80% budget which is consider as a extremely educational input example all over the world.

Information Science Lab

IMG

The “Science City” is actually a title named in 2005 on ETH’s 150th anniversary, with a goal to transform the university into an attractive zone in terms of sustainable development. KCAP Architects & Planners presented a master plan for “Science City”, and they stipulate a guideline which emphasized the mixed function and spatial relationship of the campus structure. Therefore, based on stressing the concept of ETH as an interface between scholarship and society, they won the competition launched in 2004. The incubator and mechanism The cluster relate to science city is consist of three aspects: the ETH, Zurich University and any other LEARING institutions can be considered as the first one; the Research and Development (R&D) organization, such as Life Science Zurich et al, are second aspect; some enterprises, such as IBM, Cytos et al are third aspect. And then, there is a “natural” territory, Zurich Canton and Zurich City that actually promoting such cluster

proportion arbitrary, width fixed

Life Science Platform

Gästehaus

Sports Center

Student Housing Imaging Center

Figure 1 :Development vision for the ETH university campuDevelopment vision for the ETH university campus

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Science City Zurich - ETH in advance. Consequently, the cluster regarded as a prototype which is an object of research in the context of continued and rapid urbanization of Zurich, and a existing model of the urban for territories newly opened to the globalizing logic of urban entrepreneurialism, eco-cities, ‘place-making’ and the like. The Zurich Canton and Zurich City, comparatively, incubating such prototype based on the powerful connectivity of Zurich with surrounding area on economical and technical collaboration. The action mechanism of incubator is purely recycling ecosystem. On one hand, through the input of surrounding, for instance, the legal framework and infrastructure from the federal government and the natural geographic environment, those are basically supporting both internal and external reaction of entire system; On the other hand, the output from such cluster are interacting the market business, such as drug as a production from some enterprises to market circulation. The input and output are recycling system as well, the success of the market of output in terms of more investments not only from the federal government but also from the oversea marketing. In addition, the partner or competitor cluster is also considered as mutual beneficial element in this system. Strengths 1. The Multiple connectivities of Science city ETH (or the Life Science Zurich) is a dynamic and international wich extend to worldwide. 2. Swiss history and its culture are favorable to the collaborative approach of multi-scalar networks. 3. High-tech firms are offered fromthe Zurich financial market in a way to access all types of capital required for the growth. 4. With the effort from real-estate in Zurich West is actually developing the start-ups flexibly.Meanwhile, Biotech Center also comfirmed the cluster in terms of activity.

INPUTS

Weakness 1. The pharmacy and chemistry considered as the major business which are historically located in Basel, so the maintain of the cluster faced a severe test. 2. The typically Swiss “cantonalism ” interferes with a smooth coordination of policies and development projects, which must be conducted on a macro scale. 3. The Schlieren site in Zurich West is a district purely devoted to industrial activities, and lacks the urban ambiance appreciated by techno-entrepreneurs.

OUTPUTS

LEGAL FRAMWORK RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE/FACILITIES

TERRITOR

Y = Zurich Canton

+ Zurich City

CLUSTER’S STAKEHOLDERS: _LEARNING _R&D _ENTREPRISES GreaterZurich

Swiss Confederation

ENVIRONMENT

FACILITATORS

FINANCIERS PARTNER OR COMPETITOR CLUSTERS

MARKETS

Life Science Zurich cluster mapping

Figure 2: Science City extensive area of campus

Conclusion The academic sector in Science City plays an important role in research and development, undoubtedly, the effect of the universities provides intelligent energy.However, many rasie problems in the future (note that the major pharmaceutical firms are located in Basel). This also raises the question of a cluster’s critical mass, which to exist on the international scene must be associated with other Swiss clusters: is the coordination of a network Life Science cluster on the Swiss Confederation level conceivable, given the community and cantonal economic prerogative

INPUTS

OUTPUTS

LEGAL FRAMWORK RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE/FACILITIES

