pa t rick92. smith@ gmail. com / 07710284091 / p a r t ii
02: A Home For Haiti / Patrick Henry Smith
02_Home for Haiti Year 5 Semester Two Design Project (w. Joseph Chandler) 2017
PORT-AU-PRINCE 2010 EARTHQUAKE 0 0
1 Miles 1 Kilometres
Industrial Areas Neighbourhoods Shanty Areas Green Space Collapsed Buildings Damaged Buildings Landslides
The most impoverished nation in the Western Hemisphere, Haiti, struggles to provide its nearly 11 million residents with basic shelter. How can it be protected from the annual, punishing effects of natural disasters? The 2010 earthquake (shown above) was compounded by poor construction of western methods, perceived as superior to traditional Haitian methods. Can a return to traditional construction techniques solve the issue of housing in this disaster region? Home for Haiti | Port-au-Prince Earthquake 2010
• Tropical climate with very high temperatures & humidity. • Average temperature of 25°. • Average annual relative humidity is 50%.
T RO PIC A
• Haiti is prone to serious flooding due to deforestation, heavy rainfall and Port-Au-Prince’s low lying geographical location.
• Tropical heavy rain and strong winds batter the island frequently each year.
• In the past 10 years the island has been hit by 6 major hurricanes causing major flooding, resulting in human displacement, loss of life and damage to infrastructure.
• Port Au Prince sits directly atop The Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault zone. • In January 2010 a 7.0 magnitude quake hit the capital killing an estimate 200,000 people. Poor construction has been to blamed for increasing this figure. (see map right) 3
• The traditional Haitian proverb ‘beyond mountains, more mountatins’ literally describes Haiti’s topography: 85% of the topography is on an incline greater than 7%. • Deforestation has led to soil erosion, making it unstable, triggering catastrophic landslides.
Home for Haiti | Haitian Natural Disasters
TO MA S2 010
AC ISA 12
6.2 1952 CAMP PERRIN
N GARDE N I A T N -PLA
Earthquake 5+ 1950-
Home for Haiti | Recent Hurricane & Storm History
CHANSOLME 6.0 1956
05 A 20 ALPH
PETITE RIVIERE DE Lâ€™ARTIBONITE
08 PORT-AU-PRINCE 6.1 1953
6.0 2010 JACMEL
Population One Dot=1000 people
20 Miles 20 Km
75% OF HAITIANS LIVE IN POVERTY 70% DEPEND ON FARMING FOR A LIVING 15000
ACRES OF TOPSOIL IS WASHED AWAY ANNUALLY
“WE’RE NOT FOOLS; WE KNOW THAT THIS IS DESTROYING THELAND, BUT CHARCOAL IS WHAT KEEPS US ALIVE” - LIBERUS MESADIEU (FARMER)
HAITI Home for Haiti | Issues of Deforestation
WHEN CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS CAME TO AYITI IT WAS A LUSH FOREST HOME TO INDIGENOUS TRIBES DEFORESTATION BEGAN DURING THE FRENCH COLONIAL PERIOD AND GREW WHEN COFFEE WAS INTRODUCED IN 1730 AFTER THE 1804 REVOLUTION THE GOVERNMENT WAS FORCED TO EXPORT TIMBER TO PAY OFF A 90 MILLION FRANC INDEMNITY TO FRANCE THE RURAL POOR WERE GIVEN LAND ON MOUNTAINOUS INCLINES, AIDING SOIL EROSION AFTER THE 1954 HURRICANE INCREASED NEEDS FOR COAL, RESULTING IN THE FORESTING OF YOUNG TREES
01. Verandah: a place to work, relax, socialise and take cover from the sunshine. 02. Charcoal: predominant fuel source used in Haiti, contributing to mass deforestation in the nation. 03. Vodou Drum: Vodou drumming and ceremonies are inextricably linked to Haiti where Vodou is the most prominant religion. 04. Chicken and Livestock: Increased the numbers of chicken farming, reducing imports and creating an income and food source for locals. 05. Communal Fires: Fire is very prominant in Vodou and Haitian society as a place to cook, socialise and gather. 06. Waterbutt: Lack of infrastructure means waterbutts are an important part of Haitian life for access to clean water. 07. Markets: the majority of Haitianâ€™s income comes through the selling of goods at markets. 08. Weave Baskets: and other similar items are practical and decorative items for everyday Haitian life.
