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HISTORY: EARLY MODERN PERIOD. EARLY MODERN PERIOD is from the ‘Discovery of America’ in 1.492, till ‘French Revolution’ in 1.789. At that time starts ‘Renaissance’ because of: 1.- The influence of the Catholic Church was reducing. 2.- The Human Being became the ‘centre of the universe’: ‘Renaissance Humanism’. 3.- Scientists started to use ‘reason’ and experimentation. 4.- Art turned back to classical Greece and Rome.

I) DISCOVERIES’ VOYAGES PERIOD: 1.- CATHOLIC MONARCHS: (The Catholic Monarchs is the title used in history for Queen Isabel I of Castile and King Fernando II of Aragon.) 1.1.- Unification of Spain: When ‘Queen Isabel I’ got married with ‘King Fernando II of Aragon’, they joint these kingdoms. Later they conquered the Muslim kingdom of Granada in 1.492. 1.2.- It was an ‘Authoritarian Monarchy’, because they reinforced their power. They imposed Catholic Religion and expelled Jews and Muslim people. 1.3.- They paid for Columbus’ voyages.

Catholic Monarchs

2.- REASONS FOR DISCOVERIES’ VOYAGES: 2.1.- At that time technology developed a lot, and there were better devices for sailing: compass, astrolabe, caravels, better maps… 2.2.- States wanted gold, silver… to make coins. 2.3.- They needed to find new routes to get to the Maluku Islands (to get spices very appreciated for medicine, religious rituals, perfumes…)

3.- THE MOST IMPORTANT VOYAGES: Because of those reasons there were some important voyages: 3.1.- Christopher Columbus discovered America (12-Oct-1.492), with three caravels (la Pinta, la Niña and la Santa María), although he thought he had arrived to the ‘East Indies ‘. Later, Americo Vespucio realized that the new places were from a new continent, and this is the reason of the name ‘America’. 3.2..- Vasco Nuñez de Balboa arrived to the Pacific Ocean.

Christopher Columbus

3.3.- Magallanes wanted to do a voyage around the world, but he died before to finish the travel, so Juan Sebastián el Cano finished it and became the first man to do it.

4.- PRE-COLUMBIAN CULTURES: Before Columbus arrived to America, there were different cultures. Those people were farmers, and they knew pottery, metallurgy... Between them we find the Inca, Aztec and Maya civilitations. 4.1.- The Inca empire was located in the current Perú. Their emperor was called ‘Inca’. They were conquered by Francisco Pizarro.


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4.2.- The Aztec people lived in Mexico, they were farmers and craftsmen. They were conquered by Hernán Cortés. 4.3.- The Maya people were expert in art, maths, architecture astronomy…

5.- THE CONQUEST OF AMERICA: Conquerors had better weapons (horses, armours, guns…) so with only a few men conquered great empires. Conquerors leave to America Spanish language, Catholic religion, and some plants (wheat…), some animals (horses, cows…) and new tools like plough. On the other hand, they brought to Spain lots of plants like: tomatoes, potatoes, corn, peppers, cocoa, tobacco… and lots of natural riches (gold, silver…), that came to Spain on boats often attacked by pirates.

SOCIAL CLASSES IN THE NEW WORLD. There were several social classes: 5.1.- Spanish colonists: held the government sites and they were very rich. Their children were called ‘Creoles’. 5.2.- Mestizos: children from a Spaniard and an indian. 5.3.- Native American, or Indians: they do the worst works, they were exploited although there were laws protecting them. 5.4.- African Slaves: brought from Africa.

II) SPANISH GOLDEN AGE. ‘Spanish Golden Age’ has got two artistic styles: .- ‘Renaissance’ in the 16th century (under Carlos I and Felipe II) and .- ‘Baroque’ in the 17th century (under Felipe III, Felipe IV and Carlos II). These kings are from Habsburg Spain Dynasty.

