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Ever thought of building an ice rink?

Ice Rink Manual of the International Ice Hockey Federation



Ice Rink Manual

Publisher: International Ice Hockey Federation Chairman of the Project Group: Philippe Lacarrière Editors: Robert van Rijswijk, Secretary of the Project Group Patrick Kelleher Layout: Szymon Szemberg Robert van Rijswijk Digital Type AG Contributing Writers: Kimmo Leinonen Szymon Szemberg Robert van Rijswijk International Ice Hockey Federation Mika Kallio Lemminkkäinen Construction Ldt. Ari Laitinen VTT Building and Transport Prof. F. Roskam IAKS Patrick Kelleher Serving The American Rinks Photographs: IIHF Archives, City Press Berlin




In the early years ice hockey was played outdoors. Nothing could be more beautiful than when the temperature was some degrees below zero and the scenery was like on this picture from 1910. But only in a couple of hours all could change. Snowstorm or heavy rain or a temperature above zero would pretty soon call for a postponement or cancellation of a game or of an entire tournament. In order for the game to develop, hockey rinks were needed. Photo: National Archives of Canada



of Contents Message from the President .................................................................................... 4 Foreword ................................................................................................................ 5 Chapter 1: You can build an ice rink everywhere 1.1 Introduction of the Manual/IIHF Prototype....................................................... 6 1.2 Introduction to ice hockey................................................................................ 6 Chapter 2: Social interest of an ice rink 2.1 Interest of the community ............................................................................... 9 2.2 Activity programs and services ......................................................................... 9 2.3 Ice rinks throughout the world ....................................................................... 13 Chapter 3: Technical guidelines of an ice rink 3.1 General introduction ....................................................................................... 15 3.2 Sizing the ice rinks .......................................................................................... 18 3.3 IIHF prototype definition ................................................................................ 18 3.4 Materials and structural systems for an ice rink............................................. 19 3.5 Mechanical and electrical plant ..................................................................... 25 3.6 Energy consumption optimisation .................................................................. 32 3.7 Environmental effects ..................................................................................... 36 Chapter 4: Economic profile of the IIHF ice rink prototype 4.1 Introduction.................................................................................................... 38 4.2 Construction costs.......................................................................................... 38 4.3 Operational budget ........................................................................................ 40 Chapter 5: Financing 5.1 Construction costs / Investment costs ............................................................ 43 5.2 Operational costs .......................................................................................... 43

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks........................................................................................... 44 Equipment............................................................................................................. 51 IIHF Member Associations ..................................................................................... 54



Ever thought

of building an ice rink? The rink is the key to all hockey development


In the beginning, ice hockey had its definite limits. It could only be played in places where you had natural ice from December until at the latest March. And those were the long seasons! This is why North America, Scandinavia, the former Soviet Union and a handful of other countries had an early jump in this game. Today, the International Ice Hockey Federation has 63 national member federations. Some of the countries with hockey programs and leagues include the United Arab Emirates, Israel, South Africa, Australia and Singapore. In the United States, there is high level ice hockey played in cities like Los Angeles, Tampa and Dallas.

The reason, of course, is rinks with artificial ice. Only some ten years ago, ice hockey in some of the places mentioned above was a good joke. Not anymore. Rinks with artificial ice can be built anywhere, even in the desert or south of the equator. The problems associated with building artificial ice rinks could be summarized in these two questions: 1. How do we start? 2. Isn’t it far too expensive? In order to show communities all over the planet that an ice rink is not one of the seventh wonders of the world, the IIHF decided to put a group of experts together to create a rink manual. The goal of the manual is to help communities and hockey enthusiasts to build ice rinks in their neighbourhoods, at reasonable costs. This manual targets ice hockey clubs with an ambition to build a community rink, the decision makers within communities or municipalities, and construction entrepreneurs. As the President of the International Ice Hockey Federation I am proud to present this manual: ”Ever thought of building an ice rink?“ This is the first manual of its kind in regards to ice rinks. René Fasel IIHF President The rink – where skill is acquired.



New Arena Project An ice rink brings joy to the entire community The excitement of gliding on a naturally frozen surface has fascinated mankind since pre-historical times and through the centuries. In recent times, different ice sports, and particularly ice hockey, were developed and enjoyed by more and more men and women. The development of refrigeration technologies at the end of the 19th century has offered many people the opportunity to skate on artificial ice surfaces, even in the very centre of some cities! Nowadays, through more advanced techniques and better insulation materials, which results in more efficient energy use, it is possible for any country in the world to develop ice sports. Our working group, appointed by the International Ice Hockey Federation Council, was composed of experts from six different countries and involved in various aspects of the development of ice sports. Contractors, engineers, sports facilities experts, administrators, operators, sportsmen and media, all participated in the working group. This manual has been prepared in order to help the different Federations affiliated with the IIHF, or ready to be affiliated, to achieve simple and cheap projects to build ice rinks. This will allow them to develop a wider program to promote the world’s fastest team sport: ice hockey. The goal is to provide the information and explanations, which should be utilized by the various groups who are involved or interested in the different aspects of ice rink planning, construction, maintenance and operations. An ice rink is a special building that has to be studied with particular care. The project should involve advice from experienced construction companies and engineering firms. The philosophy behind this project was to inform how, and maybe inspire a community or group to build an ice rink. This manual should also help rink projects to avoid some common mistakes. Through the description of an ice rink prototype, which combines a good economic figure with a standard architectural design and a complete installation for social enjoyment, the purpose of this manual is to show: • That an ice rink will create a great social interest for ice hockey and others ice sports within a community.


• That building an ice rink is simply possible anywhere in the world. • How to successfully construct, manage, and operate an ice rink. • That building, maintaining and operating an ice rink is financially feasible, provided that the technical concept has been carefully studied. We sincerely hope that this manual will give the reader some of the information necessary to help understand the technical and financial aspects of an ice rink. This will also show how the interest of building a rink could be to the benefit of a wide range of users. Men and women of any age will be able to enjoy the fun of ice hockey and other ice sports. Philippe Lacarrière IIHF Arena Project Leader IIHF Council Member

The rink is for everyone.


You can build an ice rink everywhere Chapter 1 1.1 Introduction of the Manual / IIHF Prototype


A covered ice rink is not an impossible dream. How can it be? After all, there are over 2700 rinks in Canada alone! There are rinks in countries and cities, which never have had snow or ice. This manual from the International Ice Hockey Federation intends to show that building an ice rink is possible anywhere in the world. The basic element is enthusiasm and some entrepreneurship. We want to target ice hockey clubs and leisure organisations that have the ambition to take their program to another level and show them how to successfully construct, manage and operate an ice rink. This manual also targets the decision makers, politicians in the communities and

You can have an ice sheet in the desert in the United Arab Emirates or, as on this picture, in sunny California.

municipalities and presents them with ideas how to make building an ice rink financially feasible. The local rink is far from only being a place where you practise and play ice hockey. Special social patterns can develop within the confines of an ice rink, and there are many ”rink rats“ who have spent long hours at the rink without ever lacing a pair of skates. Parents who assist their children, volunteers who sell hot dogs during a weekend junior tournament or take a shift driving the ice resurfacer. By building an ice rink, more than just the game of ice hockey prospers. In many communities, the ice rink has become the centre of social life where many other activities can be performed. An ice rink can also be used for figure skating, fairs, exhibitions, minor conventions and coaching clinics. By covering the ice sheet during off-season the arena can be utilized for other indoor sports such as basketball, indoor soccer, handball and inline hockey. There are several examples where an ice rink has served as a boost for a whole community. This manual wants to be the inspiration to start looking and finding ways and solutions in order to build a community rink. In this manual we will introduce a prototype that is not the cheapest possible solution to build a small ice rink. The prototype is a product of a marketing approach. It is a concept that offers modern comfort to visitors, both active and passive, through modern ice rink construction techniques. The rink should be an appealing place to all potential visitors. It should be safe, comfortable and give visitors the opportunity to enjoy their stay, whether it’s on the ice, in the small but comfortable restaurant, in the stands or in the dressing room. The rink should also be easy to maintain, with low overhead and investment costs. The writers of this manual feel that the prototype reflects all these wishes. The aesthetic design is the icing on the cake. We hope that you will be as fascinated as we are about the concept.

1.2 Introduction to ice hockey

Prototype of an IIHF rink

Ice hockey is a product of evolution stemming from existing sports, coupled with geographical and cultural parameters. Further, it is a team sport enjoyed by millions of players worldwide and viewed by millions more. It has been proclaimed the ”fastest team sport in the world“


and the object of the game, simply stated, is to score more goals than your opponent does. The fact that each team uses six players, including the goaltender showcases individual skill within a team concept, which ultimately provides a dynamic sport experience that is unique from game to game. While the exact origins of the game can be debated, it is generally accepted that ice hockey as is played today, took shape on Canada’s East Coast between the mid to late 1800’s. A form of bandy or ”Hurley on ice“ became logical for the settlers to this new land when confronted with the harsh winter conditions. Over time, local rules were implemented and equipment, particularly skates and the stick, were manufactured specifically for ice hockey. As popularity for the game increased over time, the sport began to be exported to other countries, especially as travel itself became easier. Many refinements regarding rules and equipment were instituted around the turn of the century but modifications still continue today as ongoing efforts to improve the game both on and off the ice persist. The first recorded indoor ice hockey game took place at Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal way back in 1875. From those modest beginnings, the game has transformed into a major modern indoor sport. The impact of enclosed arenas to the game is hard to overestimate. Technology has

recently afforded the sport of ice hockey substantial opportunities to expand globally. No longer a function of climate, current facility construction allows ice hockey and skating in general to now be accommodated virtually anywhere in the world. It might be significant to note that it has been historically documented that a contained covered rink contributed to a common community spirit. This social type of gathering still plays an important part of today’s society, enabling people with similar interests to get together and cheer on their local ice hockey teams for the purposes of entertainment and civic pride. From an industry perspective, an indoor arena provides a greater potential to generate revenue because games can be played year round, regardless of the weather. Further, top class events can be planned with certainty, providing a guarantee of sorts to sponsors, spectators and even media, including television. With this in mind, it is not surprising that the appeal of the game goes far beyond just the participants. Ice hockey is an extremely popular spectator sport, whether it is viewed in person or via a television broadcast. Either way both men and women of all ages enjoy the fast paced action that is witnessed during a typical ice hockey match. Aside from the general traits required to excel at this sport, such as endurance, strength, balance and good hand-eye coordination, players show-

The Victoria Skating Rink in Montreal, Canada. The site of the first ever hockey game, March 3, 1875.



Chapter 1


case a variety of skills specific to the game itself. This includes not only the ability to skate within the context of the contact sport that hockey is, but also to be able to stickhandle and shoot the puck while in motion. Because of the mass appeal, the game lends itself to be marketable from a number of perspectives. Corporations frequently benefit from their association with this dynamic sport and can brand its product or service via the game. The demographics of ice hockey, despite variations from country to country, reveal that most arena patrons are aware of advertising within the building, and typically have a higher than average income. When mixed with an exciting product on the ice, all parties stand to benefit. Today, corporations go beyond the traditional static advertising as has been evident within the rink and on the equipment of the players themselves. In a sense they exhibit a form of

vertical integration, actually taking ownership of the building and/or sport franchise in efforts to generate a greater awareness of the company and ultimately additional revenues. Similarly, in North America, a trend has started with professional ice hockey teams building skating facilities locally as a way to develop and nurture a grassroots core of players who become spectators and purchasers of team merchandise. By entering the rink ownership and operation business, the team and any associated partners strive for long-term growth in their local market. Therefore, where traditionally a skating facility was viewed primarily as part of the community’s infrastructure, not unlike a park or a library, today’s arena projects are examined in economic terms with revenue and expense implications. Naming rights, private boxes, concession, along with innovative advertising opportunities are just a few examples.

Modern professional ice hockey is played in 10 000 plus arenas. The action is fast-paced and the competition fierce. Here, Canada plays Russia in the IIHF World Championship.


Social interest of an ice rink Chapter 2 2.1 Interest of the community Ice sports come particularly close to the ideal of “Sports for All”, a concept envisaging the promotion of health, communication and quality of life through sports. These sports stand for health and enjoyment while being socially and recreationally relevant to both sexes within a wide age bracket. An arena gives opportunities for the community to enjoy a great diversity of ice sports. From skating to figure skating, to ice hockey, standard and short-distance speed skating, the range extends to curling and broomball, while providing opportunities for everyone. An ice rink always attracts crowds, whether it’s individuals, schools or clubs, single athletes or teams. As long as it is supported by diverse, well-organized utilization programs and opening hours, an ice rink encourages many people to identify with skating. Schools and clubs are the entry-level motivators generating an interest in skating beyond the level of basic skills. From here, one development will lead to recreational sports as a lifelong athletic pastime, while another may take the enthusiast to competitive sports in an ice hockey or skating club. Ice rinks are attractive sports and recreational facilities promoting health and social activity as a key element of “quality of life”. Experienced physicians, responsible pedagogues and social scientists, forward-looking communal politicians, and all stakeholders in the world of sports have underlined this. The public interest in ice hockey, figure skating, speed skating, curling and broomball that has emerged in many countries has led to the situation that ice sports today are no longer viewed as a special or even exclusive kind of athletic activity. However, all-weather facilities available during 6-9 months of the year are usually in short supply. Natural ice surfaces, with their dependence on climatic conditions, are equally unsuitable for continued, wide-scale recreational use as they are for regular training, exciting competitions, or charming figure skating events. Artificial ice rinks have therefore become indispensable in today’s increasingly sports-related recreational environment, whether to meet older people’s growing interest in ice-skating, the steadily growing demand for competition venues, or quite simply, spectator requirements. During the ice-free remainder of the year, these facilities also become an ideal site for inline


Ice rinks are also attractive recreational facilities promoting health and social activity in the community.

skating, and other indoor sports activities. Socalled dry-floor events such as exhibitions, meetings, shows, music events and theatre are other potential uses. The possibility of year-round use is a necessary and valuable condition, as it were, for considering the construction of such a facility. High capacity utilization can warrant the investment and the recurring annual operational costs.