Home for Haiti | Emblematic Objects
$2 A DA
E E CO
R & OUTDOOR L
CO LO UR
E AC T
• Low & middle classes generate most of their income from markets through the selling of food produce & crafted items.
PO OR INFRASTR • Even prior to the 2010 earthquake Haiti has always had a poor level of infrastructure such as sanitation, transportation and access to clean water.
• Much of the infrastructure has been destroyed following numerous disasters in Haiti. A cholera epidemic followed the 2010 earthquake. • Poverty and natural disasters in Haiti has resulted in decimation of crops and subsequently death from malnutrition.
• Haiti is known to be the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere with most people surving on 2 dollars a day.
• Charcoal is the predominant fuel source used for cooking in Haiti with most of the cooking done outside, reducing potential fire hazards and smoke from entering the house.
• Haitians are playful and expressive people who often paint thier houses to express Indivuality and ownership. • Due to the extreme heat and humidity Haitians have adapted to life outdoors. The ‘Galerie’ or verandah is central to family living: a place to work, relax, socialise and take cover from the intense sunshine.
Home for Haiti | Everyday Haitian Life
CREOLE Derived from Spanish houseplans it was used for plantation owners. Still seen as upper class in places. Parrallel to the road, with a longer porch stretching house length. More doors and windows on the galerie than the Caille. Hipped roof to resist high winds. Often raised several feel to better receive breezes and extra storage. 1 living area and 1 bedroom. Can be extended. More expensive than a Caille.
GINGERBREAD HOUSE Adaptations of French and Victorian architecture they include intricate latticework, shiplap siding and ornamental voodoo patterns, recalling a more prosperous era (the late 1800s and early 1900s). Very few collapsed during the 2010 earthquake, unlike the newer reinforced concrete structures. High ceilings for enhanced ventilation. Steep roofs with strong triangular gable visual element. Four-sided roofs to better resist hurricane winds Expert carpentry for more flexibility in earthquakes. Tall louvred windows and doors. Wrap around verandah
CAILLE (KAY ) A traditional style with African roots. Most prevalent in Southern Haiti. Porch and gable often lavishly decorated. Triangle form as strong visual element (welcoming, and respectful to rest of community) Works well on narrow city lots with Caille gables forming a visual wall defining the street. Can easily be extended backward. 1 room wide usually (2-4 rooms usually) Porches can be added eitherside.
Home for Haiti | Traditional Haitian Housetypes
Sustain: Food and water Revive: Security and safety Belong: Sharing and trust Transition: Public/Private
LAKOU Deriving from the French â€œLa Courâ€™ meaning courtyard. Shared plot of land for building houses, planting crops and socialising for up to a dozen homes. A shared responsibility to look out for your neighbours. Used for social gatherings and community parties.
Home for Haiti | Lakous
WIND PROTECTION - Can sustain heavy winds and acts as a natural barrier. - Growing bamboo will help integrate the new material into Haiti and educate Haitians how to manage and work with.
LOW-TECH CONSTRUCTION - Bamboo can be constructed using rudimentary tools such as hammers, saws and machetes. - Low-tech construction increases accessibility to the public and could promote self build projects.
LAND SECURITY - Thrives in tropical, humid climates. - Can grow on Haiti’s steep hillsides. - Bamboo helps to bind the land and absorb water during heavy rains, greatly reducing therisk of landslides and flooding.
LIGHTWEIGHT - Bamboo is hollow making it lightweight. - Easy to transport and erect. - No high-tech machinery required for assembly. - Lightweight and excellent in earthquake prone areas.
AFFORDABLE - Bamboo is a cheap material and has potential to generate income within 5 years of planting. - Introduce new industry to boost Haiti’s economy.