TERRITOR

Y = Zurich Canton + Zurich City

CLUSTER’S STAKEHOLDERS: _LEARNING _R&D _ENTREPRISES GreaterZurich

Swiss Confederation

ENVIRONMENT

FACILITATORS

FINANCIERS PARTNER OR COMPETITOR CLUSTERS

MARKETS

Life Science Zurich cluster mapping

Figure 3: The interaction between the cluster and Zurich city

Bibilography Acs, Zoltan J. 2002. Innovation and the Growth of Cities. illustrated. Edward Elgar Pub. p.1-11

Figure4: Science city ETH and Life Science Zurich as a prototype 106


Dongguan Eco-industrial Park, China Introduction In June 2006, Dongguan municipal Party committee and municipal government integrated the 30.5 square kilometers of land located in junction of six towns along the east high-way, namely Liaobu, Dongkeng, Hengli, Qishi, Shipai, and Chashan, to implement intensive development for building Dongguan eco-industrial park. It is the important carrier and development platform to realize the double economic and social transform of Dongguan, implement new industrial strategy and upgrade industries transformation. Dongguan has become the international manufacturing base with a certain scale and formed some pillar industries, the leading one is electronic products. Strength Dongguan eco-industrial park is located in the North Central Dongguan city, which is equipped with improved multi-dimensional transportation network composed of water way, road, railway and airway, closely connecting with the whole world. In park, there is a crisscross transportation network connecting to some important traffic facilities. Weakness The clusters in Dongguan are mainly small scale and low value-added, it is difficult for Dongguan to accommodate the establishment of the high value-added industrial clusters and attract subsequent flow of high quality foreign direct investment. It is high time for Dongguan to upgrade and transform the existing indutrial clusters into large scale high tech and high value industrial clusters through spatial restructuring, transformation and the establishment of a highly globalized and competitive base for manufacturing, research, development and marketing. After 30 years high speed development, Dongguan is now faced with big challenge of surviving in a new era, when many foreign investments have been withdrawn out of China, leaving a deteriorating environment and

31 km2

East Express Way

Berlin Mitte: 39 km2

Position and major environments

107


Dongguan Eco-industrial Park, China Incubator As the ecological preservation area and new comprehensive high-tech industries development area, Dongguan eco-industrial park shoulders the mission of “regional ecological restoration and protection. The mission of upgrading the production chain must been highlighted and projecting it into the requirements of spatial quality. The driving strategy of Dongguan eco-industrial park is to transform the former wasteland into a green land, as becoming a central public spaces that can attract more high-end, ecological industries alongside with it, to generate a high-level cluster economy. Though the idea sounded appealing, there’s better adjustment that not only focus on the design or organization of central green island, but forming a dynamic relationship with surrounding 6 towns, and more about how to spread the green idea to maximize its influence. Conclusion The diversified development plan expresses the development direction in respect of environmental restoration, tourism and leisure activities, ecological production and consumption pattern, new urban residence and life style. This wonderland scenario is now supported by local government, by not only offering good deal to attract university to compensate the shortage of well educated people, but also willing to adopt advanced technology on environment improvement. However, some more practical research and creation maybe needed, as to exploit the specific needs of the local mode of production chain, which are composed of large amount of low-skill but cheap manpower. Comparing to high technology, designing a smarter way of how they live and work, differences maybe made. Bibliography Lai, W. 2004. “Industrial Clusters and Local Competitiveness: a Case Study of Dongguan, China.” HKU Theses Online (HKUTO). 108

D

N HE

IG OH

G

ng

lo ea

alu

v ing

d

Ad

th

up es

in

ha

c ply

Upgrading and adding value to the chain

SS Consumer

SS

SS

Spatial quality

Knowledge spillover

Distributer

SS

Competitiveness

Retailer

Manufacturer

Innovation (core)

Supplier

HOW?

