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pa t rick92. smith@ gmail. com / 07710284091 / p a r t ii
01: DNAire Centre / Patrick Henry Smith
01_DNAire Centre Thesis Project - Northumbria University 2017 - 2018
p o n i c P l a n t a ti o
DNAire Centre | Summary
e Centre, Salta
able Energy Cen
t Fish Ha chery
The DNAire Centre is a proposed fish hatchery, energy hub and aquaponic centre within the Victorian model town of Saltaire in West Yorkshire and is a reactionary move in response to centuries of abuse and neglect of the River Aire and its ecosystems for the furtherment of the industrial revolution. The Centre aligns to the efforts of the prior-existing DNAire Project charity, whereby volunteers in the River Aire catchment help improve the river quality, in an attempt to bring the long awaited return of “Salmon to Skipton” in the river’s headwaters. The DNAire Centre shall monitor and return the river’s flora/fauna to near pre-industrial levels, whilst utilising the hatchery processes to feed the aquaponic process of food production.
S alts Mi
) 1888 B ra d f o rd ( MALHAM
Many of the worst polluting cities sat abreast of the Aire, none more so than the Worstedopolis: Bradford, the worldleader in wool production. In 1801, Bradford was a rural town with a population of 13,000. By 1841, this was 130,000 & by 1900 it was almost 280,000. Bradford was soon the most polluted town in England with over 100 mill chimneysproducing deadly, black, phosphorous smoke. 30% percentage of children reached the age of 15 with 18 the average life expectancy for textile workers. Concerned for his worker’s health, and spurred on by Disraeli’s novel ‘Coningsby’, wealthy Bradford mill owner Titus Salt moved his factories and workforce out of the toxic city, building an industrial community at a nearby beauty spot on the banks of the River Aire in 1853: Saltaire, one of the world’s first industrial model towns.
DNAire Centre | Worstedopolis & Titus
Ti t u s S a l
Co n in g
B ra d fo r
“Every other factory town in England is a paradise incomparison to this hole. In Manchester the air lies like lead upon you; ng
in Birmingham it is just as if you were sitting with
but you can put up with all that. In Bradford, however, you think you have been lodged with the devilincarnate. If anyone wants to feel how a poor sinner is tormented in Purgatory, let him travel to Bradford.”
(George Weerth, 1846)
you had swallowed a pound of Cayenne pepper in one go -
in Leeds you have to cough with the dust and the stink as if
your nose in a stovepipe;
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Sir Titus Salt, was hugely influenced by Joseph Paxtonâ€™s Crystal Palace, bidding for it to be brought Salts Mill after the Great Exhibition. Salt envisaged an industrial room unlike any other in the world; an ethereal palace of light and air, perpetual spring, lightweight and glazed, much contrasting to the monolithic, noisy, dirty, dark and miserable mills of the time.
DNAire Centre | Design Influences
Although outbid for the Palace, the desire of Mr. Salt for a Paxton-esque building at Saltaire were a driving factor in designing the DNAire Centre with regard to: Materiality / Structure / Spaces / Colour / Scale etc. Further elements at Salts Mill informed the DNAire Centre, such as the sawtooth roofs and the prominence of bridges at the site. The location of the DNAire Centre re-links the North and South sides of the River Aire, via a bridge building, in the location of a previous bridge, destroyed after WWII.
DNAire Centre | Early Concept Model
At its peak, Salts Mill employed 4000 people In 1853 & was the largest factory in the world, costing ÂŁ100,000 to build. (ÂŁ225 million today). Specialising in alpaca wool, the raw fleece would arrive at the top of the building before being processed down, emerging as finished cloth. Salts Mill would normally produce 30,000 yards or 18 miles of alpaca cloth per day, around 5,600 miles each year. The spinning room on the top floor measure 168m long and held 16,380 cap spindels for spinning yarn. DNAire Centre | Saltaire then
ilve Robin S
ckn (Ho S a l t a i re
After wool production ceased at Salts Mill in the 1980s, slowly decay set in, before being saved by local businessman, Robin Silver. Since Silver bought the mill, it has become a vibrant, cultural hub. Between 1987 and 1997, Silver created the worldâ€™s biggest single collection of local born, David Hockneyâ€™s work. In joining culture with commerce through: a diner, art galleries, offices, a bookshop, and the various industries, Silver readied the desolate mill for the 21st century. 9
DNAire Centre | Saltaire today
DNAire Centre | Existing Site Plan (1:4000 @ A4)
Whilst Salts Mill has undergone regeneration over recent years, there is a visual and physical disconnect between the North and South sides of the central axis of Saltaire, Victoria Road. A bridge once connected both sides, however was demolished after WWII. The DNAire Centre shall re-connect the two sides, whilst providing new public areas between the canal and the river. 11
DNAire Centre | Site Constraints / Massing
DNAire Centre | Proposed Level 03 (Market Square)_1:1000 @ A4
2. 2. 3.