2.2 Activity programs and services Ice hockey Of course, youth and adult hockey programs will provide the greatest number of users of a facility. It is vital to the success of the rink to program as many hours of usage as possible. Scheduling youth programs to utilize as many early evening, and weekend hours, as possible will leave late night times to be filled with adult hockey programs. A typical youth hockey program will occupy weeknight ice from 5 PM to 10 PM, the majority of Saturday ice from the early morning to the evening, and most of the day and evening also on Sunday. Depending upon the country or the time of the year, youth hockey players may also be able to skate during a weekday or on holidays. As previously mentioned, rinks need to maximize their ice usage. Adult hockey should be scheduled to fill late night hours throughout the week. It is not uncommon for adult hockey leagues to begin at 9 PM, and have games ending as late at 1AM. Sunday evenings, depending on availability, are also common times for adult hockey.



Chapter 2

The rink is virtually never closed. Young hockey players arrive for practise.

Another program that has gained prominence is recreational or open hockey. Ice time is reserved and players register individually for each session. Sessions are typically either one hour or 90 minutes in length. Scheduled times can vary depending upon the community, but late Friday and Saturday nights, weekday early morning or ”lunch time“ sessions and also Sunday mornings have been found to be successful. It is also possible to rent ice time to adult hockey groups, who may fill odd hours at the facility. In any event, the pickup sessions should be scheduled to fill the less desirable, or ”quiet hours“ in a facility. Learn to Skate & Learn to Play Hockey programs The Learn to Skate and Learn to Play Hockey programs are the foundation of a successful facility. In these programs, casual participants can be turned into more serious customers that return to the facility three to four times a week. If children can demonstrate a minimum proficiency on the ice, it becomes more enjoyable to return to the rink and develop as athletes. These types of program are very important to keep skaters coming back to the rink. The Learn to Skate and Play programs, targeting the 5 to 12 year old children, will constantly provide new skaters for your more advanced programs. Classes can also be offered to very young children, ages 3 to 5 years old. These classes can be offered during weekday mornings when the older children are in school. Again, this provides the rink another program to fill those ”quiet hours“ when the rink is under-utilised. These Learn to Skate classes will also provide a feeder program to your classes for the older children. Similar programs may be offered during the “quiet hours” that target the adult or senior community. An advantage of the Learn to Skate and Play programs is that during each session, as many as 8 different classes, with approximately 10 children

Practise makes perfect.

in each class, can be put on the ice at the same time. Each class may be 30 to 45 minutes in length. This scheduling will allow the facility to schedule 3 to 4 class sessions during a 2 hour time period. The financial benefits of maximizing your ice utilization can be substantial for the rink. For these programs, one weekday afternoon session and a Saturday morning or afternoon session should be offered as a minimum. The weekday session will serve as an after school activity, and could be operated from 4 to 6 PM. Depending on the community, this time frame could be very popular. Saturday sessions provide the opportunity for all family members to participate. Parents, and even Grandparents, may have a better chance of attending weekend sessions. This session should be offered immediately before or after a public skating session so that your customers may spend more time at the facility. Once a skater progresses through the Learn to Skate and Learn to Play programs, they will choose the sport that they will concentrate on, either figure skating or hockey. It is important for rinks to have a balance of both programs in order to maximize the ice usage, and community participation, at the facility. In a single sheet facility, it is difficult to accommodate the needs of all the user groups, but it is important to create an environment where all can participate. Public skating In many areas, especially those regions where hockey is not part of the culture, public skating sessions are important in operating a successful ice facility. A public skating session is when ice time is set aside so that any individual may, for a fee, skate at the rink. A public skating session is usually an inexpensive means to introducing customers to your facility. Public skating also allows the rink management to introduce customers to other, structured


programs that are offered at the facility. Use the consumer’s general interest in skating to entice them into more visits to the rink. Public skating will allow your entire community to enter your facility, and give you an audience to market to. Most public skating sessions average two hours in length. In many communities, weekend evening sessions on Friday or Saturday nights have become traditional. Starting at 7 PM or 8 PM and lasting until 10 PM or 11 PM, both youth and adults can skate and socialize. As an added feature, a “theme night” program might be instituted. Rock or Popular music Fridays may attract a crowd. Weekend afternoon sessions are popular with families. Parents are able to skate with their children, or group outings and events can become part of the facilities programming options. Many facilities now offer Birthday party programs that are connected to afternoon public skating sessions. It is best to start weekend afternoon sessions at 12 pm or 1 PM and finish at 3 PM or 4 PM. These are the suggested minimum public skating times. Every area has a different need and this should be evaluated continuously. There are other public sessions that work quite well in some regions, including: ✔ Early Sunday evenings. This session, from 6 PM to 8 PM, could become a family, or ”end of the weekend“ event. ✔ Weekday mornings. Make these sessions available for school groups, adult or senior citizen groups. ✔ Weekday afternoons. An after school skate, from 3 PM to 5 PM with music that caters to the 10 to 14-year-old crowd. ✔ A weeknight session. This session, 7 PM to 9 PM, will work around your learn to skate classes, and may help bring more adults to the facility.


Chapter 2

Public skating is an inexpensive means of introducing customers to your facility.

Figure skating In a typical rink, figure skating programs fill ice time that hockey programs cannot, or will not, utilize. Early morning, mid- and late afternoon hours have become standard for most figure skaters. As an individual sport, it is easier to fill these odd hours with 10 to 15 individuals, as opposed to a team of 15 to 20 hockey players. As figure skaters develop and become more advanced, they spend more time on the ice. It is common for advanced skaters to practice twice per day, 5 or 6 times each week. A new figure skating activity, synchronized team skating, is gaining prominence around the world. This program should be received with open arms by the rink industry. A synchronized skating team can put 15 to 20 skaters on the ice for a practice session, incorporating more skaters into a program. Figure skating clubs operate to take care of the skaters coming out of the Learn to Skate program. They can also take care of marketing and promotion of figure skating programs and events for the facility. The serious skaters will not hesitate to skate on weekday mornings before school, from 6 AM to 9 AM. If the demand is there, some mornings can go longer or begin even earlier. The rinks that can successfully fill these odd hours with skating programs have a better chance for success. The advanced skater may begin as early as 1 PM during a weekday afternoon, depending upon their school schedule. Otherwise, 3 PM to 6 or 7 PM, several days each week should be made available for the figure skating programs. Some nights go longer and some nights may end

Percentage of weekly ice usage

 Figure Skating  Learn to Skate  Learn to Play  Pickup Hockey  Youth Hockey  Adult Hockey  Public Skating  Private Rental

23 hrs 8 hrs 2 hrs 4 hrs 30 hrs 18 hrs 30 hrs 17 hrs


at 5 PM. It is also important to schedule your figure skating afternoons around the Learn to Skate and Learn to Play programs. This way, the beginner skaters can view the more advanced programs, and understand the next level of participation at your facility. Other ice sports There are other ice sports that may or may not fit with a particular facility or community. Speed skating, curling and Broomball are three activities that may complement a rink by filling ”quiet hours“ in the facility.

Chapter 2


Community programs It is important to bring as many members of the community to the facility as possible. With this in mind, there are several programs which rink management can use to bring the public to the rink.

School field trips can be very popular. The rink may create relationships where schools may bring large groups to the facility during the facilities “quiet hours” throughout the school day. The rink is selling ice time that it may normally not be used, and it provides the rink with an opportunity to market their programs to potential participants. In a similar manner to school groups, companies and other community organisations such as youth organisations and church groups may also be interested in skating at the rink. It is important for the rink management to seek out as many of these opportunities as possible. Private birthday parties, as explained in the public skating section, are becoming more popular events as well.

Sample weekly schedule 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1


Monday Figure Skating Figure Skating Figure Skating Private Rental Private Rental Private Rental Public Skating Public Skating Private Rental Private Rental Figure Skating Figure Skating Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey

Tuesday Figure Skating Figure Skating Figure Skating Adult Public Skate Adult Public Skate Adult Public Skate Public Skating Public Skating Learn to Skate Learn to Skate Learn to Play Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey

Wednesday Figure Skating Figure Skating Figure Skating Private Rental Learn to Skate Learn to Skate Pickup Hockey Pickup Hockey Private Rental Private Rental Figure Skating Figure Skating Learn to Skate Public Skating Public Skating Youth Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey

Thursday Figure Skating Figure Skating Figure Skating Adult Public Skate Adult Public Skate Adult Public Skate Public Skating Public Skating Adult Learn to Skate Figure Skating Figure Skating Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey

Friday Figure Skating Figure Skating Figure Skating Private Rental Private Rental Private Rental Pickup Hockey Pickup Hockey Private Rental Private Rental Public Skating Public Skating Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Adult Hockey Private Rental Private Rental

Saturday Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Learn to Skate Learn to Skate Learn to Play Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Adult Hockey Private Rental Private Rental

Sunday Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Figure Skating Figure Skating Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Public Skating Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Youth Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey Adult Hockey


2.3 Ice rinks throughout the world Latvia ................................ 4

Austria ............................ 24

Lithuania ........................... 2

Belarus ............................ 10

Luxembourg...................... 1

Belgium ........................... 12

Mexico ............................ 12

Bulgaria............................. 3

Namibia ............................ 2

Canada ....................... 2703

Netherlands .................... 20

China .............................. 15

New Zealand..................... 6

Chinese Taipei ................... 1

Norway ........................... 29

Croatia .............................. 2

Poland............................. 20

Czech Republic .............. 112

Portugal ............................ 1

Denmark ......................... 17

Romania............................ 4

DPR Korea......................... 2

Russia ............................ 84*

Estonia .............................. 3

Slovakia........................... 40

Finland .......................... 202

Slovenia ............................ 7

France ........................... 128

South Africa ...................... 6

Germany ....................... 149

Spain................................. 9

Great Britain.................... 58

Sweden......................... 285

Greece .............................. 2

Switzerland ..................... 82

Hong Kong ....................... 3

Thailand ............................ 1

Hungary ............................ 4

Turkey ............................... 5

Iceland .............................. 2

Ukraine ............................. 7

Israel ................................. 4

United Arab Emirates......... 3

Italy................................. 49

USA ............................ 2500

Japan .............................. 57

Yugoslavia......................... 2

Kazakstan.......................... 5 Korea .............................. 15

* Apart from the 84 indoor rinks, Russia also has 951 outdoor rinks.


Chapter 2

Australia.......................... 20



Technical guidelines of an ice rink Chapter 3

Ice rink facilities share all the same concerns: energy usage, operating costs and indoor climate. Ice rink design and operation are totally unique and differ in many ways from standard buildings. Thermal conditions vary from -5 ºC on the ice surface to +10 ºC in the stand and +20 ºC in the public areas like dressing rooms and offices. High humidity of indoor air will bring on corroding problems with steel structures, decay in wooden structures and indoor air quality problems like fungi and mould growth etc. Obviously there are special needs to have technical building services to control the indoor climate and energy use of an ice-rink facility. Advanced technology can reduce energy consumption by even 50 % and thus decrease operating costs in existing and proposed ice rink facilities while improving the indoor climate. Energy costs and concern about the environment sets high demands for the technical solutions, without effective solutions the operational (energy, maintenance, replacement) costs will increase and short service life time of such a system is expected from the environmental point of view. Potentially a lot of savings can be made if the facilities are got operating as energy-efficiently as possible. This will require investment in energysaving technology and in raising energy awareness on the part of ice rink operators. The basic technical elements of a well-working facility are: • Insulated walls and ceiling • Efficient refrigeration plant • Mechanical ventilation • Efficient heating system • Air dehumidification 1) Insulated walls and ceiling makes it possible to control the indoor climate regardless of the outdoor climate. In an open-air rink the operation is conditional on the weather (sun, rain, wind) and the running costs are high. Depending of the surroundings there might also be noise problems with the open-air rink – traffic noise may trouble the training or the slamming of the pucks against the boards may cause noise nuisance to the neighbourhood. Ceiling only construction helps to handle with sun and rain problems but may bring about maintenance problems in the form of ”indoor

rain“: humid air will condensate on the cold inner surface of the ceiling and the dripping starts. The ceiling is cold because of the radiant heat transfer between the ice and the ceiling i.e. the ice cools down the inner surface of the ceiling. Though there are technical solutions to minimize the indoor rain problem (low emissive coatings) the ceiling only solution is still subjected to weather conditions and high running costs. 2) The refrigeration plant is needed to make and maintain ice on the rink. Refrigeration plant includes the compressor(s), the condenser(s), the evaporator(s), and rink pipes. The heat from the rink is ”sucked“ by the compressor via the rink pipes and the evaporator and then released to the surrounding via the condenser. The heat from the condenser can be used to heat the ice rink facility and thus save considerably energy and money. Refrigeration plant is the main energy consumer in the ice rink facility. Compressors, pumps and fans needed in the refrigeration system are normally run by electricity and their electricity use may cover over 50 % of the total electricity use of an ice rink facility. 3) Mechanical ventilation is necessary to be able to control the indoor air quality and thermal as well as humidity conditions inside the ice rink. Ventilation is needed both in the public spaces (dressing rooms, cafeteria, etc.) and in the hall. If you ever have visited a dressing room when the ventilation is off you will realize the necessity of the proper ventilation; the stink of the outfit of the hockey players is unthinkable. Inadequate ventilation will cause also health problems in the hall. To be energyefficient air renewal must be well controlled. This means that the ice rink enclosure should be airtight so that there are no uncontrollable air infiltration through openings (doors etc.) and roof-to-wall joints. Air infiltration will increase energy consumption during the warm and humid seasons related to refrigeration and dehumidification and during the cold seasons this is associated with space heating. This leads us to the fourth basic demand: the ice rink facility must be heated. Unheated ice rink is freezing cold even in warm climates and humidity control of the air becomes difficult.