Industy Supply Chain

Research question

Strategy

Spatial planning

wastes

Artificial wetland

Green islands Water recycling

Ecological industry

Green architecture Green transports Planning structure

Program


109


110


One - North Science Centre, Singapore Client JTC Cooperation Design 2001 - 2021 Size: 200ha Introduction One -North is development which hothouses technology and research centres such as the biomedical sciences, info communication technologies, media, and science and engineering industries. It is science hub where scientists, researchers from the whole world come together in an environment where the work -liveplay -learn are integrated. Its aim is aim is to create a multiple research community, with schools, public transport and other amenities. A place where homes, offices, parks, playgrounds and commerce are mixed into a vibrant social melting pot. One -North contains 3 main research hubs around which all other public/private institutions are gathered. 1. Biopolis -the biomedical research and development centre. 2.Fusionopolis -Science and Engineering industries hub. 3. Mediapolis- digital media cluster. 4.Vista Xchange-business centre, residential and entertainment hub. 5. Wessex Estate - home to Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s creative community. Strength The main achievement is infrastructure that offers seamless connectivity, at both the individual and business level. Three hubs of science create a possibility for different knowledge people to work closely together and share ideas of research. (fig.2) f Also, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Dynamic Planningâ&#x20AC;? is emphasized in One-North as a tool to encourage the vertical and horizontal integration of tenants and their different uses of the space. Moreover, it is situated with a very good link of transport. (fig.1)

Organizational structure 111


Weakness At the moment park is still developing and it is facing a problem of lack educated people who could work in the science centre. It tries to attract scientists from all over the world to settle with their families in Singapore. Government is very supportive in the development of the park as the high-tech hub will perform as future city model.(fig.3) Incubator Before One-North, there were few attempts to create science centres which would incorporate industries nearby. However, those science models were missing one important element - connectivity. It is a driving idea of One- North Science Park. Connectivity within different environments ,activities not only within park boundaries but also with the rest world. These links are invisible bonding elements which creates vibrant technology and developing knowledge incubator. The park as prototype might not work in other environment as it needs a lot of well educated people as well as government support.

Bibliography â&#x20AC;&#x153;Periscope â&#x20AC;&#x153; A MAGAZINE FOR CUSTOMERS OF JTC CORPORATION Issue 4 2008 http://s333.org/projects.43.html?no=true&projectFK=35 112

fig.1 Good transport link

fig.2 Three science hubs creates rich environment

fig.3 Incoming scientists from all over the world


Foxconn - Longhua Sci & Tech Park Introduction Foxconn is the world’s largest electronics manufacturer, the single largest exporter in China, as well as China’s largest private-sector employer; its clients include companies such as Apple, Dell and Nintendo. Longhua Science and Technology Park is the company’s largest production plant. Based in Shenzhen, the plant employs more than 270,000 workers. Strength Foxconn utilizes the special geo-political advantage of Shenzhen as a springboard to reach clients worldwide: As a company headquartered in Taiwan, Foxconn is considered waizi - foreign commercial entity that is favored by Shenzhen’s Special Economic Zone status, guaranteeing relative efficiency and convenience for its operation through special policies; such condition is most crucially enhanced by Shenzhen’s neighboring position with Hong Kong, a city already with well developed business and trade environment. Within the Longhua campus there are service programs such as entertainment (e.g. internet-cafe), sport facilities (football field and swimming arena), as well as a hospital and a fire brigate. Around a quarter of Longhua’s working population reside within the compound, enabling the plant to manage its 24-hour work cycle.

3.1 km

1.2 km

Weakness The Longhua Science and Techonology Park was not planned with a concrete masterplan in 1988; rather it grew in an ad-hoc fashion overtime (the orange-colored zones illustrates a seperation between two production clusters, with the larger one completed in the last decade to cope with dramatically increased demand). The result of a lack of efficient spacial layout already create Image text, descripition, caption