21. 22. 16. 23. 29.
26. 18. 27. 28.
1. Salmon Broodstock tanks 2. Staff changing & W.Câ€™s 3. Flexible Wet Laboratory 4. Quarantine 5. Store 6. Prep. Laboratory 7. Service Corridor 8. Histology Laboratory 9. Parasitology Laboratory 10. Larval Rearing Tanks 11. Plant Room 12. Incubation 13. Starter Culture Laboratory 14. Stock Culture Laboratory 15. DNAire Hatchery Office 16. Fish Take / Wet Lab 17. Limnology Laboratory 18. Anaerobic Digester Plant Room 19. Fish Passes 20. Mesocosm Testing Pool 21. Fish Holding Pool 22. Fish Lift 23. Broodstock Holding Raceway & Tanks 24. Allotments 25. Digestate Storage 26. Anaerobic Digester 27. Gas Holder 28. Service & Goods Access 29. New public Park
Level 02_DNAire Hatchery (1:200 @ A2)
DNAire Centre | Proposed Level 02 (Fish Hatchery)_1:400 @ A4
Sturgeon European Eel (Acipenser sturio) (Anguilla anguilla)
n En d a g ered
White-Clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes)
Burbot (Lota Lota)
Threatened DNAire Centre | Fish Hatchery Laboratory
Roach (Rutilus Rutilus)
(Present. Good numbers)
Pike (Esox lucius)
(Present. Good numbers)
3 Spined Stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
Brown Trout (Salmo trutta)
(Dominant fish in upper river. Not ventured below Skipton)
Minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus)
(Millions, but declining. Struggling to ascend weirs)
Stone Loach (Barbatula barbatula)
(Found in habitats similar to the minnow. Good numbers)
Bullhead (Cottus gobio)
(Good numbers. Largely found along River Aire)
White-Clawed Crayfish (Native. Inhabits upper Aire. Under (Austropotamobius pallipes) threat from US signal crayfish) US Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus)
(Invasive species, and a danger to ecosystem)
Chub (Leuciscus cephalus)
(Common. Ever present)
Dace (Leuciscus leuciscus)
Gudgeon (Gobio gobio)
(Common. Up to Skipton) Perch (Perca fluviatilis)
Gradually returning after industrialisation.
MA L HAM
Atlantic Salmon (Disappeared due to impassible barriers. (Salmo salar) Returned in 2002. Not confirmed beyond Leeds) Sea Trout (Salmo trutta)
(Largely tidal, but have been found in Saltaire)
Rainbow Trout (Present but not in large (Oncorhynchus mykiss) numbers) Bleak (Alburnus alburnus)
(Tidal. Found up to Castleford) Flounder (Platichthys flesus)
A IR M YN
Least Concern 15
DNAire Centre | Current Migration Distances and UK Conservation Status
Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra)
Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
S a lta
Electricity Hydroponics & Aquaponics Fish Hatchery & Energy Hub RURAL
Fi s h
H yd r o
i n e G e n e ra to r
Saltaire Town Grid
ster Food Waste
A n a e ro b
There is a symbiotic relationship between the various processes active at the DNAire Centre, as shown above. Each process or individual element works both in the micro (DNAire Centre) and in the macro (Saltaire and the wider Aire landscape), and as a part of the larger cyclical economy of the centre. As such, there is a cyclical economy at the DNAire centre, whereby the hydro, the biogas and its turbine, as well as the solar panels on the roof power both the Centre and give back to the Saltaire grid, whilst the aquaponic and hatchery processes work symbiotically within this strategy.