Chapter 3

3.1 General introduction


Cooling coil Rink piping

Coolant pump Heat recovery

Refrigeration unit

Liquid pump

Figure 1. Refrigeration plant, indirect cooling system.

Chapter 3


4) Ventilation offers also a means to heat the ice rink. Heating the ice rink with air necessitates the use of re-circulated air and that the ventilation unit is equipped with heating coil(s). Remarkable energy-savings can be achieved when using waste heat of the refrigeration process to warm up the air. 5) The dehumidification plant is needed in wellworking facility to dry the rink air. Excess moisture in indoor air will cause corrosion of metal structures, rotting of wooden structures, fungi and mould growth, increased energy consumption and ice quality problems.

Insulated exterior envelope • Enables to build an ice rink anywhere in the world • Air tight envelope to avoid moisture problems

Energy consumption is in the key role when speaking of the life cycle costs and above all the environmental load of the facility during its life cycle. The key to the effective utilization of the energy resources in new as well as in retrofit and refurbishment projects is in the consciousness of the energy-sinks and the various parameters affecting the energy consumption. The construction, plant system and operation define the energy consumption of an ice rink. The construction characteristics are the heat and moisture transfer properties of the roof and walls, as well as air infiltration through cracks and openings in the building envelope. The structure of the floor is also important from the energy point of view. Plant characteristics include the refrigeration, ventilation, dehumidification, heating, lighting and ice maintenance systems. The operational characteristics are the length of the skating season, air temperature and humidity, ice temperature, supply air temperature and fresh air intake of the air-handling unit as well as the control- and adjustment parameters of the appliances. Figure 3 shows the energy spectrums of typical training rinks and figure 4 illustrates the energy flows of a typical small ice rink.

Heating • Maintains acceptable thermal conditions • Use heat recovered from the refrigeration plant (condenser heat) as much as possible

Mechanical ventilation • Provides good indoor air conditions • Demand-controlled ventilation saves money and energy

Dehumidification • Dehumidification prevents moisture problems (fog, soft ice, damages to the building) • Dry ventilation air before entering the building

Figure 2. The construction, plant system and operation define energy consumption of an ice rink.

Refrigeration plant • Needed to make and maintain ice • Pay attention to the energy efficiency of the plant (high COP)



 Compressor  Brine pumps & condenser fans  Ice-surface lighting  Lighting  HVAC appliances (pumps, fans, controllers, etc.)  Other consumption  (cafe, cleaning, outdoor lights, etc.)  Dehumidification

47% 14% 12% 2% 9% 12% 4%


 Space heating  Warm water  Melting the snow

67% 17% 16%

Figure 3. Main electricity and heat consumption components of a typical training facility.

In an ideal situation the heating demand of the ice rink is totally covered with recovered heat from the refrigeration process. In practice extra heat is still needed to cover the needs of hot tap water and heating peaks. Moreover a backup

Electricity 900 MWh

heating system is needed to meet the heating demands when the compressors are not running for example during dry floor events (concerts, shows, meetings, etc.).

Energy losses 600 MWh

Heat 200 MWh Recovered heat 800 MWh

Cooling energy 1300 MWh

Surplus heat 1000 MWh

Figure 4. While producing cold, the �ice plant“ provides heat that can be utilized in space heating and hot water production. Still there is a great deal of extra heat that could be made good use of for example in a nearby indoor swimming pool.

Chapter 3



3.2 Sizing the ice rinks There are several ways to classify ice sport venues and in this manual the definition will be done on the basis of fixed seating capacity, size of the food service supply and multi-purpose possibilities.

Chapter 3


There fore the sizing of the ice sport venues are divided into three categories as follow: • Small ice rinks with seating capacity up to 2000 • Medium size ice arenas between 2000 and 6000 seats with some multi-purpose features • Modern multi-purpose ice arenas with over 6000 fixed seats with a wide scale catering offer and many possibilities for multi-purpose use Small ice rinks can be done without any fixed seating or any foodservice capability, although the modern small ice rinks are without exception also concentrating on getting additional revenues through special hospitality programs.

It is strongly than recommended that the first studies for a new ice rink will be done on a so called modular base, which allows in later years possibilities for optional enlargements. These later modifications could be like an additional ice pad, enlarged spectator stand or a restaurant. In order to make the optional features possible for later realization, the designer team should take into consideration some technical features like: • Sizing of refrigeration unit • Main structural support system, where for example the columns and foundations on one side of the building are from beginning planned to take later on extra load from additional structures • Envelope structure, like external walls, should be at least partly removable In this manual we are only concentrating on a small ice rink by defining an IIHF prototype ice rink with about 500 fixed seating and a small restaurant.

3.3 IIHF prototype definition Minimum required space, IIHF prototype ice rink

Figure 5. Small ice rink, capacity less than 2000 seats.

Figure 6. Multi-purpose arena, capacity over 8000 seats.

In a small ice rink there is a minimum space needed for following use: • at least one standard IIHF ice pad, size of 30 m x 60 m surrounded by a dasher board and glass protection with 1,5 m minimum space outside of the dasher board • four dressing rooms incl. toilets, showers and lockers for personal items • two coach rooms • referees and linesmen dressing room incl. toilet and shower • two drying rooms • entrance hall, ticketing • medical room • equipment service room (skate sharpening, stick storage etc.) • storage space • technical room for mechanical and electrical system • tribune for 500 spectators • public toilets • small restaurant


Required minimum space for each type of room in a IIHF prototype ice rink:

Main hall - Dasher board with surrounding Small restaurant Players dressing room (4 x) Referees and lines-men room Drying room (2 x) Medical room Equipment service room Technical room Ice resurfacing machine Coat-rack for public ice skating Dressing rooms for public ice skating (2 x) Entrance hall, ticketing Office

Surface area Typical surface texture nett Flooring (water proof)* Ceiling 2100 m2 Painted concrete slab Metal sheet of roofing 132 m2 wooden surfacing Wood lining 30 m2 8 mm rubber surfacing * Wood lining 18 m2 8 mm rubber surfacing * Wood lining 4 m2 Painted concrete slab Concrete (underneath) 2 15 m 8 mm rubber surfacing * Plasterboard 8 m2 Painted concrete slab Concrete (underneath) 50 m2 Painted concrete slab * Metal sheet of roofing 50 m2 Painted concrete slab * Metal sheet of roofing 2 20 m 2 mm plastic surfacing Metal sheet of roofing 10 m2 8 mm rubber surfacing * Wood lining 70 m2 ceramic tile floor Plasterboard 20 m2 2 mm plastic surfacing Plasterboard

Wall finishing Outside walls, painted Painted brick walls or concrete Painted brick walls or concrete Painted brick walls or concrete Painted brick walls or concrete Painted brick walls or concrete Painted brick walls or concrete Plasterboard Painted brick walls or concrete Plasterboard Painted brick walls or concrete Plasterboard Plasterboard

This requires a total building surface area of 3700 m2.

3.4 Materials and structural systems for an ice rink First of all, most important to know about ice rinks and ice arenas are to understand their different features compare to any other kind of buildings. These special features are due to: • High inside temperature differences in same indoor climate from -4 °C to +24 °C, where at the same time these internal climate zones must be controlled and stay stable • Differences in indoor climate also cause humidity problems that must be under control • Air tightness is more important feature of the building envelope than thermal insulation • Large glazing of the facade should be avoided due to energy costs by operating the facility and the most optimised ice rink could be done by a fully closed casing However, like in all other kind of buildings, there are structural possibilities for almost all kinds of systems with numerous materials. Main structural systems used for the ice rinks and arenas are normally: • Arched girders • Grids with mast columns • Frameworks

Mast-supported grid

Rigid frame

Arched frame

Mast-supported grid

Arched girder

Cable supporter

Figure 7. Structural systems.


Chapter 3



Below you will find existing examples of small rinks with these different roof structures.

Hartwall Jaffa Arena Training Rink Eura, Finland

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Facts • Building year: 2000 • Building area: 2520 m2 (70 x 26 m) • Ice pad size: 58 x 28 m • Seats: 400 • Skating season: 8 months (August–March) • Ice charge: 44–72 €/hour • Personnel: 2 • Heating consumption: 710 MWh/year • Electricity consumption: 710 MWh/year • Water consumption: 2200 m3/year

Layout The layout of the rink is simple, the stand and the players boxes are on the opposite sides of the rink, four dressing rooms are at the end of the hall. On top of the dressing rooms there are office rooms, lecture room and cafeteria. The space under the spectator seat is used as storage. Technical room is placed in a separate container outside of the rink. Structures The rigid frame structure of the rink is made of glue laminated timber. The roofing and the walls are made of polyurethane elements. To improve the energy efficiency of the rink the air tight polyurethane elements are equipped with low emissivity coating laminated on the indoor surface of the elements. The elements have also acoustic dressing which improves the acoustic atmosphere of the rink. The facades are made of bricks and profiled metal sheets.


Training Rink Hämeenkyrö, Finland Facts • Building year: 1997 • Building area: 2590 m2 (68 x 38 m) • Ice pad size: 58 x 28 m • Seats: 600

Layout The four dressing rooms with showers are under the seat along the long side of the hall. At the other end of the hall there is a cafeteria and a training room. Structures The arched girder structure of the rink is made of glue laminated timber. The roofing and the walls are made of polyurethane elements. To improve the energy efficiency of the rink the air tight polyurethane elements are equipped with low emissivity coating laminated on the indoor surface of the elements. The elements have also acoustic dressing which improves the acoustic atmosphere of the rink. The facades are made of profiled metal sheets, clapboard and lime bricks.

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• Skating season: 8.5 months • Ice charge: 59–104 € / hour • Personnel: 1–2 • Heating consumption: 395 MWh/year • Electricity consumption: 490 MWh year • Water consumption: 1100 m3/year



Monrepos Arena Training Rink Savonlinna, Finland Facts • Building year: 1999 • Building area: 2420 m2 (67 x 36 m) • Ice pad size: 58 x 28 m • Seats: 400

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• Skating season: 12 months • Ice charge: – summer 59– 83 € / hour – other time 38–73 € / hour • Personnel: 3 • Heating consumption: 760 MWh/year (76 m3 oil) • Electricity consumption: 720 MWh/year • Water consumption: 3500 m3/year


Structures The mast-supported grid constructure of the rink is made of glue laminated timber. The roofing and the walls are made of polyurethane elements. To improve the energy efficiency of the rink the air tight polyurethane elements are equipped with low emissivity coating laminated on the indoor surface of the elements. The elements have also acoustic dressing which improves the acoustic atmosphere of the rink. The facades are made of profiled metal sheets. In this manual we will concentrate on a structural system of a grid supported by columns and the materials for this structural system can be divided into four main categories: • Steel structures • Wood structures • Reinforced concrete structures • Mix material structures of steel, wood and/or concrete

3.4.1 Structural system as used in the IIHF prototype The roof structure consists of steel trusses supported each by two concrete columns. At support points the bottom boom of the truss bears on an elastomeric bearing pad bolted to the supporting concrete column. The whole roof structure of steel (see roofing 3.3.2) is floating on top of the concrete framework. The concrete columns are mounted ridged to the concrete foundations. Regarding to the region of the planned new ice rink, the horizontal loads of the roof structure, like snow are highly affecting when choosing the most economical structural system. If the snow loads are not remarkable, the steel trusses could easily cost efficiently be spanned over the spectator stand and the dashed board, using the span length like 40 to 45 meters and concrete column raster of 6 to 8 meters. A minimum free space between the ice surface and the bottom of steel trusses should be at least 6 meters. In order to avoid serious problems with humidity, like corrosion etc. the mechanical and electrical plant must be equipped with a dehumidification system. 3.4.2 Envelope, roofing The main function of an ice rink envelope is air tightness and not particularly thermal insulation. The envelope structure can be done most efficiently to fulfil only that one main characteristic.

Materials and structural system Steel support

Wood support

Reinforced concrete

+ long span length + global availability + pre-fab system + cost - corroding - fire protection - maintenance

+ + + + -

+ + + + -

long span length non corroding pre-fab system fire protection global availability cost maintenance decaying

global availability non corroding pre-fab system fire protection cost beam span length acoustic feature flexibility in use

Mix material combinations + + + + -

long span length fire protection pre-fab system cost corroding decaying cost maintenance

Figure 5. Material features of main supporters.

If the idea of a modular system is found possible and reasonable, the best flexibility in use with either steel or wood frame structures. However through careful and skilled engineering the later changes of the supporting structure are also possible with all other materials and systems. In the design phase all structural capabilities of the building for later enlargement should be defined in combination with the size of the plot, traffic situation and possible changes in the surrounding. By becoming aware of the special features of an ice rink, there are several possibilities to optimise the ice rink construction costs that will also lower the later operational costs.

Most used roofing structures consist of following layers: • Profiled, load bearing steels sheets • Vapour barrier • Thermal insulation (10 cm to 15 cm rock wool) • Water insulation Cladding, external metal sheet Thermal insulation

Vapour barrier Load bearing metal sheet

Figure 6. Typical roof structure.


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Layout Four of the six dressing rooms with showers are under the seat along the long side of the hall and the other two dressing rooms at the end of the hall. On top of these two dressing rooms there are office rooms, lecture room, cafeteria, TV stand and air conditioner. Technical room (refrigeration unit) is placed in a separate container outside of the rink.


Chapter 3


3.4.3 Envelope, walls The outside wall structure of an ice rink is commonly also based on the idea of air tightness and the simplest walling is done by using different metal sheet panels. These panels are simple, prefabricated sandwich elements, that have inside a core of thermal insulation of rock wool or polyurethane and both sides covered with metal sheets. These panels also allow later changes of the envelope very easily and with rather low additional costs. These metal sheet panels are delivered with a long range of length up to 8 meters each, in large scale of different colours and surface treatment. A harmful aspect by using these metal sheet panels is a rather poor resistance against mechanical exertion like hits of the hockey pucks inside or vandalism. Therefore it is recommended to use in a lower partition of outside wall sandwich elements of concrete and replace them over 2.5 meter height with metal sheet panels.

