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THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT AND THE EUROPEAN UNION. Europe is located in the warm zone in the northern hemisphere. To the North we find the Arctic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and Africa to the South. Asia to the East, and the Atlantic Ocean to the West. Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area (The rest of continent are Asia, America, Africa and Australia-Oceania). Apart from Antarctica. THE EUROPEAN RELIEF.

PLAINS AND MOUNTAINS: .- Plains: The most important plain is the North European Plain, which expands from Belgium to the Urals. .- Old mountains: (not too high) like Massif Central (in France) and the Black Forest (in Germany) .- Young mountains: (very high) like the Alps, Pyrenees, Apennine mountains, Caucasus, the Urals, the Carpathians, the Balkans mountains‌ THE COASTS: .- Northern coasts (in the Arctic Ocean): in Iceland, and the Scandinavian Peninsula and Jutland Peninsula. .- Western Coasts (in the Atlantic Ocean): British Islands (in the Black Sea). .- Southern Coasts (in the Mediterranean Sea): There are seas: Tyrrhenian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea and Aegean Sea. And there are peninsulas: Iberian Peninsula, Italian Peninsula, Balkan Peninsula, and many islands. .- Eastern Coasts: with some interior seas like the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.

THE RIVERS: .- Arctic basin: has got rivers like Daugava river, Vistula river and Oder river. .- Atlantic basin: Elba River, Rhine, Seine and the Tagus river. .- Mediterranean basin: Ebro, Rhone and the Po river. .- Black Sea basin: Danube, Don river, and Dnieper river. .- Caspian Sea basin: the Volga river.

If we speak about the climate, we can say that there are different climates: Atlantic, Mediterranean, Continental and Polar climates (Steppe, Tundra, Subarctic‌)

EUROPEAN POPULATION: The European population is about 730 million inhabitants, with a very irregular distribution. The population density is about 72 inhabitants/km2, although some areas in Central Europe it can be more than 300 inhab/km22, and in the northern countries only 20 inhab/km2. Europe is one of the most developed areas in the world. European people produce own one of the fourth wealth on the planet, and as a result, the European continent is a receptor of immigrants from other continents like Asia or Africa.

COUNTRIES AND CAPITALS IN EUROPE: There are 54 countries in Europe. These are the most important countries. Albania ----Tirane

Austria ----Vienna

Belarus ----Minsk

Belgium ----Brussels

Bulgaria ----Sofia

Bosnia and Herzegovina --Sarajevo

Croatia ----Zagreb

Czech Republic ----Prague

Denmark ----Copenhagen

Estonia ----Tallinn

Finland ----Helsinki

France ----Paris

Germany ----Berlin

Greece ----Athens

Hungary ----Budapest

Iceland ----Reykjavik

Ireland ----Dublin

Italy ----Rome

Latvia ----Riga

Liechtenstein ----Liechtenstein

Lithuania ----Vilnius

Luxembourg ----Luxembourg

Macedonia ----Skopie

Malta ----Valleta

Moldova ----Chisnau

Monaco ----Monaco

Serbia and Montenegro --Belgrade

Netherlands ----The Hague, Amsterdam

Norway ----Oslo

Poland ----Warsaw

Portugal ----Lisbon

Romania ----Bucharest

Russia ----Moscow

Slovakia ----Bratslava

Slovenia ----Lujbljana

Spain ----Madrid

Sweden ----Stockholm

Switzerland ----Bern

Turkey ----Ankara

Ukraine ----Kiev

United Kingdom ----London

Vatican City ----Vatican City

EUROPEAN COUNTRIES GAME: ml EUROPEAN UNION INSTITUTIONS: There are five institutions that govern the European Union. 1.- European Parliament: There are 700 members of Parliament, elected by the citizens from the countries which form the European Union. They control the European Comission and every year’s budget. Its seat is in Strasbourg (France).

2.- European Commission: It’s formed by 20 members. It’s the executive power. It has to prepare laws, and to ensure that the law is upheld by every Euroean state. It also prepares the budgets to send to the Parliament every year. Its seat is in Brussels (Belgium). 3.- The Council of the European Union: It’s formed by ministers from every country. The Presidency of the Council rotates every six months among the governments of EU member states. 4.- The Court of Justice: Its mission is to ensure that "the law is observed" and it ensures that the Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties. It is composed of one judge per member state. 5.- The Court of Auditors: It was established in Luxembourg to audit (to control) the accounts of EU institutions. The Court is composed of one member from each EU member state. There are other institutions like the European Central Bank. The flag is composed of a circle formed by 12 yellow stars against a blue background. The European anthem is The Symphony No. 9 by Ludwig van Beethoven. The European currency is the Euro, since 1999.

GLOSSARY- VOCABULARY: Is located: está localizado

massif: macizo

second-smallest: el Segundo más pequeño

Northern coasts: costas del norte

basin: cuenca o vertiente

interior sea: mar interior

Althouhg: aunque

developed: desarrollada

fourth part: cuarta parte

Richness: riqueza

member: miembro

a result of this: como consecuencia

Designateded by: designados por

Budget: presupuesto

Citizen: ciudadanos

its seat is in…: su sede está en …

executive power: poder ejecutivo.

European Parliament: Parlamento Europeo.

Laws: leyes

European Comission: Comisión Europea.

To ensure that the law is upheld by everybody.

The Council…: El Consejo….

Asegurarse de que las leyes se cumplen por todos.

Court of Justice: Tribunal de Justicia

Presidency rotates: la presidencia rota

Court of Auditors: Tribunal de Cuentas.

To ensure: asegurarse

Law is observed: se cumpla la ley

Treaty: Tratado, acuerdo.

To stablish: establecerse, asentarse

blue background: fondo azul

Currency: moneda

Judge: juez

anthem: himno


Notes about European geography and the European Union.