DNAire Centre | Circular Economy
(3 &&/ )0 64 & (3& &/ )0 64 &
DNAire Centre | Aquaponic Kitchen
The DNAire Centre aims to improve the damage created over a century industry. Aquaponics are a progressive approach to farming and sustaining in a 21st century world, whereby land is increasingly scare, under threat and/or damaged. Salts Mill was a world leader of industry, and it is believed that the DNAire Centre can be a leader in its approach to reversing the damage of industry and development of 21st century appropriate food and plant production.
DNAire Centre | Aquaponic Greenhouses
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Aquaponic Cafe Kitchen Store Aquaponic Greenhouse Aquaponic Plant Room Triple Storey Void Vertical Greenhouse Viewing Garden
2. 70% of global water consumption is for faming, depleting lakes, rivers and other fresh water sources.
Pla n ts
gy n er
5. d Foo
Aquaponics enables a more efficient food production, one that is 100% organic.
Aquaponics: 90% less water consumption
Aquaponics reduces 90% less water than traditional farming methods.
DNAire Centre | Proposed Level 05 (Aquaponic Greenhouses & Kitchen)_1:400 @ A4
DNAire Centre | Vertical Greenhouse
2 3 4 5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Galvanised steel sheet, Purlin: 2 x 80/60mm section steel tubes 100/200mm flat steel endplate 50/80mm galvanised steel box section 76/16m Polycarbonate Panel, 1mm UV protection 130/40mm steel section 300/400 cellular I-beam 2mm galvanised steel sheet, minimum 50mm insulation laid to falls, 2mm galvanised steel sheet 154/100mm steel section as beam
9 10 11
21 22 23 24
9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.
150/10mm glazed louvres in aluminium frame 300mm galvanised steel I-section column 76/16mm corrugated polycarbonate sheet, 1mm UV-protection 2x6mm laminated safety glass sliding door in aluminium frame Toothed rack Sprocket with Ă¸18mm drive pipe 85/35mm galvanised steel section 80mm polished screed, 50mm XPS thermal insulation, laminated bitumen sealing layer, 250mm reinforced concrete slab with steel profile deck 17. 35mm galvanised steel grating on substructure: 154mm steel I-Section
18. Suspended soffit: 50mm mineral fibre acoustic insulation, 10mm glassfiber reinforceed gypsum (GRG) with linear perforations, smoothed and painted 19. 60mm polished screed with underfloor heating, 50mm XPS thermal insulation, laminated bitumen sealing layer, 235mm reinforced concrete slab with steel profile deck 20. Galvanised steel truss; Upper chord: 50mm galvanised steel T-Section. Diagonal: 30mm galvanised steel web. Lower chord: 50mm galvanised steel T-section 21. Heating pipes for tempering 22. Planter 23. 50mm polished screed, 50mm XPS thermal insulation, laminated bitumen layer, 235mm reinforced concrete slab with steel profile deck
24. 400/400mm Galvanised I-Beam 25. 300/300/100mm glass blocks, satin finish 26. 50mm polished screed with underfloor heating, 100mm XPS thermal insulation, laminated bitumen sealing layer, 240mm reinforced concrete slab with steel profile deck
27. 20mm composite galvanised steel soffit 28. 500/400mm I-Beam 29. 400/400mm Galvanised steel I -Section column
30. Rectangular pile cap. 2 pile system. (To be confirmed by specialist weir/structural engineer)
27 28 29
21 DNAire Centre | Technical Section (1:100 @ A4)
DNAire Centre | Roberts Park View
DNAire Centre North Elevation (1:200 @ A1)
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DNAire Centre South Elevation (1:200 @ A1)
Victoria Road Section (1:500 @ A1)
DNAire Centre | Victoria Road Section_1:1000 @ A4
DNAire Centre | Saltaire Planometric
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4 " 5 " * 3 & . " 3 , & 5
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DNAire Centre | Victoria Road on Market Day & Aquaponic Viewing Garden
DNAire Centre | Hatchery Tanks Viewing Gallery
MArch Design Thesis, Northumbria University (2017-2018)