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&H ht P ig op yr C A nutrition guide for heart patients


ats and cholesterol

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Have your blood cholesterol level checked, and follow the advice of your doctor or registered dietitian (RD) to reduce the fat and cholesterol in your diet.

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Foods high in cholesterol or saturated fats raise the cholesterol level in your blood. When you have too much cholesterol, your heart arteries are more likely to become clogged. This can cause heart attacks and strokes.

Fats

Saturated fats raise your blood cholesterol level more than anything else you eat. They are found in animal foods like meats, butter and cheese. Many other foods have saturated fats, too.

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There are 2 types of fat—saturated and unsaturated.

Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat. They are created when hydrogen is added to unsaturated fats. These fats lower good cholesterol and raise bad cholesterol. They are the worst of all fats.

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Unsaturated fats are OK for you, in small amounts. They are found mostly in nuts, seeds and vegetable oils like olive, peanut and canola.

For most people, 25% to 35% or less of food calories should be from fats, and less than 7% should be from saturated fats, and no amount of trans fat is good for you. For heart patients, the amounts are even less. Ask your doctor or RD how much fat should be in your diet. 1


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Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fat-like substance in every cell in your body. It is made in your liver and also found in animal foods like egg yolks, meats (especially organ meats) and dairy products. There are 2 main types of blood cholesterol:

HDL (high-density lipoproteins) is “good” cholesterol. It helps keep the coronary arteries clear of fatty buildup.

LDL (low-density lipoproteins) is “bad” cholesterol. It adds to fatty buildup in the coronary arteries.

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LDL

LDL

HDL

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HDL

HDL

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LDL

HDL

LDL

LDL

HDL

LDL

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Your liver makes all the cholesterol your body needs. If you eat more than your body can get rid of, the extra can clog your arteries. Cholesterol from food is not as bad as saturated fat, but it can also raise your blood cholesterol level.

Heart patients want to eat less than 200 mg* of cholesterol per day. Less is better. Cholesterol amounts in foods are listed on food labels.

* mg = milligrams g = grams

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Your goal is to eat well most of the time. Food choices control how much fat and cholesterol you eat. Making good choices can help lower your blood cholesterol. Don’t overeat. And, control your portion sizes. Don’t “super size” your meals. This will lead to a “super sized” you!

Eat these SOMETIMES:

✔ whole wheat and grain pasta dishes with low-fat sauces

✔ whole grain or enriched breads, cereals, bagels, pita breads

✔ skim or nonfat dairy foods

✔ nonfat snacks, like

vegetable oils (Use very little. All oils have 14 g/fat per tablespoon.) low-fat cheeses, yogurts, sour creams or 1% milk

olives, peanut butter (limit 2 teaspoons per day), seeds and nuts (limit 1 tablespoon per day)

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(skim milk, nonfat cheeses, nonfat yogurts, nonfat sour creams, egg substitutes)

lean meats (trimmed of all fat), fish, skinned chicken or turkey

air popped popcorn or carrot sticks

Eat these RARELY: ✘ butter, stick or soft margarine, egg yolks, whole milk, 2% milk, cream, half ’n half, eggnog and most cheeses (unless they list 3 g fat or less per serving)

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(without high-fat sauces)

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✔ fresh vegetables & fruits

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Eat these OFTEN:

✘ red meats, sausage, bacon, fat back, goose, duck, dark meat poultry, organ meats

✘ prepared foods, fast or fried foods

✘ coffee creamers, regular salad dressings, regular mayonnaise, prepared sauces

✘ chips, fatty dips

✔ nonfat dressings or

✘ croissants, donuts, bakery

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✔ dried or fresh herbs nonfat mayonnaise

cakes or cookies, Danish

✘ anything listed as “hydrogenated” – a man-made, trans fat

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odium Sodium is a mineral that helps your body balance levels of fluids inside and outside cells. Your body only needs about 200 mg of sodium per day, but most of us eat 3,000 to 6,000 mg. The most common source of sodium is table salt.

fast foods, restaurant foods

lunch meats, hot dogs

snack foods

canned soups, frozen or packaged dinners

sauces, seasonings, condiments

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These foods often have lots of sodium in them:

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Many salty foods do not list “salt” on their labels, they call it sodium. People with heart problems or high blood pressure should limit their sodium intake to 1,500 to 2,300 mg per day or less.