113


problematic traits, e.g. overcrowding in dorm units for workers. The campus also lacks sufficient self-sponsored research facilities. Foxconn suffers from a lack of diversity in its production category; despite the large quantity of goods produced at the plant, the lack of productdesign capabilities of Foxconn means that Longhua’s contracts deal most exclusively with smaller, lower-end electronic components. Incubator Having established the Longhua campus since 1988, Foxconn became a strong engine at the front door of China’s export-oriented economy. Foxconn’s presence in Shenzhen, through its employment of a large quantity of workforce, is itself not only a generator of economic profits and local tax revenue, but also an educator in the way of transforming the rural migrant population into industrial workforce. Such transition facilitates more capital flow in both monetary and human terms to Shenzhen, eventually making the former village into a highly competitive city. Conclusion Foxconn’s Longhua Science and Technology Park in Shenzhen itself is not a knowledge-based cluster that innovates through creativity, but rather through the output of quantity. However the geographical conditions that Longhua lies within yields the additional dynamicism needed for its necessary self-sustainability.

clients

employees

name traded

owner

investors

parent company

Company structure

......

Convenience through geo-politics

Bibliography Dean, Jason. “The Forbidden City of Terry Gou .” Wall Street Journal. (2007): n. page. Web. 9 May. 2012. <http://online.wsj.com/article/SB118677584137994489. html>.

Foxconn worldwide: Shenzhen and beyond 114


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2.3.3. Intelligent Regions Authors: Violeta Burckhardt, Johanna Kleibl

As the population of metropolitan areas increases and context of global networks and mobility of both capital and human resources. Regions begin to concentrate technology and, through the linkage of both private enterprises and public and private research institutions, all stakeholders. This creation of new economic centres across the world also relies on the degree of communication that each of these has with each other, based on their strangths and weaknesses. This is the basis for

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1. SILICON VALLEY Silicon Valley encompasses all of the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Jose, the southern Peninsula Valley, and the southern East Bay in norther California in the United States and radiates around Stanford University as its center. The region is characterised for being a high-tech business area, innovative region or industry cluster. It is a leading hub across the world for high-tech innovation and development and is home to some of the world´s leading coorporations working with emerging technology. It is also a major site for investment, accounting for one third of all venture capital investment in the United States. The history of Silicon Valley begins with the founding of Stanford University in 1891. This is the epicenter and motor of this region. The San Francisco bay area was also a major site for United States Navy research and technology. It was here that, in 1909, the first radio program of the United States was broadcasted and in 1912 the first global communication system was developed. In 1933 the government of the United States comissioned a militar base in the area for use as a Naval Air Station NAS, attracting important technology firms to the area. After the Second World War the country was faced with a large number of returning students looking for a place in universities and for employment oportunities. At the same time Stanford University was struggling financially and because of this they decided to create the Stanford Research Park, as a way to manage commercial real estate and connecting private entreprises with students. The Stanford Research Park was the first of its kind in America generating millions of dollars for the university each year. The 700 acre spread is home to major iconic high-tech brands such as Hewlett-Packard, also one of its first residents, and compiles important all the services necessary for private companies to opersate successfully: banks, consultants, restaurant and other firms.

In order to understand how Silicon Valley we must look at the different schemes employed for the internal operation of firms. In this case, achieving goals is based on the engagement of internal research and development departments. When it is necessary skills and technologies are transferred from external providers through licensing or technology transfer agreements. Nevertheless this scheme is still linear in nature and therefore refers to a closed system. In the radical version of this model, how this system works nowadays, the space and origin from which innovation is developed expands from the small scale of enterprises into the inter-regional space. This new system works more like a network where Universities and different Research Institutions work hand in hand with financing from venture capital or other financing conditions, technology consultants and the intervention from specialised technology transfer centers to create a global network of inter-connected high-tech regions. This system or New Model of regional development allows for more and faster value creation, with Stanford University and other Universities found around the area, playing a key role in shaping the innovation cluster. About seventy percent of all tech founders who receive a degree in California have found their business here. This close tie to academic institutions pushes research forward and at the same time guarantees employment for students. Through these , an extremely dense network is created with vast surrounding services.