3.4.4 Ice pad structure Perhaps the most special structure in an ice rink is the ice pad. The ice pad consists of ground layers below the pad, thermal insulation, piping and pad itself. New technologies have made possible the use of new materials and technical solutions in these structures, where at the same time the energy efficiency and construction costs could be optimised. The most common surfacing materials is: • Concrete However sand surface is cheapest and fairly energy economical because of the good heat transfer characteristics but the usability is limited to ice sports. Asphalt surfaces are suitable for some special needs, for example in the case that the facility is used for tennis off the ice sport season. Asphalt is cheaper than concrete but the refrigeration energy requirement is higher.

metal sheet panel

100 mm 30 mm

Concrete 120 mm

Cooling pipes Heating pipes for ground frost protection

Ice 30 mm

Insulation 100 mm Gravel fill 500 mm 500 mm

Foundation soil 500 mm

Figure 9. Typical ice pad construction.

prefab concrete

sandwich concrete unit

Figure 8. Typical wall structure.

Rink pipe material (plastic/metal) and space sizing are questions of optimisation of investments vs. energy. The cooling pipes are mounted quite near the surface, in a concrete slab the mounting depth is normally 20–30 mm and the mounting space between the pipes is 75–125 mm. The rink pipes are connected to the distribution and collection mains, which are laid along the rink short or long side outside the rink. Rink pipes are laid in U-shape and they are mounted to the surfacing layer by simply binding the pipes directly to the concrete reinforcement or to special rails.


U-shaped rink piping U-shaped rink piping

Distribution and collection mains along the short side

Distribution and collection mains along the long side

Figure 10. Collectors along the short side of the ice rink.

Figure 11. Collectors along the long side of the ice rink.

Figure 12. Plastic rink piping connections to the distribution and the collection mains (thermally insulated).

3.5 Mechanical and electrical plant The effective utilization of the energy resources has become an important aspect in the design of new facilities. There are many different energy conservation measures that can be incorporated in the planning stage. In planning the hardware configuration and construction of an ice rink, it is important to consider the types of activities, special requirements and interest of the various user groups in question. Table 1 summarise the main indoor air design values, which can be used in designing technical building services. It is important to set these values already in the pre-design stage in order to control the demands. Action

Hockey - game - training Figure - competition - training Other

3.5.1 Refrigeration plant Refrigeration plant is fundamental to the ice-rink facility. Much used, but true, phrase is that the refrigeration unit is the heart of the ice rink. Almost all of the energy-flows are connected to the refrigeration process in one way or another. It is quite normal that the electricity consumption of the refrigeration system accounts for over 50 % of the total electricity consumption and the heat loss of the ice can be over 60 % of the total heating demand of an ice rink. In the design stage, when choosing the refrigeration unit one has to consider the economics, energy usage, environment, operation, maintenance and safety. The design of the refrigeration plant can be either so-called direct or indirect system. In a direct system the rink piping works as the evaporator, whereas an indirect system is comprised of separate evaporator (heat exchanger) and the ice pad is indirectly cooled by special coolant in closed circulation loop. The energy efficiency of the direct system is in general better than the efficiency of the indirect system. On the other hand the first cost of the direct system is higher than that of the indirect system. Moreover indirect systems can’t be used with for example ammonia in several countries because of health risks in the case of refrigerant leaks. Table 2 summarises the advantages and disadvantages of the different systems.

Air temperature of Ice temperature, ÂşC the rink space ÂşC Rink (at 1.5 m Tribune height) (operative)

Max. relative humidity of the rink space (%)

Min. fresh air intake l/s/occupant

+6 +6

+10.+15 +6. +15

-5 -3

70 70

4...8 / spectator 12 / player

+12 +6 +18

+10.+15 +6. +15 +18

-4 -3 -

70 70 -

4...8 / spectator 12 / skater 8 / person

Indoor air design values for small ice rink (rink space).

Chapter 3



Direct system + Energy efficiency + Simple

Indirect system + Use of factory made refrigeration units + Small refrigerant filling (environmentally positive) + Suitable to any refrigerant - Lower energy efficiency than with direct system

- Not possible with certain refrigerants (ammonia) - Installation costs - Need of professional skills in design and in installing Features of direct and indirect refrigeration plant.

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In most cases the refrigeration plant comprises the refrigerant circuit refrigerates an indirect system i.e. the floor by a closed brine circuit rather than directly. The refrigerant used in the compressor loop should be environmentally accepted, for example natural substances like ammonia (NH3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) or HFC refrigerants such as R134a, R404A and R407A. The tendency is to favour in natural substances of HFCs. In choosing the refrigerant the country-specific regulations must be taken into account. The operational aspect is to equip the compressor with reasonable automation, which enables demand-controlled running of the system. In addition, the safety factors should be incorporated in the design of the machine room. From the energy point of view it is a matter of course that the compressor unit should be as efficient as possible, not only in the design point but also under part-load conditions.

Indoor climate • air temperature • ceiling temperature and material • air humidity • ice temperature Automation

QCO Condenser Compressor Evaporator QEV

Pad structure • ice thickness • slab thickness and thermal properties • pipe material and sizing • cooling liquid properties • frost insulation • frost protection heating

Refrigeration unit • evaporating and condensing temperatures • efficiency • compressor type • sizing • refrigerant

Figure 12. Refrigeration unit and related energy flows.


When estimating the energy economy of the system it is essential to focus on the entire system and not only on one component alone. The refrigeration plant is an integral part of the ice rink, Figure 12. Design and dimensioning aspects The refrigeration plant is dimensioned according to cooling load and the required evaporation and condenser temperatures. For a standard single ice rink approximately 300–350 kW of refrigeration capacity is adequate. The refrigeration capacity is normally sized according to the heat loads during the ice making process. The dimensioning cooling load during the freezing period is comprised of the following components: • Cooling the ice pad construction down to the operating temperature in required time. Needed cooling capacity depends on the temperature of the structures at the beginning of the freezing and the required freezing time (normally 48 hours). • Cooling the temperature of the flooded water to the freezing temperature (0 ºC) and then freezing the water to form the ice and to cool the temperature of the ice to the operating temperature. The freezing capacity depends on the temperature of the water, the operating temperature of the ice and the required freezing time (48 hours). • Heat radiation between the rink surface and the surrounding surfaces. Cooling capacity depends on the surface temperatures during the freezing period. • Convective heat load between the rink surface and the air. Cooling capacity depends on the air and rink surface temperatures both the air stream velocity along the rink surface during the freezing period. • Latent heat of the condensing water vapour from the air to the rink surface. Cooling capacity


depends on the air humidity (water vapour pressure) and the surface temperature of the rink during the freezing period. • Radiation heat load on rink surface during the freezing period (lights etc.). • Pump-work of the coolant pump.

Chapter 3

27 Refrigeration unit Refrigeration unit is comprised of many components: compressor(s), evaporator, condenser, and expansion valve and control system. The function of the compressor is to keep the pressure and temperature in the evaporator low enough for the liquid refrigerant to boil off at a temperature below that of the medium surrounding the evaporator so that heat is absorbed. In the compressor the vapour is raised to high pressure and high enough temperature to be above that of the cooling medium so that heat can be rejected in the condenser. After the condensation the liquid refrigerant is throttled in the expansion valve back to the pressure of the evaporator. In other words the compressor ”pumps“

Figure 13. Two screw compressors.

Outdoor cooling coil

Ventilation unit

Refrigeration unit

Ice pad



Floor heater

Cooling pipes

Compressor cooling

Dehumidification Hot water storage Ground frost protection

Figure 14. Refrigeration plant with heat recovery: preheating of hot water, floor heating and air heating.


heat from the rink to the surroundings, which is similar process to a normal fridge. There are different types of refrigeration compressors on the market of which reciprocating compressors and screw compressors are the most common types. In most cases the compressors are electric driven. The refrigeration unit consists normally of at least 2 compressors to guarantee flexible and economical use of the unit.

Chapter 3

28 Ice pad Another interesting aspect in the energychain is the heat resistance between the ice and the brine, which has effect on the energy consumption. The underlying energy-thinking in the heat resistance is, the bigger the resistance is the lower the brine and evaporation temperature of the compressor should be in order to produce the same cooling effect as with smaller resistance. The lower the evaporation temperature is the bigger the power need of the compressor. Heat resistance consists of five different parameters: (1) the so-called surface resistance of the ice surface, which is a combination of ceiling radiation and convection as discussed earlier. (2) Heat resistance of the ice, mainly dependent on the ice thickness. (3) Likewise the ice, the concrete slab or any other surfacing material constitutes heat resistance based on the thickness of the layer and the heat conductivity of the material involved. (4) Pipe material and pipe spacing in the floor. (5) Surface resistance between the pipe and fluid. The function of secondary coolants is to transfer heat from the rink to the evaporator in the refrigeration unit. The profile of the perfect coolant would be: environmentally friendly, nontoxic, low pumping costs, high efficiency (good heat transfer characteristics), and non-corrosive,

Secondary coolant Glycols • Ethylene glycol • Propylene glycol Salts • calcium chloride (CaCl2) Formats • Potassium formats • Potassium acetates

Secondary coolants.

cheap and practical. Quite a variety of coolants are in use, table 2 summarize the most common of them. In the construction of the ice pad the ground frost insulation and in some cases ground heating is necessary (condenser waste-heat can be used for heating). Ground frost will build up also in warm climates where frost normally is not a problem. If the ground is frost-susceptible and the frost may cause uneven frost heave of the ice pad. The pad will be damaged by the frost and frost heave makes it more difficult to maintain the ice and will impede the utilisation of the facility to other sports (tennis, basketball) over the icefree period. Moreover, un-insulated pad increases energy consumption of the refrigeration.

3.5.2 Air conditioning It is highly recommended to use mechanical ventilation in ice rink facilities to ensure healthy and safe indoor air conditions. The air-handling unit(s) provides fresh air to the ice rink and other premises and it is also used for heating purposes and even to dehumidify the ice rink air. Fresh air intake is necessary to maintain good air quality. Air quality is affected by the emissions of the people, the building materials and the ice resurfacer especially when the resurfacer is run by combustion engine (gas or gasoline). The building is divided into two thermal zones: the ice rink and the public areas. The simplest and safe way is to equip the facility with two ventilation units, one for the rink area and one for the public areas. The energy-saving factor in ventilation can be found in the demand-controlled fresh-air intake and in optimising the airflow rates according to the needs for minimizing the fan power.

Remarks High pumping costs, low efficiency, easy to handle Low pumping costs, high efficiency, unpractical Low pumping costs, high efficiency, corrosive, expensive





Ice Rink T = + 10°C  = + 60% CO2 = 1000 ppm



Cooling/ Heat recovery dehumidification coil coil

Heating coil


Figure 15. Schematic diagram of an ice rink air-conditioning system with dehumidification and heat recovery coils.

3.5.3 Dehumidification The moisture loads are due to the occupants (skaters, audience), outdoor air moisture, evaporating floodwater of the ice resurfacing and combustion driven ice resurfacer. The biggest moisture load is the water content of the outdoor air which enters the ice rink through ventilation and as uncontrolled air infiltration leakage through openings (doors, windows), cracks and interstices in constructions caused by pressure effects during operation. Excess air humidity increases the risk of rot growth on wooden structures and corrosion risk of metals thus shortening the service lifetime of the construction components and materials, which means increased maintenance costs. High humidity levels cause also indoor air problems by enabling the growth of mould and fungus on the surfaces of the building structures. In the following tables maximum allowable ice rink air humidity rates are presented to avoid indoor air problems and depraving of constructions. There are two primary ways to remove moisture from the air: cool the air below its dew point to condense the water vapour, or pass the air over a material that absorbs (chemical dehumidification) water.

Ice rink air temperature, °C 5 10 15 20

Maximum relative air humidity, % 90 80 70 60

Air temperature and humidity criteria to avoid fog.

Rot Mould

Temperature, °C 50–5 55–0

Relative humidity, % >90–95 >75–95

Air temperature and humidity criteria for rot and mould damages of wooden structures.

Temperature, °C >0

Relative humidity, % >80

Corrosion criteria for metals.

Systems that cool the air below its dew point use normally mechanical refrigeration. Air is passed over a cooling coil causing a portion of the moisture in the air to condense on the coils' surface and drop out of the airflow. Cooling coil can also be integrated in the ventilation unit and in the ice refrigeration circuit.

Chapter 3



Cooling system

Cooling coil

Supply fan

Humid air from ice rink

Dry air to ice rink


Chapter 3

Figure 16. Condensing dehumidification process.

Chemical dehumidification is carried out through the use of absorbent materials, which are either solids or liquids that can extract moisture from the air and hold it. Desiccant dehumidification system, figure 14, consists of a slowly rotating disk, drum or wheel that is coated or filled with an absorbent (often silica gel). Moist air is drawn into the facility and passed across one portion of the wheel where the desiccant absorbs moisture from the air. As the wheel slowly rotates, it passes through a second heated air stream. Moisture that was absorbed by the desiccant is released into the heated air, reactivating the desiccant. The warm moist air is then exhausted from the facility.

3.5.4 Heating Heating system is needed to maintain comfortable thermal conditions for both the players and the audience. Heating is also advantageous in controlling the humidity of the ice rink in

Exhaust fan

Hot moist air out

Electric or gas heater

Regeneration air in

DESICCANT Desiccant WHEEL wheel

Humid air from ice rink

Supply fan

Warm dry air to ice rink


Figure 17. Desiccant dehumidification process.

order to avoid fog and ceiling dripping problems. Moreover heat is needed for hot water production (ice resurfacing, showers), and in some cases for melting waste-ice that is the consequence of the ice resurfacing process. Waste-heat recovery Compressor waste-heat recovery can cover almost all of the heating demand of a training rink in most operating situations. When designing the heat recovery system, the relatively low temperature level should be taken into account. The temperature level of the waste heat is normally around 30–35 °C, small portion of the waste heat, so-called super heat, can be utilized at a higher temperature level. Waste heat can be utilized in the heating of the resurfacing water, in the heating of the rink, heating the fresh air, to pre-heat the tap water and to melt the snow and ice slush of the resurfacing process.