FLEXIBLE - Bamboo is highly flexible. - Proven to be hurricane and earthquake resistant.
STRONG Strong in compression and tension. Excellent loading capacity. Higher tensile strength than steel. (Guadua Bamboo is referred as Vegetal Steel)
SUSTAINABLE RE-FORESTATION - 35% more oxygen emission than trees. - Fast growing species (full maturity within just 5 years). - Redundant bamboo can be used for charcoal, Haiti’s primary fuel.
Home for Haiti | Bamboo
HAITIAN TYPOLOGY & AESTHETIC Create a desirable vernacular that is unique yet familiar to the Haitian people.
+ EARTHQUAKE, STORM AND HURRICANE RESISTANT Resilient to the annual storms and unpredictable earthquakes which Haiti receives.
+ CHEAP, ADAPTABLE AND EASY CONSTRUCTION Easily assembled and economically appropriate for the everyday Haitian
DEA S K E TC H I
S K E TC H I
EAS S K E TC H I D
S K E TC H I D
Minimising rummy means less stress
Underlying pole receives load from upper pole
With the benefits denoted on the previous page, bamboo is ideal for the nationâ€™s housing needs. When 3 or more poles overlap in turn, the self supporting structure formed is called a reciprocal frame. Reciprocal structures are: a simple concept, inherently strong, able to span large distances with minimal materials and ideal for bamboo. Such a simple concept, and an abundance of bamboo within Haiti became the base for the Home for Haiti
Home for Haiti | Reciprocal Structures
01. Bamboo Weave
02. Wattle and Daub
03. Wattle and Daub with Plaster
05. Bamboo Weave (Double Doors)
06. Bamboo Sections
07. Bamboo Latticework
04. Bamboo Weave with Bamboo Sections
08. Other Variations
From the beginning of the design process, adaptability and variation was integral, to match the variety/colour of the Haitian population and the importance of outdoor life. A design of various panel materials and styles allows flexibility and adaptation for the home owners when building their home. Furthermore it allows for future alterations i.e. if extending by an extra module or adapting a room to have an extra door. 15
Home for Haiti | Facade Design
Home for Haiti | Early Design Model
Home for Haiti | Assembly Sequence
(Protected Core) 3000mm
(Defensible Space) 1000mm
SLEEPING AND STORAGE
COOKING AND SOCIALISING
In the event of a disaster, 1 Module suffices, providing crucial shelter for its inhabitants. Additional modules can be added as and when required.
Breathable Facade (Bamboo Sections)
Breathable Facade (Bamboo Weave)
Bamboo Trellis (South Facade) Ground Floor Level ELEVATION_1:50@A3 Home for Haiti | 1 Module
1000mm 3000mm 1000mm
KITCHEN (COVERED OR UNCOVERED)
(Defensible Space) (Protected Core) (Defensible Space)
Adding a second module creates a clear division of spaces within the home. 1 Module: immediate response to a disaster, providing a protected core for sleeping. Temporary in terms of size. 2 Modules: looking toward the future, and for a prolonged period as opposed to the temporary 1 Module.
Home for Haiti | 2 Modules_V1
1000mm 3000mm 1000mm
(Defensible Space) (Protected Core) (Defensible Space)
Differing from the previous in that the connecting defensible space between the two modules is enclosed to provide extra internal area. This could be given to the bedroom or to the living/kitchen area (or equally between the two). This plan has shows the extra area given to theliving/kitchen area.
Home for Haiti | 2 Modules_V2
2 Modules_V3 This module illustrates how the verandah doesnâ€™t need to fully enclose the two cores and can be removed for planting zones. There are numerous functions for this element of the design: 1. Provide shading to the home on the South Elevation 2. Provide food for the home / for trading
SMALL COURTYARD (INCREASED SOCIAL ASPECT)
Module 3 illustrates it is possible to add a 3rd (4th, 5th, etc.) modules when financially viable or required to accomodate extra family members. A W.C. has been included in this module. All modules utilise a communal Eco-San Dry toilet, as is the case in many Haitian Lakouâ€™s, however the modules are adaptable enough to provide an internal W.C. if required, as shown in this home.