Location and major companies found in Silicon Vallez

1.Wilson Sonsini Goodrich & Rosati 2.Facebook 3.Nokia 4.Mercedes-Benz 5.CPI 6.HP 7.Tibco 8.Skype 9.The Wall Street Journal 10.VMWare 11.Toyota

Stanford Research Park

This model draws its power from technological innovation and the ability to change Research and Development into products and services. Technological transfer is esssential for businesses to able to compete in global markets. These regions of innovation can be found all across the globe and are linked with each other through knowledge and information technologies. The hierarchy is based on education, research, innovation, digital infrastructure, and competitiveness. Internal operation of research

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Contrary to common thought that the global competitive field is flattening, the Silicon Index 2007 displays a world with spiked regions. The rankings are based on 3 criteria: employment in information technology per capita, patents per capita and venture capital per capita. These spikes represent important stregths in the knowledge based economy, such as: talent, ideas and investment. In order to create these spikes regions must recognize their strengths and connect with other regional spikes for mutual benefit. Comparative advantage will be determined by its receptiveness towards other regions. The regions identified, including Silicon Valley, are: Seattle, Austin, Raleigh, Boston, Stockholm, Munich, Helsinki, Israel, Bangalore, Beijing, Seoul, Shanghai, Taiwan and Tokyo. Indicators vary from region to region. In the case of the European Union there are five main indicators that are taken into account. The first one is Innovation Drivers, which refers to science and technology students. The second indicator is Knowledge creation, which measures the investment in Research and Development. The third indicator is Innovation and Entrepreneurship, which measures the company´s efforts for innovation. The fourth indicator is Applciations, expressed in terms of labour and business activities. Finally the last indicator: Intellectual Property, relates to patent applciatioons to the European Patent Office EPO. These ratings identify Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany as leading regional clusters within the EU, which are characterized by strong state interventiom and institutional organisation. Other indexes, such as the brain metros index measures regional economic output, income and wages. The index is based on three variables: share of adults with an academic degree, computer scientists and mathematicians ans scientists as a share of total metro employment. The index takes into consideration 339 US metropolitan regions and places San Jose-Sunnyva Santa Clara (Silicon Valley region) way over the average. There is also a relationship between a metropol´s braininess and higher housing prices and with higher

Innovation Engine system

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levels of innovation, measured as patents and higher levels of high-tech industry. Per capita income, average pay, and value-added per worker habe been increasing steadily for the last three years. The changes in Silicon Valley high-tech concentrations also give as an insight on the future deelopment in the area. In the following graph we can see employment levels in different industries in the year 2008. Industries in the upper right show growth in employment and in relative concentration in Silicon Valley, these are considered the emerging leaders. Industries in the upper left quadrant have showed a decrease in employment but a larger concentration in the area, making them more important on a local level. In the lower left quadrant we can see the sliders, such as Internet, telecommunications, and data processing cluster of industries, whichh habe lost both employment and concentration. Nowadays Silicon Valley continues to be a region of innovation and has seen a recent boom in the emerging area of clean environmental technology. Based on the information discussed, we can point out that regions of excellence do not just represent the sum of innovative organizations but the constitute the structure for generating innovation. Smart cities or regions are systems of innovation combining innovative clusters, technology learning institutions and digital innovative spaces, working on the physical, institutional and digital dimensions.

Smith. M. 2008. Innovativer Wirtschaftsr채ume: das Beispiel Silicon Valley. Institut f체r Geographie. OttoFriedrich- Universit채t Bamberg. Mann. A, Nunes. 2009. After the Dot-Com Bubble: Silicon Valley High-Tech Employment and Wages in 2001 and 2008. Office of Publications and Special Studies. Accessed 30 April, 2012 (http://www.bls.gov/opub/regional_reports/200908_silicon_valley_high_tech.htm). Spikes map- Silicon Valley Index 2007

Brainiest Metros Index

BIBLIOGRAPHY Komninos, N: 2008. Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks. 1st ed. Routledge. Friedman T. 2005. The World is Flat. A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux. Changes in Silicon Valley high-tech concentrations 2008 120


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Chengdu smart city:5th ring as low carbon incubator  

group research TU Berlin Urban design studio: Chengdu Smart City

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