3.5.5 Electric system Electricity is needed to run the facility: in the refrigeration, in lighting, in air conditioning, in cafeteria etc. Electrical installation comprises a distribution and transformer central. Emergency lighting and guide lights must work also on occasions of power cuts. Emergency power can be supplied by diesel-fuelled generators or by battery back-up system. In most cases it is worthwhile avoiding the reactive power by capacitive compensation. Lighting Lights are traditionally grouped according to their operational principle to incandescence and burst illuminates. In general incandescent lamps are suitable only to general lighting (except maybe the halogen lamps). Characteristics to incandescent lamps are high demand for electricity compared to the illumination, short service lifetime, good colour rendering and good controllability. Burst illuminates feature high efficiency, long service lifetime but poor controllability. Recently, many products have been developed that may be incorporated at the design stage. One such a product is the compact fluorescent lamp, which can be used instead of incandescent lamps. The superiority of the fluorescent lamps is a result of high-luminous efficacy (more


Type Compact fluorescent lamps Standard fluorescent lamps Metal halide lamps High pressure sodium lamps Induction lamps Halogen lamps

Applicability General lighting General lighting Rink lighting Rink lighting Rink lighting Rink lighting Special lighting

Power range 5–55 W 30–80 W

Life 8000–12 000 h 20 000 h

35–2000 50–400 55–165 20–2000

6000–20 000 h 14 000–24 000 h 60 000 h 2000–4000 h


Good energy efficiency Good energy efficiency Good for rink lighting Poor colour rendering Long life, expensive (so far) Excellent colour rendering, good dimming capabilities


Available lamps for ice rink facility.

3.5.6 Acoustics and noise control Minimum acoustical quality of an ice rink should enable clear and understandable speaking even amplified spoken words and music. Therefore environmental acoustics must also be included in the design process. The importance of the acoustics is emphasized in multi purpose rinks. The most significant acoustical parameter is the reverberation time, which should be low enough (< 3 s). Too high background noise level caused by ventilation and compressors (inside) or traffic (outside) has also negative effects on the acoustical indoor environment. In some cases it is also necessary to take into account the noise caused by the ice rink facility to its surroundings. Outdoor condenser fans and even the sounds of an ice hockey game may cause disturbing noise.

that can be emphasized such as information and security systems, Figure 7.

Chapter 3

light per watt) and long life expectancy compared with the standard incandescent lamps. The electronic ballast connected with the standard fluorescent lamp technology will decrease the operating cost 25 % compared with standard systems. The use of occupancy sensors to automatically shut lights off and on is a sure way of reducing electrical use. The ice-surface lighting system is advantageous to design such that the illumination can be changed flexibly according to the need.

3.5.8 Water and sewer system Water is needed in showers, toilets, and cafeterias, cleaning and as flood and ice resurfacing water etc. Warm water system must be equipped with re-circulation to ensure short waiting times of warm water and to prohibit the risk of bacterial growth. Because of the legion Ella risk

Property Facility management management Booking

Safety and supervision

Information system


Audio - Visual



Web browser user interface


È Mobile user interface


3.5.7 Building automation and information systems Modern automation systems enable demand-controlled operation of different systems, such as ventilation rates, ice rink air temperature and humidity, ice temperature, etc. An automation system enables functional and economical use of the different systems of the ice rink. Besides these traditional benefits of the building energy management system, there are other functions

Wireless connection

Bus connection



Pumps & fans

MeasControls urements


Figure 18. Advanced information and automation systems of an ice rink.


Chapter 3


the hot water must be heated at least up to +55 ºC. Waste-heat from the refrigeration plant can be utilized to lower the energy consumption of hot water for example to heat the resurfacing water and to pre-heat the hot water. In the sewer system of an ice rink there are two special systems to be taken care of, namely the rink melted water drainage and the melting pit of waste-ice. Surface water drains for melted water from ice defrosting is required outside and around the rink.

3.6 Energy consumption optimisation Energy consumption of the refrigeration unit is subjected to the heat loads of the ice. Ceiling radiation is generally the largest single component of the heat loads. Other ice heat-load components are: the convective heat load of the ice rink air temperature, lighting, ice maintenance, ground heat, humidity condensing from the air onto the ice, and pump-work of the cooling pipe network. The amount of heat radiated to the ice is controlled by the temperatures of the ceiling and ice surface and by proportionality factor called emissive. Materials that are perfect radiators of heat would have an emissive of 1, while materials that radiate no heat would have an emissive of 0. In new facilities, using low-emissive material in the surface of the ceiling can reduce the ceiling radiation. Most building materials have an emissive rate near 0.9. The most common low-emissive material used in ice rinks is aluminium foil. It is the low emissive property (emissive as low as 0.05) of the aluminium foil facing the ice that makes this system so effective. Moreover, the low-emissive surface reduces heating demand and improves the lighting conditions of the rink. The temperature level of the ice rink air has a significant effect on both the electricity consumption of the refrigeration unit and on the heating energy need. The higher the air temperature is, the warmer the ceiling is, which increases the ceiling radiation as well as the convective heat load of the ice. The convective heat load is relative to the temperature difference between the air temperature and ice-surface temperature and the air velocity above the ice. The most effective way to reduce convective heat load is to keep the ice temperature as high as possible and the air temperature as low as possible.

The other operational parameters, besides the ice rink air temperature, which affects the electricity consumption of the compressor and the heating energy consumption is the ice temperature and ice thickness. Rising of 1°C of the ice temperature gives 40-60 MWh savings in electricity and 70-90 MWh savings in heating per year in year-round operation. The thickness of the ice tends to increase in use. Increasing ice thickness brings about higher electricity consumption of the refrigeration unit and makes the maintenance of the ice more difficult. Recommended ice thickness is about 3 centimetres. The thickness of the ice must be controlled weekly in order to maintain the optimal thickness. Ice resurfacing is one of the highest heat loads of the ice after the ceiling radiation and convection. This load, imposed by the resurfacing of ice with flood water in the range of 30 °C to 60 °C and 0.4 to 0.8 m3 of water per one operation, can account for as much as 15 % of the total refrigeration requirements. A lower floodwater volume and temperature should be used so reducing the refrigeration electrical use and the cost of heating the water. The humidity of the ice rink air tends to condense on the cold ice surface. This phenomenon is mainly dependent on the outdoor air conditions and can be overcome by dehumidification of the ice rink air. Condensation is normally not so important from the energy consumption point of view. Instead, humidity problems may occur from a dripping ceiling or as fog above the ice. Humidity problems are one indication of the possible moisture damage in the structures and thus must be taken seriously. Lighting forms a radioactive heat load on the ice, which is relative to the luminous efficacy of the lamps. Warm soil under the floor is a minor heat load on the refrigeration, which can be dealt with sufficient insulation between the soil and the cooling pipes. The system pump-work is a heat load on the refrigeration system due to the friction in the cooling pipes and in the evaporator. Pump-work is affected by the cooling liquid used (there are several alternatives), pipe material and hydraulic sizing of the pipe network and the evaporator.


Helsinki Miami



3.6.1 Case studies of energy consumption Energy consumption of a standard small ice rink depends mainly on the thermal conditions both inside (air and ice temperature) and outside (climate). In the following the effect of climatic conditions on the energy consumption of a standard ice rink facility is studied. The differences of the energy consumption, both electricity and heating, between the same prototype ice rink is studied in three locations: Helsinki (Finland), Munich (Germany) and Miami (USA). The technical description of the prototype ice rink is given in the previous section.


1. Electric energy consumption The electric energy consumption of the ice rink consists of ice refrigeration, rink lighting, air conditioning and heating systems (fans and pumps), public space lighting, different appliances, cleaning etc. The refrigeration process consumes some half of the total electricity use of a small ice rink. In warm and humid conditions the dehumidification of the rink air plays also a big role in the energy consumption. The electricity consumption of the dehumidification system depends on the selected system: desiccant dehumidifiers consume mainly heat energy,




160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

r be m

ve m

De ce

be r

r No




r be em pt Se

Au gu st

y Ju l

ne Ju

M ay

ril Ap

M ar ch

y ar ru Fe b

Ja nu




Figure 20. Electric energy consumption of the ice rink facility with (dashed lines) and without dehumidification. In the case of the dehumidification the ice refrigeration system is supposed to be used for the dehumidification.

Chapter 3

Figure 19. Studied ice rink locations: Helsinki (Finland), Munich (Germany) and Miami (USA).


Electricity spectrum

 Refrigeration plant  Rink lighting  Rink ventilation  Dehumidifier (condensing)  Other  Public areas

57% 9% 6% 6% 8% 14%


which can be produced with gas or some other fuel but also electricity is possible, mechanical dehumidifiers (separate heat pump or ice refrigeration system) use usually electricity. 2. Heating energy consumption Heating energy need is the sum of the heating need of the ventilation and infiltration air as well as the cooling effect of the ice and the conductive heat flows through the exterior envelope. The heat loads of the occupants, lights and other equipment are taken into account when determining the heating energy need of the ice arena. In many cases the waste ice (slush) of the ice resurfacing process must be


melted in a special melting pit before draining it and melting requires also heating. In some cases the waste ice can be just driven outside or even be re-used for example to build ski tracks. Depending of the climatic conditions the heat flows can be either negative or positive. For example in Miami the outdoor climate is so hot all around the year that the ventilation, air infiltration and conductive heat flows heat the ice rink space and actually the only cooling load is the



180 160 Condenser heat


120 100

Heating need

80 60 40 20

r ce m


r De




be r No

m pt e Se

Oc to

r be

st gu Au

Ju ly

ne Ju

M ay

ril Ap

M ar ch

ry ua Fe br

nu ar




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Figure 21. Electric consumption spectrum of the prototype ice rink in Munich. Annual electricity consumption is 960 MWh with mechanical dehumidification (900 MWh without dehumidification).

Figure 22. Heating energy need of the ice rink and heat from the refrigeration condensers (dashed lines) in different climates (Miami, Munich and Helsinki).


Energy spectrum of heating need

 Space heating  Air leakage  Dehumidification  Slush melting  Public areas  Hot water  Rink ventilation

57% 3% 11% 10% 10% 7% 2%


ice. The cooling effect of the ice is still bigger than the heat loads and thus the rink must be heated even in Miami. The ice refrigeration produces continuously large amount of heat and this heat can be utilized in heating: directly to space heating and supply air heating, pre-heating of hot water for ice resurfacing and showers, slush melting, ground heating (frost protection) under the ice pad and in the dehumidification processes. Condenser energy can save a great portion of the annual heating costs.


3. Dehumidification The local weather conditions determine the dehumidification need and this affects also the energy use of the facility. This can be seen in figure x, where the moisture removal need is much higher in Miami where the climate is hot and humid compared to the colder and drier climates in Munich and in Helsinki. The dehumidification need is also affected by the ventilation need, air tightness of the building envelope and moisture load of the occupants.










be r De



be r m ve No

Oc to be r


be r

st Se pt

gu Au

Ju ly

Ju ne

ay M

ril Ap

ar ch M

y ru ar Fe b






Figure 24. Moisture removal of the dehumidification system in order to maintain the required indoor air conditions (temperature +10ยบ and relative humidity 65 %).

Chapter 3

Figure 23. Spectrum of heating energy need of the prototype ice rink in Munich. Annual heating need is 1100 MWh. Most of the heating need can be covered by free condenser heat of the ice refrigeration.


4. Water consumption Water consumption is formed of the ice resurfacing water and sanitary water. Shower and toilet use dominate sanitary water consumption. In some cases treated water is used for cooling the condensers of the ice refrigeration plant. This is the case especially during the summer operation even in cold climates. Direct use of treated water should be avoided as far as possible for this purpose because of high operation costs.

Acidifying emissions g/m2, CO2 esq 7500

Environmental loads of an ice rink in Finland based by life cycle analysis (LCA) of the rink (50 years) excluding transport.1

3.7 Environmental effects Most of the environmental loads and impacts of an ice rink during its life cycle are due to the transport and the energy (electricity and heat) and water use. It is impossible to give exact or general figures of the loads for example because of the variety of energy production profiles in each case. In the following some results of the environmental load calculations in Finland are given.










r ce m


r De




r No



r Oc



st Se pt

gu Au

Ju ly

ne Ju

M ay

il Ap r

M ar ch

ry ua Fe br

nu a




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Greenhouse gas emissions g/m2, CO2 esq 3 000 000

Figure 25. Water consumption including the ice resurfacing water and sanitary water without the possible condenser flush water of the ice refrigeration. Water consumption rate is the same for all the studied three cases. Annual water consumption is 2500 m3.


 Transport by cars 65%  Energy and water 30%  Construction 4%  Equipment of the players 1%

In the analysed case 91% of the greenhouse gas emissions and 74% of the acidifying emissions were due to energy usage during the life cycle (50 years).1 The ecology of an ice rink can be improved by • Using reusable and renewable materials and components in construction • Minimizing the energy use (heat recovery, efficient appliances, renewable energy sources) • Minimizing the distance between the rink and the users (town planning) • Enabling public transport (storerooms for the equipment by the rink)


Vaahterus T., Saari A. Environmental Loads of a Finnish indoor training ice-skating rink in the Context of LCA. Helsinki University of Technology, Publications 194, Espoo 2001. ISBN 951-22-5465-4, ISSN 1456-9329. (In Finnish).


Kiekko-Nikkarit Ry.