1.- 16th CENTURY: “RENAISSANCE” 1.1.- KINGS. A.- CARLOS I (Charles I or Charles V: Creation of a great empire). Charles was the eldest son of ‘ Philip the Handsome’ and ‘Joanna the Mad’. His grandmother was


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‘Isabella I of Castile’. He inherited Spain and Spanish territories in America from his mother, and Germany, Netherlands… from his father (so he’s also called Charles V from Germany). He became king when he was 17 years old, and he couldn’t speak Spanish. This is the reason because there was an uprising called ‘Revolt of the Comuneros’. He was the most powerful King in Europe at that time because of the gold and silver from America and the huge territories he ruled. He was at war against Turks and Protestants to preserve the Catholic religion. Charles I or Charles V

B.- FELIPE II (Philip II: the reform of the Catholicism). The son of Charles V (King of Spain) and his wife (Isabella, Queen of Portugal). He inherited American and European territories, Philippines… but he didn’t inherit The Netherlands. Later he got the Throne of Portugal from his mother. Then he formed the biggest empire in the history (‘The sun never goes down over the Empire’). Because of the Catholic Religion he was at war versus Tunisia (the battle of Lepanto), some European countries, and versus England because of the supremacy at sea. The defeat of the ‘Spanish Armada’ started the decadence of Spain. Philip II

1.2.- ECONOMY AND SOCIETY. a.- Spain became the biggest power in the world because of gold and natural wealth from America, but the monarchs spent them into wars in Europe… b.- People went to America looking for fortune or joined to the army, so there were few people to work on Spanish fields, as a result of this, agriculture and cattle farming were poorer and poorer. SOCIETY: .- Privileged people : (they didn’t pay taxes)

King Nobility

.- King and nobility. .- Clergy.


.- Non-privileged people: (they paid taxes) .-Tradesmen, farmers, cattle farmers, the bourgeoisie (middle class people that lived in the cities)

bourgeoisie, and the rest of people

The king has the power completely and nobility is a social class without any function to do. Farmers and cattle farmers were living in the same way as in the middle ages, (paying taxes…). Bourgeoisie didn’t developed in Spain like in the rest of Europe.


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1.3.- ART IN THE 16th CENTURY:

The introduction of the printing press (invented by Gutenberg) helped the culture to developed. Characteristics: 1.- Art and knowledge turn back to the Greek and Roman cultures. 2.- Science developed through nature studies (observation and experimentation) 3.- The humanism: "man is the measure of all things". In Italy there were some great men. They were painters, sculptors, architects, inventors…: .- Leonardo da Vinci: “The Mona Lisa”, “Last Supper”… .- Michelangelo: “Statue of David”, “ Sistine Chapel”… .- Raphael: “Madonnas”. Leonardo Da Vinci

In Spain: Literature: Santa Teresa de Jesús , San Juan de la Cruz and the poet Garcilaso de la Vega. Architecture: there were two styles: .-The Plateresque (facade of the University of Salamanca) .- Juan de Herrera’s style (Monastery of ‘El Escorial’) Painting: ‘El Greco’: ‘The Knight with His Hand on His Breast’, ‘The Burial of the Count of Orgaz’… Monastery of El Escorial

‘The Knight with His Han don His Breast’

2.- 17th CENTURY.


2.1.- KINGS. During that century ruled Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II. They are called ‘The last Spanish Habsburgs’, and under their reign Spain fell into decline. Kings delegated their power into the ‘Royal Favourites’, who ruled politics instead of them (‘Conde-Duque of Olivares’ was Philip IV’s Favourite). Spain lost all European territories, and France and England were the new powers in the world. Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II

Charles II’s death without any children caused the ‘war of Spanish Succession’, to find another king for Spain. Philip V was the first king from the ‘House of Bourbon’ in Spain. Because of this war Spain lost Gibraltar.


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2.2.- ECONOMY and SOCIETY in 17th Century. Spain fell into a great crisis in politics and economy. Here are their causes: 1.- The amount of gold and silver from America is declining. 2.- The number of inhabitants were decreasing because of diseases (‘the plague’), wars, poor harvests… 3.- The expulsion of Moorish from Spain (Moors converted to Christianity after the Spanish reconquest). 4.- Trade was falling down and poverty was increasing. Society was still divided into privileged classes (They didn’t pay taxes: King, Nobility and Clergy) and non-privileged classes (They paid taxes: farmers, craftsmen, bourgeoisie) 2.3.- ART in 17th Century. ‘THE BAROQUE’ Literature: .- The great dramatist: Lope de Vega. .- The poets: Góngora and Francisco de Quevedo. .- The novelist: Miguel de Cervantes who wrote ‘D. Quixote of La Mancha’.