This module also provides an extra area of space to outdoor life and socialising, an element integral to Haitian life.
Home for Haiti | 2 Modules_V3
Module Footprint: 25m2 Module Area: 25m2
Module footprint: 50m2 Module Area: 50m2
Home for Haiti | Housing Module Comparison
Module footprint: 50m2 Module Area: 50m2
Module footprint: 100m2 Module Area: 75m2
2 STOREY_1 MODULE
2 STOREY_2 MODULES
Module footprint: 25m2 Module Area: 50m2
Module footprint: 50m2 Module Area: 100m2
Frame can support insulation layers (i.e. leaves) Uses 33% less material than conventional frames. Frame can be lowered in storm for protection and durability.
Lightweight kit of parts easily assembled quickly.
Bamboo poles are identical therefore interchangeable. All joints are simply cross-lashed
In the immediate aftermath of a disaster, the reciprocal frame can be used as a support for a quick, strong and easily assembled shelter. The reciprocal frame allows families to: 1. Stay close to their destroyed home. 2. Easily carry their shelter if required. 3. Use their resourcefulness to improve their shelter over time.
Home for Haiti | Reciprocal Shelter
Sustain: Food and water
Belong: Sharing and trust
The pavilion is in essence a 1 module home with the four panel facades removed, and could be utilised by the Lakou community as a central point for socialising, cooking: a general centrepoint of community life.
Home for Haiti | Lakou Pavilion
Water collected either straight from the home water butt or from the filtration system can be used to hydrate the cassava gardens and help the produce grow.
ECO-SAN DRY TOILET Bacteria thrive at high temperatures (40-60ยบC) and oxidise the waste into components, some of which are used in the process, thereby reducing the volume and removing pathogens. Oxygen is required during the process and as such the toilet needs to be well ventilated. Vetiver grass ash can be added to speed up the decomposition process.
The compost created by the eco-san toilet can then be utilised in producing crops and growing fruit bearing trees such as avocado and mango trees.
Home for Haiti | Lakou Eco-cycle & the living wall
LIVING WALL Trellis provides a ventilated edge to the module. Trellis enables fruit and vegetable growing without requiring a large cassava patch which is especially useful in city plots.
Vertical climbers provide both fruit and vegetables but also extra shade to the protected core. Climbers provide an extra layer of privacy.
SELL Food can be grown to either eat within the Lakou and the home or to sell at the market or from a stall.
Bolasse is an area in the hills to the south of Port-au-Prince. We shall use this as a case study to show how the â€˜House for Haitiâ€™ process will be delivered. Home for Haiti | Case Study: Bolasse
PHASE 01_LOCATE POCKETS
PHASE 02_CLEAN UP
Locate pockets of destroyed buildings that could be removed and rebuilt.
The average amount of rubble from a Haitain home averages 18m2 of rubble. Retain rubble and re-utilise within the foundations to improve strength and water management & dispersal.
PHASE 03_RE-GRADE (GRASS)
PHASE 03_REBUILD (W.C.s)
To reduce the risk of landslides, vetiver grass will be sown: fast growing with a dense binding root structure that is non-invasive and nutritious to the soil.It can be used for fragrances and weaving also.
A community W.C. will improve sanitation. Due to a lack of water infrastructure site, toilets shall be dry toilets, with waste to be redistributed on site as fertiliser, good for its high nitrogen content.
PHASE 05_REBUILD (MODULES)
PHASE 06_RE-GRADE (CASSAVA GARDENS)
Build modules within the cleaned and regraded areas. Lakous to be configured within the new pockets for previously displaced communities.
Cassava gardens provide shade, sweet potatoes, beans and other local produce for consumption or trade. Also help to re-stabilise the landscape.
PHASE 07_REBUILD (WATERFILTER)
PHASE 08_RE-GRADE (TREES)
Each module will have a water butt to collect rain water, Lakous shall have simple Bio-Sand Filters to purify the water for drinking. The residents can add to the filter with their own captured rainwater.