Chapter 3

Figure 26. An example of the use of the natural resources of a junior ice hockey team in Finland based on MIPS calculation. MIPS - material input per service, kg/active skating hour.2



Economic profile of the IIHF ice rink prototype Chapter 4 4.1 Introduction

Chapter 4


There are a lot of construction projects for new buildings of any use running all around the world continuously. The operation of these coming facilities is based on earlier experience of the investors. From this point of view, the decisionmaking is rather simple, even if the decision makers are not professionals in the construction business. Ice rinks are special type of buildings and should be treated as such. Unfortunately, there are still plenty of new ice rinks and arenas being developed without the input of specialists. In these projects, there is the potential for major problems during the process of construction and operation. In order to have a proper cost and operation structure for a new ice rink project, the special features of an ice rink must be known, understood and taking care of. A modern ice rink needs special tools to control the indoor climate, especially the temperature and humidity factors. These features are not comparable to common buildings. If one does not take these elements into into consideration they might cause remarkable problems in a very short time. This means within 2 to 3 years. Too high humidity of the indoor climate can easily cause serious corroding problems in steel structures and decay in wooden structures. Saving costs in the wrong area will lead to serious damage in a short period of time. Even in a country like Finland, where some hundred ice rinks have been built in last thirty years, some

wood framed ice rinks have major decay damage only 4 years after the completion, due to ignoring the humidification issue in the mechanical plant. The continuous increasing demand of the public is resulting in a higher requirement for the quality of the ice rink indoor climate. To have the temperature just above the ice surface on - 4 degrees centigrade, but +18 degrees centigrade only a few meters behind the dasher board on the first seating row are common requirements in many ice rinks and arenas. Technical solutions that are too simple can cause extremely high operational costs. Advanced technology can reduce energy consumption and operating costs by up to 50 per cent in existing and proposed arena facilities, while also improving the indoor climate for the customers. Energy costs make it necessary to strive for energy efficiency. This element plays a key role in the decision to invest in a new ice rink. The later success with respect to the operational costs is made in the design phase. A clever design in combination, with the right technical features and skilled maintenance personnel will have a considerable effect on the level of operating costs. The idea of this manual is to offer technical and financial guidelines for a â&#x20AC;?smallâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, modern ice rink, which is not the most low-priced and simple facility. This prototype is a customer-based facility that gives operators and investors the opportunity to operate an economically successful facility, while providing the customer with high-level service and wide range of activities. The IIHF prototype ice rink provides a palette of services for on ice and dry floor possibilities as mentioned in Chapter 2. Like in major multi-purpose arenas, it will be rather easy to change the ice surface quickly into a dry-floor facility.

4.2 Construction costs

Public skating and equipment rental are good ways to boost your income.

The different structural solutions, materials and equipment for building services have a great impact on the construction costs. The IIHF working group has made the decision to design an IIHF ice rink prototype. The result of this decision is that the technical features are chosen, and also the structure, layout and volume of the facility. The technical features are described more detailed in chapters 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 of this manual.


IIHF prototype ice rink Lemminkäinen Construction Ltd. 31.1.2002 Cost groups according to DIN 276

Preliminary cost estimate


100 Site costs 200 Utilities

123,855 265,825 118,220 138,240 110,325 193,400 366,232 25,000

400 Mechanical and electrical works 410 Sewage, plumbing 420 Heating 430 Ventilation, Dehumidification 440 Electricity, high voltage 450 Telefommunication, data network, etc. 460 Elevators 470 Refrigeration unit 480 Building automation 490 Other M&E works

79,200 35,200 118,800 110,000 17,600 0 79,200 30,800 8,800

500 Site finishing 510 Yard works 520 Yard finishing 530 External construction works 540 External M&E works 550 External fittings 590 Other external works













25,000 25,000 40,000 10,000 0 0

600 Equipment 610 Equipment (ice resurfacer, dasher board, score board etc.)


700 Design, project management 710 Project supervisor 720 Project preliminary costs 730 Architect design and engineering 740 Inspection fees etc. 750 Art works 760 Financing 770 General project costs 790 Other costs

35,000 10,000 150,000 8,000 0 0 25,000 5,000

Cost groups 100-700 total


General project development costs (8%)


Total project costs (netto)


Some special notes: 1) Cost structure finally depends on the operational construction realization (MC, CM, DMC...), calculation for location Munich, Germany 2) Cost groups 100 and 200 must be defined separately based on the site characteristics

Chapter 4

300 Construction costs 310 Earth works 320 Foundation (incl. ice pad) 330 External walls 340 Internal walls 350 Ceilings 360 Roofing 370 Fittings 390 Other construction works


Chapter 4


This is a turn-key cost estimate for IIHF prototype ice rink. The IIHF working group would like to underline that this cost calculation is not a cost guarantee in any form. This calculation merely gives you as an investor, developer or sports enthusiast, a good indication of the total cost when you have decided to build a small ice rink. Between continents and countries the construction costs are going to vary, even when we use the same technical definitions. The cost estimate shown in the manual is based on the location in the city of Munich, Germany. Please be aware that lower labour costs in some countries in comparison with the cost level in Germany automatically lead to notable savings. In many cases the lower labour cost level is balanced by paying extra on import taxes of technical equipment or by the increasing number of employees because of the lack of machines. The model of the cost calculation is based on the German DIN 276 – form, which is widely been used in Central Europe. On the other hand it is rather easy to transform this cost estimate into another calculation form. The costs of the site and the utilities are not included in the total summary. These are also the items of the costs in order to have neutrality in the cost estimate.

4.3 Operational budget 4.3.1 Expenses The major utilities required in an ice rink operation are electricity, gas, and water. Also monthly fees related to the external financing (see chapter 5), mortgage payments, should be looked at on a case-by-case basis. Maintaining a sheet of ice is a 24-hour commitment. The owners cannot simply turn off the electricity to the refrigeration plant when the building is closed. There are proven methods to efficiently operate an ice rink. It is also important to work with the local utility companies to establish favourable agreements for the facility. A common way to reduce the fixed costs is to negotiate partner agreements with a local telephone company or a local garbage disposal company or other similar companies.

When making the budget for the operational costs one should take into consideration the tasks that could be fulfilled by volunteers. This possibility would improve cost reduction. The tasks could be: • Maintenance of the facility • Cleaning • Ice resurfacer maintenance Also mechanical service contracts have to be included. Specialised work that has to be done by experts, which could include maintenance of the refrigeration plant and the ice resurfacer. List of monthly expenses ✔ Financing costs ✔ Utilities – electricity ✔ Utilities – gas ✔ Utilities – water, sewer ✔ Insurance - Liability and Property ✔ Real estate taxes ✔ Other taxes licenses and fees ✔ Telephone ✔ Office expenses ✔ Cleaning supplies ✔ Trash removal ✔ Facility maintenance ✔ Personnel costs Personnel All ice facilities require a competent, welltrained staff to help the rink succeed. As previously noted, the cost to open an ice facility is substantial. It is important to have a staff that understands the ice business and can operate the facility at maximum efficiency and profitability. Due to the fact that a single sheet facility may operate for 18 hours a day, 7 days a week, the facility will need related man-hours to cover the operation. In some countries, it is possible to utilize volunteer staff to cover many of the hours. However one should be aware that volunteer work ethics and expertise might be lacking. For a successful operation, the total number of staff can be adjusted. With larger public sessions or special events, a bigger staff will be necessary. The rink manager is the key to a successful operation. The manager must oversee the whole spectrum of activities and services and should operate a customer-based operation. The


✔ Personnel Administration ✔ Human Resource Management ✔ Ice Scheduling ✔ Ice Contracts ✔ Marketing ✔ Facility Maintenance ✔ Budgeting It is necessary to have at least two assistant rink managers (rink technicians). The assistant rink managers typically take care of the evenings and weekends at the facility. It is their responsibility to schedule part time staff, maintain the facility, and serve as the main customer service person for the public. They are also responsible for ice maintenance and resurfacing the ice. A facility should also have one full time, multitalented secretary. The secretary fills a variety of roles, including receptionist, registrar, and accountant. This person must also have knowledge of all the programs offered at the rink, to immediately answer questions from the general public. In addition to this staff, a single sheet facility may have 2 to 3 additional part time operations staff that can drive the ice resurfacer, work evening or weekend shifts, maintain the building and keep it clean. As the ice rink industry evolves and changes, it is important to keep staff up to date on the latest advancements in the industry. With a plan for staff training and education, rink operators will have the opportunity to learn more efficient and cost effective methods to running an ice rink. A budget should be created to cover training course registrations and expenses. In many areas of the world, the user groups such as the hockey or figure skating clubs will take responsibility for the programs on the ice. In other parts of the world, depending on the type of rink operation and the region, there are several other positions that may be added to the full time staff. A skating director would handle all Learn to Skate and figure skating programs in the facility. This person would serve, as a teaching professional in the Learn to Skate program, would hire

other skating coaches, and coordinate all skating programs. A hockey director would operate in a similar manner to manage the hockey operations at the facility. If necessary, a marketing director may be hired to promote the facility and the many diverse programs that are offered to the community. If the rink expands to include a concession stand or a pro shop, both a concession manager and a pro shop manager would be required. Personnel list ✔ Rink Manager ✔ Technical Staff (2) ✔ Office Secretary ✔ Part-time operations staff (2-3) ✔ Part time maintenance staff It is also to be noticed, that an ice rink with two ice pads can be operated with the same amount of staff as the single ice surface rinks. Other expenses, such as energy, can be reduced in comparison with the doubled user capacity of the facility.

Percentage of expenses

 Water 4%  Sewage 3%  Electricity (energy cost) 27%  Staff 50%  Other costs 8%  Maintenance 8%

For an ice rink like the IIHF prototype, an average annual level of expenses in 2001 in Europe is between 300,000 € and 400,000 €.


Chapter 4

rink manager should be the driving force behind the facility. The duties of the manager in a single sheet operation include, but are not limited to, the following areas:


Percentage of incomes

Chapter 4


4.3.2 Income In order to operate successfully, ice rink facilities must offer activities and programs for everyone in the community. The more potential users the facility has, the greater the chances of success for the facility. There are many programming ideas that help rinks to prosper, but actual income may vary greatly due to the local community, area or environment. Another key to success is to offer programming that will allow your customers to stay with your facility for a lifetime. A lifetime customer would enter your facility as someone interested in skating, start in learn to skate lessons, decide to concentrate on hockey or figure skating, compete as youth participants in their chosen sport, then remain with your facility in adult recreational hockey or figure skating programs. Income categories ✔ Youth Hockey Programs ✔ Adult Hockey Programs ✔ Group Skating Lessons ✔ Public Skating ✔ Schools ✔ Contract Ice Rental ✔ Figure Skating ✔ Camps/Clinics ✔ Parties/Special Events ✔ Fairs, exhibitions ✔ Advertising

 Youth Hockey Programs  Adult Hockey Programs  Group Skating Lessons  Public Skating  Contract Ice Rental  Freestyle Figure Skating  Pick Up Hockey Sessions  Other Programs

29% 25% 10% 13% 12% 6% 2% 3%

It is also important to schedule your ice usage for success. There are several “best practices” to be followed, and suggested time frames are noted with each programming option. For an ice rink like IIHF prototype an average annual level of incomes in 2001 in Europe is between 250,000 € and 350,000 €. Naming right, advertisements inside the ice rink and selling rights can also be a great source of additional incomes.


Financing Chapter 5

5.1 Construction costs / Investment costs As mentioned in the introduction, the construction of ice sports facilities in countries with an ice sports tradition used to be financed by local authority institutions. These institutions were frequently supported with construction grants from the regional governments or central government. In its entirety, this investment money came solely or mainly from tax revenue, and in some cases also from the surpluses of national or regional sports or other lotteries. In the meantime, the economic situation of the public sector in most countries has changed dramatically. It started in the 1970â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s due to the industrial decline and the heavy burden of unemployment on society. Later the role of the government was debated and tasks that were usually appointed to these governments were now put in the hands of private organisations. The process of privatisation had started. The shifting from governmental financing and operation to commercial organisations changed the management philosophy of sports facilities greatly as will be discussed in 5.2. In many places, the private sector has emerged as a provider of ice sports. Investors have been found as a source of finance whom, rather than having their profits skimmed off by the tax authorities, have enjoyed high tax write-offs (loss allocation). This kind of financial participation takes a weight off the investment budget. Due to low interest and loan repayment instalments, this has yielded a lower burden on the current budget for facility operation. New ice sports facilities these days make use of entirely different forms of financing, many of which fall within the concept of public-private partnership (PPP). This is where the public sector and commercial industry search jointly for sources of finance. In this context, sports clubs can also act as private partners, by providing either funding or manpower for construction and equipping activities. There are nevertheless limits to the latter, because work performed by the sports club on a building with sophisticated engineering like an ice sports facility is generally only feasible for a small number of construction and technical tasks. On PPP projects, the private side is put in a more profitable position than was possible in the past through the free provision of building land by

the local authority (or by the payment of a token fee). If the design and construction of the building is controlled by a commercial operator, certain legal obstacles can be evaded, e.g. the guidelines (regulations) for State-awarded contracts. If the construction and engineering services are correctly designed and specified, construction costs can be reduced without any diminution of quality. This reduces overall project expenditure, the interest and repayment instalments are lower, and the operating costs are less heavily burdened year after year. The preparation of a public-private construction project does not differ qualitatively from earlier forms of project financing and realisation at all. The analyses of demand for such a facility, and of the required space and rooms are the same as before. The design and tendering procedure require the same care (see above) and the companies for construction and interior finish must be selected according to the same criteria as in the past. For the public partner it is important to reach user-friendly agreements early on with the private partner concerning opening hours and socially acceptable pricing. Of course, the private partner will not enter into agreements that put at risk the achievement of a surplus in facility operation. A special form of PPP is the leasing of a property for a period of, say, 20 years with an option of renewing the agreement or buying back the property. Given favourable terms and reliable partners, a leasing agreement also ensures that the ice sports facility remains in immaculate structural and technical condition throughout the term of the leasing.