Lope de Vega

Francisco de Quevedo

Miguel de Cervantes

Architecture: .- “Churrigueresque” style (excessively ornate): Main Square in Salamanca, The facade of the Cathedral of Santiago of Compostela… .- ‘Herrerian Style’ goes on during this century (with straight lines and total absence of decoration). Plaza Mayor de Madrid… Painting: .- Some of the best painters are Zurbarán, Rivera y Murillo. .- But the most important one is Diego de Velázquez: ‘The Maids of Honour’, “The Surrender of Breda’, ‘Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan’… ‘The Maids of Honour’

‘The Surrender of Breda”

‘Apollo in the Forge of Vulcan’


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3.- 18th CENTURY: ‘THE ENLIGHTENMENT’. 3.1.- KINGS. At that time, Spain isn’t the biggest power in the world, France and England are the most powerful countries. From the end of the ‘War of Spanish Succession’ the House of Bourbons ruled Spain. Philip V was the first Bourbon and after him Ferdinand VI, Charles III and Charles IV reigned Spain during this century.

Philip V (absolutist king)

Ferdinand VI

Charles III

Charles IV

Ferdinand VI and Charles III (Enlightened Absolutism): ‘All for the people, but without the people’) .- The economic situation in Spain was improving. .- They modernized farming, industry, trade, transport, road… Charles IV : .- He was a weak monarch, abdicated the throne in favour of his son Ferdinand VII. Later, he and his family left Spain .- Napoleon invaded Spain and ‘The Peninsular War’ started in 1.808. 3.2. ECONOMY AND SOCIETY: 18th Century was a peaceful period to Spain, so the population was increasing. In France there were great Philophers (Montesquieu, Diderot, Voltaire…) who defended that: ‘The human intelligence can combat the ignorance… and build a better world’. In France ‘The Encyclopaedia’ (it contained all knowledge at that time ) was published by Diderot and D’lambert. 3.3.- ART: Literature:

In Spain there was a writer called Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos.

Arquitectura: buildings in the Neoclasic style: ‘The Prado Museum’, ‘Puerta de Alcalá’… Painting: The most famous painter at the end of the century was Francisco de Goya: “The Third of May 1808’, “Charles IV of Spain and His Family’…


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“The Third of May 1808”

Francisco de Goya

‘Charles IV of Spain and His Family’

GLOSARY-VOCABULARY: early: temprano Humanism: Humanismo voyage: viaje marítimo Muslim kingdom: reino musulmán power: poder, potencia mundial to pay: pagar to sail: navegar silver: plata although: aunque he died: él murió current: actual craftsmen: artesanos to leave: llevar tools: herramientas natural riches: riquezas naturales held: ocupaban

till: hasta the reason: la razón monarch: monarca, rey Authoritarian: autoritaria to expel: expulsar to develop: desarrollar compass: brújula spices: especias to realise: darse cuenta pottery: cerámica emperor: emperador weapons: armas wheat: trigo plough: arado often: a menudo slave: esclavo

Renaissance: Renacimiento to turn back: girar to join: unir to reinforce: reforzar Jews: Judíos. device: aparato, artilugio astrolabe: astrolabio Maluku Islands: Islas Molucas East Indies: Indias Orientales metallurgy: metalurgia to conquer: conquistar armour: armadura cow: vaca brought: trajeron several: varias to be exploited: ser explotado


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Spanish Golden Age: Siglo de Oro Español government sites: cargos de gobierno century: siglo empire: imperio handsome: hermoso mad: loco/a to inherit: heredar to become: convertirse uprising: levantamiento, revuelta powerful: poderoso huge territories: enormes territories to rule: gobernar throne: trono to go down: bajar, ponerse el sol versus: contra battle: batalla supremacy at sea: supremacía en el mar defeat: derrota decadence: decadencia ‘Spanish Armada’: Armada Invencible power: poder, potencia to spend: gastar army: ejercito few people: poca gente as a result of this…: como resultado de esto… cattle farming: ganadería to be poorer and poorer: ser cada vez más pobre to pay taxes: pagar impuestos clergy: clero privileged people: gente privilegiada tradesmen: mercaderes bourgeoisie: burguesía middle ages: Edad Media to develope: desarrollar renaissance: renacimiento printing press: imprenta knowledge: conocimiento measure: medida to turn back: girar hacia atrás facade: fachada knight: caballero breast: pecho burial: entierro count: conde fall into decline: caer en decadencia reign: reinado instead of: en lugar de death: muerte without: sin disease: enfermdad the plague: la peste harvest: cosecha Moorish: morisco dramatist: escritor de teatro Main Square: Plaza Mayor straight lines: lineas rectas surrender: rendición weak monarch: monarca débil to abdicate: abdicar peaceful period: periodo pacífico philosopher: filósofo


Notes about the Early Modern Period in Europe and Spain.