Once the vetiver grass has re-stabilised the hillside, larger trees (avocado and mango) can be reintroduced to assist in strengthening the landscape as well as providing shade and future income.
Home for Haiti | Landscape Domestication_Lakous
Home for Haiti | Landscape Domestication_Gingerbread Houses
Bamboo poles halved along length.
Internal Nodes removed.
Capping nodes retained at each end.
Gutter supported from roof frame set to a 2% fall.
Hole cut at end to locate down pipe.
Bamboo Gutter System (Halved using traditional methods, usually machete)
Hollowed-out bamboo poles as down pipes.
Water Collection Tank Water scarcity is a problem in Haiti, thereby providing collection point helps to alleviate the issue to the homes, used for washing, cleaning & drinking. Semi-submerged underneath the house to keep water cool and shaded. A water filtration tank is provided to each Lakou, to be maintained and topped up by the Lakou members. Home for Haiti | Rainwater Collection Strategy
The building has been designed with a shaded verandah on all sides to provide maximum opportunity for shade. This is also in keeping with the traditional porches which can be found in the Caille, Creole and Gingerbread houses found in the region. Aim: keep as much direct sunlight off the â€˜living coreâ€™ as possible to ensure good thermal comfort within the space.
Each house has a core and external veranda, creating a protected interstitial space allowing air to circulate around and through the core. Bamboo sections at the top of each panel in order to allow for the free flow of air to cross ventilate through the space.
Home for Haiti | Solar Shading & Ventilation Strategy
STAGE 01 Cut two poles 150mm above node. Select a smaller pole which will fit within the larger poles & cut to size (300mm)
STAGE 02 Insert both pole sections over the smaller central piece. Ensure that there is no gap once in place.
STAGE 03 Apply binding to both poles just above node. Secure twine beneath binding and wrap both around two bamboo levers on each side.
VERTICAL SPLICING JOINT
STAGE 04 Twist levers to tighten gap between the poles. Once the gap is closed tightly bind the levers to the bamboo poles.
STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS: SINGLE STOREY MODULE RUBBLE BAG FOUNDATIONS Rubble from demolished buildings is reused to create a stable base for the columns, allowing for lateral & vertical movement during earthquakes to prevent fracturing.
STAGE 01 Dig a 900x900x600 hole
FISH MOUTH JOINT A semi circular cut is made at the end of the bamboo piece and filed down to create a saddle which will support the bamboo beam. It is simple and commonly used joint.
STAGE 02 Lay around perimeter of hole. Add barbed wire between layers.
STAGE 03 Insert columns into central square void.
STAGE 04 Infill around the column group and compact under foot. Sand or soil can be used for this stage.
OPEN/CLOSE In the event of an impending storm, the canopy above the verandah closes down to cover the top ventilation openingse, thereby providing extra protection to the inhabitants.
STAGE 1: Mark out a 3m x 3m square. In the centre place a 1m x 1m square, roughly 35 degrees to the larger square.
STAGE 02 Cut across this line. From the midpoint, mark a perpendicular line.
STAGE 03 Cut along line to create a pointed head.
STAGE 3: Gradually close the inner square making it smaller and increasing the pitch of the frame. The outer twine square should now be taught. Lash each pole to its supporting counter part. Split 2 poles in half to go on top of the frame.
STAGE 04 Using a round head file, round off the central section.
TH J FISH MOU
STAGE 01 Above a node, mark a 45 degree angle.
STAGE 2: Lay e bamboo poles one on top of the other as shown above, in relation to the small square. In each pole at the circumfrence end, drill a hole through the top and bottom. Thread twine several times through all 4 poles to hold in tension.
STAGE 4: Check all lashings are tightened. Secure the halved bamboo gutters to the supporting poles.
STAGE 05 Underneath the node, drill a hole through both sides of the bamboo.
STAGE 06 Secure the beam using twine and lash together.
Year 5 // Semester 2 Design Project