5.2 Operational costs Chapter 4.2 and 4.3 described the main construction and annual costs of the IIHF Prototype Ice Rink with a standard 30 x 60 m ice pad and a program of operational and other ancillary rooms, which is not too lavish but fully meets the needs of a modern facility. The possible but locally divergent initial position there is clearly indicated by the span of the different figures in the expenditure and income positions. The expenditure side depends on the structural and technical quality of the facility, the level of staff costs, and the various energy, water and disposal charges. The income side is affected by such factors as the location,



Chapter 5


population density, awareness rating and interest in ice sports, admission pricing, opening hours and numbers of users. The successful operation of the facility in the long term can only be ensured if the revenue surplus covers the interest and repayment instalments as well as sufficient upkeep of the building and its installations. Although the latter will be negligible in the first few years, initially low reserves should be set aside from the outset. A continuous theme is that of the quality of the work performed by the various trades. At this point, it is important to highlight the effect that appropriate (not excessive) quality can have on a buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life cycle. Usually it can be assumed that 20 % of costs arise by construction and 80 % by operation and maintenance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from the start of construction through disposal. If, instead, only 4 % more is spent on the initial investment, operating and maintenance costs are reduced to 70 %. This represents an appreciable cut in annually recurring costs.

The possibility of intense year-round use is a necessary condition for considering the construction of such a facility. Only high capacity utilisation rates can warrant the investment and recurring annual overhead and maintenance costs associated with an adequately staffed, state-ofthe-art facility of this type. The construction of an ice rink should be considered wherever the following basic prerequisites are met: In moderate climate zones, such as Central Europe, indoor ice rinks with artificial ice should be sited in communities with between 20,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, depending on the tradition of ice sports in that particular region. The population density per square kilometre should be at least 150 within a 12-kilometer radius.


IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks

Ice Rink Width = 2600 to 3000 1500 700

Dimensions of the Rink Maximum size: 61 m long by 30 m wide. Minimum size: 56 m long by 26 m wide.

Goal Judge


550 min. 400

Penalty Bench Team B

min. 150


Scorekeepers Bench

Referee Crease

Face Off Spot Neutral Zone Blue Line, 30 cm wide

Protective Glass Height 80 cm to 120 cm Protective Glass Height 160 cm to 200 cm

Kick Plate At the lower part of the boards will be fixed a “KICK PLATE”, yellow in colour, 15 to 25 cm in height.

Players Bench Team A


Center Line, red, 30 cm wide

– The gaps between the panels shall be minimized to 3 mm.

– The gaps between the door and the board shall be minimized to 8 mm.

Blue Line, 30 cm wide

Center Ice Spot and Circle

Length = 5600 to 6100

min. 1000

– They shall be not less than 1.17 m and not more than 1.22 m in height above the level of the ice surface.

Players Bench Team B

min. 150

Goal Line, red, 5 cm wide Goal Crease

Goal Judge

min. 400

Endzone Face Off Circle and Spot

Boards – The rink shall be surrounded by a wooden or plastic wall known as the “BOARDS”, which shall be white in colour.

Doors – All doors giving access to the ice surface must swing away from the ice surface.

All measurements in this diagram are in cm and based on an ice rink size of 6000 cm length and 3000 cm width.


For IIHF competitions the size will be 60 to 61 m long by 29 to 30 m wide.


s iu cm ad 0 dr 85 ar to Bo 00 7

Goal Crease Goal Line, red, 5 cm wide

Penalty Bench Team A

The corners shall be rounded in the arc of a circle with a radius of 7 to 8.5 m.

– The boards shall be constructed in such a manner that the surface facing the ice shall be smooth and free of any obstruction that could cause injury to the players, and the protective screens and gear used to hold the boards in position shall be mounted on the side away from the playing surface.


s iu cm ad 0 dr 85 ar to Bo 00 7

Definition of the Rink The game of ice hockey shall be played on a white ice surface known as a RINK.


Protective Glass – The protective glass located above the boards shall be 160 cm to 200 cm in height on the ends and shall extend 4 m from the goal line towards the neutral zone, and 80 cm to 120 cm in height along the sides, except in front of the players benches.

– At any interruption of the protective glass there shall be protective padding to prevent the injury of the players.

Division and Marking of the Ice Surface The ice surface will be divided in its length by five lines marked on the ice and extending completely across the rink and continuing vertically up the side of the boards. Goal Lines Lines shall be marked 4 m from each end of the rink, 5 cm wide and red in colour, known as the: GOAL LINES Blue Lines The ice area between the two goal lines shall be divided in three equal parts by lines 30 cm wide and blue in colour known as the: BLUE LINES

Protective Padding

80 – 120

End Zone Nets Protective nets must be suspended above the end zone boards and glass.


160 – 200

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks

– The gaps between the glass panels shall be minimized to 8 mm.

Protective Glass and Boards All measurements in cm.

s Gla ive ect nds t o Pr the e on

ss Gla tive es tec he sid o r P gt n alo


ar Bo

117 – 122 * * above ice level 15 – 25 *


Center Line A line known as the CENTER LINE shall be located in the middle of the rink. It shall be 30 cm wide and red in colour.

k Kic Ice

te Pla


Center Ice Spot and Circle All measurements in cm

Center Face-Off Spot and Circle A circular blue spot, 30 cm in diameter, shall be marked exactly in the center of the rink. With this spot as a center, a circle with a radius of 4.5 m shall be marked with a blue line 5 cm wide.


Face-Off Spots in Neutral Zone Two red spots, 60 cm in diameter, shall be marked in the neutral zone, 1.5 m from each blue line as illustrated on this page. End Zone Face-Off Spots and Circles Face-off spots and circles shall be marked on the ice in both end zones and on both sides of each goal as illustrated on this page.

End Zone Face-Off Circle and Spot All measurements in cm

The face-off spots will be 60 cm in diameter, red in colour, as illustrated on this page. On opposite sides of the end zone face-off spots shall be marked double â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lâ&#x20AC;?, as illustrated on this page. The circles will have a radius of 4.5 m from the center of the face-off spots and marked with a red line, 5 cm wide.

Detail of Face-Off Spot All measurements in cm

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks

Face-Off Spots and Circles All spots and circles are marked on the ice surface in order to position the players for a face-off as ordered by the officials at the beginning of the game, at the beginning of each period and after each stoppage of play.


Referee Crease All measurements in cm

Referee Crease An area known as the REFEREE CREASE shall be marked on the ice in a semi-circle by a red line, 5 cm wide, and with a radius of 3 m, immediately in front of the Scorekeeper Bench, as illustrated on this page. Goal Crease In front of each goal a GOAL CREASE area shall be marked by a red line, 5 cm wide, as illustrated on this page. The goal crease area shall be painted light blue.

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks

48 Goal Crease All measurements in cm


2. The players benches must be protected from access by persons other than the players and the six team officials.


Penalty Benches – Each rink shall be provided with two benches to be known as the penalty benches for a minimum of: – 5 players each. – They will be located on both sides of the Scorekeeper’s desk and opposite to the players benches and will have a minimum length of 4 m and a minimum width of 1.50 m. Goal Judges Benches Properly protected cages to eliminate interference with the Goal Judge’s activities shall be placed at each end of the rink behind the board and glass in the area of the goal. Scorekeeper Bench Between the penalty benches will be located the Scorekeeper bench, which will have a length of 5.50 m to accomodate 6 people.

Players Benches and Penalty Benches All measurements in cm min. 1000 Players Bench Team A

Players Bench Team B

min. 150

min. 150

Goals – The goals shall be located in the center of the goal lines. – The goals posts shall extend vertically 1.22 m above the ice surface and be 1.83 m apart (internal measurements). The horizontal crossbar binding the posts shall be of approved design and material with an external diameter of 5 cm. The posts and crossbar will be painted red. – The goals will be completed by a frame supporting the nets, the deepest point of which shall not be more than 1.12 m or less than 0.60 m. It will be painted white, except for the exterior part of the base plate, which shall be painted red. – A net shall be attached to the back of the goal frame, constructed to keep the puck within the confines of the goal. – The inside parts of the supports, other than the goal posts and the crossbar, will be covered by white padding. The padding of the base plate will start not less than 10 cm from the goal post.

Players Benches – Each rink shall be provided with two identical benches, exclusively for the use of players in uniform and officials of both teams. – The benches will be on the same side of the rink, immediately along the ice but opposite to the penalty benches, separated by a substantial distance or by other facilities, and convenient to the dressing rooms. – Each bench shall begin 2 m from the center line with a minimum length of 10 m and a minimum width of 1.50 m. – Each bench shall accommodate: – 16 players and 6 team officials.

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks

1. Each players bench must have two doors, one of which must be in the NEUTRAL ZONE.

Goal Judge Bench

2. For Olympic Games, IIHF World Senior A Men and Women, Division 1, Junior Under 20, Junior Under 18 championships, flexible goal pegs are mandatory and are strongly recommended for other competitions.

Goal Judge Bench

1. Goal posts and nets shall be set in such manner as to remain stationary during the progress of the game.

Penalty Bench Team A

Scorekeepers Bench

Penalty Bench Team B

min. 400


min. 400


Signal and Timing Devices Siren Each rink shall be provided with a siren or other suitable sound device to be used by the Timekeeper. Clock Each rink shall have an electric clock (scoreboard) in order to provide spectators, players and officials with accurately information concerning: – names of both teams, – time played in any period, counting up in minutes and seconds from 0.00 to 20.00,

IIHF Rules for Ice Rinks


– penalty time remaining to be served for at least two players on each team, counting down from the total number of minutes to 0, – score, – time-outs, counting down from 30 to 0 seconds, – intermission time, counting down from 15 to 0 minutes. Red and Green Lights Behind each goal there shall be: – a red light to be lit by the Goal Judge when a goal is scored, – a green light to be lit automatically by the electric clock when the Timekeeper stops the clock and at the end of each period. Players Dressing Rooms Each team shall be provided with a suitable room with sufficient space for 25 team officials and players and their equipment, equipped with benches, sanitary toilet and showers. Referees and Linesmen Dressing Room A separate dressing room equipped with chairs or benches, sanitary toilet and shower must be provided for the exclusive use of the Referees and Linesmen. Rink Lighting All rinks shall be sufficiently well illuminated so that the players, officials and spectators may conveniently follow the play at all times. Smoking in the Arena In enclosed rinks, smoking shall be prohibited in the playing and spectator areas, as well as in the dressing rooms and all the facilities where the players are involved.


List of

equipment Arena • dasher board with plexiglas • safety nets • water hose(s) • ice resurfacer • edger • snow scrapers • equipment trolley for tools • tools (drilling machine, pipe tongs, adjustable spanners, screwdrivers etc.) • goals (4) • lifter (to change bulbs) • timer + scoreboard • clock • sound system • stretcher + first aid supplies • benches (players boxes, penalty boxes, timers box) • ice coverings (for off-ice events) • rubber mattings


Ice resurfacer

Locker rooms • benches • lockers/clothes hooks or rails • stick stands • mirrors • waste baskets • rubber mattings Public skate • rental skates + shelving • lockers • racks • rubber mattings • skate-sharpening machine Cleaning • brushes • floor mops • pressure cleaner • vacuum cleaner • floor washing machine • waxing machine • laundry machine Cafeteria • oven • refrigerator freezer • microwave oven • counter • tables • seats • sets (plates, forks, spoons etc.)



12 000



3 009 013









008 012

011 015





IIHF Ice rink prototype, ground floor






046 042 044

d a




78 600

66 600





031 038 041 048 049

6000 6000

Rooms, Ground Floor m2 001 Entrance 15.00 002 Lobby 40.00 003 Ticketing 40.00 004 Office 17.00 005 Security/First Aid 30.00 006 Locker room, staff 31.50 007 Rest room 13.00 008 Dressing room, public (M) 6.50 009 Dressing room, public (F) 6.50 010 WC (M) 1.50 011 Bath room (M) 1.50 012 WC (F) 1.50 013 Bath room (F) 1.50 014 Athletes lobby 74.00 015 Cleaning room 12.00 016 Skate service 4.00 017 Skate rental 23.50 018 Dressing room, referee 8.00 019 Dressing room, referee 10.00 020 WC, referee 1.50 021 Bathroom, referee 1.50 022 Bathroom, referee 1.50 023 WC, referee 1.50 024 Entrance 3.00 025 Catering staff room 4.00 026 Catering 12.50 027 Hockey bar 30.00 028 Main hall, ice rink 2’195.00 029 Storage 28.50 030 Corridor 76.50 031 Dressing room 30.00 032 Dressing room 30.00 033 Bath room 8.00 034 Bath room 8.00 035 WC 1.50 036 WC 1.50 037 Cleaning room 8.50 038 Dressing room 30.00 039 Dressing room 30.00 040 Bath room 8.00 041 Bath room 8.00 042 WC 1.50 043 WC 1.50 044 Laundry 8.50 045 Team equipment rooms (6x) 5.00 046 Coat-racks 23.00 047 Drying room (6x) 5.00 048 Ice resurfacer 48.00 049 Mechanical and electrical room 58.00 Summe (netto) 3’006.50









IIHF Ice rink prototype, first floor 47 000 800

18 600


12 000

106 107 109










78 600


66 600










108 110








25 200


Rooms, First Floor Lobby Cafe Catering Kitchen Bath room, staff Storage kitchen Bath room (F) WC (F) Bath room (M) WC (M) Cleaning room WC (for disabled) Entrance cafe Spectator stand Terrace Mechanical, electrical room Summe (netto) 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116

m2 160.00 132.00 19.50 22.00 6.00 4.50 7.00 15.00 7.00 15.00 6.00 5.00 41.00 305.00 26.50 58.00 829.50









IIHF Member

National Associations Federaciò Andorrana d’Esports de Gel (AND) Casa Tonet 2° 2a Canillo, Principat d’Andorra Phone: +376-85 26 66 Fax: +376-85 26 67 e-mail: Internet:


Asociaciòn Argentina de Hockey sobre Hielo y En Línea (ARG) Daniel Schiller Haiti 1536 1640 Martinez Buenos Aires Argentina Phone: +54-11-4836 2360 (office) Phone: +54-11-4745 2837 (home) e-mail: Ice Hockey Federation of Armenia (ARM) Gaydar Str. 97 Apt. 46 375033 Yerevan RA Phone: +374-1-264 788 Fax: +374-1-264 788 e-mail: Australian Ice Hockey Federation (AUS) Sportshouse, 100 Maitland Street Hackett, ACT, 2602 Australia Postal: PO Box 173 Canberra, ACT, 2601 Australia Phone: +61-2-6248 8077 Fax: +61-2-6248 8177 e-mail: Internet: Österreichischer Eishockey Verband (AUT) Prinz Eugen-Strasse 12 1040 Wien Austria Phone: +43-1-505 73 47 Fax: +43-1-503 16 48 e-mail: Internet: Ice Hockey Federation of the Republic of Azerbaijan (AZE) Litemiy Pereulok 2 370603 Baku Azerbaijan Phone: +994-1-294 4000 / 295 4000 Fax: +994-1-298 5352

Belarus Ice Hockey Federation (BLR) 4, Masherov ave. Rooms 204, 202 220004 Minsk Belarus Phone: +375-172-23 63 69 Fax: +375-172-27 64 84 e-mail: Koninklijke Belgische Ijshockey Federatie (BEL) Barbarastraat 80 3120 Tremelo Belgium Phone: +32-16-53 78 94 Fax: +32-16-52 00 98 e-mail: Savez Hokeja na Ledu Bosne i Hercegovine (BIH) Pehlivanusa 6 71000 Sarajevo Bosna i Hercegovina Phone: +387-33-217 702 Fax: +387-33-217 701 e-mail: Internet: Confederação Brasileira de Hóquei no Gelo (BRA) Rua Padre Domingos Giovanini 596 Campinas/SP CEP 13087310 Brazil Phone: +55-19-324 22 063 Fax: +55-19-321 23 079 e-mail: Bulgarian Ice Hockey Federation (BUL) 75, Vassil Levski blvd 1040 Sofia Bulgaria Phone: +359-2-980 2880 or 930 0610 Fax: +359-2-981 5728 or 980 2880 e-mail: Canadian Hockey Association (CAN) 2424 University Drive N.W. Calgary, Alberta T2N 3Y9 Canada Phone: +1-403-777 36 36 Fax: +1-403-777 36 35 e-mail: Internet:

Asociación Nacional de Hockey en Hielo y en Línea (CHI) Cali # 715 – Parad. 20 La Florida Santiago Chile Phone: +56-2-314 03 87 (M. Arias Home) Phone: +56-2-211 64 53 (N. Gomez Home) Fax: +56-2-341 36 12 e-mail: (M. Arias) e-mail: (N. Gomez) Chinese Ice Hockey Association (CHN) 56 Zhongguancun South Street Haidian Dsitrict 100044 Beijing China Phone: +86-10-683 32 576 Fax: +86-10-683 58 083 e-mail: Chinese Taipei Skating Union (TPE) Room 610, 6 Fl. 20, Chu Lun St. Taipei Taiwan ROC Phone: +88-6-227 75 87 22 or 277 58 723 Fax: +88-6-227 782 778 e-mail: Hrvatski Savez Hokeja Na Ledu (CRO) 11 Trg sportova 10000 Zagreb Croatia Phone/Fax: +385-1-365 02 22 e-mail: Cesky Svaz Ledniho Hokeje (CZE) Paegas Arena Za elektrarnou 419 170 00 Praha 7 Czech Republic Phone: +420-2-333 79 248 Fax: +420-2-333 36 096 e-mail: Internet: Danmarks Ishockey Union (DEN) Idraettens Hus Bröndby Stadion 20 2605 Bröndby Denmark Phone: +45-43-26 26 26 Fax: +45-43-26 21 23 e-mail: Internet:


Ice Hockey Association of the DPR Korea (PRK) Kumsondong 2 Mangyongdae District Pyongyang DPR Korea Phone: +85-2-381 4403 Fax: +85-2-18 111 81 64 Eesti Jäähokiföderatsioon (EST) Regati pst. 1 11911 Tallinn Estonia Phone: +372-639 86 89 Fax: +372-639 86 49 e-mail: Suomen Jääkiekkoliitto (FIN) Mäkelänkatu 91 00610 Helsinki Finland Phone: +358-9-756 750 Fax: +358-9-756 755 75 e-mail: Internet: Fédération Française des Sports de Glace (FRA) 35, Rue Félicien David 75016 Paris France Phone: +33-1-539 281 81 Fax: +33-1-539 281 58 e-mail: Internet: Deutscher Eishockey Bund e.V. (GER) Betzenweg 34 D-81247 München Germany Phone: +49-89-81 82 0 Fax: +49-89-81 82 36 e-mail: Internet: Ice Hockey UK (GBR) 47 Westminster Buildings Theatre Square Nottingham, NG1 6LG Great Britain Phone: +44-115-9241441 Fax: +44-115-9243443 e-mail: Internet: Hellenic Ice Sports Federation (GRE) 52 Akakion Str. GR-151 25 Polydroso Amarousiou Athens Greece Phone: +30-1-684 93 24 Fax: +30-1-685 82 81 e-mail: Hong Kong Ice Hockey Association (HKG) Room 1023, Sports House 1 Stadium Path Sokonpo Causeway Bay Hong Kong China Phone: +852-28 27 26 98 Fax: +852-25 04 81 91 e-mail:

Magyar Jégkorong Szövetség (HUN) Kisstadion, Istvànmezei ùt 1-3 Budapest H-1146 Hungary Phone: +361-220 2939 or 25 11 222/ext. 1185 Fax: +361-221 4663 e-mail: Internet: Ice Hockey Iceland (ISL) Sport Center Laugardal 104 Reykjavik Iceland Phone: +354-892 12 77 Fax: +354-588 52 78 e-mail: Ice Hockey Association of India (IND) D-502, Som Vihar R.K. Puram New Dehli-110002 India Phone: +91-11-619 3632 Fax: +91-11-619 6082 e-mail: Irish Ice Hockey Federation (IRL) 13 Raleigh Square Crumlin, Dublin 12 Ireland Phone: +353-1-455 02 22 Fax: +353-1-494 70 38 or 455 20 22 e-mail: Internet: The Ice Hockey Federation of Israel (ISR) 20 Yordei-Hasira Street Tel-Aviv 63508 Israel Phone/Fax: +972-3-604 0722 e-mail: Federazione Italiana Sport Ghiaccio (ITA) Via G.B. Piranesi, 44/b 20137 Milano Italy Phone: +39-02-70 141 322/323 Fax: +39-02-761 0839 e-mail: Internet: Japan Ice Hockey Federation (JPN) Kishi Memorial Hall 1-1-1 Jinnan, Shibuya-ku Tokyo 150-8050 Japan Phone: +81-3-3481 2404 Fax: +81-3-3481 2407 e-mail: Internet: Kazakstan Ice Hockey Federation (KAZ) 12/1 Kosmitcheskaya Str. P.O. Box 2712 492022 Ust-Kamenogorsk Kazakstan Phone: +7-323-2-475 428 Fax: +7-323-2-475 934 e-mail:

Korean Ice Hockey Federation (KOR) 902 Olympic Center 88 Oryun-dong 138-749 Songpa-Ku Seoul Korea Phone: +82-2-420 4291 Fax: +82-2-420 4160 e-mail: Internet: Latvian Ice Hockey Federation (LAT) Raunas Str. 23 LV 1039 Riga Latvia Phone: +371-7-568 279 or 563 921 Fax: +371-7-515 850 e-mail: Internet: Liechtensteiner Eishockey und In-Line Verband Allmeindstr. 83 9486 Schaanwald Liechtenstein Phone: +423-777 81 71 Fax: +423-373 81 73 e-mail: Lietuvos Ledo Ritulio Federacija (LTU) Zemaites str. 6 2600 Vilnius Lithuania Phone/Fax: +370-2-33 45 87 e-mail: Fédération Luxembourgeoise de Hockey sur Glace (LUX) Boite postale 1632 1016 Luxembourg Luxembourg Phone: +352-49 21 98 Fax: +352-40 22 28 e-mail: Ice Hockey Association of Macedonia Jordan Hadzikonstantinov Dzinot 12a 1000 Skopje Macedonia Phone/Fax: +389-2-228 624 e-mail: Federaciòn Mexicana de Deportes Invernales, AC (MEX) Via Lactea 351 Jardins de Satelite Naucalpan Estado de Mexico 53129 Mexico Phone/Fax: +52-555-343 08 55 e-mail:



Mongolian Ice Hockey Federation (MON) Ulaanbaatar-36 P.O. Box-162 Mongolia Phone: +976-99 19 8996 or 99 18 0200 Fax: +976-11-34 5051 or 34 1524 e-mail:

IIHF Member National Associations


Ice Hockey Federation of Russia (RUS) Luzhnetskaia Naberezhnaia 8 119992 Moscow Russia Phone: +7-095-201 08 20 or 201 19 73 Fax: +7-095-248 03 22 e-mail: Internet:

Namibia In-Line Skating Association (NAM) P.O. Box 830 Swakopmund Namibia Phone: +264-64-404 178 Fax: +264-64-402 780 e-mail:

Skating Federation of Singapore (SIN) 153 West Coast Park Singapore 127720 Singapore Phone: +65-561 1329 or 896 1201 Fax. +65-896 12 02

Nederlandse Ijshockey Bond (NED) P.O. Box 292 2700 AG Zoetermeer Netherlands Phone: +31-79-330 5050 Fax: +31-79-330 5051 e-mail: Internet:

Slovensky Zvaz Ladoveho Hokeja (SVK) Junàcka 6 832 80 Bratislava Phone: +421-2-492 49 178 (secretariat) +421-2-492 49 237 (int. dept) Fax: +421-2-442 58 344 e-mail: Internet:

New Zealand Ice Hockey Federation (NZL) P.O. Box 488 Christchurch New Zealand Phone: +64-3-442 8921 Fax: +64-3-442 8924 e-mail: Internet:

Hokejska Zveza Slovenije (SLO) Celovska 25 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia Phone/Fax: +386-1-2313 121 Phone: +386-1-430 64 80 Fax: +386-1-430 64 81 e-mail: Internet:

Norges Ishockeyförbund (NOR) Sognsveien 75 J Serviceboks 1, Ulleval Stadion 0840 Oslo Norway Phone: +47 2102 9000 Fax: +47 2102 9631 e-mail: Internet:

South African Ice Hockey Association (RSA) P.O. Box 926 Parklands 2121 South Africa Phone: +27-11-472 4325 Fax: +27-11-472 7473 e-mail: Internet:

Polski Zwiazek Hokeja na Lodzie (POL) M. Konopnickiej Str. 3, Apt. 2 00-491 Warszawa, Poland Phone: +48-22-628 8063 Fax: +48-22-629 3754 e-mail: Internet:

Real Federaciòn Española Deportes de Invierno (ESP) C/ Arroyofresno, no. 3-A 28035 Madrid Spain Phone: +34-91-376 99 30 Fax: +34-91-376 99 31 e-mail:

Associação Nacional de Desportos no Gelo, A.P.D. (POR) Largo Marechal Carmona nº3-1º Esq 2675-318 Odivelas Portugal Phone: +351-96-416 08 15 Fax: +351-269 860 110 e-mail: Internet:

Svenska Ishockeyförbundet (SWE) Box 5204, Bolidenvägen 22 121 16 Johanneshov Sweden Phone: +46-8-449 04 00 Fax: +46-8-91 00 35 e-mail: Internet:

Romanian Ice Hockey Federation (ROM) Bdul. Basarabia 35-37 73403 Bucuresti, sectorul 2 Romania Phone: +40-21-324 68 71 Phone/Fax: +40-21-324 77 13 Mobile: +40-722-533 337 (Mr Eduard Pana) Mobile: +40-722-533 339 (Mr Marian Negoita)

Schweizerischer Eishockeyverband (SUI) Postfach Hagenholzstr. 81 8062 Zürich Switzerland Phone: +41-1-306 50 50 Fax: +41-1-306 50 51 e-mail: Internet:

Thailand Ice Skating Association (THA) Room 238, Zone W, Rajamangalal National Stadium The Sports Authority of Thailand 2088 Ramkhamhaeng Road Hua Mark Bangkok 10240 Thailand Phone: +66.2.369 1517 or 3180940 ext. 1468 Fax: +66.2.369 1517 Türkiye Buz Sparlari Federasyonu (TUR) Gençlik ve Spor genel Müdürlügü Ulns IS Hani A Blok Kat 5 06050 Ulus/Ankara Turkey Phone: +90-312-467 10 10 Fax: +90-312-467 10 10 e-mail: Ice Hockey Federation of Ukraine (UKR) 11A Sichnevogo Povstannaya Str. 252010 Kiev Ukraine Phone: +380-44-226 33 92 or 220 11 30 Fax: +380-44-220 11 30 e-mail: Internet: United Arab Emirates (UAE) Box 2892 Dubai United Arab Emirates Phone: +971-50-623 4999 Fax: +971-43-420 851 e-mail: USA Hockey (USA) 1775 Bob Johnson Drive Colorado Springs, CO. 80906 USA Phone: +1-719-576-8724 Fax: +1-719-538-1160 e-mail: Internet: Yugoslav Ice Hockey Federation (YUG) Carli Caplina 39 (Hala Pionir) 11000 Belgrade Yugoslavia Phone: +381-11-764 479 Fax: +381-11-764 976 e-mail:

International Ice Hockey Federation Brandschenkestrasse 50 8002 Zürich Switzerland e-mail: Internet:

International Ice Hockey Federation

Ice Rink Manual  

Ice Rink Manual

Ice Rink Manual  

Ice Rink Manual