One teaspoon of table salt equals about 2,400 mg of sodium.

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ood labels Most food products have Nutrition Facts on their labels. You can use these facts to choose foods that have less fats, cholesterol and sodium.

Nutrients and % Daily Value

Serving Size Serving sizes are what all other figures on label are based on.

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(based on 2000 calories)

Calories

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Serving Size 1 cup (240g) Servings Per Container 1 Amount Per Serving

are for 1 serving.

Calories 250

Calories from Fat 18

% Daily Value* Total Fat 2g

Cholesterol 20mg

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Example: One serving will give you 50%, or half, of the Vitamin A you need for 1 day.

7%

18%

Total Carbohydrate 44g

15%

Dietary Fiber 2g

8%

Sugars 4g

Protein 14g Vitamin A

50%

Vitamin C

Calcium

25%

Iron

Calories Total Fat Less than Sat Fat Less than Cholesterol Less than Sodium Less than Total Carbohydrate Dietary Fiber

2,000 65g 20g 300mg 2,400mg 300g 25g

Example: 65g =grams of fat allowed in 1 day on a 2000 calorie diet 2g = grams of fat in 1 serving of food (or 3% of total grams of fat you should have in 1 day)

8% 15%

* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower depending on your calorie needs:

1g Fat = 9 calories 1g Carbohydrates = 4 calories 1 g Protein = 4 calories

Products that are too small for the nutrition label should have a phone number that you can call for this information.

5%

Sodium 420mg

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The percent given is based on the daily value you need each day.

Trans Fat 0g

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Vitamins and Minerals

3%

Saturated Fat Less than 1g

This area shows what part each nutrient is of a whole day’s worth.

2,500 80g 25g 300mg 2,400mg 375g 30g

Daily Value Footnote This shows you that the daily values are based on 2000 calories. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your calorie needs. Some labels compare the daily values of 2000 calories and 2500 calories.

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ix it up! No food group can give your body all the nutrients it needs. It is a balance of many foods and exercise that helps you feel good and stay healthy. Grains — includes all foods made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal or barley. At least half of all grains eaten should be whole grains.

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Vegetables — includes all fresh, frozen, canned or dried vegetables and vegetable juices. Vegetables are sub-divided into dark green, orange, legumes (beans), starches and all others. A variety of vegetable types should be eaten each week. Fruits — includes all fresh, frozen, canned or dried fruits and fruit juices.

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Oils — includes fats from many different plants and fish. Fats that are liquid at room temperature include canola, corn, olive, soybean and sunflower oil. Some foods are naturally high in oils, like nuts, olives, fish and avocados. Some processed foods are mainly oil, such as mayonnaise, some salad dressings and soft margarine. Some plant oils, such as coconut and palm kernel oil, are high in saturated fat and should be avoided. Milk — includes all fluid milk products, yogurt and cheese. Other foods made from milk, like cream cheese, cream and butter, are not part of the group (they have little to no calcium in them).

Meat and Beans — includes 1 oz of lean meat, poultry or fish, 1 egg, 1 Tbsp peanut butter, 1⁄4 cup cooked dry beans or 1⁄2 oz of nuts or seeds (equal to 1 oz of meat or beans).

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Food Pyramid

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Milk

Oils

Fruits

Vege ta

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Gr ai

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bles

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The food pyramid can help create a custom-made meal plan. The pyramid is divided into 6 different groups. By varying the kinds of food you eat from each group, you can maintain a healthier diet. How much you eat of each group is based on your age, sex and level of activity.

Visit www.mypyramid.gov or call 1-888-779-7264 for more information. 7


Calories 1,600

1,800

2,000

2,200

2,400

2,600

Grains

5 oz

6 oz

6 oz

7 oz

8 oz

9 oz

10 oz

Vegetables

2 cups

21⁄2 cups

21⁄2 cups

3 cups

3 cups

31⁄2 cups

31⁄2 cups

Fruits

11⁄2 cups

11⁄2 cups

2 cups

2 cups

2 cups

2 cups

21⁄2 cups

Oils

5 tsp

5 tsp

6 tsp

6 tsp

7 tsp

8 tsp

8 tsp

Milk

3 cups

3 cups

3 cups

3 cups

3 cups

3 cups

3 cups

Meat & Beans

5 oz

5 oz

5 ⁄2 oz

6 oz

6 ⁄2 oz

6 ⁄2 oz

7 oz

1

1

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How many calories are right?

2,800

Men age

2,000

2,200

2,400

2,600

2,800

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age

activity level

55 and up

I

26 – 50 51 and up

I M

I

19 – 25 26 – 50 61 and up

I M A

41 – 60 66 and up

I M

19 – 25 31 – 60

M A

21 – 40 46 – 65 76 and up

I M A

19 – 30

A

19 – 20 26 – 45 56 – 75

I M A

10 – 11 12 – 18

A M

19 – 25 36 – 55

M A

61 and up

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1,800

activity level

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1,600

Women

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Calories

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How many calories you need are based on activity levels by gender. Activity levels are: I = inactive; M= moderately active; A = active


Order this book from:

2009 Edition by Pritchett & Hull Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this or otherwise reproduced without written permission from

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Pritchett & Hull Associates, Inc.

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book may be photocopied, reprinted

We do not intend to be sexist, but to keep the text simple, we often say “he” or “him” when referring to the patient. Published and distributed by: Pritchett & Hull Associates, Inc.

Printed in the U.S.A.

A smart diet for your heart is low in cholesterol, fats and salt. It is also well-balanced and includes many types of food. This guide will help you learn about foods and make heart smart food choices. This book is only to help you learn, and should not be used to replace any of your doctor’s advice or treatment.

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Copyright © 1997, 2000, 2003, 2005

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®

PRITCHETT & HULL ASSOCIATES, INC. 3440 OAKCLIFF RD NE STE 110 ATLANTA GA 30340-3079 1-800-241-4925


ips for cooking Meats and fish

Bake, broil, steam, roast or poach meats. Don’t fry. Stir frying is OK, but use very little oil.

• • •

Use nonstick pans to cook without oils.

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Trim extra fat before cooking. It’s OK to cook chicken and turkey with the skin, but don’t eat the skin. Drain all meats on a paper towel after cooking to soak up extra grease and fat.

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Buy tuna and salmon packed in water, not oil.

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Eggs and dairy foods

Use skim or 1% milk for creamed soups and sauces.

Use low-fat cheeses in casseroles and other recipes.

You can stay heart smart and save food by serving smaller portions to yourself and others. Many people simply eat until their plates are empty—so put less food on the plates.

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Smaller scoops

Use 2 egg whites in place of 1 whole egg in recipes.

Salt and seasonings

It is best not to eat canned foods but if you do, rinse in a strainer under running water before cooking or eating them. This removes some of the sodium.

Season foods with fresh or dried herbs, vegetables, fruits or no-salt seasonings. Do not cook with salt or add salt to foods after they are on the table.

Do not eat products with more than 150–350 mg of sodium in a serving.


eviewers We believe that you have the right to know as much as you can about your health. Our goal is to give you enough facts to get the main points clearly in mind. We do this with medical accuracy, warmth and humor. The result for you: less tension, more healing and a good idea of what to ask your doctor, nurse or others.

Debbie Walls, RD, LD, CDE North East Georgia Health Systems Gainesville, GA Thanks to previous reviewers:

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Doris Adler, RD, LD, CDE Leslie Stewart, RD, LD

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Pritchett & Hull Associates, Inc. 3440 Oakcliff Road, NE, Suite 110 Atlanta, GA 30340-3079

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1-800-241-4925

ISBN #1-933638-00-1

We also have other health information materials on a variety of topics. Call for a free catalog of product descriptions.


The Love Your Heart Diet